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Heterocyclic compounds - 575 entries found

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  • Heterocyclic compounds

1994

CIS 95-1008 Houeto P., Chabaux C., Levillain P., Fournier P.E.
Cutaneous reactions due to pyridinecarboxaldehyde, thiophenecarboxaldehyde - Isomerism
Réactions cutanées aux pyridinecarbaldéhydes et thiophènecarbaldéhydes - Notion d'isomérie [in French]
A 27-year-old woman who underwent skin exposure to pyridinecarboxaldehyde and thiophenecarboxaldehyde at the workplace. In patch tests, 3-pyridinecarboxaldehyde produced urticaria whereas 2-pyridinecarboxaldehyde isomer induced eczema and no reaction was observed with 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde. Patch tests made with thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed that the patient was sensitive to 3-thiophenecarboxaldehyde, which induced irritant erythema whereas there was no reaction with its isomer 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde. Thus, depending on the position of the carbonyl carbon on the pyridine (ortho, meta or para) or thiophene ring, different reactions can occur.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.6, p.467-469. Illus. 16 ref.

CIS 95-1041
Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsmedizin
Cancers caused by dioxins, furans, styrene and mineral fibres
Krebserkrankungen durch Dioxine/Furane, Styrol und Mineralfasern [in German]
Proceedings of a symposium held in Germany on cancers induced by dioxins, furans, styrene and mineral fibres. Covered are reports of case studies and epidemiologic studies on: malignant tumours and heart attacks among chemical workers formerly exposed to dioxins; exposure to dioxins, furans and heavy metals of employees in secondary copper smelting plants in the new States in Germany; the cancer risk in styrene processing plants; the mutagenic effects of styrene among 156 employees of a plant producing glass-fibre reinforced polyesters; cancer mortality in the period between 1985 to 1989 in the former German Democratic Republic. In addition, a report on data on the carcinogenic effects of respirable mineral fibres derived from inhalation experiments on rats is included.
Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1994. 122p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 95-1060
Health and Safety Executive, Epidemiology and Medical Statistics Unit
Mortality study of workers employed at a factory manufacturing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol
A study was made of the mortality of 673 male workers employed at a factory manufacturing 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) between 1965 and 1976. The study population included workers employed at the time of a runaway reaction which resulted in the release of 2,4,5-TCP contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). No overall excess of cancers was found. While there were indications of possible increased mortality from cancers of the stomach and lung, there was no clear evidence of causation. Tables show major causes of mortality for the total population and for workers employed before, during and after the time of the runaway reaction.
HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 26p. 12 ref.

CIS 95-703 Dobbelstein W.J.
Plastics recycling - New hazards for the fire brigade?
Kunststoffrecycling - Neue Gefahren für die Feuerwehr? [in German]
Recent fires in Germany in plants where plastics were stored for recycling are used to illustrate the hazards to fire fighters. Burning polyvinyl chloride released high amounts of hydrochloric acid which affected the respiratory system of the fire fighters. Carcinogenic dioxins and furans were detected in the soot. For the prevention or spread of fires it is recommended to store the plastic waste material in small units which are accessible from two sides and to install an adequately dimensioned water extinguishing systems. Fire fighters need to wear respirators and protective clothing.
Brandschutz, Feb. 1994, Vol.48, No.2, p.80-92. Illus. 37 ref.

CIS 95-54 Morpholine
Morfolina [in Spanish]
Chemical safety card published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; dermatitis; corneal damage; may affect the respiratory system, liver and kidneys.
Noticias de seguridad, July 1994, Vol.56, No.7. 4p. Insert.

CIS 95-281
Health and Safety Executive
Control of exposure to triglycidyl isocyanurate (TGIC) in powder coatings
This data sheet provides guidance on safety during the formulation or use of TGIC. Contents: use of TGIC as a curing agent; health effects (irritation, sensitization, genetic effects in animals suggest potential reproductive or carcinogenic effects); occupational exposure limits; application and maintenance of control measures (use of alternative coatings or curing agents, hazard evaluation, equipment design, ventilation, protective clothing); exposure monitoring; information and training.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 1994. 4p. 7 ref.

