Heterocyclic compounds - 575 entries found
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Ashley W.M., Smith R.E., Dalvi R.R.
Hepatotoxicity of orally and intraperitoneally administered folpet in male rats
An intraperitoneal (i.p.) LD50 of 68mg/kg was determined in rats. 50mg/kg i.p. significantly altered the levels of enzymes reflecting liver damage, while up to 10 times this dose produced no such effects or toxic symptoms when given orally. In vitro studies with rat liver microsomes are reported.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, May-June 1982, Vol.9, No.5-6, p.867-876. Illus. 15 ref.
Ohasi Y., Nakai Y., Harada H., Horiguchi S., Teramoto K., Katahira T.
An electron microscopic study of the respiratory tract mucous membrane disordered by tetrahydrofuran
Results of studies of the mucosae of the respiratory tract of rats are presented, with 32 microphotographs of various types of damage.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Mar. 1982, Vol.24, p.141-162. Illus. 31 ref.
Fatal paraquat poisonings after skin absorption
5 cases are reported, of which 3 were occupational accidents, in Papua New Guinea men. All had marked blistering and excoriation, and all died from respiratory failure. The continued use of paraquat in tropical agriculture should be reviewed.
Medical Journal of Australia, 12 June 1982, Vol.1, No.12, p.512-513. 7 ref.
Hardell L., Axelson O.
Soft-tissue sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, and exposure to phenoxyacids or chlorophenols
The evidence for a relation between the exposure to phenoxy herbicides and trichlorophenols, of agricultural, forestry and railroad workers, and the occurrence of sarcomas and lymphomas is discussed in the content of several Swedish and American studies.
Lancet, 19 June 1982, Vol.1, No.8286, p.1408-1409. 10 ref.
This data sheet contains: physical and chemical properties; metabolism; toxicity to animals and humans (acute; skin and eye irritancy; sub-acute; mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; reproductive effects); appendix on toxicity of chlorinated dioxin impurities in technical pentachlorophenol (hexachlorinated dioxin; heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); references.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Aug. 1982. 20p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: Ł2.50.
Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin: a survey of subjects ten years after exposure
Report of a study in which 41 of 79 workers who developed chloracne due to exposure to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) were examined to establish their current state of health; comparisons were made with 54 persons in the same plant who had had possible TCDD exposure and 31 employees with no TCDD exposure. Examination highlighted effects related to mortality, morbidity, carcinogenesis, reproduction, teratogenicity, foetotoxicity, biochemistry, immunology and genetic change. Half the subjects who had developed chloracne still suffered from this complaint in a minor way; other than this, there was no essential difference found in any of the parameters studied between those individuals with clinical evidence of TDD exposure and those with no exposure.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1982, Vol.39, No.2, p.128-135. Illus. 24 ref.
Hagmar L., Bellander T., Bergöö B., Simonsson B.G.
Piperazine-induced occupational asthma
Study on asthmatic reactions among some 130 workers handling amines and other chemicals. 15 cases of asthma associated with occupational exposure to chemicals were found among current employees and 18 cases among former employees. Piperazine was the inducing agent in 29 cases and ethylenediamine in 3 cases. The asthma was of the late or dual type; immediate reactions alone were not seen. Routine spirometry revealed airway obstruction in fewer than half of the recent cases. Tests of non-specific bronchial reactivity in 6 subjects with recent asthma showed hyperreactivity in 5, while 2 subjects with earlier asthma did not have hyperreactivity. Bronchial provocation tests with piperazine in one subject were positive both in the factory and in the laboratory. The time-weighted average concentration of piperazine was 1.2mg/m3 in a workplace associated with induction of an asthmatic state, and 0.3mg/m3 in a place connected with attacks in "sensitised" persons.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1982, Vol.24, No.3, p.193-197. 30 ref. Illus.
Coggon D., Acheson E.D.
Do phenoxy herbicides cause cancer in man?
