Aromatic amines - 303 entries found
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Campbell J.E., Konzen R.B.
The development of a passive dosimeter for airborne aniline vapors.
The dosimeter uses molecular diffusion through a tube of known geometry to determine the airborne concentrations of the contaminant being studied. Tubes of 1.5, 3, and 4.5cm length were tested with aniline vapour under controlled conditions. The method is feasible for determining time-weighted average concentrations of aniline. A 1cm diameter, 3cm long diffusion tube containing 150mg silica gel gave the most consistent results.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1980, Vol.41, No.3, p.180-184. Illus. 16 ref.
Cavelier C., Hervé-Bazin B., Foussereau J., Poitou P., Marignac B.
Allergological study on a series of N-phenyl-N'-alkyl-p-phenylenediamines
Etude allergologique concernant une série de N-phényl-N'-alcoyl paraphénylčne diamines [in German]
Etude allergologique concernant une série de N-phényl-N'-alcoyl paraphénylčne diamines. [in French]
Substituted p-phenylenediamines, used in industry as elastomer protectors, are known to be powerful allergens causing eczematous skin reactions. The methods and results of a study on the allergising properties in animals and man of N-phenyl-N'-alkyl-p-phenyldiamine derivatives are described. The series causes group sensitisation in which cross allergy is the rule. None of the compounds appears to be less aggressive than N-phenyl-N'-isopropyl-p-phenylenediamine, the most commonly used antiozone agent.
Dermatosen in Beruf und Umwelt, 1980, Vol.28, No.2, p.45-48. 6 ref.
Unger P.D., Salerno A.J., Ness W.C., Friedman M.A.
Tissue distribution and excretion of 2,4[14C]toluenediamine in the mouse.
0.667mg/kg labelled toluenediamine was given intraperitoneally. Excretion was 52% by the urine and 22% by the faeces. Organs with the highest concentration were liver, kidneys, and gastrointestinal tract. Elimination was biphasic.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Jan. 1980, Vol.6, No.1, p.107-114. 10 ref.
Krajewski J., Ciosek A., Lipski K.
Determination of benzidine concentrations in air by colorimetry and liquid chromatography
Oznaczanie benzydyny w powietrzu metodą kolorymetryczną i chromatografii cieczowej [in Polish]
Liquid chromatography has better sensitivity (-0.7 as compared to 3.0µg/m3) and a higher degree of precision, but these advantages are offset by the price of the chromatograph. On the other hand, the chloramine T colorimetric method is more specific.
Medycyna pracy, 1979, Vol. 30, No.5, p.317-322. Illus. 17 ref.
Taylor G., Kumar S., Brenchley P., Wilson P., Costello B., Shaw G.H.
Immunosurveillance in pre-malignant occupational bladder disease.
The concept of immune surveillance holds that tumour cells are recognised as foreign and many are eliminated before the stage of diagnosable malignancy. Workers exposed to 1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylanine, and/or benzidine, were studied by comparing their immunoreactivity against bladder cancer cells and a control cancer cell with that found in normal subjects and in patients with bladder cancer. There were equivalent increases in specific reactivity against bladder cancer cells in clinically normal carcinogen-exposed workers and in patients with bladder cancer. Increases in reactivity are related to degree of exposure and to early malignant changes of the urothelium. Immune recognition of tumour antigens occurs before development of overt malignancy.
International Journal of Cancer, 1979, Vol.23, p.487-493. Illus. 17 ref.
Properties, uses, containers and shipping regulations, labelling, storage, handling, hazards (burns, toxicity), preplacement and periodical medical examinations, U.S. TLVs (500ppm or 19mg/m3), personal protective equipment (skin, mucous membrances and eyes are important routes of entry), ventilation, fire and explosion hazards, electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres, poisoning symptoms, first aid and treatment of burns, waste disposal.
Data Sheet 1-409-79, Revised 1979, National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60611, USA, 1979. 6p. 12 ref.
Spectrophotometric determination of ethylaniline and diethylaniline in air
Spektrofotometričeskoe opredelenie ėtil- i diėtilanilina v vozduhe [in Russian]
Sensitivity of this method is 0.1µg for ethylaniline and 0.01µg for diethylaniline per ml solution, i.e. 2mg/m3 air. Aniline, naphthalene and pyridine interfere with the result.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1979, No.7, p.55-56. Illus.