CIS 95-235 Littorin M., Hansson M., Rappe C., Kogevinas M.
Dioxins in blood from Swedish phenoxy herbicide workers
This brief communication presents the results of a follow-up study of 5 workers employed between 1964 and 1978 in a Swedish factory which produced chlorophenoxy herbicides and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol. Blood plasma analysis indicated that the workers had much higher levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-p-dibenzodioxin (TCDD) than did five referents. A relationship was observed between employment time and values of TCDD. Values of other dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans and of non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were also higher in the workers.
Lancet, 27 Aug. 1994, Vol.344, No.8922. p.611-612. 5 ref.

CIS 94-2021
National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS)
Triglycidylisocyanurate (TGIC) - Full public report
This report presents a toxicological assessment of triglycidylisocyanurate (TGIC). Limited data are available on the effects of TGIC in humans; allergic dermatitis is the only human health effect reported in the literature. From the results of animal studies and the limited human data available, it is concluded that the chemical is toxic by oral and inhalation routes, is a skin sensitizer, genotoxic and capable of causing serious eye damage. An interim occupational exposure limit of 0.08mg/m3 is recommended. Engineering controls and safe work methods are described along with methods for the detection and analysis of TGIC.
Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Apr. 1994. ix, 91p. 79 ref.

1993

CIS 96-2214
Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR)
Toxicological profile for endosulfan
Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurotoxic effects (convulsions).
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology, Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Apr. 1993. 186p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 96-1832
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Carbendazim - Health and safety guide
This document provides practical guidance on the application of exposure limitation guidelines contained in Environmental Health Criteria 149 (CIS 94-1019). Contents: identity and uses of methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate (carbendazim); health hazards (low toxicity, no reports of adverse human health effects); guidance on hazard prevention and protection, first aid, explosion and fire hazards, storage and transport, spillage and disposal; current regulations and standards. Includes a summary of chemical safety information for workplace display.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 22p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: CHF 5.00 (CHF 3.50 in developing countries).

CIS 96-1241 Warfarin
International Chemical Safety Card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; skin absorption; haemorrhage. Long-term exposure effects: serious reproductive toxicity. Occupational exposure limit: TLV-TWA: 0.1mg/m3 (ACGIH 1991-1992).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 96-875 Anundi H., Lind M.L., Friis L., Itkes N., Langworth S., Edling C.
High exposures to organic solvents among graffiti removers
The average 8h exposure to dichloromethane of 12 graffiti removers in underground stations in Sweden ranged from 18 to 1,200mg/m3. For 50% of the workers, the average exposure was above the limit of 120mg/m3. The breathing zone concentrations of other solvents such as glycol ethers, trimethylbenzenes and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone were low or not detectable. While irritative symptoms of the eyes and upper respiratory tract were more prevalent than in the general population, neither exposure-related deviations of the indicators of liver damage nor acute effects on the central nervous system were found. The workers were advised to use half-mask respirators and to avoid skin contact by wearing protective clothing.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.65, No.4. p.247-251. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 95-1595 Simazine
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; may affect the liver, kidneys and cardiovascular system; may cause genetic damage in humans; may cause retarded development of the new-born.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1593 Propazine
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1415 McConnell R., Anderson K., Russell W., Anderson K.E., Clapp R., Silbergeld E.K., Landrigan P.J.
Angiosarcoma, porphyria cutanea tarda, and probable chloracne in a worker exposed to waste oil contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.50, No.8, p.699-703. 31 ref. ###

CIS 95-1210 Cyclophosphamide
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect the kidneys, bladder, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, liver, heart and blood. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; human carcinogen; may cause heritable genetic damage; antifertility effects; may cause birth defects.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1205 1,2,4-Triazole
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and skin.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1203 Theophyllin
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; cardiovascular disorders; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1202 Tetrahydrothiophene
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; chemical burns; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; liquid defats the skin.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-1050 Brenner A., Edler L., Mayer K., Zober A.
Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie
Polychlorinated dibenzodioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels and morbidity data of employees occupationally exposed in the chemical industry - Part II
The concentration of tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) in the adipose tissue or blood lipids of 153 employees from 5 chemical plants producing trichlorophenol was measured. Dermatological, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, haematological, immunological, neurological, pulmonary and metabolic effects as well as the effects on the general health were determined through clinical and laboratory examinations. Regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the health findings and the measured doses. The cohort was found to have been exposed to above-background TCDD levels. None of the diagnosed health effects of TCDD were of statistical significance.
Colordruck Kurt Weber GmbH, 69181 Leimen, Germany, Dec. 1993. 67p. Illus. 64 ref.

