Aromatic hydrocarbons - 1,183 entries found
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González-Yebra A.L., Kornhauser C., Wrobel K., Pérez-Luque E.L., Barbosa G.
Occupational exposure to toluene and its possible causative role in renal damage development in shoe workers
Many shoe workers in Leon, Mexico, are in continuous contact with toluene-based glues. The objective of this case-control study involving 50 toluene-exposed shoe workers and 25 control subjects was to evaluate the relationship between toluenel exposure and renal damage. Urinary o-cresol excretion was used as a measure of toluene exposure. Urinary albumin excretion and N-acetyl-Β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) enzymatic activity were tested to assess renal dysfunction. Urinary o-cresol levels were higher in exposed subjects. Albumin excretion was similar in the exposed and control groups. NAG enzymatic activity was greater in the exposed group compared to the control group (3.5 U/g vs 1.9 U/g creatinine). An inverse relationship was found between schooling years and the NAG enzymatic activity for the two studied groups. The findings support the hypothesis that toluene may be a factor associated with the presence of renal damage in exposed shoe workers.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2006, Vol.79, No.3, p.259-264. Illus. 27 ref.
Radican L., Wartenberg D., Rhoads G.G., Schneider D., Wedeen R., Stewart P., Blair A.
A retrospective occupational cohort study of end-stage renal disease in aircraft workers exposed to trichloroethylene and other hydrocarbons
Various case-control studies suggest that hydrocarbons increase end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk. No cohort studies have been conducted. In this study, an occupational database was matched to the U.S. Renal Data System, and the outcome of ESRDs was examined using multivariable Cox regression. Sixteen individual hydrocarbons were studied. For the 1973-2000 period there was an approximate twofold increased risk of ESRD among workers exposed to trichloroethylene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and JP4 gasoline compared with unexposed subjects. Relative risk was greater than unity for several other hydrocarbons. Associations attenuated when 2001-2002 data were included in the analyses. It is concluded that certain hydrocarbons may increase ESRD risk, although some findings are contradictory and further research is needed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.48, No.1, p.1-12. 32 ref.
Chakroun R., Hedhili A., Faidi F., Nouaigui H., El Mabrouk A., Nehdi H., Bahri S., Ben Abdelkader N., Maâlej M., Khayati N., Ben Laiba M.
Evaluation of urinary hippuric acid as a biomarker of exposure to toluene
Evaluation de l'acide hippurique urinaire en tant qu'indicateur biologique d'exposition au toluène [in French]
This article describes a high performance liquid chromatographic procedure for the determination of hippuric acid in urine as a biomarker of exposure to toluene. The employed mobile phase and the chromatographic conditions allowed relatively low detection limits (0.1 to 0.2 mg/L). The method was tested on 38 workers (five women and 33 men) in the paint industry, and on 38 non-exposed subjects as controls. The method was found to be simple, sensitive and reliable.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Apr. 2006, No.37, p.24-26. Illus. 11 ref.
Brautbar N., Wu M.P.
Leukaemia and low level benzene concentration: revisited
Prior studies have claimed that benzene-related leukaemia and haematotoxicity occur only at high levels of exposure. This article reviews epidemiological human studies, biomarkers studies and experimental animal studies supporting the opinions that: benzene is haematotoxic and leukaemogenic at levels just above zero; benzene is a non-threshold haematotoxin and leukaemogen; and dosimetric risk assessment of benzene should take into account intensity and peak levels of exposure as well as cumulative exposure when applicable.
European Journal of Oncology, Mar. 2006, Vol.11, No.1, p.15-24. Illus. 39 ref.
The past suppression of industry knowledge of the toxicity of benzene to humans and potential bias in future benzene research
Petrochemical industry representatives often withhold information and misinterpret positive evidence of toxicity of benzene, even from their own research, also discouraging or delaying disclosure of findings of adverse effects to the public. They now appear to be attempting to influence study results in industry's favour by offering predetermined conclusions about study results as part of an effort to draw financial support for the studies. The American Petroleum Institute is currently raising funds for benzene research being conducted in China for which it has already announced the intended conclusions. [Abstract supplied by the journal]
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2006, Vol.12, No.3, p.268-272. 47 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1203_Infante.pdf [in English]
Pereira Santos M., Sebben V.C., Farenzena P.R., Dexheimer C.F., Pereira Santos C., Steffen V.M.
Exposure to chemical agents and noise in the leather industry
Exposição a agentes químicos e ruído em indústria de couro [in Portuguese]
This study investigated the relationship between hearing loss and the occupational exposition to noise and toluene. Seventy-three tannery workers were divided into three groups: exposed to noise, exposed to noise and chemicals and unexposed. Data on the workers' clinical and occupational histories were obtained by means of questionnaires. Exposure to toluene was evaluated by environmental and biological monitoring. Noise level and audiometric tests were also conducted. Data were subjected to statistical evaluation. Findings are discussed. The hearing losses found in the noise group and noise and chemical agents group were significant when compared to the control group.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2005, Vol.30, No.111, p.51-56. 17 ref.
Abel Arcuri A.S., Nunes Cardoso L.M.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Benzene agreement and legislation - 10 years
Acordo e legislação sobre o benzeno - 10 anos [in Portuguese]
The "benzene agreement" was signed in Brazil in 1995. This publication commemorates the ten years since this agreement was passed. It recounts the history of benzene legislation, the work involved for its implementation and the progress accomplished since, together with some setbacks. It also presents the full text of the final version of the agreement of 28 September 1995, along with all the related legislation on occupational exposure to benzene that followed from the agreement and Regulation No.14 of 20 December 1995 on carcinogens (see CIS 96-403).