Swedish and American studies showing evidence of links between occupational exposure to phenoxy herbicides, chlorophenols and dioxins, either as a result of their application or production, and the occurrence of soft tissue sarcomas, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma are discussed. Evidence for increased risks of sarcoma appears good but it is still unclear if the carcinogen is the herbicide or the dioxin contaminant. Association between exposure to these substances and lymphoma occurrence is weak, and more research is needed.
Lancet, 8 May 1982, Vol.1, No.8280, p.1057-1059. 31 ref.
Bowra G.T., Duffield D.P., Osborn A.J., Purchase I.F.H.
Premalignant and neoplastic skin lesions associated with occupational exposure to "tarry" byproducts during manufacture of 4,4'-bipyridyl
Following the identification of skin lesions histologically diagnosed as progressing from keratosis and Bowen's disease to squamous cell carcinoma in 20 workers manufacturing 4,4'-bipyridyl (for use in paraquat production), over 550 workers involved in 4,4'-bipyridyl processes between 1961 and 1980 were examined or questioned. Time between first exposure and appearance of lesions was 6-19 years (average 12 years). The 20 workers first observed with lesions were employed on a now obsolete production plant in which quantities of pyridine were converted into polypyridyls and "tarry" byproducts which were subsequently shown to give positive results in in-vitro potential carcinogenicity tests. No similar skin lesions have been seen in workers employed on the present plant which employs a new low-temperature process. This observation supports the view that the causative agent was present only on the earlier plants. Ongoing medical surveillance of past and present 4,4'-bipyridyl workers is described.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1982, Vol.39, No.1, p.76-81. Illus. 5 ref.
Chester G., Woollen B.H.
Studies of the occupational exposure of Malaysian plantation workers to paraquat
Report on quantitative estimates of skin and respiratory exposure of knapsack spray operators, carriers and rubber tappers to paraquat under normal working conditions. Spray operators had skin exposure to paraquat by walking through recently sprayed vegetation and into their own spray, during the adjustment and unblocking of spray nozzles, and as the result of leakage and overfilling of spray tanks. Carriers also had skin exposure due to contact with recently sprayed vegetation and accidental spillage. Tappers had only infrequent and negligible skin exposure. Determinations of total airborne paraquat concentrations in the breathing zone showed that spray operators and carriers are exposed to an order of 1% or less of the current TLV for respirable paraquat (100µg/m3). No paraquat was detected in the breathing zone of tappers. Under the conditions studied, there should be no toxicological risk to any of the 3 groups studied.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1982, Vol.39, No.1, p.23-33. 12 ref.
Phenoxy herbicides, trichlorophenols, and soft-tissue sarcomas
This letter comments on existing evidence for the mutagenic or carcinogenic potential of di, tri, and tetra, chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, other than 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, present as impurities in the herbicide 2,4-D and on a possible link between exposure to 2,4,5-T and soft-tissue sarcomas.
Lancet, 29 May 1982, Vol.1, No.8283, p.1240.
Workplace environmental exposure level guide - Piperidine
This data sheet provides information on: chemical identifiers; chemical and physical properties; toxicological experiments on animals and humans; recommended threshold limit value (TWA 3.5mg/m3, skin).
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1982, Vol.43, No.1, p.B-91-B-92. 10 ref.
Aminotriatsoli [in Finnish]
Aminotriazole is a carcinogenic agent (LD50 = 1100mg/kg). Harmful if inhaled or in contact with skin. Mandatory European labelling: XN, R20, R21, R22, S2, S13.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1981. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Morfoliini [in Finnish]
Morpholine is a flammable and toxic liquid (LD50 = 1050mg/kg). Inhalation of the vapour is harmful. Irritates the skin, the eyes and the mucous membranes. Is corrosive. Has caused renal damage in animal experiments. Mandatory European labelling: F, C, R10, R20, R21, R22, R34, S23, S36.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, Sep. 1981. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Occupational health problems among beedi tobacco processing workers
Blood analyses and electrocardiograms of beedi (cigarette) tobacco processing workers showed no abnormalities in comparison with controls. This supports the conclusion of a preliminary study that the symptoms reported by the subjects (see preceding abstract) are due to nicotine exposure.
Annual Report 1981, National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad-380016, India, p.27-30.