CIS 95-428 Amitrole
International chemical safety card. Synonym: aminotriazole. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the liver, kidneys and thyroid activity; possible human carcinogen. Occupational exposure limit: TLV: 0.2mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 95-219 Wesseling C., Castillo L., Elinder C.G.
Pesticide poisonings in Costa Rica
A descriptive epidemiologic study conducted in Costa Rica investigated the incidence of pesticide poisoning with special attention to agricultural workers and occupational exposure. Information from 3 national registers (occupational accident and disease reports, hospitalizations and deaths) were used. During 1986, 1800 occupational accidents caused by pesticides were reported; between 1980 and 1986, 3330 persons were hospitalized and 429 died. Cholinesterase inhibitors caused 71% of the reported occupational accidents, 63% of the hospitalizations and 36% of the deaths. Paraquat caused 21% of the occupational accidents, 24% of the hospitalizations and 60% of the deaths. Hospitalizations and deaths were 13 and 11 times more frequent, respectively, among agricultural workers than among the rest of the population. High-risk groups for occupational poisonings included agricultural workers aged 15-29 years, female workers and banana plantation workers. The yearly incidence of symptomatic occupational pesticide poisonings among agricultural workers was estimated at 4.5%.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1993, Vol.19, No.4, p.227-235. Illus. 24 ref.

CIS 95-230 Garnier R., Prince C., Reygagne A., Azoyan P., Dally S., Efthymiou M.L.
Contact dermatitis from dazomet: Seven cases
Dermite de contact au dazomet: 7 cas [in French]
Dazomet is used as a soil disinfectant which acts by hydrolytic release of methylisothiocyanate. In spite of its resulting high toxicity, cases of contact dermatitis and/or systemic poisoning have rarely been published. Seven cases of contact dermatitis from dazomet are reported here. Lesions were observed on hands and forearms (5 cases), feet and legs (6 cases), face (1 case), trunk (1 case) and buttocks (1 case); in all cases but one they were bullous. No case of systemic poisoning was identified in this series, but biological tests were performed in only two patients. Contact dermatitis from dazomet generally results from mishandling and can be easily prevented.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.649-651. 5 ref.

CIS 94-1856 Tetrahydrofuran
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); narcotic effects. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; liquid defats the skin; may affect the liver and kidneys. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 200ppm; 590mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1989-1990); PDK: 103mg/m3 (USSR 1967).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1843 Pyrrolidinone
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes; may cause eye injuries with permanent loss of vision.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-2000 Klein F., Bauer J.
Cleanup of dioxins and asbestos in a hospital incinerator - From planning to implementation
Dioxin- und Asbestsanierung einer Müllverbrennungsanlage im Krankenhaus - Von der Vorplanung bis zur Sanierungsdurchführung [in German]
Prior to the demolition of a hospital incinerator with asbestos-containing lining, ash and dust samples were analyzed for the presence of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD). As TCDD concentrations above the tolerated value of 5µg/kg were found, the personal protective equipment selected for the cleanup of the dioxin-containing ash and dust included a reusable overall with gloves, boots and a supplied air respirator as well as a disposable overall worn over the reusable one. All heat-producing demolition methods were banned. For the asbestos cleanup, the incinerator was tightly enclosed with a slight underpressure.
Krankenhaustechnik, 1993, Vol.19, No.11, p.40-43. Illus.

CIS 94-1664 Zellers E.T., Sulewski R.
Modeling the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone permeation through butyl- and natural-rubber gloves
Study of breakthrough time of N-methylpyrrolidone for butyl and natural rubber gloves. The gloves were tested at four temperatures from 25-50°C. The butyl rubber glove did not show any breakthrough after four hours. The natural rubber gloves showed permeation rates applying well with the Arrhenius relationship. Extrapolation of the temperature to 70-93°C gave breakthrough values of less than 0.5-2 minutes. Experimental values were compared with permeation models. The Fickian diffusion equation gave values of breakthrough time and steady-state permeation time within 23 and 50% respectively of the experimental values.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1993, Vol.54, No.9, p.465-479. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 94-1663 Connor T.H.
An evaluation of the permeability of disposable polypropylene-based protective gowns to a battery of cancer chemotherapy drugs
This article reports on the testing of several different polypropylene-based protective gown materials for permeability against a battery of four cancer chemotherapy drugs (carmustine, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and cisplatin). Of the eight types of gowns tested, two were completely resistant to the four drugs at all time periods. One other gown sample showed immediate breakthrough in one case, but was otherwise impermeable at all times. Two gowns were permeable to all four drugs. The remaining three gown materials demonstrated some permeability, mostly minimal, for two of the four drugs. As seen in other studies, carmustine was the most permeable of the drugs tested. The results indicate that certain modifications to the polypropylene gown material can produce a gown that offers significant protection to the handler of chemotherapy drugs.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Sep. 1993, Vol.8, No.9, p.785-789. Illus. 19 ref.