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 06409-002, Brazil, 2005. 135p. Bibl. ref.
http://www.fundacentro.gov.br/ARQUIVOS/PUBLICACAO/l/Benzeno_10anos.pdf [in Portuguese]
Suna S., Jitsunari F., Asakawa F., Hirao T., Mannami T., Suzue T
A method for on-site analysis of urinary benzene by means of a portable gas-chromatograph
A method is described for on-site analysis of benzene in urine by head space gas chromatography and photo-ionization detection. The method was tested on 14 urine samples obtained from office workers. The minimum limit of detection was estimated to be 18 ng/l concentration in urine.
Journal of Occupational Health, 2005, Vol.47, p.74-77. 15 ref.
http://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/joh/47/1/74/_pdf [in English]
Williams P.R.D., Robinson K., Paustenbach D.J.
Benzene exposures associated with tasks performed on marine vessels (circa 1975 to 2000)
Twenty-five industrial hygiene studies that describe exposure during the marine transport of benzene-containing products were analysed. Benzene air concentrations typically ranged from 0.2-2.0 ppm during closed loading and 2-10 ppm during open loading operations. When compared with contemporaneous occupational health standards, the review indicates that most activities performed on marine vessels from the 1970s to 1990s did not usually result in benzene exposures that exceeded these standards. The information and data presented here may be useful for quantitatively estimating or reconstructing historical exposures of workers during the marine transport of benzene-containing cargo provided that details of their work history in the maritime industry are available.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Nov. 2005, Vol.2, No.11, p.586-599. Illus. 51 ref.
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) - Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
1,3,5-Trimethylbenzene, 1-methylnaphthalene/2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, 2-nitrophenol/4-nitrophenol
This report contains supplementary data to three earlier BUA Reports: 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (BUA Report 46), methylnaphthalenes (1-methylnaphthalene/2-methylnaphthalene, 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene) (BUA Report 47), and 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol (BUA Report 75). The supplements concern mainly data on air and water emissions.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2005. 264p. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 63.00.
Williams P.R.D., Paustenbach D.J.
Characterizing historical industrial hygiene data: A case study involving benzene exposures at a chemical manufacturing facility (1976-1987)
Nearly 3700 air samples of benzene collected in a chemical manufacturing facility in the United States from 1976 to 1987 were used to characterize daily time-weighted average (TWA) exposure levels. It was found that those workers directly involved in manufacturing operations had likely TWA exposures levels of about 2.0ppm from 1976-1981 and about 1.0ppm from 1982 to 1987. These results are consistent with the improved industrial hygiene programmes at chemical facilities following the introduction of stricter occupational exposure limits.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2005, Vol.2, No.7, p.341-350. Illus. 44 ref.
Preuss R., Drexler H., Böttcher M., Wilhelm M., Brüning T., Angerer J.
Current external and internal exposure to naphthalene of workers occupationally exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different industries
Exposure to naphthalene was examined in 410 German workers employed in industries typically associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced diseases. A control group from the general population was also investigated. Naphthalene was determined by personal air sampling. Internal exposure was examined by urinary metabolites 1-naphthol and 2-naphthol. Median concentrations of naphthalene in air ranged from 93.2µg/m3 to 0.7µg/m3. Biological monitoring revealed concentrations of the sum of both metabolites in smokers to be increased by 1.6-6.4 times compared with that in non-smokers at the same workplaces. Among non-smokers, median metabolite levels ranged from 120.1µg/l to 10µg/l. Results indicate that tobacco smoking is an important confounding factor in biological monitoring of naphthalene exposure.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2005, Vol.78, No.5, p.355-362. Illus. 31 ref.
http://www.springerlink.com/media/hb5c1xjk3l5xrv996xfr/contributions/k/t/2/0/kt20154g11011505.pdf [in English]
Vouriot A., Hannhart B., Gauchard G.C., Barot A., Ledin T., Mur J.M., Perrin P.P.
Long-term exposure to solvents impairs vigilance and postural control in serigraphy workers
This study examined the effects of aromatic hydrocarbon solvent exposure on the regulation of vigilance and postural control among 22 workers occupationally exposed to solvents for an average of approximately six years. The study comprised a questionnaire survey on state of vigilance and quality of sleep and measurements of postural control under six different sensorimotor conditions. Exposed workers reported reduced alertness but no loss of sleep quality compared with controls. They also had the worst postural performance in all sensory conditions and demonstrated a reduced ability to resolve sensory conflict situations. The depressive effect of aromatic hydrocarbon exposure on cortical and subcortical structures controlling vigilance and postural stability could lead to increased risk of occupational accidents, especially falls.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, July 2005, Vol.78, No.6, p.510-515. 35 ref.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, and 2-methylnaphthalene
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract; lung diseases; haemolytic anaemia (jaundice, gastrointestinal disorders); embryotoxic effects; cataractogenic effects. Update of CIS 97-214.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Aug. 2005. xix, 291, p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index.
