Heterocyclic compounds - 575 entries found
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Diquat [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as a herbicide and dessicant in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, and unintended effects on eyes and skin; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1979. 7p.
Popova V.I., Ščerbina O.N., Manenko A.K., Pastušenko T.V.
Spectrophotometric determination of benzoxazolone in air
Spektrofotometričeskij metod opredelenija benzoksazolona v vozduhe [in Russian]
A method based on absorption of benzoxazolone, an intermediate product in insecticide synthesis, in the UV range at 274nm, is described. Sensitivity is 1.2µg per ml solution in ethanol; relative error, ±1.9%. The absorption spectrum and calibration curve are reproduced.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1979, No.10, p.53-54. 3 ref.
Gehlbach S.H., Williams W.A., Freeman J.I.
Protective clothing as a means of reducing nicotine absorption in tobacco harvesters.
Cross-over studies were performed on 2 days in 11 subjects. Rubberised nylon rainsuits were worn during the period that the tobacco was wet. The clothing effectively prevented nicotine absorption in those picking wet tobacco. Nicotine absorption was demonstrated in workers who wore non-waterproof clothing.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1979, Vol.34, No.2, p.111-114. Illus. 4 ref.
Pastušenko T.V., Manenko A.K.
Experimental establishment of the maximum permissible level of phenazone at the workplace
Ėksperimental'noe obosnovanie predel'no dopustimoj koncentracii fenazona v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
The toxic effects of the herbicide phenazone (5-amino-4-chloro-2-phenyl-6-pyridazinone) were studied in rats, mice and guinea pigs after intragastric, cutaneous and inhalational administration. Acute toxicity is low. Cumulative effects are not very pronounced. The threshold concentration for chronic effects is 1mg/m3. Exposure limit recommended: 0.5mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1979, No.8, p.48-50.
Pastušenko T.V., Manenko A.K.
Determination of phenazone in air by spectrophotometry
Opredelenie fenazona v vozduhe spektrofotometričeskim metodom [in Russian]
This method is more sensitive, accurate and selective than existing techniques. It is based on dissolving the sample in dimethylformamide. Absorbance is measured at 285nm. Sensitivity is 1µg/ml, the relative error ±1.8%.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1979, No.7, p.54-55. 2 ref.
The toxicology of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and its structural analogues.
The signs and symptoms (chloracne, liver damage, oedema, cardiovascular disorders) of TCDD poisoning in humans are corelated with experimental animal models and the effects of body distribution and metabolism on the toxicity of TCDD are discussed. The activity of TCDD analogues in relation to molecular shape and size is discussed and a case of poisoning is presented which might be due to chlorinated xanthenes, steric analogues of TCDD which have not yet been implicated in chloracne outbreaks.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1979, Vol.22, No.4, p.411-420. 71 ref.
Bianchi S., Cattaneo G., Cervi E., Merluzzi F., Cassitto G.
Behavioural study of benzodiazepine production workers
Studio comportamentale di lavoratori addetti alla produzione di benzodiazepine [in Italian]
26 workers employed in the production, granulate, tabletting, and raw material units were studied. Exposure was for 8-10 days every 1-2 months. Blood and urinary benzodiazepine concentrations were below the sensitivity limits of the method used (1/10 of the active dose). Psychometric studies showed significant changes in reactions before and after exposure, especially in tests requiring discrimination, rapidity, good visual-motor coordination, and visual retention capacity.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1979, Vol.70, No.1, p.8-15, 22 ref.
A clinical survey of paraquat formulation workers
36 workers were studied. Most showed skin rashes, nail damage and nose bleeding as a result of direct contact of skin and mucosae with paraquat. There was no clinical evidence of local or general long-term effects following several years' exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1979, Vol.36, No.3, p.220-223. 14 ref.
Lamberton J., Griffin D., Arbogast B., Inman R., Deinzer M.
The determination of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins in pentachlorophenol and wood treatment solutions.
Samples of technical pentachlorophenol (PCP), recirculated PCP solution and sludge from the bottom of the recirculation tank were analysed. Normalised against the PCP content, the octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin level was 34% higher in the recirculating PCP solution, and 90% higher in the sludge, than in the fresh solution. The relative content of heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in the sludge was similar.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1979, Vol.40, No.9, p.816-822. Illus. 16 ref.