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins: limitations to the current analytical techniques
The methodology for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins in a variety of substrates is technically reviewed and assessed. The majority of methods currently in use in Canada are evaluated and rated. Safety procedures needed in analytical laboratories are also considered.
National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Canada K1A OR6, 1981. 160p. Illus. 120 ref. Price: Can-$8.00.
Izrajlet L.I., Ustinenko A.N., Silkane V.S.
Toxicological characteristics of barbituric and thiobarbituric acids
Toksikologičeskaja harakteristika barbiturovoj i tiobarbiturovoj kislot [in Russian]
Animal experiments were undertaken to determine the toxicity, risk potential and tentative safe exposure level of barbituric and thiobarbituric acids, which are handled in the pharmaceutical industry. Barbituric acid did not affect the mucous membranes of the eye and showed no cumulative effect. Repeated administration of barbituric acid over a period of a month produced some morphological changes in the liver and kidney. Barbituric acid had a depilatory effect when rubbed into the skin. A tentative TLV of 5mg/m3 is proposed. The behaviour of thiobarbituric acid was very similar. It affected the spleen as well as the liver and kidney on repeated administration, and sensitised the skin to subsequent application. A tentative TLV of 2mg/m3 is proposed. The LD50 of both compounds was greater than 5000mg/kg for all animals tested.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1981, No.5, p.50-51. 3 ref.
Conde-Salazar L., Guimaraens D., Romero L.
Contact dermatitis due to benzisothiazolone in metal machinists
Dermatitis de contacto por benzisotiazolona en metalúrgicos maquinistas [in Spanish]
Report on 7 cases of sensitisation to benzisothiazolone used as a biocide in cutting oils. The lesions regressed and disappeared following termination of exposure. Although the recommended biocide content in the cutting oil is only 0.3%, additional benzisothiazolone was often added by workers themselves, and was seldom carefully measured. It is recommended that benzisothiazolone should be included in the battery of skin tests used for machine tool operators.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, Oct.-Dec. 1981, Vol.29, No.116, p.169-172. Illus. 5 ref.
Wahlberg J.E., Boman A.
Contact sensitivity to quinidine sulfate from occupational exposure
Report of 3 cases of sensitisation to quinidine sulfate in pharmaceutical industry workers after only short exposure times (2-3 months). The workers were patch-test positive to quinidine but negative to the diastereo-isomer quinine. Animal experiments showed quinidine to be a grade V allergen (Magnusson and Kligman classification).
Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.27-31. Illus. 19 ref.
Acridine [in French]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; appearance; properties; uses; pathology (skin, eye and respiratory involvement).
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1981, Vol.21, special toxicology issue (supplement to No.83), p.33. 4 ref.
Phénothiazine [in French]
Sections of this toxicology data sheet cover: synonyms; properties; use; pathology; industrial safety (threshold limit values, personal protection); medical prevention measures; French legislation.
Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 3rd quarter 1981, Vol.21, special toxicology issue (supplement to No.83), p.23. 6 ref.
Filippini G., Bordo B., Crenna P., Massetto N., Musicco M., Boeri R.
Relationship between clinical and electrophysiological findings and indicators of heavy exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-dioxin
A screening for peripheral neuropathy (PN) was conducted on 470 subjects in 1977, and 319 in 1978, and prevalence rate ratios were calculated for PN in subgroups identified as having predisposing factors to PN (alcoholism, diabetes or occupational exposure to neurotoxic agents) or evidence of high exposure to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TDCC) - (chloracne or abnormal serum hepatic enzyme levels). When compared with a subgroup without these manifestations, PN among subjects with predisposing factors or evidence of TCDD exposure was almost 3 times higher.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1981, Vol.7, No.4, p.257-262. 20 ref.
Pitts F.N., Allen R.E., Aniline O., Yago L.S.