CIS 94-1161 N-Ethylmorpholine
N-Etilmorfolina [in Spanish]
Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract; visual function disorders: blurred vision and corneal oedema; may aggravate respiratory disorders.
Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 1993, Vol.55, No.12. 4p. Insert.

CIS 94-1129 Nicotine tartrate
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); convulsions; respiratory insufficiency.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1128 Nicotine sulfate
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); convulsions; respiratory insufficiency.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1127 Nicotine
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); convulsions; respiratory insufficiency. Occupational exposure limit: TLV: 0.5mg/m3 (TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1991-1992).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1126 Metribuzin
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 5mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1990-1991).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-1324 Kuo H.W., Li C.S., Wang J.D.
Occupational exposure to 4,4'-bipyridyl vapor and aerosol during paraquat manufacturing
The concentrations of 4,4'-bipyridyl both as vapour and as aerosol were determined in a paraquat factory. The aerosols were the major source of exposure for the workers. The major mass fraction of aerosols had aerodynamic diameters of 3.3-5.8µm. An enclosure hood had an efficiency of 88% and 82% for aerosols and vapour respectively.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.440-445. Illus. 11 ref.

CIS 94-1334 Meredith T.J., Jacobsen D., Haines J.A., Berger J.C.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Naloxone, flumazenil and dantrolene as antidotes
These monographs summarize and assess the clinical use, mode of action and efficacy of naloxone, flumazenil and dantrolene sodium as antidotes in the treatment of poisoning. Naloxone is used to reverse opiate poisoning and there are unproven reports that it may also reverse the effects of ethanol and benzodiazepine (BZD) poisoning. Flumazenil has been shown to reverse the sedative, anti-convulsant and muscle-relaxant effects of BZD. Dantrolene sodium is used in the treatment of drug-induced hypercatabolic syndromes. This first volume of the series includes an introduction to the series and a provisional list of forthcoming volumes; appendices include a list of antidotes and principles for the evaluation of antidotes.
Cambridge University Press, The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, United Kingdom, 1993. xv, 98p. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-1019
International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS)
Carbendazim
Given the similar toxicities of benomyl and carbendazim (methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate, the main metabolite of benomyl in mammals), the two fungicides are evaluated together in this monograph. No adverse effects on human health have been reported. Both substances represent a very low risk for acute poisoning in humans; benomyl causes dermal sensitization. Animal data and the limited human data available indicate that it is unlikely that these substances would cause systemic toxicity effects in occupationally exposed subjects. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish.
World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 132p. Illus. approx. 190 ref. Price: CHF 22.00 (developing countries: CHF 12.60).

CIS 94-1008
Gesellschaft Deutscher Chemiker (GDCh) Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA)
Morpholine
Limited data are available on the toxic effects of morpholine in humans. The substance has an unpleasant fishy odour with an odour threshold of 0.036mg/m3. Experiments on human volunteers indicate that it may cause irritation of the eyes, nose and throat and skin burns. Animal studies show that the target organs are the liver, kidneys an stomach. There are no indications that morpholine itself is carcinogenic, although in the presence of nitrite it may be converted to N-nitrosomorpholine which is known to be mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals.
S. Hirzel Verlag, P.O. Box 10 10 61, 70009 Stuttgart, Germany, 1993. xx, 152p. 266 ref. Price: DEM 88.00.