Philbert M., Girard-Wallon C., Garçon J., Ripault J., Berry J.P.
Experimental polycystosis of the kidney caused by diphenylamine (phenylaniline, anilinobenzene)
La polykystose expérimentale du rein induite par la diphénylamine (phénylaniline, anilinobenzčne). [in French]
Cystic dilatation at all levels of the renal tubules occurred in rats and especially guinea pigs poisoned with diphenylamine (DPA) in a dose of 2-4g/100g feed. The lesions were roughly proportional to the degree of poisoning. They were histologically identical with those seen in hepato-renal polycystic disease in human adults, with the difference that they were isolated: in particular there were no associated hepatic cysts. In spite of the considerable difference between the DPA concentrations used and those in the occupational environment, technical and medical prevention is called for in DPA-exposed workers. The carcinogenic hazard of DPA was not established on account of the short period of poisoning.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, June-July 1979, Vol.40, No.6-7, p.685-697. Illus. 5 ref.
Morales R., Rappaport S.M., Hermes R.E.
Air sampling and analytical procedures for benzidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine and their salts.
Air is drawn through a glass-fibre filter followed by a bed of silica gel to collect the substances as particles or vapours. They are extracted from the sampler and analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography with sensitivities in the range of 5µg/m3 for 48l air samples. The methods were not affected by temperature or humidity. Tests of precision, sample stability, and separation from interferents gave good results.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1979, Vol.40, No.11, p.970-978. Illus. 13 ref.
Price N.H., Yates W.G., Allen S.D., Waters S.W.
Toxicity evaluation for establishing IDLH values.
Animals were exposed for 14 days in whole body inhalation chambers to 2-aminoethanol, diisopropylamine, 2-diethylaminoethanol, o-toluidine, o- and p-anisidine, stibine, phosgene, diazomethane and Aroclor 1254; body weight was monitored. Control animals were treated in similar chambers. Symptoms noted were ataxia, tremors, respiratory distress and/or death. Irreversible pathological lesions were found in some organs, but not all could be ascribed to the exposure. Compounds that were liquid or solid were presented as vapours or aerosols if the vapour pressures were too low. Analytical methods for measurement of air concentrations are detailed. These substances have been reported as immediately hazardous to workers exposed to sufficiently high concentrations. The "Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health" (ILDH) level causes no harmful effects for up to 30min exposure.
TR 1518-005, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 244p. Illus. 58 ref.
H80, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Protection Association, London.
Uses, hazards, precautions (storage tanks in the open with bund walls; drum storage; marking; ventilation; spill drainage; no smoking; prohibition of naked flames or hot elements when aniline is above 70°C, electrical equipment and light fittings for use in atmospheres containing flammable concentrations, with reference to pertinent British standards); fire fighting; regulations; source of further information; physical and chemical properties.
Fire Prevention, May 1979, No.130, p.47-48.
Matrka M., Rambousek V., Zvěřina Z.
Toxicity of para-substituted aniline derivatives in the rat
Toxicita p-substituovaných derivátů anilinu u pokusných krys [in Czech]
Aniline or its para-substituted derivatives were given to rats in solution or oily suspension. There was a satisfactory relation between the values of the molar LD50 and Hammett's σ constant in the form of Hansen's empirical equation. The results were used to discuss the biological activity of chemical carcinogens derived from 1-phenyl-3,3-dimethyltriazene.
Československá hygiena, May 1978, Vol.23, No.4, p.168-172. Illus. 16 ref.
Korosteleva T.A., Skačkov A.P., Kondrat'eva A.F.
Carcinogenicity of aniline dyes and detection of carcinogenic substances in the tissues
Blastomogennaja aktivnost' anilinovyh krasitelej i registracija v tkanjah kancerogenov [in Russian]
Results of studies in rats and mice treated orally with Direct Violet S 100% (K1), which contains a benzidine group, and Direct Violet S 200% (K2), and Direct Black S 200% (K3), which have structures similar to that of 2-naphthylamine (2-n). Precipitin reactions showed that the serum of animals treated with K1 contained benzidine as hapten. Benzidine was also present in the liver and kidneys, where they caused precancerous changes and malignant neoplasms. 2-n was not detected in the tissues of animals receiving K2 and K3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1978, No.10, p.22-26. Illus. 11 ref.