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp67.pdf [in English]
Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA)
Conclusions of this criteria document which reflects the state of knowledge of June 2001: tert-butylbenzene (TBB) can be absorbed orally, dermally and by inhalation. Animal studies show severe skin irritation and weak eye irritation but no sensitization. TBB is not mutagenic in bacteria, and does not induce an increased incidence of gene conversions or chromosome aberrations. There are no studies on in vivo genotoxicity, carcinogenicity or reproductive toxicity.
S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2004. xiv, 84p. 157 ref. Price: EUR 47.00.
Śliwińska-Kowalska M., Zamyslowska-Szmytke E., Szymczak W., Kotylo P., Fiszer M., Wesolowski W., Pawlaczyk-Luszczynska M.
Ototoxic effects of occupational exposure to styrene and co-exposure to styrene and noise
The effects on hearing of occupational exposure to styrene and of combined exposures to styrene and noise were evaluated in 290 yacht yard and plastics factory workers and in a control group of unexposed and noise-exposed workers. Subjects were assessed by means of a detailed questionnaire and audiometric examinations. There was an almost four-fold increase in the odds of developing hearing loss from styrene exposure. In cases of the combined exposures to styrene and noise, the odds ratios were two to three times higher than the respective values for styrene-only and noise-only exposed subjects. The mean hearing thresholds were significantly higher in the solvent-exposed group than in the unexposed reference group at all frequencies tested. The study provides evidence that occupational exposure to styrene is related to an increased risk of hearing loss. Combined exposures to noise and styrene seem to be more ototoxic than exposure to noise alone.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2003, Vol.45, No.1, p.15-24. Illus. 17 ref.
Egeghy P.P., Hauf-Cabalo L., Gibson R., Rappaport S.M.
Benzene and naphthalene in air and breath as indicators of exposure to jet fuel
Benzene and naphthalene were measured in air and in the breath of 326 personnel in the US Air Force, who had been assigned a priori into low, moderate, and high exposure categories for JP-8jet fuel. In the moderate and high exposure categories, 5% and 15% of the benzene air concentrations, respectively, were above the 2002 threshold limit value (TLV) of 1.6 mg/m3. Multiple regression analyses of air and breath levels revealed prominent background sources of benzene exposure, including cigarette smoke. However, naphthalene exposure was not unduly influenced by sources other than JP-8. It is concluded that naphthalene in air and breath can serve as useful measures of exposure to JP-8 and uptake of fuel components in the body.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2003, Vol.60, No.12, p.969-976. Illus. 34 ref.
Qu Q., Cohen B.S., Shore R., Chen L.C., Li G., Jin X., Melikian A.A., Yin S., Yan H., Xu B., Li Y., Mu R., Zhang X., Li K.
Benzene exposure measurement in shoe and glue manufacturing: A study to validate biomarkers
The aim of this study was to determine whether selected biological markers of exposure to benzene are reliable and sensitive enough to detect low-level exposures. Recruitment of 130 exposed subjects was based on personal exposure measurements collected for three to four weeks prior to collection of biological samples. Personal exposure to benzene was monitored between 1997 and 1998 and results were correlated with the concentrations of two urinary benzene metabolites, trans, trans-muconic acid and S-phenylmercapturic acid. Results indicated that S-phenylmercapturic acid appears to be a good biomarker for detecting and evaluating benzene exposure at concentrations less than 0.25ppm.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Dec. 2003, Vol.18, No.12, p.988-998. Illus. 9 ref.
Lebrecht G., Czerczak S., Szymczak W.
Benzen [in Polish]
Leukaemia is the main effect of long-term occupational exposure to benzene. The lifetime risk of leukaemia attributable to inhalation exposure at concentrations of 1.6mg/m3 was assessed from the results of epidemiological studies. Maximum concentrations considered acceptable for occupational exposure to benzene ranged from 6.6x10-4 to 1.4x10-3. Using these data, the Polish Expert Group for Chemical Agents established an 8-hour threshold limit value (time-weighted average) of 1.6mg/m3. There are no bases for establishing benzene short-term exposure limit values. The Expert Group also recommended biological exposure indices of 25µg S-phenylmercapturic acid per g creatinine in urine and 500µg trans, trans muconic acid per g creatinine in urine.
Podstawy i Metody Oceny Środowiska Pracy, 2003, Vol.35, No.1, p.5-60. 175 ref.
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin
Test method for protective gloves against PAHs during renovation work
Prüfmethode für Handschuhe zum Schutz gegen PAK bei Sanierungsarbeiten [in German]
Demolition and renovation workers may be exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The barrier effect of protective clothing and gloves cannot be assessed by existing standard testing methods. This report describes a new method for testing the permeation of PAHs through barrier membranes using essential elements of the testing standards EN 374-3, ASTM F739 and ISO 6529, but with a solid medium as receptor. The testing method is based on typical durations of exposure, real glove temperatures and realistic material stretching conditions. Several types of gloves were evaluated using this method. These tests showed that even higher molecular compounds such as PAHs can permeate through elastomers after prolonged use.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2003. 54p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: EUR 8.50.
Middle K.V., Bussey R., Cusco L., Kerr D., Snee T.J.
Health and Safety Executive
Reaction inhibition in the control of exothermic runaway
The main element of this research project was the design and running of a series of pilot scale trials into the inhibition of an uncontrolled styrene polymerization, together with the associated laboratory and analytical work to plan the tests safely. This report summarizes the work conducted during the project, together with significant background information, and places the results into an industrial context. This work has drawn together existing literature and demonstrated the effectiveness of reaction inhibition at a pilot plant scale. A greater understanding of the prospects for inhibition as a basis of safety, and the factors to be considered during its utilization, has been achieved.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. iv, 72p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 30.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr145.pdf [in English]
Verma Y., Kumar A., Rana S.V.S.
Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in traffic policemen of north India
Traffic controllers face the risk of exposure to benzene present in the ambient air as a component of fuel exhaust. Inhaled benzene is metabolized and excreted as phenol. Six traffic policemen employed at each of six major towns of north India were monitored during these investigations. 30 healthy persons (five per city) who had never been occupationally exposed to benzene and lived in clean surroundings were selected as controls. Among the exposed subjects, it was observed that urinary phenol was much higher than the values prescribed by ACGIH. Furthermore, social habits such as alcohol consumption and smoking were found to modulate benzene metabolism. It was noticed that smoking synergizes the effect of benzene whereas antagonistic effects of alcohol were observed.
Industrial Health, July 2003, Vol.41, No.3, p.260-264. Illus. 24 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Assessing and controlling styrene levels during contact moulding of fibre-reinforced plastics (FRP) products
Styrene vapour can cause irritation to the nose, throat and lungs. Its neurological effects include difficulty in concentrating, drowsiness, headaches and nausea. Splashes are also irritating to the eyes and skin. The current 8h time-weighted average exposure limit for styrene is 100ppm, with a short-term (15min) exposure limit of 250ppm. This information sheet summarizes the health hazards that can arise from exposure to styrene and provides practical guidance to fibre-reinforced plastics manufacturers on how to assess, control and monitor this exposure. Contents: health hazards and legal requirements under the Control of Substances Dangerous to Health Regulations 2002 (COSHH 2002, see CIS 03-1023); controlling the exposure; assessing the risk; monitoring and maintaining the technical control measures (ventilation and other measures); health surveillance.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2003. 4p. 5 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/pps14.pdf [in English]
Collins J.J., Ireland B., Buckley C.F., Shepperly D.
Lymphohaematopoeitic cancer mortality among workers with benzene exposure
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between lymphohaematopoeitic cancer mortality and benzene exposure among 4417 workers at a chemical plant in the US. There was little evidence of increasing risk with increasing cumulative benzene exposure for all leukaemias, for acute non-lymphocytic leukaemias (ANL) or the other lymphohaematopoeitic cancers with the exception of multiple myeloma. For multiple myeloma, the SMRs were 1.1 in the non-exposed group, 1.4 in the <1ppm-years group, 1.5 in the 1-6ppm-years group, and 2.6 in the >6ppm-years group. No relationships were found between peak exposures and any of the cancers. However, when peak exposures over 100ppm for 40 or more days were considered, the observed number of all leukaemias (SMR=2.7), ANL (SMR=4.1) and multiple myeloma (SMR=4.0) were greater than expected. Although the observed number of deaths was small in this study, the number of peak exposures to benzene greater than 100ppm was a better predictor of risk than cumulative exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2003, Vol.60, No.9, p.676-679. 32 ref.
Nitro derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the environment
Nitrowe pochodne wielopierścieniowych węglowodorów aromatycznych w środowisku [in Polish]
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their nitro derivatives (nitro-PAHs) are present in the environment. They are derived from products of natural origin, and are also formed as a result of thermal processes. These compounds are classified as harmful, carcinogenic and mutagenic. They pollute the atmosphere, the workplace air and various other parts of the environment.
Bezpieczeństwo pracy, Mar. 2003, No.3, p.17-20. Illus. 9 ref.
Armstrong B., Hutchinson E., Fletcher T.
Health and Safety Executive
Cancer risk following exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): A meta-analysis
Airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have long been known to cause cancer in animals and are classified as human carcinogens. A meta-analysis of published epidemiological studies that include assessments of occupational exposure to PAHs was carried out, in order to identify the determinants of lung and bladder cancer risk. Relevant reports published up to early 2001 were identified systematically using bibliographic databases. From each study that met the inclusion criteria, unit relative risk was estimated by Poisson regression from published tables of risk against estimated cumulative exposure. Distribution and determinants of unit relative risks (URRs) were investigated using standard meta-analytic methods. On average, the URR for lung cancer was 1.20 with significant variation across industries, while for bladder cancer, the average URR was 1.33, with little variation across industries.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. viii, 61p. Illus. 64 ref. Price: GBP 15.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr068.pdf [in English]
Lindsay F., Cherry J.W., Robertson A.
Health and Safety Executive
Development of a method to assess biologically relevant dermal exposure
Dermal exposure is evaluated using dermal samplers that consist of patches that simulate human skin and that collect volatile liquids by diffusion. This study investigates the feasibility of developing a dermal sampler for toluene. This prototype dermal sampler developed by the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) consists of an adsorbent material sandwiched between a permeable membrane and an impervious backing. Toluene on the membrane surface diffuses towards the adsorbent. The concentration of toluene on the membrane surface may be estimated from the mass on the adsorbent and the known permeation rate of toluene through the membrane. The sampler was evaluated in laboratory and field tests, with promising results.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. vi, 51p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 20.00.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr117.pdf. [in English]
Tsai P.J., Shieh H.Y., Lee W.J., Chen H.L., Shih T.S.