Occupational intoxication and long-term persistence of phencyclidine (PCP) in law enforcement personnel
A glass capillary gas chromatographic nitrogen detector method specific for phencyclidine (PCP) and sensitive to levels >0.005-0.010ng/ml in blood and urine samples was used to confirm occupational intoxication of law enforcement personnel handling confiscated, illegal PCP preparations. Exposed personnel included police officers who had made raids and arrests involving PCP and laboratory staff handling confiscated material retained as evidence. PCP was also detected in blood and urine samples of a laboratory worker not occupationally exposed in the previous 6 months.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.9, p.1015-1020. 16 ref.
Russell L.A., Stone B.E., Rooney P.A.
Paraquat poisoning: Toxicologic and pathologic findings in three fatal cases
Paraquat was determined in tissue by acid hydrolysis followed by centrifugation, washing, pH adjustment and separation on a cathion-exchange resin. The eluate was then reduced with sodium dithionite to give a blue-coloured complex ion with an absorption maximum at 396nm. For blood and urine samples the pH was adjusted and the sample was applied directly to the resin. This technique was used to determine paraquat in the body fluids and tissues in 3 fatal poisoning cases. Toxicologic and clinicopathologic findings are also described.
Clinical Toxicology, 1981, Vol.18, No.8, p.915-928. 24 ref.
Giri S.N., Hollinger M.A., Schiedt M.J.
The effects of paraquat and superoxide dismutase on pulmonary vascular permeability and edema in mice
Intraperitoneal administration of 50mg/kg paraquat dichloride to mice significantly increased pulmonary vascular permeability at 24 and 48h, as measured by I-125-labelled albumin content of alveolar lavage. Lung oedema, measured by lung weight as percent body weight, was significantly increased 48g after treatment. Intravenous administration of 4 doses of superoxide dismutase (SOD), 1 before and 3 after paraquat treatment, failed to inhibit the increased pulmonary vascular permeability and pulmonary oedema. SOD also failed to reduce mortality and had no effect on the death time course in treated animals. The acute toxic effects of praquat are not mediated through generation of the superoxide anion.
Archives of Environmental Health, July-Aug. 1981, Vol.36, No.4, p.149-154. Illus. 42 ref.
Flávio Midio A.
Paraquat and Diquat: Toxicological aspects
Paraquat e Diquat: Aspectos toxicológicos [in Portuguese]
Roundup of information on these herbicides: physical and chemical properties, formulae, mechanism of herbicidal action, paths of entry, toxicity (paraquat: LD 5g (humans); LD50 120mg/kg(rats); diquat: LD 20g (humans), LD50 200-300mg/kg (rats)), toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic phases, toxic effects. Recommended analytical procedure for determination of paraquat and diquat in biological fluids.
Saúde ocupacional, July-Aug.-Sep.1981, Vol.9, No.35, p.56-59. Illus. 9 ref.
Suspected cases of tetrahydrofuran poisoning
Signs and symptoms accompanied by a marked decrease in the number of white blood cells were observed in researchers engaged in experimental spinning of synthetic fibers. These effects were suspected to be due to poisoning by tetrahydrofuran which was used as a solvent for polyvinyl chloride. Researchers affected recovered after 2 years of treatment with cystin, liver preparate, vitamin B12 and vitamin C.
Sumitomo Bulletin of Industrial Health, Apr. 1981, No.17, p.69-75. Illus. 11 ref.
Lamb J.C., Marks T.A., McConnell E.E., Abeywickrama K., Moore J.A.
Toxicity of chlorinated phenoxy acids in combination with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in C57BL/6 male mice
In 4 groups of mice, in which group I were controls, group II were given daily doses of 40mg/kg 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 40mg/kg 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), and 2.4µg/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in feed for 8 weeks. Group III received the same doses of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T as group II but only 0.16µg/kg TCDD and group IV received 20, 20mg/kg and 1.2µg/kg 2,4-D, 2,4,5-T and TCDD respectively. The chemical mixtures approximated the concentrations of the components of Herbicide Orange. In the treated animals liver enlargements, hepatocellular toxicity and reduced thymus size were found, and body weight gain was significantly less than that of the control animals. Recovery from liver and thymus toxicity was observed when the mice were returned to a control diet. The thymic toxicity and hepatotoxicity were related to TCDD levels while the decrease in body weight gain was more closely associated with phenoxy acid concentrations.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Nov.-Dec. 1981, Vol.8, Nos.5-6, p.815-824. Illus. 11 ref.