Egle J.L., Gochberg B.J.
Respiratory retention and acute toxicity of furan.
In these animal experiments, respiratory uptake of furan was 90-95% in dogs, verying inversely with the ventilatory rate. The intraperitoneal LD50 values of 5.2mg/kg in rats and 6.9mg/kg in mice, and the LC50 of 0.12µg/ml in mice, all clearly indicate the high toxic potential of furan.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1979, Vol.40, No.4, p.310-314. 10 ref.
Levin P.J., Klaff L.J., Rose A.G., Ferguson A.D.
Pulmonary effects of contact exposure to paraquat: A clinical and experimental study.
The clinical and pathological features of a patient who died from the effects of percutaneous absorption of paraquat, and of 9 less heavily exposed workers, are described. In the fatal case, the patient had balanced the spray reservoir on his shoulder, onto which it had leaked causing a burn (skin ulcer). In animal experiments, low concentrations of paraquat were applied to the skin of rats over 9 weeks. Pulmonary arterial lesions contrasting with the familiar pathological findings of acute high-dose ingestion occurred. Routine use of paraquat may cause severe pulmonary vascular disease.
Thorax, Apr. 1979, Vol.34, No.2, p.150-160. Illus. 23 ref.
Warfarine [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as a rodenticide in agriculture, horticulture and forestry; public health; household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection, assay and in case of poisoning.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1978. 6p.
Pyridine is a toxic, flammable, slightly yellow or colourless, volatile, hygroscopic liquid with a sharp, penetrating, unpleasant odor. Contents of this data sheet: properties; uses (alcohol denaturant, solvent, pharmaceutical and dye intermediate); containers; shipping regulations; storage (indoors and outdoors); personnel hazards (moderate toxicity, skin absorption); handling (closed systems uses, transferring by pump); personal protective equipment (supplied air masks); ventilation; fire and explosion hazards; electrical equipment; poisoning symptoms (respiratory system irritant); first aid; toxicity; threshold limit value (5ppm time-weighted average); medical examinations; waste disposal.
Data Sheet 1-310-78, Revised 1978, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1978. 3p. 13 ref.
Contact acne - Example of a dermatosis of civilisation
Die Kontaktakne: Beispiel einer Zivilisationsdermatose [in German]
The introduction mentions the environmental factors responsible for dermatitis, substances toxic to the skin, the types of exogenous toxic acne and criteria for differential diagnosis. The example of dioxin (2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzoparadioxin) shows the importance of minimal doses of highly toxic substances for medicine and dermatology (cases of dioxin contamination between 1949 and 1976 are enumerated). In view of its great toxicity, dioxin occupies a special place among acne-producing chloroaryls: toxic and teratogenic effects, manifestations of poisoning in man, dioxin acne. Detailed considerations are given on occupational contact acne due to chloroaryls: aetiology, clinical symptoms, history, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapy, oil acne, tar acne, possibility of pseudoacne due to chlorine-free aromatic compounds. Part 2 deals with non-occupational contact acne.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1978, Vol.26, No.1, p.7-21, and No.2, p.45-52. Illus. 160 ref.
Jaroš F., Žuffa L., Kratinová R., Skákala I., Domsová J.
Acute percutaneous poisoning by Gramoxone
Akútna perkutánna intoxikácia gramoxonom [in Slovak]
A fatal case of percutaneous poisoning with this herbicide (paraquat 20%) in a 44-year-old man spraying it without taking the recommended precautions is reported: severe skin lesions on the neck and scrotum, and general poisoning manifested by hepatic, renal and pulmonary lesions. He died of renal and respiratory insufficiency. The mechanism of action of Gramoxone, toxicology, clinical picture and pathological anatomy, and possibilities of treatment are dealt with.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1978, Vol.30, No.7, p.260-263. 20 ref.
Vlčková A., Ulrich L., Alföldi J., Babinská M.