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as a biomarker of internal dose of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbon black workers
In this study, a total of 30 workers exposed to carbon black were selected, including eight wet pelletizing workers and 22 packaging workers. For all selected workers, urine samples were collected on the first day pre-shift, first day post-shift and fifth day post-shift, and their urinary 1-hydroxypyrene levels (1-OHP) were determined (denoted as BM1pre, BM1post and BM5post, respectively). Personal respiratory exposures, including both inhalable particle-bound PAHs (Cipb) and gaseous PAHs (Cgas), together with dermal exposure to particle-bound PAHs (Cskin) were measured. Personal background information, including age, sex and smoking habit, was registered. Pyrene exposure was statistically significantly correlated with exposure to PAHs and carcinogenic PAHs. The resultant regression coefficients for sex, smoking habit and age were statistically insignificant. In conclusion, this study suggests BM5post could be a suitable indicator for PAH exposures of carbon black workers, on the condition that both respiratory and dermal exposures are assessed.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.229-235. 24 ref.
Screening information data set - SIDS - for high production volume chemicals - Volume 7, Parts 1, 2 and 3
Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of: acetic anhydride; D & C Red No. 9; benzyl chloride; 2-butoxyethanol; 4-chloro-o-cresol; 2,6-dichlorotoluene; dicyclopentadiene; cresyl diphenyl phosphate; pentaerythritol; hydroquinone; melamine; 3-methyl butynol; α-methyl styrene.
United Nations Environment Programme, Case postale 356, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, June 2002. viii, 328p. Index (Part 1); viii, 322p. Index (Part 2); viii, 295p. Index (Part 3).
http://www.chem.unep.ch/irptc/sids/oecdsids/indexcasnumb.htm [in English]
Morata T.C., Johnson A.C., Nylen P., Svensson E.B., Cheng J., Krieg E.F., Lindblad A.C., Enrstgård L., Franks J.
Audiometric findings in workers exposed to low levels of styrene and noise
This study involved a total of 313 workers potentially exposed to noise and styrene working at fibreglass and metal products manufacturing plants and at a mail distribution terminal. Workers exposed to both noise (measured by audiometry) and styrene had significantly worse pure-tone thresholds at 2, 3, 4 and 6kHz when compared with noise-only-exposed or non-exposed workers. Age, noise exposure and urinary mandelic acid (a biomarker for styrene) were the variables that met the significance level criterion in the multiple logistic regression. The odds ratios for hearing loss were 1.19 for each increment of one year of age, 1.18 for every decibel >85dB(A) of noise exposure, and 2.44 for each mmol of mandelic acid per g of creatinine in urine. The findings suggest that exposure to styrene, even below recommended values, has a toxic effect on the auditory system.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.44, No.9, p.806-814. Illus. 37 ref.
Seeber A., Blaszkewicz M., Demes P., Kiesswetter E., Schäper M., Sietmann B., von Thriel C., Zupanic M
Toluene in rotogravure printing shops
Toluol in Tiefdruckereien [in German]
This report presents the results of a long term study on the health effects of toluene exposure among 192 workers in 14 rotogravure printing shops. The workers were examined four times over a period of five years to collect data on past and present diseases, kidney and liver functions, the haemopoietic, peripheral nervous and cardiovascular systems, hearing, colour discrimination, attention, memory, fine motor performance, postural balance, physical and mental complaints and current symptoms. Over the five years of the study period, the workers near the printing machine had been exposed to an average toluene concentration of 25ppm and those working in remote places to 3ppm. No significant impact on health due to long-term or current exposure could be established.
Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Aug. 2002. 373p. Illus. 215 ref.
http://www.hvbg.de/d/bia/pub/rep/rep04/pdf_datei/toluol/textteil.pdf [in German]
World Health Organization (WHO)
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some traditional herbal medicines, some mycotoxins, naphthalene and styrene
The following substances are evaluated in this publication with respect to their carcinogenicity in humans: some herbal medicines (aristolochia species and aristolochic acids; rubia tinctorum, morinda officinalis and anthraquinones; senecio species and riddelliine); some mycotoxins (aflatoxins and fumonisin B1); naphthalene; styrene. Herbal remedies containing plant species of the genus aristolochia and naturally occurring mixtures of aflatoxins are classified in group 1 (carcinogenic in humans); naturally-occurring mixtures of aristolochic acids are classified in group 2A (probably carcinogenic in humans); laxatives containing anthraquinone derivatives, riddelliine, naturally-occurring mixtures of fumonisin B1, naphthalene and styrene are classified in group 2B (possibly carcinogenic in humans); madder root (rubia tinctorum) is classified in group 3 (cannot be classified as to its carcinogenicity in humans).
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2002. vi, 590p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 40.00.
Takeuchi A., Kawai T., Zhang Z.W., Miyama Y., Sakamoto K., Higashikawa K., Ikeda M.
Toluene, xylenes and xylene isomers in urine as biological indicators of low-level exposure to each solvent: A comparative study
The objective of this study was to determine if xylenes and xylene isomers in end-of-shift urine are good biological indicators of low-level exposure to each solvent, similarly to toluene in urine. 86 furniture makers (76 men and ten women), participated in the study together with 11 non-exposed controls. Time-weighted average (8h TWA) exposures to mixtures of toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and acetone were monitored with diffusive samplers for lipophilic and hydrophilic solvents, respectively. Urine samples were collected at the end of the shift and subjected to head-space gas chromatography analysis for each solvent. The exposure-excretion relationship was examined by simple as well as multiple regression analysis. Good correlations were found, indicating that biological monitoring of exposure by means of analysis of end-of-shift urine is possible, not only in the case of toluene as previously reported, but also in cases of xylenes, either for three isomers in combination or separately.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.387-393. Illus. 29 ref.