Briatico-Vangosa G., Beretta F., Bianchi S., Cardani A., Marchisio M., Nava C., Talamo F.
Bronchial asthma due to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid in workers employed in cephalosporine production
Asma bronchiale da acido 7-aminocefalosporanico (7-ACA) in lavoratori addetti alla produzione di cefalosporine [in Italian]
In 91 workers involved in the production of cephalosporine, exposure to the intermediate 7-aminocephalosporanic acid caused bronchial asthma in 7, urticaria in 3 and dermatitis in 8. The recurrent positive results of the on-off test, clinical conditions, and the immediate positive skin reactions in 5 of the 7 asthmatic subjects following direct skin tests were good evidence that this substance was asthmatogenic and immunogenic. A methodology for identification of occupational risk and impairment is described.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1981, Vol.72, No.6, p.488-493. Illus. 20 ref.
Corked up. Clinical hyoscine poisoning with alkaloids of the native corkwood, Duboisia
The Australian corkwood, genus Duboisia, is commercially cultivated for extraction of hyoscine, scopolamine and atropine. Exposure to leaf fragments and dust during cutting, drying, threshing and baling operations on farms results in acute mydriasis, conjunctival plethora and loss of accommodating power. At higher doses the throat becomes dry and the face flushed. Several hours of high exposure produces intoxication with delirium or depression, irrationality or withdrawal. The full symptom is self-limiting if exposure is stopped, but hospitalisation and observation are recommended.
Medical Journal of Australia, 17 Oct. 1981, Vol.2, No.8, p.422-423. Illus. 22 ref.
Mirkova E., Ivanov I.
Embryotoxic effects of a triazine herbicide (Polizin 50)
Vărhu embriotropnoto dejstvie na triazinovija herbicid polizin 50 [in Bulgarian]
The embryotropic effect of the new Bulgarian simtriazine herbicide Polizin 50 was studied in an inhalatory experiment with 90 pregnant white Wistar rats in concentrations of 2mg/m3 and 0.2mg/m3 daily during the entire pregnancy and at a level of 2mg/m3 during the first 3 weeks of gestation. With both regimes, the preparation showed teratogenic and, to a lesser extent, embryotoxic effects. Polizin induces external malformations, anomalies in the development of the internal organs and defects in the ossificatin of the cranial bones of the foetus. The preparation has an embryotoxic activity only with daily penetration in the organism of the pregnant animals at a concentration of 2mg/m3. It is recommended that the employment of women in the production of this herbicide should be prohibited.
Problemi na higienata, July 1981, Vol.6, p.36-43. Illus. 9 ref.
Putz-Anderson V., Setzer J.V., Croxton J.S., Phipps F.C.
Methyl chloride and diazepam effects on performance
56 participants were assigned to groups consisting of a control group and groups administered a placebo and a 10mg diazepam capsule and exposed 3h to 0, 100, or 200ppm methyl chloride (MeCl). Each participant was tested during a 2h pretreatment period and during MeCl exposure in an environmental room using 3 tasks involving components of eye-hand coordination, mental alertness, and time discrimination. Diazepam produced a significant 10% impairment in task performance. The effect of exposure to 200ppm MeCl was marginally significant at 4.5% impairment. Total impairment was equal to the sum of individually induced losses when the 2 agents were combined. Large interindividual differences in breath and blood levels were found for MeCl.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Mar. 1981, Vol.7, No.1, p.8-13. 14 ref.
Pazderová-Vejlupková J., Němcová M., Pícková J., Jirásek L., Lukáš E.
Development and prognosis of chronic intoxication by tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxin in men.