Štěpánek O., Hassman P., Hassmanová V., Chytilová M., Kuželová M., Skutilová I.
Severe epidemic of skin disease due to Ursol in fur industry workers
Hromadný výskyt kožních onemocnění z ursolu u pracujících v kožešnickém průmyslu [in Czech]
The epidemic occurred in 1970 among the personnel of a fur garment factory in southern Bohemia. It was manifested by burning of the eyes, oedema of the eyelids, burning of the throat, coryza and cough, and spasmodic breathing difficulties in isolated cases. The commonest manifestation was occupational dermatitis, in 49 subjects (20 cases of contact eczema and 29 of toxic irritative dermatitis). The epidemic was chiefly due to technical changes (use of a new protective grease), as a result of which residues of the dye based on Ursol D (p-phenylenediamine) were not completely removed by washing, giving rise to a risk of contamination by traces of free diamines during garment manufacture. Prevention measures (stricter control of pollution, ventilation, possibly substitution of Ursol-based dyes) eliminated the hazard.
Pracovní lékařství, Aug. 1978, Vol.30, No.7, p.268-270. Illus. 10 ref.
Morales R., Stampfer J.F., Hermes R.E., Campbell E.E., Ettinger H.J.
Development of sampling and analytical methods for carcinogens.
Procedures for monitoring 4-amino- and 4-nitrobiphenyl and 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene in air are described. The sampling tube consists of a glass fibre filter followed by a bed of adsorbent which can collect both aerosols and vapours. Gas chromatography with a flame ionisation detector was used to measure microgram levels of the compounds in air. These procedures provided good resolution of the carcinogens from posssble contaminants. Respirator canisters were evaluated for protection against the compounds; all of them showed collection efficiencies greater than 99.95%.
LA-7375-PR Progress Report, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA, July 1978. 24p. Illus. 32 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to o-tolidine.
Recommendations are made for the protection of health from exposure to o-tolidine. The ceiling concentration is 20µg/m3 as determined in a 1h sampling period. Skin contact with the compound should be avoided. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of personnel, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; work practices; development of standard; research needs. Procedures for sampling and analysis and additional useful information are given in appendices.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-179, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1978. 77p. 88 ref.
Weeks R.W., Dean B.J.
Decontamination of aromatic amine cancer-suspect agents on concrete, metal, or painted surfaces.
A decontamination and disposal procedure for all aromatic amines on the original OSHA list of 14 cancer-suspect agents is described, including a specially designed vacuum cleaning unit equipped with activated charcoal and high efficiency particulate aerosol filters. The hazards of porous surfaces are pointed out, and it is recommended to paint all concrete or wood surfaces in chemical work areas with a non-permeable paint.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Sep. 1978, Vol.39, No.9, p.758-762. 10 ref.
Direct blue 6, direct black 38, direct brown 95 - Benzidine derived dyes.
Published as NIOSH/NCI Joint Current Intelligence Bulletin (No.24), this warning notice refers to National Cancer Institute data from short-term animal feeding studies and early results of NIOSH field studies, in which cancerous and precancerous liver conditions similar to the damage produced by known liver carcinogens were found in rats, and degeneration of liver cells in mice. Background details are given with results of studies. The NIOSH recommendation is reproduced with suggested guidelines for minimising exposure (exposure monitoring, substitution, contaminant controls, employee isolation, personal protective equipment).
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-148, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 17 Apr. 1978. 11p. 18 ref.
Simple determination of aromatic amines and nitro compounds in the urine
Einfacher Nachweis von aromatischen Amino- und Nitroverbindungen im Harn [in German]
The methods are described: urine sampling after work shift; equipment; reagents and solutions; treatment of sample; semi-quantitative method of determining p-aminophenol in urine; determination of aromatic amines; determination of aromatic nitro compounds; calibration curves. The methods are based on the principle of azo dye production.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Prophylaxe, May 1978, p.140-142. Illus.
Stein H.P., Bahlman L.J., Parker J.C., Leidel N.A., Thomas A.W., Woolf B.S., Baier E.J.
2,4-Diaminoanisole in hair and fur dyes.