Rinsky R.A., Hornung R.W., Silver S.R., Tseng C.Y.
Benzene exposure and hematopoietic mortality: A long-term epidemiologic risk assessment
Previous studies of a cohort of rubber industry workers indicated an association between benzene exposure and excess mortality from leukaemia and multiple myeloma. To determine whether risks remain elevated since plant shutdown, follow-up was extended from 1981 through 1996. Risks were evaluated using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and generalized Cox proportional hazards regression models. Five new leukaemia cases were observed in benzene-exposed white males, but the summary SMR for this group declined from 3.37 to 2.56. In regression models, cumulative exposure was significantly associated with elevated relative risks for leukaemia mortality. Four new multiple myeloma deaths occurred, three of which were in workers judged to be unexposed. These findings reaffirm the leukaemogenic effects of benzene exposure and suggest that excess risk diminishes with time.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec 2002, Vol.42, No.6, p.474-480. 23 ref.
Gaudin R., Ducos P., Francin J.M., Marsan P., Robert A., Nicot T., Lefèvre C., Lefebvre M.
Benzene exposure among mechanics - Atmospheric and biological monitoring
Exposition au benzène chez les mécaniciens - Evaluation atmosphérique et surveillance biologique [in French]
This study on the evaluation of benzene exposure was carried out among 114 vehicle mechanics working in 37 garages. On each evening during a week of work, workers were questioned on the tasks they performed during the day. Daily samples of personal workplace air and urine were collected, the latter for the purposes of determining muconic acid excretion, which is an indicator of all modes of benzene exposure. Results indicate that the exposure to atmospheric benzene is moderate, but more pronounced among mechanics working in garages for motorcycles or agricultural equipment (0.14 and 0.16ppm respectively) than among those working in automobile garages (0.03ppm). Atmospheric concentrations were in agreement with urinary concentrations of muconic acid, which were 0.21, 0.27 and 0.09mg/L among mechanics at garages for motorcycles, agricultural equipment and automobiles, respectively. It is concluded that preventive measures should focus mainly on mechanics in motorcycle and agricultural equipment garages.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.27-36. Illus. 26 ref.
Caux C., O'Brien C., Viau C.
Determination of firefighter exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene during fire fighting using measurement of biological indicators
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene among firefighters was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and trans,trans-muconic acid (TTMA), respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period extending for 20h following the end of exposure during a fire. A control sample was also obtained from each participant after at least four days without involvement in fire fighting activities. Following exposure to fire, the level of 1-hydroxypyrene exceeded 0.32µmol/mol creatinine value in 38% of the cases. 17 firefighters had measurable TTMA in the urine samples, among which only 6 had concentrations exceeding 1.1mmol/mol creatinine considered to correspond to a benzene concentration of approximately 1ppm. The low exposure evaluations could be due to either low concentrations of the contaminants during fire fighting or to the efficiency of protective equipment worn.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.379-386. Illus. 32 ref.
Recent development of exposure to gasoline in the distribution chain
Gasoline is a complex mixture of aliphatic and cyclo-aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons (primarily benzene) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure to these substances among tank truck drivers delivering gasoline to service stations as well as harbour and storage depot workers. Samples were collected in the workers' breathing zone. Tank truck drivers typically are involved in three loading or unloading operations per day, lasting an average of half an hour. During these tasks, the concentration of C3-C11 hydrocarbons, MTBE and benzene varied between 5-500, 1-20mg/m3 and 0.25-17.5mg/m3 respectively. The exposure of harbour and depot workers was significantly lower. Exposure levels have decreased considerably in recent years with the introduction of vapour recovery systems.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. 68p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Chouanière D., Wild P., Fontana J.M., Héry M., Fournier M., Baudin V., Subra I., Rousselle D., Toamain J.P., Saurin S., Ardiot M.R.
Neurobehavioral disturbances arising from occupational exposure to toluene
The current eight-hour time-weighted threshold limit value for toluene in France is 100ppm. However, neurotoxicity resulting from long-term exposure to levels below 50ppm is suspected. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two printing plants on 129 blue collar workers to explore the effects of low levels of toluene exposure. With 231 samples of ambient air, toluene concentration was estimated from 0 to 18ppm in Plant A (offset) and from 2 to 27ppm in Plant B (heliogravure). The workers also answered a self-administered questionnaire on neurotoxic symptoms, and performed psychometric tests on a computer-assisted version of the Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (NES) battery. Significant relationships were found only between present exposure and Digit Span Forwards performance and Digit Span Backwards performance. No other association was found between estimated cumulative exposure and either psychometric performances or neurotoxic symptoms.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.77-88. 39 ref.
Data sheet. May enter the body when breathed in. May cause mutations and should be handled with extreme caution. Skin contact may cause irritation, itching and burning which is aggravated by sunlight. Repeated contact may cause thickening and pigment changes and skin allergy. Irritates the eyes and respiratory tract. May damage the eyes.