CIS 94-812 2-Methylpyrrolidone
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the respiratory tract; corrosive to the eyes. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the lungs, bone marrow and lymphatic system. Occupational exposure limits: PDK: 100mg/m3 (USSR 1984).
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-804 2-Mercaptobenzothiazole disulfide
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-641
Department of Social Affairs and Employment, Directorate-General of Labour (Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid)
Health-based recommended occupational exposure limit for pyridine
This publication (prepared in cooperation between the Dutch Expert Committee for Occupational Standards (DEC) and the Swedish Criteria Group (SCG), whose criteria document on pyridine in the series Arbete och hälsa 1991:49 by M. Warholm has already been abstracted as CIS 93-610) presents an evaluation of the health hazards of exposure to pyridine. This substance is mainly used as a solvent and is also an intermediate in the production of e.g. pharmaceutical and agricultural chemicals. Attention is given to: identity, physical and chemical properties, analytical methods; toxicokinetic data; general toxicological effects in animal and humans (short-term exposure and long-term exposure); effects on organs; biochemical effects; reproductive effects and effects on pregnancy; mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; evaluation of human health risks. The critical health effect of pyridine seems to be its effect on the central nervous system and the liver. Based on the data available, the Dutch Expert Committee recommends a health-based occupational exposure limit for pyridine of 1mg/m3 (0.3ppm), 8h-TWA, with a skin notation. Detailed summary in Dutch.
SDU Uitgeverij Plantijnstraat, Afdeling Verkoop Publikaties Arbeidsinspectie, Postbus 20014, 2500 EA Den Haag, Netherlands, 1993. 8+20p. Illus. Bibl.ref.

CIS 94-317 Kauppinen T., Kogevinas M., Johnson E., Becher H., Bertazzi P.A., De Mesquita H.B.B., Coggon D., Green L., Littorin M., Lynge E., Mathews J., Neuberger M., Osman J., Pannett B., Pearce N., Winkelmann R., Saracci R.
Chemical exposure in manufacture of phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols and in spraying of phenoxy herbicides
Exposure patterns are reported for manufacturing and sprayer cohorts incorporated in the "IARC International Register of Workers exposed to Phenoxy Herbicides and Contaminants". Information was based on company questionnaires, company reports, plant visits, and serum 2,3,7,8-TCDD measurements. In addition to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols, workers in manufacturing plants may have been exposed to raw materials, process chemicals, other agents synthesized or formulated, and impurities of all these agents. Sprayers also had a complex exposure pattern, including phenoxy herbicides and some other pesticides, their carriers and additives, and residues of chemicals formed during manufacture. Biological monitoring and industrial hygiene data were rarely available, most since the late 1970s. Exposure of workers depended mainly on the jobs they performed. A quantitative exposure classification is not feasible in this study. Semiquantitative exposure estimates may be derived through a critical interpretation of biological monitoring and industrial hygiene data together with individual work histories.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.23, No.6, p.903-920. 15 ref.

CIS 94-315 Sweeney M.H., Fingerhut M.A., Arezzo J.C., Hornung R.W., Connally L.B.
Peripheral neuropathy after occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)
In a cross-sectional study, prevalence of peripheral neuropathy was measured in 265 workers exposed 15 years earlier to chemicals contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and in 244 unexposed. Cases of peripheral neuropathy were defined from examination, electrophysiologic and quantitative sensory tests, and symptoms. Exposure was assessed by measuring lipid-adjusted serum TCDD levels. The mean serum TCDD level for workers (220 parts per trillion (ppt)) was significantly higher than for referents (7ppt) (p<.0001). Thirty-two percent of both worker and referent groups met the case definition for peripheral neuropathy. In the logistic regression analyses, serum TCDD level was not related to peripheral neuropathy. These data suggest that despite continued high serum TCDD levels, peripheral neuropathy is not a long-term sequela of high exposure to TCDD-contaminated chemicals. However, the study cannot preclude the occurrence and subsequent resolution of acute effects caused by high exposure, as experienced in Seveso and by some workers exposed to high levels of TCDD-contaminated substances.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.23, No.6, p.845-858. 34 ref.