Published as the "Current NIOSH Intelligence Bulletin No.19" this warning notice summarises the results of the U.S. National Cancer Institute animal study, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) epidemiological studies, and other data, their implications for occupational health, and precautions for handling products containing 2,4-diaminoanisole. An estimated 400,000 people, mostly hairdressers and cosmeticians, are at risk in the USA. Fur dyers are probably exposed to higher levels. While the carcinogenicity of diaminoanisole is being evaluated, NIOSH recommends that occupational exposure, especially skin exposure, be minimised.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Mar. 1978, Vol.39, No.3, p.A17-A21. 10 ref.
NIOSH current intelligence bulletin reprints - Bulletins 1 thru 18.
These reprints include the initial notification of the hazards presented, the background (studies, toxicity in animals and humans, workers and industries subject to exposure, supplier and users of the substances) and bibliographies. Studies in progress are mentioned and recommendations are given for chloroprene, trichloroethylene, ethylene dibromide, chrome pigments, asbestos, hexamethylphosphoric triamide, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4-diaminodiphenylmethane, chloroform, radon daughters, dimethylcarbamoyl chloride, diethylcarbamoyl chloride, explosive azides, inorganic arsenic, nitrosamines in cutting fluids, metabolic precursors of 2-naphthylamine, 2-nitropropane, acrylonitrile.
DHEW (NIOSH) Publication No.78-127, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, 1 Mar. 1978. 125p. 104 ref.
Rappaport S.M., Gettemy D.J.
The generation of aerosols of carcinogenic aromatic amines.
The compressed-gas nebuliser described successfully provided test atmospheres of 4,4'-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline), benzidine, and dichlorobenzidine. The nebuliser output and particle size distribution of the aerosols are given. For these substances, which are solid at normal temperatures and pressures, the nebuliser operates at a temperature above each compound's melting point, using nitrogen as driving force.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Apr. 1978, Vol.39, No.4, p.287-294. 13 ref.
Some aromatic amines and related nitro compounds - Hair dyes, colouring agents and miscellaneous industrial chemicals.
Data in 32 monographs, reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 7-14 June 1977); 4-amino-2-nitrophenol; 2,4-diaminoanisole (sulfate); 1,2-diamino-4-nitrobenzene; 1,4-diamino-2-nitrobenzene; 2,4-diaminotoluene; 2,5-diaminotoluene (sulfate); m-phenylenediamine (hydrochloride); p-phenylenediamine (hydrochloride); acridine orange; Benzyl Violet 4B; Blue VRS; Brilliant Blue FCF diammonium and disodium salts; Fast Green FCF; Guinea Green B; Light Green SF; Rhodamine B; Rhodamine 6G; 5-aminoacenaphthene; p-aminobenzoic acid; anthranilic acid; p-chloro-o-toluidine (hydrochloride); cinnamyl anthranilate; N,N'-diacetylbenzidine; 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether; 3,3'-dichloro-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether; 2,4'-biphenyldiamine; 5-nitroacenaphthene; N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine; 4,4'-thiodianiline; o-toluidine (hydrochloride); 2,4-xylidine (hydrochloride); 2,5-xylidine (hydrochloride). Supplementary corrigenda and a substance cumulative index to IARC monographs (Volumes 1-15) are appended.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.16. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 Cours Albert-Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, Jan. 1978. 400p. 1,148 ref. Price: SF.50.00.
Aniline - Health and safety precautions.
This guidance note, replacing H.M. Factory Inspectorate Technical Data Note 10 (CIS 478-1971, Dira (627)), gives information on: chemical properties of aniline (C6N5NH2), synonyms, industrial uses (e.g. manufacture of dyes, chemicals used in rubber processing (vulcanisation accelerators, anti-oxidants), pharmaceuticals (sulphonamides), printing inks, etc.), U.K. TLV (0.5ppm in air or 9mg/m3 air), acute and chronic poisoning, preventive measures (safety engineering; enclosure of processes; exhaust ventilation; prevention of spillage and leakage, good general ventilation, etc.), personal protective equipment (breathing apparatus, overalls, gloves, face shield, footwear, etc.), medical supervision, first aid, washing facilities, statutory requirements, source of further information.
Guidance Note EH 4/77, Health and Safety Executive, London. H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Dec. 1977. 2p. Price: Ł0.30.