Protective action of disodium cromoglycate on alveolar macrophage exposed to fibrogenic silica
Antideštruktivny účinok disodium chromoglykátu sledovaný na alveolárnych makrofágoch, vystavených fibrogennému SiO2 [in Slovak]
The lesions produced by fibrogenic silica, and the protection afforded by disodium cromoglycate (DSG), were studied in vitro. The number of alveolar macrophages that died when cultured with silica increased with the silica concentration. At concentrations of 1,000µg per million alveolar macrophages, all cells were dead. Treatment of the 1,000µg silica dose with 200µg DSG reduced the proportion of dead cells to 25.92%. Spectrographic studies of silica, DSG, and DSG-treated silica excluded the hypothesis of preferential linkage. DSG appears to affect the intensity of the enzyme reaction associated with phagocytosis, as the fall in acid phosphatases confirms.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1978, Vol.30, No.7, p.252-255. Illus. 12 ref.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 55. Diazirines.
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 55. Diazirines. [in French]
Enumeration and description of possible reactions (explosion) of 3-chloro-3-methyldiazirine, 3-chloro-3-trichloromethyldiazirine, 3-methyldiazirine, 3,3 pentamethylenediazirine, chlorophenyldiazirine, 3-propyldiazirine in contact with an organic substance, spontaneously or due to heat or impact. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1978, No.93, Note No.1145-93-78, p.569-570.
Hazardous chemical reactions - Triazoles and tetrazoles
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - Tri- et tétrazoles. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions (explosion, detonation, deflagration), which may be spontaneous or due to heat or friction, of 32 triazoles, tetrazoles or derivatives of these compounds. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1978, No.92, Note No.1134-92-78, p.445-449.
Bainova A., Valceva V.
Experimental fixing of a maximum permissible concentration for Reglone in workplace air
Eksperimentalno obosnovavane na predelno dopustimata koncentracija na Reglona văv văzduha na rabotnata sreda [in Bulgarian]
Reglone (20% diquat dibromide) is used as a herbicide and dessicant. This article gives the results of experiments with white rats, exposed to water aerosols containing various concentrations of Reglone to determine the LC50 (83mg/m3), the acute threshold concentration (9.9mg/m3) and the chronic threshold concentration (0.32mg/m3). In all instances the clinical picture of poisoning is characterised by bronchopulmonary lesions (catarrhal bronchitis and bronchiolitis, interstitial pneumonia, atelectasis and emphysema) and toxic involvement of the liver and kidneys. The authors ccnclude from their results that there is no risk of sequelae due to body accumulation of Reglone, and propose a temporary TLV of 0.1mg/m3.
Problemi na higienata, 1977, Vol.3, p.11-18. 10 ref.
De Borst C., Deen R.
TCDD - Literature survey and interim digest
TCDD, een literatuuronderzoek en voorlopige digest [in Dutch]
Contents of this report: properties and formation of 2,3,7,8 - tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD); literature survey (roundups, 3 computer searches, data analysis); situation in the Netherlands (attitude of the public authorities, commentaries); safety measures (collective and personal protection); conclusions: the TCDD hazard is not adequately met so long as the production and transformation of this substance is not banned internationally. This situation encourages research and requires very strict precautions to be taken. Information on on-going research, a computer print-out and extracts from debates in the Netherlands Parliament (questions tabled, replies from the Minister of Public Health) are appended.
Rapport CL/77/102, Centraal Laboratorium TNO, Postbus 217, 2600AE Delft, Netherlands, 5 Oct. 1977. 31p. 11 ref.
La dioxinne. [in French]
This article takes stock of present knowledge on the toxicity of dioxin. While the subacute effects (chloracne) are firmly established, teratogenic and carcinogenic effects have not been demonstrated in man with certainty. Such a possibility prompts stringent safety measures: prohibition of dioxin in organochlorinated pesticides; prevention of explosions due to overheating, and thus escape of large quantities. Contaminated persons should be subjected to medical surveillance over several years.
Année du médecin 1977, Editions Flammarion médecine-sciences, 20 rue de Vaugirard, 75006 Paris, France, 1977, p.282-286; 307. 18 ref.
Ahlborg U.G., Kolmodin-Hedman B., Skerfving S.
TCDD - A study of the accident in Seveso in 1976
TCDD - en studie av olyckan i Seveso 1976 [in Swedish]
The events of the accident in which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin was emitted in Seveso (Italy) on 9 July 1976 are reviewed. Chloracne was noted and liver damage and tumours were suspected. Animals died. Commissions of experts studied the medical-epidemiological, veterinary medical, contamination and decontamination problems. Families were evacuated from parts of the town, exposed cattle destroyed, many medical examinations conducted and legal abortions were performed. Extensive studies are being continued to determine long-term effects.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1977:5, Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Fack, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1976. 36p. Illus. 58 ref.