A 10 year follow-up on 55 men exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in 1968-69 has yielded the following results: The majority of patients developed chloracne and 11 manifested porphyria cutanea tarda; about 50% of the subjects experienced metabolic disturbances such as pathologically elevated lipids with abnormalities in the lipoprotein spectrum; 40% had pathological changes in the glucose tolerance test; one third exhibited biochemical deviations indicative of a mild liver lesion which was histologically revealed to be light steatosis, periportal fibrosis or activation of Kuppfer cells; liver tissues fluoresced in ultraviolet light. 17 persons showed evidence of nervous system focal damage with predominance of peripheral neuron lesion of the lower extremities; most patients suffered from psychological disorders which diminished with time. The first patient to die was the one who had exhibited the most severe signs of intoxication; the cause of death was a rare form of cerebral atherosclerosis.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan.-Feb. 1981, Vol.36, No.1, p.5-11. Illus. 9 ref.
Wyatt I., Doss A.W., Zavala D.C., Smith L.L.
Intrabronchial instillation of paraquat in rats: lung morphology and retention study.
10-5 to 10-12g paraquat was instilled into the left bronchus. 10-5g produced lung oedema and macroscopic lesions 2 and 14 days after administration. The pathology was similar to that of systemic poisoning. Doses below 10-7g produced no changes. The loss of 3H-paraquat from the lung was biphasic with an initial half-life <1h and a secondary phase in which the half-life was dose-dependent, varying from 11 to 76h. It appears that 50% of the instilled paraquat was rapidly absorbed from the lung into the plasma.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1981, Vol.38, No.1, p.42-48. 21 ref.
Occupational health problems among beedi tobacco processing workers - A preliminary study
Results of a survey of 2 cigarette factories in the state of Gujarat (India). 69 of the 100 subjects reported vomiting, giddiness, headache, tiredness or loss of appetite. Female workers (74 subjects) showed impairment of respiratory functions. This difference from the male workers is probably due to the fact that the women are engaged in actual processing work, whereas the men are engaged in load carrying. Both male and female workers showed higher rates of nicotine and cotinine excretion than did controls. The symptoms of the workers resemble those of tobacco cultivators, and are attributable to nicotine exposure, but the levels of dust and airborne nicotine measured in the factory suggest that the route of nicotine entry is inhalation, while it is through the skin in the case of agricultural operations.
Annual Report 1980, National Institute of Occupational Health, Ahmedabad-380016, India, p.40-48.
Hutzinger O., Frei R.W., Merian E., Pocchiari F.
Chlorinated dioxins and related compounds - Impact on the environment
The 52 papers presented at this workshop, 22-24 Oct. 1980, Rome, Italy, are reproduced in the 6 sections: analytical methodology; environmental fate and levels; incineration story; biochemical toxicology, metabolism; animal toxicology; observations in man.
Pergamon Press Ltd., Headington Hill Hall, Oxford OX3 0BW, United Kingdom, 1980. 658p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US-$75.00.
Halogenated biphenyls, terphenyls, naphthalenes, dibenzodioxins and related products
This books is intended for researchers, regulators, and health professionals who may encounter problems resulting from exposure to these substances. The chemistry, environmental pollution problems, general animal toxicology and present knowledge about structure-activity relationships are presented. An overview of worker exposure and occupational disease following exposure mainly to chlorinated naphthalenes, biphenyls and diphenyls and dibenzodioxins, is presented (chemical porphyria; immune alterations; sequelae of accidental exposure to TCDD).
Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1980. 406p. Illus. Bibl. Price: US$95.00.
Hygienic studies on workers engaged in producing synthetic heatresisting enamel wire. Mixed toxicity of N-dimethylacetamide and N-methylpyrrolidone
The effects of exposure to mixed vapours of N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) and N-methyl-pyrrolidinone (MP) on workers producing heat-resistant enamel wire, were compared with the toxicological effects of the same substances on rats and mice. In workers, haemoglobin and leukocyte levels in peripheral blood increased with long-term exposure and relatively high values of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic tansaminase (GPT) were observed from time to time during the 2-year study. In rats, exposure to vapour and intraperitoneal injection of DMA and MP resulted in inhibited growth, increases of GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, erythrocyte osmotic resistance and leukocyte alkaline phosphatase, and enlargements of livers, kidneys and adrenal glands. The LD50 values of DMA and MP, administered intraperitoneally to mice, were 2800mg/kg and 2310mg/kg respectively.