New Jersey Department of Health, Right to Know Program, CN 368, Trenton, NJ 08625-0368, USA, 1996, 2002. 6p.
http://www.state.nj.us/health/eoh/rtkweb/0139.pdf [in English]
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Worker's magazine: Accidents linked to pesticides (modules 1 and 2) - Manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly areas - Manual Harvesting of sugar cane - Work in potteries - Peroxydizable substances - Forestry work - Benzene - Agricultural tractors - Cashew nuts
Revista do trabalhador: Acidentes com agrotóxicos (Módulos 1 e 2) - Corte manual de cana em região amorrada - Corte manual de cana-de-açúcar - Trabalho em olarias - Substâncias peroxidáveis - Trabalhos na atividade florestal - Benzeno - Tratores agrícolas - Castanha de caju [in Portuguese]
These ten tapes are part of a collection entitled "Worker's magazine" published by the Fundacentro covering various occupational safety and health issues related to pesticides and other chemicals, as well as other agriculture and forestry-related activities. Topics covered: accidents due to pesticides (prevention of hazards among users and during production, and interviews of researchers and managers of occupational safety and health institutions, two cassettes); manual harvesting of sugar cane in hilly regions; manual harvesting of sugar cane; work in potteries; peroxydizable substances; forestry work; benzene; tractors used in agriculture; cashew nut industry.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, no date. 10 videotapes (VHS format), 17min 50sec; 17min 11sec; 13min 42sec; 14min 31sec; 16min 13sec; 12min 46sec; 14min 05sec; 18min 52sec, 13min 20sec; 12min 45sec. Price: BRL 20.00 (each tape).
Benchmark guideline for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarker of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene has been proposed as an indicator of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). This article discusses a proposed three-level guideline for exposure evaluation. The first level is the 95th percentile in non-occupational exposed controls, namely 0.24µmol/mol and 0.76µmol/mol creatinine for non-smokers and smokers, respectively. Next, 1.4µmol/mol creatinine is the lowest reported level at which no genotoxic effects were found among exposed workers and is therefore proposed as the second level of the guideline. In two types of industry, coke ovens and primary aluminium production, airborne PAH concentrations and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in exposed workers have been studied. The concentration of 1-hydroxypyrene in urine equal to the occupational exposure limit is 2.3µmol/mol creatinine and 4.9µmol/mol creatinine, respectively, in these two industries. These latter values present the third level of the guideline.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Jan. 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.3-13. 70 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Benzene and you
Contents on this leaflet on the hazards from exposure to benzene aimed at employees: what is benzene, and products and processes where it is found; modes of exposure; health hazards; preventive measures; responsibilities of employers, particularly under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) Regulations 1999 (see CIS 00-620); responsibilities of employees; information of personnel. Replaces CIS 98-247.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Dec. 2001. 6p. 3 ref.
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg329.pdf [in English]
Castillo L., Baldwin M., Sassine M.P., Mergler D.
Cumulative exposure to styrene and visual functions
A 1990-1992 longitudinal study of several reinforced plastics plants had showed that for those workers whose styrene exposure had decreased, colour vision (CV) improved while near-visual contrast sensitivity (CS) was poorer. In 1999, these visual functions were re-tested in 18 workers with good visual acuity. A cumulative exposure index (CEI), corrected for respirator use, was calculated for each worker. For CV, no significant difference was observed between 1992 and 1999. The CS profile decreased over time, with significant differences at frequencies of 3 cycles per degree. CS did not vary with urinary mandelic acid levels, but was significantly depressed at the intermediate frequencies among those in the upper CEI category. These findings suggest that CS loss increases with long-term cumulative exposure, reflecting chronic damage to the neuro-optic pathways.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.351-360. Illus. 28 ref.
Verma Y., Rana S.V.S.
Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners
Exposure to benzene was monitored in service station employees and dry cleaners in Meerut City (India) by measuring the phenol content in urine samples taken from them. The influence of three factors was determined, namely alcohol consumption, smoking and food habits (vegetarians and non-vegetarians). While smoking and food habits had little effect on phenol excretion, it was found that alcohol-consuming subjects excreted more phenol. It is concluded that alcohol can alter the susceptibility of humans to benzene toxicity by affecting its metabolism.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.330-333. 29 ref.
Viaene M.K., Pauwels W., Veulemans H., Roels H.A., Masschelein R.
Neurobehavioural changes and persistence of complaints in workers exposed to styrene in a polyester boat building plant: Influence of exposure characteristics and microsomal epoxide hydrolase phenotype
To investigate neurobehavioural effects in workers exposed to styrene and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) activity, a cross sectional study was performed among former workers of a polyester boat plant. A structured neurological anamnesis into former and present complaints, the NSC-60 questionnaire, and computer assisted neurobehavioural tests were administered. It was observed that most subjective symptoms were reversible, while dysfunction of visual-motor performance and perceptual speed seemed to persist. Duration of exposure at lamination tasks and duration of exposure multiplied by exposure concentration were found to be the best predictors of worsening visual-motor and perceptual speed performances. Activity of the mEH phenotype may play a modulating part in styrene neurotoxicity. The results suggest that less than 10 years of exposure to styrene at an average concentration of 155mg/m3 may result in persistent neurotoxic effects.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.103-112. Illus. 34 ref.
Brodkin C.A., Moon J.M., Camp J., Echeverria D., Redlich C.A., Willson R.A., Checkoway H.