Kuželová M., Popler A.
p-Aminophenol and p-nitrophenol as indices of aniline and nitrobenzene exposure
Paraaminofenol a paranitrofenol jako ukazatel expozice anilinu a nitrobenzenu [in Czech]
p-Aminophenol (PAP) excretion was monitored in the urine of aniline workers. The average maximum levels in those with long exposure were 90-150mg/l over an 8h shift, without signs of poisoning. In occasional exposure, symptoms of poisoning with cyanosis were present at urinary levels of 100mg/l PAP. p-Nitrophenol (PNP) determination was a better criterion than PAP in workers exposed to low nitrobenzene concentrations. A urinary level of 5mg/l PNP in the workers with long term exposure to nitrobenzene is regarded as admissible.
Pracovní lékařství, June 1977, Vol.29, No.4-5, p.186-188. 19 ref.
Weeks R.W., Dean B.J.
Permeation of methanolic aromatic amine solutions through commercially available glove materials.
Permeation time of aniline, p-chloroaniline, p-toluidine, 4,4'-methylenedianiline and methylenebis(2-chloroanaline) (all in methanol solution) was measured with 8 glove materials. The materials used were natural latex, Hypalon/Neoprene, Hypalon, Neoprene, butyl, polyethylene, nitrile and polyvinyl chloride. Gloves from the composite material were, in certain cases, inferior to those made from a single material. The glove material and construction were more important than the thickness of the material. When the concentration of the amine is high, the gloves should be used only once. More quantitative information is necessary before occupational health scientists can confidently prescribe adequate worker protection apparel for specific exposure situations.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1977, Vol.38, No.12, p.721-725. Illus. 9 ref.
Hadžieva J., Trendafilova R.
Changes in some clinical biochemical indices in aniline-exposed workers
Promjana v njakoi kliniko-laboratorni pokazateli u rabotnici v kontakt s anilin [in Bulgarian]
Results of laboratory tests (blood serum enzymes, blood picture, blood count, etc.) in 20 workers who had been exposed for an average of 20 years to aniline concentrations varying between the TLV (0.1mg/m3 in Bulgaria) to several times the TLV. Changes in the parameters studied led to a diagnosis of anaemia syndrome.
Letopisi na higienno-epidemiologičnata služba, Oct. 1977, Vol.10, No.2, p.54-56. 13 ref.
Federation of Industrial Mutual Accident Insurance Associations (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften), Bonn, Sep. 1976.
Principles for occupational preventive medical examinations - Hazards of aromatic nitro and amino compounds
Berufsgenossenschaftliche Grundsätze für arbeitsmedizinische Vorsorgeuntersuchungen - Gefährdung durch aromatische Nitro- und Aminoverbindungen [in German]
These principles serve as a basis for occupational medical examinations for the prevention and early detection of diseases due to these compounds. The general and special examinations for pre-employment and periodic examinations and the criteria for work are listed. Other data: check-up after cessation of exposure, hazard sources, routes of absorption, mode of action, clinical picture of acute and chronic poisoning, prohibition of employment, cytodiagnosis.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Jan. 1977, Vol.12, No.1, p.28-30. 7 ref.
Experimental renal polycystic disease induced by diphenylamine - Aetiopathogenic discussion
Polykystose expérimentale du rein par la diphénylamine - Discussion étiopathogénique. [in French]
In this MD thesis, industrial toxins which might give rise to polycystic kidney were sought, with reference to possible detection measures. A definition of polycystic kidney and discussion of the aetiopathogenic aspects is followed by a report of studies in rats and guinea-pigs given diphenylamine (DPA), a product used in agriculture and industry. It appears that prolonged occupational exposure to DPA can give rise to renal and hepatic lesions, and an abortion hazard in pregnant women. Regular determination of 4-hydroxydiphenylamine in the 24-hour urine is recommended.
Université René Descartes, Faculté de médecine Cochin - Port-Royal, Paris, France, 1977. 59p. Illus. 97 ref.
Hervé-Bazin B., Gradiski D., Duprat P., Marignac B., Foussereau J., Cavelier C., Bieber P.
Occupational eczema from N-isopropyl-N'-phenylparaphenylenediamine (IPPD) and N-1,3-dimethylbutyl-N'-phenylparaphenylenediamine (DMPPD) in tyres.
42 cases of contact sensitivity to IPPD occurring mainly in tyre-production workers, drivers, and garage mechanics, were studied. All subjects sensitive to IPPD are also sensitive to DMPPD (N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine), and 37% to paraphenylenediamine. Chemical and allergological studies of DMPPD demonstrated it to be an allergen. From chromatographic determination of the aromatic amines in vulcanised rubbers, it is suggested that colophony, dehydroabietic acid and a phthalate (e.g. butyl phthalate) be included among allergens used in patch testing. The irritant and direct and cross-sensitising potential of rubber amines were tested in animals. Chemical analyses of tyre brands are reported.
Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 1977, Vol.3, No.1, p.1-15. Illus. 25 ref.
Occupational bladder cancer.
This review covers epidemiological studies in the chemical industry, rubber industry and other occupations (gas retort house workers, Japanese Kimono painters, textile workers, hairdressers, metal workers, etc.); experimental aspects; surveillance of exposed workers; and control measures (prohibition of manufacture and use, regulation). 4-Aminobiphenyl, 2-naphthylamine, benzidine, 1-naphthylamine, 4-nitrobiphenyl, auramine and magenta are responsible for or associated with bladder cancer in man.
Preventive Medicine, 1976, Vol.5, p.228-244. Illus. 59 ref.
http://www.garben.com/pg2001/default2.htm [in Spanish]
Kurljandskij B.A., Medvedovskij A.G., Genin V.A., Voronin V.M., Mašbic F.D.
Experimental study of combined effects of some diphenyl amine derivatives regarding prevention of occupational bladder tumours.
Ėksperimental'noe izučenie kombinirovannogo dejstvija nekotoryh aminoproizvodnyh difenila s cel'ju profilaktiki professional'nyh novoobrazovanij močevogo puzyrja [in Russian]
Workers engaged in production of dyes based on diphenyl amine derivatives (benzidine and dianisidine sulfates) can be exposed to hydrazobenzene, benzidine and dianisidine, all known carcinogens. Studies in rats showed that these compounds have a syngergistic carcinogenic effect. It was therefore decided to segregate benzidine and dianisidine production, and to take other measures to safeguard the health and safety of workers liable to exposure.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1976, No.5, p.34-38. 14 ref.
An experimental study on hepatoma caused by aromatic amines.
In this long-term experimental study, 0,1% aromatic amines (3,3'-dihydroxybenzidine, dianisidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, 1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine and 3,4,4'-triaminodiphenyl ether) were mixed in the food and given to mice, to determine the carcinogenic action on uptake by a natural route. Body and organ weights, blood values and hepatoma incidence are tabulated for the different amines and durations of administration. A high incidence of hepatoma resulted with all these aromatic amines. The tables, captions of the ilustrations and abstract are in English.
Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Apr. 1976, Vol.52, No.4, p.179-201. Illus. 49 ref.
Basis for the evaluation of carcinogenic effects - I. Some aromatic amines
Underlag för utvärdering av carcinogena effekter - 1. Nĺgra aromatiska aminer [in Swedish]
A literature survey on 4-aminobiphenyl, auramine, benzidine, 2,4-diaminotoluene, dianisidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, p-phenylenediamine, methylenebis(o-chloroaniline), 1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine, and o-tolidine. Chemical and physical properties, uses, acute toxicity, carcinogenic effects on animals and humans and metabolism are discussed.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen - Undersökningsrapport AMMT 001/76, 100 26 Stockholm 34, Sweden, 1976. 64p. Illus. 143 ref.
Ferber K.H., Hill W.J., Cobb D.A.
An assessment of the effect of improved working conditions on bladder tumor incidence in a benzidine manufacturing facility.
Following the introduction in 1955 of a new enclosed and wet process and of strict industrial hygiene control measures in a dye manufacturing plant opened in 1915, to reduce the possibility of exposure to benzidine, the number of cases of bladder tumour was drastically reduced both among the workers exposed to benzidine alone and those exposed to benzidine and/or other carcinogenic agents. The changes made to the process and the control measures devised are listed. Details are also given of the statistical methodology used in this study.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1976, Vol.37, No.1, p.61-68. Illus. 19 ref.
Environmental causes of carcinoma of the bladder.
Among descriptions, with histological photographs, generally in black and white, of epithelial, papillary and non-papillary and other tumours of the bladder, precancerous lesions, lesions simulating cancer, etc., this short chapter is devoted to the environmental causes of carcinoma of the bladder and the relationship between duration and amount of exposure to industrial carcinogens and bladder cancer. Follow-up studies of high-risk patients are dealt with briefly.