Yokohama Igaku (Yokohama Medical Journal), 30 Oct. 1980, Vol.31, No.5, p.327-338. Illus. 20 ref.
Nemčinov N.N., Germanova A.L., Gusejnov I.A.
Effect of nicotinic acid on the interaction between group B vitamins in industrial and experimental conditions
O vlijanii nikotinovoj kisloty na vzaimodejstvie nekotoryh vitaminov gruppy B v uslovijah proizvodstva i v ėksperimente [in Russian]
Observations revealed that workers who inhaled vitamin PP (nicotinic acid) dust showed changes in urinary excretion, not only of this vitamin, but also of other vitamins in the B group. The changes observed slightly exceed normal limits and are not accompanied by symptoms of hypo- or hyper-vitaminosis. In animals, the changes are insignifiant. Changes in excretion of vitamins do not appear to play a significant role in development towards chronic poisoning, but show characteristic reactions of the body to excessive absorption of vitamin PP. A TLV of 1mg/m3 nicotinic acid in workplaces is recommended.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Sep. 1980, No.9, p.29-33. 3 ref.
Bake M. Ja., Izrajlet L.I.
Determination of furazolidone in air
Opredelenie furazolidona v vozduhe [in Russian]
Description of a photometric method of determination based on the coloration of 5-nitro-2-furfurylidene compounds in an alkaline solution. Samples must be taken using an ash-free filter. The level of error does not exceed 10%. Isopropyl alcohol and benzaldehyde vapours, given off during furazolidone synthesis, do not interfere in the determination; however, nitrofuranes may cause interference.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1980, No.8, p.60-61. 3 ref.
Palassis J., Kominsky J.R.
Sampling and analysis of chlorinated isocyanuric acids.
An iodometric titration method was developed for the determination of sodium dichloroisocyanurate dihydrate (NaDCC) and trichloroisocyanuric acid in air samples. The method was used for the determination of these substances in field samples collected on filters located in the breathing zone of workers in a chlorine dry bleach plant. The filter samples were extracted with water and titrated against sodium thiosulfate using constant-current potentiometry. The method does not separate or distinguish NaDCC in the presence of TCCA or the reverse. Concentration results are valid only when there are no interferences from other compounds containing chlorine in a positive oxidation state. Calibration curves in the ranges 0.1-2.0mg for NaCCD or TCCA had good linearity. NaDCC was extracted from filters with 99.1% efficiency and 3.6% precision.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Aug. 1980. 15p. (manuscript). Illus. 9 ref.
Pazderová-Vejlupková J., Lukáš E., Němcová M., Picková J., Jirásek L.
Chronic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin poisoning
Chronická intoxikace 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxinem [in Czech]
Workers poisoned by TCDD during production of sodium 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetate and butyl tetrachlorophenoxyacetate were kept under observation for 10 years. Almost all the important systems of the body were affected, usually leaving lipid and carbohydrate metabolism disturbances, with a severe risk of early arteriosclerosis. The porphyrin metabolism disturbances, liver lesions, changes in serum protein spectra and chloracne disappeared in most subjects. Polyneuritis remained stable, the anxious and depressive component of the mental picture disappeared completely, and encephalopathy due to cerebral arteriosclerosis increased. The mechanism of poisoning and possible carcinogenic effects of TCDD are considered.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1980, Vol.32, No.6-7, p.204-209. Illus. 14 ref.
Cook R.R., Townsend J.C., Ott M.G., Silverstein L.G.
Mortality experience of employees exposed to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD).
The mortality of 61 male workers exposed to TCDD, probably via the skin, is reported. 49 developed chloracne. TCDD does not appear to have affected mortality (there were 4 deaths against 7.8 expected). Brief case histories of the deceased workers are given.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1980, Vol.22, No.8, p.530-532. 11 ref.