Serum hepatic biochemical activity in two populations of workers exposed to styrene
Two independent cross sectional studies were performed in the state of Washington (USA) comparing serum hepatic transaminases (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), cholestatic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase (AP) and γ glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)), and bilirubin in 47 workers of glass-fibre reinforced plastics who were exposed to styrene, as well as to 21 boat and tank fabricators, with separate referent groups of unexposed workers. Exposure to styrene was assessed in air by dosimetry, and in venous blood by headspace gas chromatography. A significant relationship between direct bilirubin and direct to total bilirubin ratio, and exposure to styrene was observed, by both air and blood monitoring, providing evidence for diminished hepatic clearance of conjugated bilirubin with associated cholestasis in workers exposed to styrene. Also, a significant linear association between the hepatic transaminases ALT and AST and exposure to styrene was found in regression analyses, consistent with mild hepatic injury and associated metabolic dysfunction.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.95-102. Illus. 41 ref.
Kolstad H.A., Bisanti L., Roeleveld N., Baldi R., Bonde J.P., Joffe M.
Time to pregnancy among male workers of the reinforced plastics industry in Denmark, Italy and the Netherlands
The relationship between occupational styrene exposure and male fecundity was examined among 1560 Danish, Italian and Dutch reinforced plastics workers. 220 styrene-exposed workers and 382 unexposed referents who had fathered a child were identified. A total of 768 historical styrene measurements conducted in 1970-1996 formed the basis for semi-quantitative exposure assessment in combination with measurements of urinary styrene metabolite levels. All the subjects were interviewed about work conditions. Fecundity was measured as the reported time to pregnancy. A statistically non-significant reduced fecundity was observed for the styrene-exposed workers (fecundity ratio 0.79), but no consistent pattern of a detrimental effect on fecundity was found when time to pregnancy was related to work-tasks indicating higher styrene exposure levels. The workers with high exposure showed a fecundity ratio of 1.09. It is concluded that it is unlikely that styrene exposure has a strong effect on male fecundity.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.353-358. 22 ref.
Vassilev Z.P., Robson M.G., Klotz J.B.
Outdoor exposure to airborne polycyclic organic matter and adverse reproductive outcomes: A pilot study
To investigate the association between outdoor airborne polycyclic organic matter (POM) and adverse reproductive outcomes in New Jersey, a cross-sectional design combining U.S. air quality data and individual data on pregnancy outcomes from birth and foetal death certificates at the census tract level were used. After excluding plural births and chromosomal anomalies, 221,406 live births and 1,591 foetal deaths registered during the years of 1990 and 1991 were included. The exposure estimates were derived from modeled average POM concentrations for each census tract in the state. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios (OR) for very low birth weight for the highest exposure compared to the lowest exposure group was 1.31; high POM exposure was associated with low birth weight (OR = 1.31) among term births, with foetal death (OR = 1.19) and with premature birth (OR = 1.25). In conclusion, this study found associations between outdoor exposure to modeled average airborne POM and several adverse pregnancy outcomes.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.255-262. 21 ref.
Jo W.K., Kim S.H.
Worker exposure to aromatic volatile organic compounds in dry cleaning stores
Results of a study of workers' exposure to aromatic compounds and tetrachloroethylene, contained in four different commercial solvents. For benzene and toluene, there was no significant difference among the indoor air concentrations of the four products. For ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene, the air concentrations were significantly higher in stores using 3 of these solvents than in those using a mixture of tetrachloroethylene. Similar results were obtained in breath concentrations measured prior to and immediately after work. The results indicate that dry cleaning workers working with aromatic compounds have higher exposures than those working with tetrachloroethylene. No difference was observed in the health effects of these exposures.
AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.466-471. Illus. 13 ref.
Carrer P., Maroni M., Cavallo D., Visentin S., Cecchetti G., Mangani F., Piovano G., Iachetta R.
Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene and xylenes in workers in an oil-burning power plant
Valutazione dell'esposizione ad idrocarburi policiclici aromatici ed a benzene, toluene e xileni di lavoratori di una centrale termoelettrica che utilizza olio combustibile denso [in Italian]
An evaluation of personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) in workers of an oil-burning power plant. The control group consisted of office workers at the same power plant. Altogether 29 exposed workers and 10 controls were studied, for a total of 84 days of monitoring. Personal environmental exposure to PAHs was very low. All workers showed very low levels of dermal exposure to PAHs. The study confirmed the effectiveness of existing protective measures.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.314-326. 32 ref.
Kezic S., Monster A.C., van de Gevel I.A., Krüse J., Opdam J.J.G., Verberk M.M.
Dermal absorption of neat liquid solvents on brief exposures in volunteers
1,1,1-trichloroethane (111TRI), trichloroethylene (TRI), tetrachloroethylene (TETRA), toluene (TOL) and m-xylene (XYL) were applied for 3min on the forearm of six volunteers. Permeation rates were calculated from exhaled air concentrations. TRI, TOL, and 111TRI in three subjects reached maximal permeation rates a few minutes after initiation of exposure. Slower permeation was seen in the other three subjects exposed to 111TRI, and in all subjects exposed to TETRA and XYL, with the time of maximal permeation rates of 15-25min. These differences in permeation may partly be explained by the irritation of the skin observed in subjects showing fast permeation kinetics. The flux into the skin averaged over the exposure period was 56, 430, 69, 223 and 46nmol/cm2/min for 111TRI, TRI, TETRA, TOL, and XYL, respectively. Comparing the dermal uptake with the respiratory uptake at the TLV, all solvents showed substantial skin absorption, although at present only TOL has a skin indication in the ACGIH threshold limit value list.
AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.62, No.1, p.12-18. Illus. 35 ref.
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