Burenko T.S., Žuravlev E.G., Miklaševič T.A.
Determination of morpholine in air
Opredelenie morfolina v vozduhe [in Russian]
This method differs from previous ones in that it provides more precise determination without need for highly toxic reagents. Air is sampled at a rate of 11/min and passed through 3ml of an 0.025% methylorange solution. Photocolorimetric determination is performed at 430nm in a 10mm cell. Sensitivity is 2µg.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Mar. 1977, No.3, p.55-56. 4 ref.
H58, Information Sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Prevention Association, London.
Details are given of uses of pyridine, hazards (flammability, toxicity), fire fighting, precautions (storage, ventilation, British standards for electrical apparatus for explosive atmospheres, flameproof enclosure of electrical apparatus, etc.), source of further information, relevant British regulations, physical and chemical properties (flash point, TLV, chemical reactions, etc.).
Fire Prevention, June 1977, No.119, p.47-48. 3 ref.
Fodré Z., Sipos K., Berencsi G.
Irritant and allergic effects of the defoliant Gramoxone in guinea-pigs
A Gramoxone irritáló és allergizáló hatásának vizsgálata tengerimalacokon [in Hungarian]
No irritation was observed after scarification of the skin and application of Gramoxone in concentrations up to 1%. Higher concentrations and intracutaneous administration of 0.5% Gramoxone caused lesions. Gramoxone is not a contact allergen, but can provoke allergy in workers presenting microtrauma of the hands.
Egészségtudomány, 1977, Vol.21, No.3, p.244-249. 14 ref.
Frequency of sensitivity to Grotan BK in Denmark.
Grotan BK is a mixture the active component of which is hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine. A positive reaction occurred in 13 of 694 patients tested with 2% Grotan BK. Grotan BK is a formalin releaser, and 7 of the 13 patients also reacted to formalin.
Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1977, Vol.3, No.4, p.212-213. 3 ref.
Some fumigants, the herbicides 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T, chlorinated dibenzodioxins and miscellaneous industrial chemicals.
Data in 18 monographs reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 8-15 Feb. 1977): 1,2-bis(chloromethoxy)ethane; 1,4-bis(chloromethoxymethyl)benzene; chlorinated dibenzodioxins; copper 8-hydroxyquinoline; 2,4-D and esters; 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane; trans-1,4-dichlorobutene; dihydroxybenzenes (catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone); dimethoxane; eosin and eosin disodium salt; ethylene dibromide; hexamethylphosphoramide; isopropyl alcohol and isopropyl oils; methyl iodide; p-quinone; succinic anhydride; 2,4,5-T and esters; 1,2,3-tris(chloromethoxy)propane. Supplementary corrigenda and a substance cumulative index to IARC monographs (Volumes 1-14) are appended.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.15. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1977. 354p. Illus. 829 ref. Price: SF.50.00.
Kimbrough R.D., Carter C.D., Liddle J.A., Cline R.E., Phillips P.E.
Epidemiology and pathology of a tetrachlorodibenzodioxin poisoning episode.
An epidemiological and laboratory investigation of a poisoning outbreak that involved 3 riding arenas and killed 57 horses, 5 colts, and numerous other animals is described. The outbreak was traced to the spraying of the arenas with salvage oil contaminated with tetrachlorodibenzodioxin, trichlorophenol, and polychlorinated biphenyls. The contamination of the salvage oil resulted from the improper disposal of toxic industrial waste. In the tissues of the horses available for study, the most prominent lesion was a centrilobular fibrosis of the liver that arose in the wall of the central veins. This lesion resembled the chronic form of veno-occlusive disease of the liver in humans.
Archives of Environmental Health, Mar.-Apr. 1977, Vol.32, No.2, p.77-86. Illus. 31 ref.
Darrigrand M.C., Poitou M.P., Coirier A., Cavelier.