Morel C., Gendre M., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
4-(3-Phénylpropyl)pyridine. [in French]
Uses (hardener for coremaking, intermediate in synthesis), physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards (not very great), pathology and toxicology (no known case, as yet, of human toxicity). French occupational safety and health regulations; French and international regulations concerning transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 4th quarter 1980, No.101, Note No.1296-101-80, p.613-615. 10 ref.
Study of embryotoxic and teratogenic effects of Altax vulcanisation accelerator
Proučvane na riska ot embriotoksično i teratogenno dejstvie na vulkanizacionnija uskoritel Altaks [in Bulgarian]
Research on rats and mice to determine the effects of dibenzothiazolyl disulfide (Altax) on the embryo. Administrations of 100mg/kg produced embryotoxic effects in rats and teratogenic effects in rats and mice, but more pronounced in the latter. Administrations of 10mg/kg had no effect.
Problemi na higienata, July 1980, Vol.5, p.83-91. 12 ref.
Limasset J.C., Morel C., Gendre M.
Chlorophenols and dioxins - Hazards for chemical industry workers and users
Chlorophénols et dioxines - Risques pour les travailleurs de l'industrie chimique et pour les utilisateurs. [in French]
This literature survey of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins reviews animal experiments and epidemiologic studies, and considers accidents such as that at Seveso. While 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin is particularly dangerous, all members of this group are toxic and present industrial hygiene, civil defence and environmental protection problems. They may be present as impurities in manufactured compounds (o-chlorophenols, 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T herbicides, hexachlorophene) or occur during chemical processes including reactions in their industrial preparation.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 2nd quarter 1980, No.99, Note No.1249-99-80, p.243-252. 45 ref.
Contact dermatitis due to benzisothiazolone in a works analytical team.
In the quality control laboratory of a chemical firm, 11 of 16 men developed dermatitis. 7 of them reacted to benzisothiazolone, 2 to dinitrochlorobenzene. A poorly ventilated humid working environment was thought to be a contributing factor.
Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1980, Vol.6, No.3, p.187-190. 2 ref.
Some non-nutritive sweetening agents.
Carcinogenic risk data in 2 monographs: cyclamates (cyclamic acid, sodium cyclamate, calcium cyclamate, cyclohexylamine, dicyclohexylamine); saccharin (saccharin, sodium saccharin, calcium saccharin, o-toluenesulfonamide).
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, Vol.22. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, Mar. 1980. 208p. 405 ref. Price: SF.25.00.
Paraquat - A review of worker exposure in normal usage.
This literature review examines the likely worker exposure in agricultural practice using normal procedures, with reference to the possibilities of oral, dermal and inhalational absorption. At the recommended dilution levels systemic effects do not appear to occur. There may be local effects on skin and mucous membranes due to delayed caustic effects, but paraquat is unlikely to give rise to serious problems when properly used.
Journal of the Society of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1980, Vol.30, No.1, p.6-11. Illus. 27 ref.
Zack J.A., Suskind R.R.
The mortality experience of workers exposed to tetrachlorodibenzodioxin in a trichlorophenol process accident.
All 121 workers who developed chloracne from the accident in March 1949 were followed up. Standardised mortality ratio (SMR) was 0.69, with 32 deaths observed and 46.41 expected. For malignant neoplasms and circulatory diseases, SMR was 1.00 and 0.68 respectively. These results are not conclusive, but the absence of excess mortality over 30 years is important. Broader studies are in progress.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1980, Vol.22, No.1, p.11-14. 15 ref.
Diquat [in French]
Synonyms and description; physical properties; uses as a herbicide and dessicant in agriculture, horticulture and forestry, and unintended effects on eyes and skin; mammalian, human and non-mammalian toxicology; recommendations on the regulation of this compound for regulatory authorities (restrictions on availability; transportation and storage; handling; disposal and/or decontamination of containers; selection, training and medical supervision of workers; distribution by aircraft; labelling; residues in food); prevention of poisoning and emergency aid (precautions in use; entry into treated areas; decontamination of spills); medical diagnosis and treatment of poisoning; surveillance tests; laboratory methods for detection and assay.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genčve 27, Switzerland, and United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Roma, Italy, 1979. 7p.
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