CIS 94-209 Cheng W.N., Coenraads P.J., Hao Z.H., Lui G.F.
A health survey of workers in the pentachlorophenol section of a chemical manufacturing plant
During 1968 to 1985, 109 workers who had been engaged in the production of pentachlorophenol, using non-gamma isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) as the raw material, were surveyed. Endemic chloracne among them had been noted since 1974. The prevalence of chloracne was 73.4% (80/109) in total and 95.2% (20/21) in a trichlorobenzene (TCB) tank area where dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofuran (PCDF) levels were thousands of ppm. It seems that PCDDs and PCDFs have not previously been reported from thermal decomposition of BHC. Urinary porphyrins were significantly higher among exposed workers than among the controls but there was no significant difference between the workers with chloracne and those without. The conduction velocities of the median motor nerves were much slower among the workers in the TCB tank area where the highest PCDD contamination appeared. The mortality study cohort was relatively young. Based on the three deaths observed during the follow-up, no association could be drawn.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1993, Vol.24, No.1, p.81-92. Illus. 52 ref.

CIS 94-31 3,6-Dichloro-picolinic acid
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: may affect the liver and kidneys.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 94-29 Dichloroisocyanuric acid, Na-salt
International chemical safety card. Synonym: sodium dichloroisocyanurate. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; corrosive on ingestion; pulmonary oedema; chemical pneumonitis. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the lungs.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1801 Coumaphos
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; neurotoxic effects; inhibition of cholinesterase. Long-term exposure effects: significant depression of blood cholinesterase.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1791 Caffeine
International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects; cardiac disorders.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1781 Bladex (cyanazine)
International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; eye irritation. Long-term exposure effects: may cause birth defects.
Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p.

CIS 93-1881 Meding B., Torén K., Karlberg A.T., Hagberg S., Wass K.
Evaluation of skin symptoms among workers at a Swedish paper mill
Process and office workers at a Swedish paper mill (n=274) and dairy workers (controls, n=45) were investigated with questionnaires regarding skin symptoms. In the second part of the study, subjects reporting skin symptoms and a random sample of subjects without symptoms were examined and investigated with patch testing. Pruritus and skin irritation probably related to exposure to dust were found. The results do not indicate an increased prevalence of contact allergy. In two cases, positive patch test reactions to paper size (rosin) and a slimicide, mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), were noted.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.721-728. 19 ref.

CIS 93-1937 Sessink P.J.M., De Roos J.H.C., Pierik F.H., Anzion R.B.M., Bos R.P.
Occupational exposure of animal caretakers to cyclophosphamide
The study examined environmental contamination with cyclophosphamide (CP) in an animal laboratory where mice were injected with this compound. Also studied was the contamination of gloves, sleeve protectors, and masks for personal protection. Analysis of air-circulation system filters revealed amounts of CP corresponding to <0.1-1.0µg/day. Wipe samples taken from different objects and surfaces were also analysed. The presence of CP was not only observed in the room where the mice were housed and treated but also in adjacent rooms (<0.02-44ng/cm2). The gloves used during CP injection were always contaminated (2-199µg/pair), although no penetration was established. The sleeve protectors were incidentally contaminated (<0.3-10µg) and no CP was found on the masks (<0.2µg). Eighty-seven urine samples from four animal caretakers were analysed for unmetabolised CP. CP was detected (0.7µg) in one sample. The results of this study show that animal caretakers are exposed to CP in their work.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.47-52. 15 ref.

CIS 93-1274 Bas Bueno de Mesquita H., Doornbos G., van der Kuip D.A.M., Kogevinas M., Winkelmann R.
Occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols and cancer mortality in the Netherlands
A cohort of 2,310 workers from two plants who manufacture and prepare chlorophenoxy herbicides in the Netherlands was followed during the periods 1955-1985 and 1965-1986, respectively. In 1963, there was an industrial accident in one factory with concomitant release of dioxin into the environment. Mortality data on 963 exposed and 1,111 nonexposed men were evaluated by external and internal comparison. Compared with national rates, total mortality (94 deaths, SMR = 101; 95% confidence interval [CI], 82-124) and cancer mortality (31 deaths, SMR = 107; 95% CI, 73-152) for exposed workers were not significantly increased. A statistically insignificant increase was observed for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. There was no increase in either total mortality in cancer mortality among the 139 workers probably exposed to dioxins during the 2,4,5-trichlorophenol production accident. Compared with nonexposed workers, exposed workers did not exhibit a higher total mortality. Mortality due to all cancers and respiratory cancer was not significantly elevated. These findings suggest that the increases in cancer mortality among workers exposed to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols may be attributable to chance.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.23, No.2, p.289-300. 20 ref.

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