A disinfectant for cutting fluids - Bactericidal efficacy and allergenic potential
Un désinfectant pour fluides d'usinage - Efficacité antibactérienne et pouvoir allergisant [in French]
The French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) studied a disinfectant for cutting oils widely used in France, Grotan BK, a product based on hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)-S-triazine, classified in the category of substances releasing formaldehyde, in order to determine its efficiency as a bactericide and its harmful effects, if any, on workers' health. This data sheet describes the methods used and tabulates the results. Grotan BK was effective against all selected bacteria (Pseudomonadaceae, Micrococcaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, Bacillaceae). Experiments with guinea pigs showed its sensitising potential in certain conditions favouring skin penetration.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 1st quarter 1977, No.86, Note No. 1046-86-77, p.33-39. 17 ref.
Zedda S., Cirla A.M., Sala C.
Accidental contamination with tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, considerations on the ICMESA episode
Contaminazione accidentale da tetraclorodibenzoparadiossina. Considerazioni sull'episodio I.C.M.E.S.A. [in Italian]
This editorial is a brief, general review of the chemistry, physical and biological properties of TCDD; proposed concentration limits of TCDD in defoliants in the USA, United Kingdom, Germany (Fed.Rep.) and France; toxicology; experimental enzyme induction; human pathology. The background to the accident at the ICMESA works at Seveso, Italy, is sketched, and the diagnoses in 176 exposed workers (12 directly exposed at the time of the accident) listed.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1976, Vol.67, No.5, p.371-378. 27 ref.
Greene S.A., Freedman S.
Asthma due to inhaled chemical agents - Amprolium hydrochloride.
Case report of a chemical worker who developed asthma after exposure to a heavy atmospheric concentration of amprolium hydrochloride, a constituent of a poultry-food additive. Experimental exposure produced an immediate asthmatic reaction, inhibited by sodium cromoglycate. When the finished product is added to poultry feed in the maximum recommended concentration, the resultant amprolium concentration in the feed is about 200ppm, sufficient to cause further cases of hypersensitivity in people handling it.
Clinical Allergy, July 1976, Vol.6, No.4, p.105-108. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.edilex.fi/pdf1/fs/02/band109.pdf [in Swedish]
http://www.edilex.fi/pdf1/sk/02/vihko109.pdf [in Finnish]
Zaynoun S., Johnson B.E., Frain-Bell W.
The investigation of quindoxin photosensitivity.
Quindoxin (quinoxaline di-N-oxide) was used as a pig feed additive until its withdrawal in 1973. This article reports studies of 8 individual cases of photosensitivity, observing the changes occurring in the action spectrum with time, and reporting the skin responses to photopatch testing. There was evidence of persistent light reaction and photoallergy, probably to the parent substance, with clinical and photobiological similarities to idiopathic photosensitivity dermatitis and the actinic reticuloid syndrome.
Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 1976, Vol.2, No.6, p.343-352. Illus. 12 ref.
Makulova M.D., Filičeva A.P.
Health status of triphthazine production workers
Sostojanie zdorov'ja lic, zanjatyh v proizvodstve triftazina [in Russian]
Results of observations and medical examinations of 57 pharmaceutical industry workers exposed to triphthazine (piperazine derivative of phenothiazine) dust for 2-5 years. The authors observed cases of acute poisoning characterised by general asthenia, increase of muscular tonicity and convulsions, and cases of subacute poisoning with similar but less severe symptoms (1 case study). In suspected chronic poisoning (headaches, autonomic disorders), medical supervision should be stepped up and therapeutic measures taken. Personnel showing acute or subacute poisoning should be given treatment and transferred to work not involving exposure.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1976, No.7, p.27-30.
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) - Clinical aspects of poisoning.
This literature survey was presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Clinical Toxicology on 6-10 Aug. 1975 in Kansas City, USA. The poisoning of animals, especially horses, by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was discussed. Mostly, the TCDD was directly absorbed through the skin of legs and feet since the horses were not fed in the contaminated areas. TCDD is stored in the adipose tissues.
Clinical Toxicology, 1976, Vol.9, No.6, p.963-967. Illus. 15 ref.
Smith F.A., Schwetz B.A., Nitschke K.D.
Teratogenicity of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in CF-1 mice.
Pregnant mice were given TCDD orally on days 6-15 of gestation in doses of 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1 and 3µg/kg/day. There was little or no maternal toxicity. 3µg/kg caused cleft palate and dilated renal pelvis; 1µg/kg cleft palate. No significant malformation occurred at 0.1µg/kg and below.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Dec. 1976, Vol.38, No.3, p.517-523. 9 ref.
Furukawa T., Maeda Y., Yamashita Y., Ueda H., Mizusawa H., Sakakibara E.
Ifenprodil: Protective effect in experimental cyanide poisoning.
Ifenprodil tartrate (4-benzyl-α-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-β-methyl-1-piperidineethanol L(+)-tartrate monohydrate) provided dose-dependent protection in rats, guinea-pigs, rabbits and mice against the lethal effects of sodium cyanide and against the latter's effects on respiration rate, blood pressure, heart rate and EEG. Methaemoglobin formation and formation of thiocyanate induced by sodium cyanide and sodium thiosulfate were not affected. Ifenprodil tartrate and hydrochloride both had protective effects in vitro. Part of the protective mechanism is ascribed to antagonism at the mitochondrial level.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Aug. 1976, Vol.37, No.2, p.289-300. 17 ref.
Keczkes K., Brown P.M.
Hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine, a new bacteriocidal agent as a cause of allergic contact dermatitis.
Report on an outbreak of dermatitis occurring among machinists in an engineering workshop. Because of bacterial contamination of the water supply 0.15% hexahydro-1,3,5-tris(2-hydroxyethyl)triazine (Grotan), a formaldehyde liberator, had been added to the coolant mixture since 1972. Of the 19 men suffering from dermatitis and coming into contact with the coolant mixture, 4 showed a strongly positive reaction to Grotan, attributed to true allergic contact sensitivity to this compound.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.92-98. 15 ref.
Rose J.Q., Ramsey J.C., Wentzler T.H., Hummel R.A., Gehring P.J.
The fate of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin following single and repeated oral doses to the rat.
This study was undertaken to elucidate the fate of TCDD in rats given a single oral dose of 1µg/kg and repeated oral doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1µg/kg/day for 7 weeks, and to assess the propensity of TCDD to accumulate in the body. The highest concentrations of TCDD were found in the liver and fat, with lower concentrations in the kidneys, thymus and spleen. The results indicate that TCDD does not tend to accumulate in the body at the doses used, that steady-state concentrations are reached within 13 weeks and that TCDD may be altered chemically prior to its clearance from the body.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, May 1976, Vol.36, No.2, p.209-226. Illus. 15 ref.
Kociba R.J., Keeler P.A., Park C.N., Gehring P.J.
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD): Results of a 13-week oral toxicity study in rats.
Description and results of animal experiments carried out to assess the biological effects of repeated low-level doses (0.001 to 1µg/kg/day) of TCDD over a 13-week period. Clinical and pathological findings, mortality, haematology, urinary excretion, tissue examinations, etc. The liver, the thymus and other lymphoid organs (other than the spleen) appear to be most sensitive to long-term administration of TCDD. No discernible ill effects were noted in the animals given 0.001 or 0.01µg TCDD/kg/day.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Mar. 1976, Vol.35, No.3, p.553-574. Illus. 50 ref.
Carrera G., Mitjavila S., Lacombe C., Derache R.
Toxicokinetics of a thioquinoxaline pesticide: oxythioquinox.
Toxicocinétique d'un pesticide du groupe des thioquinoxalines: l'oxythioquinox [in French]
The absorption and distribution of 35S-labelled oxythioquinox (Morestan) in the rat were studied after administration by stomach tube. Most of the oxythioquinox transported in the body formed complexes with plasma proteins, especially albumins. After intravenous administration, the substance is eliminated very slowly. There is an equilibrium between the plasma and the peripheral compartments. After intragastric administration, there was an increase of radioactivity in epididymal adipose tissue, indicating that the peripheral compartment should include the adipose tissue.
Toxicology, Aug.-Sep. 1976, Vol.6, No.2, p.161-171. Illus. 33 ref.
Poisoning due to the herbicide Paraquat
Vergiftungen mit dem Unkrautvertilgungsmittel Paraquat [in German]
Since 1966, over 200 deaths have been reported in the world following ingestion of small quantities of this compound. The cause of death was generally progressive lung fibrosis. Of the 11 cases of paraquat poisoning reported to the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zurich between 1966 and 1975, 6 were fatal. They are described - with the most important therapeutic measures - in detail. The 5 survivors showed no signs of lung damage. The effects of splashes onto the eyes or skin are also briefly described.
Schweizerische Rundschau für Medizin - Revue suisse de médecine - Praxis, 6 July 1976, Vol.65, No.27, p.837-843. 40 ref.
Central Coordinating Committee, French National Sickness Insurance Fund (Comité central de coordination, Caisse nationale de l'assurance maladie), Paris, 11 Dec. 1975.
Pathological effects of α-phenylindole
Les effets pathologiques de l'alpha-phénylindole. [in French]
α-Phenylindole, an organic compound mostly used as a stabiliser for PVC-based plastics used with foods, has the particular property of subliming and may produce, if inhaled, reversible changes in the blood picture. In solution in a solvent it can give rise to skin disorders. This recommendation, which is followed by comments, concerns exhaust ventilation at the workpost (in the manufacture of α-phenylindole, in manufacturing compounds or premixes and in maintenance work), practical measures of personnel surveillance (individual protection) and medical supervision (blood counts, half-yearly examinations). Proposed TLV: 30µg/m3.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd quarter 1976, No.83, Note No.1012-83-76 (Recommendation No.123), p.307-309.
Müller G., Pepping J., Norpoth K.
Selective photometric determination of aliphatic nitro olefins by means of the alkylation indicator 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP)
Selektive photometrische Bestimmung aliphatischer Nitroolefine mit Hilfe des Alkylierungsindikators 4-(4-Nitrobenzyl)pyridin (NBP) [in German]
The method described is intended as a first step in the elaboration of highly sensitive and selective colour reactions that permit evaluation of the carcinogenic risk due to nitro olefins in the air. The results achieved with the NBP method of Friedman and Boger and with a modified method are described and discussed. The modified determination gives colour that remains constant for hours. Minimal amounts of 2-3µg are detectable.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 9 Mar. 1976, Vol.36, No.4, p.299-310. Illus. 14 ref.
Paraquat. [in French]
Synonyms; physical properties; uses as herbicide; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; restrictions on availability; transportation, storage and handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision for workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food; precautions in use (threshold limit values, mixers and applicators, other workers associated in handling the pesticide); entry of persons into treated areas; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
Data sheets on pesticides No.4, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, Jan. 1975. 13p. 5 ref.
Dozorova I.I., Liberman E.V., Čistotinova L.T.
Determination of sulfadimethoxine, and of intermediates used in its synthesis, in air
Opredelenie sul'fadimetoksina i poluproduktov ego proizvodstva v vozduhe [in Russian]
Description of a method of determining concentration levels of the bactericide sulfadimethoxine and of its intermediates (6-amino-2,4-pyrimidinediol; 4-amino-2,6-dichloropyrimidine; 4-amino-2,6-dimethoxypyrimidine). Analysis is based on diazotisation of the air sample and coupling of the product with resorcinol. Optical density of the resulting pink coloration is in direct proportion to the concentration of sulfadimethoxine, and may be determined by spectrophotometry. The calibration curves for the 3 basic substances are given.
Gigiena i sanitarija, July 1975, No.7, p.79-81. Illus. 5 ref.
Desoille H., Truffert L., Philbert M., Girard-Wallon C., Ripault J.
Experimental study of synergy in the simultaneous use of piperonyl butoxide and aliphatic chlorinated fluorocarbons - 2. Piperonyl butoxide, tetrafluorodichloroethane (F 114)
Etude expérimentale de la synergie lors de l'utilisation simultanée du pipéronylbutoxyde et de certains hydrocarbures aliphatiques chlorofluorés - 2. Pipéronylbutoxyde, tétrafluorodichloréthane (F 114). [in French]
This study (see CIS 75-1923 for Part 1) involved 3 groups of rats, one exposed to dichlorotetrafluoroethane vapours and given piperonyl butoxide as a food additive; one given piperonyl butoxide alone; and controls. No statistically significant differences in cell toxicity was noted between the 2 groups of treated animals and the control. The changes observed were common to all 3 groups, renal damage being slightly more severe in the treated animals. The mean weight curves were lower in the latter than in the controls, especially as regards the males exposed to both substances.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Dec. 1975, Vol.36, No.12, p.697-706. Illus. 11 ref.
Priščepov V.F., Fedjušina N.A.
Clinical picture and morphology of occupational dermatoses due to sulfenamide Ts
Kliniko-morfologičeskaja harakteristika professional'nyh dermatozov, obuslovlivaemyh sul'fenamidom C. [in Russian]
Results of dermatological examinations carried out in 119 workers in the rubber industry, exposed to sulfenamide Ts (N-cyclohexyl-2-benzothiazolsulfenamide), an accelerator of the vulcanisation process developed in the USSR. Of the workers examined 57 (or 47.8%) showed symptoms of occupationally-induced skin disease (folliculitis, acne, dermatitis, eczema, hyperpigmentation, etc.). The skin allergies observed developed against a background of early disease process involving the skin. Irritation of the mucosae of the upper respiratory tract was apparent in many cases. The sensitising effect of sulfenamide Ts was demonstrated by skin tests, serological reactions and morphological examinations.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1975, No.4, p.34-37. 5 ref.
Kuželová M., Kuběnová K., Kovařík J.
Atypical picture of acute pyridine poisoning
Neobvyklý obraz akutní otravy pyridinem [in Czech]
Description of a case of acute pyridine poisoning observed in a 29 year old female laboratory assistant. A flask containing this product was accidentally broken, and she wiped up the spilled pyridine (duration of exposure: 15-20min). The first symptoms of poisoning did not appear until 10h after the accident, but the patient's condition worsened, necessitating hospitalisation. Some dominant symptoms were uncommon: speech disturbance and signs of diffuse cortical damage. This condition receded after massive administration of thiamine. The authors point out the total absence of signs of irritation of the upper respiratory tract, unlike other cases previously reported.
Pracovní lékařství, July 1975, Vol.27, No.6, p.207-209. 8 ref.
Barlogová S., Grunt J.
Sensitising properties of some pyridazine compounds
Sensibilizačné vlastnosti niektorých pyridazinónových zlúčenin [in Slovak]
The sensitising effects of 2-phenyl-4,5-dichloro-3-pyridazinone (PCC) and its analogues 2-methyl-4,5-dichloro-3-pyridazinone (MCP) and 2-methyl-4,5-dimethoxy-3-pyridazinone (MMP) were tested experimentally on guinea pigs. These substances were administered in 3 different ways: repeated applications to the surface of the skin, a single intradermal injection with Freund's adjuvant (complete) in the digital pads. Administration of MMP produced no hypersensitisation, whereas administration of PCC and MCP in primarily non-toxic doses resulted in a delayed-type hypersensitivity, the intensity of which was dose-dependent. The antigenic determinant in PCC seems to be the phenyl radical, and in MCP it would appear to be chlorine.
Československá hygiena, Jan. 1975, Vol.20, No.1, p.5-9. 11 ref.
Chromatographic separation and spectrographic determination of the rodenticide Ratron in air
Hromatografsko razdeljane i spektrofotometrično opredeljane na rodenticida Ratron văv văzduha [in Bulgarian]
Description of a method for the determination of the rodenticide Ratron - 3-(α-acetonylbenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin - in air. The method is based on thin-layer chromatographic separation of the sample and quantitative determination of the compound in a chloroform solution by ultraviolet spectrophotometry (wavelength 282nm). The sensitivity of the method is 1µg/ml). Reproduction of a calibration curve. The method is simple and can be used for serial determinations.
Higiena i zdraveopazvane, 1975, Vol.18, No.1, p.90-94. Illus. 3 ref.
Endosulfan. [in French]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; selected physical properties; agriculture, horticulture and forestry uses as insecticide and unintended effects on crops and livestock; inadvisability of household use; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; LD50; recommendations: restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; additional recommendations if distributed by aircraft; labelling; precautions in use (threshold limit values, closed systems, forced ventilation, mixers and applicators, personal protective equipment); safe disposal of containers and spillage; emergency aid; medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; laboratory methods of detection and analysis, and in cases of poisoning.
Data sheet on pesticides No.15, World Health Organization, Genčve, Switzerland, and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Roma, Italy, Dec. 1975. 12p. 7 ref.
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