In: "Tumours of the urinary bladder", Atlas of Tumour Pathology, 2nd series, fascicle 11, American Registry of Pathology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D.C. 20306, USA, 1975, p.76-77. 23 ref. Price (whole fascicle): US-$8.00.
Personal air sampling for vapors of aniline compounds.
Description of a method for sampling and analysis of aniline, N,N-dimethylaniline, o-toluidine, 2,4-xylidine, p-anisidine, o-anisidine, and p-nitroaniline. Air is drawn by a personal sampling pump from a worker's breathing zone through a tube containing silica gel to collect any anilines present. In the laboratory each silica gel section is transferred to a glass-stoppered tube and desorbed with ethanol. An aliquot of this is analysed by gas chromatography to determine the amount of each aniline compound present. The sampling tube can be used for short-term sampling at 1,000cm3/min or for sampling up to 8h at 200cm3/min. Maximum interference effects of water vapour have been considered. Results of retention, desorption, storage, accuracy, and precision studies are presented.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1975, Vol.36, No.7, p.538-548. Illus. 14 ref.
Kummer R., Tordoir W.F.
Phenyl-beta-naphthylamine (PBNA), another carcinogenic agent?
It is well known that workers exposed to antioxidants containing beta-naphthylamine (BNA) run a high risk of contracting cancer of the urinary bladder. A new antioxidant, phenyl-beta-naphthylamine (PBNA), was developed, which was thought to be free of BNA and other naphthylamines; however, amounts varying between 20 and 100ppm of BNA were determined by more sophisticated methods of chemical analysis. This article discusses the toxicity of PBNA (LD50 for rats is 8.7g/kg). Research has shown that PBNA can be metabolised in the human body into BNA. Further research is required to find out whether the well-known carcinogenic metabolities of BNA and other carcinogens are formed. This article describes experiments carried out on 19 healthy subjects. Quantities of PBNA and BNA in urine 12h and 24h after oral intake of 10 and 30mg PBNA, quantities of PBNA and BNA in 24h urine of 4 process operators and one spectator after pouring 8 bags of 50kg PBNA powder down a chute, and other data are shown in tabular form.
Tijdschrift voor sociale geneeskunde, 25 June 1975, Vol.53, No.13, p.415-419. Illus. 13 ref.
Benzidine revisited: A review of the literature and problems associated with the use of benzidine and its congeners.
This literature review of benzidine and its derivatives covers some chemistry (synthesis, analytical methods, metabolism and urinary metabolites of benzidine in various species including man, in vitro metabolism, pharmacokinetic studies) but concentrates on the studies of cancers produced by occupational exposure to the compounds. Discussed are animal and human studies in Germany, United Kingdom, Italy, Denmark, France, Switzerland, Japan, USSR and USA. The author emphasises the need for further experimental study of the carcinogenic potential of benzidine and its derivatives as well as their body transport and storage.
Clinical Toxicology, 1975, Vol.8, No.1, p.13-42. 106 ref.
Maroni M., Foŕ V.
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane - A hepatotoxic substance to be banned from industry
Il 4,4,diaminodifenilmetano: un epatotossico industriale da eliminare [in Italian]
This editorial article consists of a short literature survey describing the severe liver damage caused by 4,4'-methylenedianiline, a hardener for synthetic resins produced in large quantities, and summarising the results of animal experiments and epidemiological surveys. The substance is highly toxic whatever its path of entry; it causes toxic hepatitis, the mechanism of its toxicity is unknown, and failure so far to identify its metabolites renders supervision of exposed workers impossible. Banning of 4,4'-methylenedianiline from industry and substitution of some other hardener thus seems to be the only effective means of obviating this hazard.
Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 1975, Vol.66, No.1, p.1-4. 7 ref.
Wišniewska-Knypl J.M., Jabłońska J.K., Piotrowski J.K.
Effect of repeated exposure to aniline, nitrobenzene, and benzene on liver microsomal metabolism in the rat.
Exposure of rats to aniline (50mg/kg of body weight daily for a month) stimulated the microsomal metabolism as manifested by: acceleration of p-hydroxylation of aniline and N-demethylation of aminopyrine; shortening of sleeping time afer hexobarbital; reduction of the antipyretic effect of phenacetin. Exposure of rats to nitrobenzene led to slight stimulation of the microsomal enzymes. Neither the activity of benzene hydroxylase nor the activity of aminopyrine N-demethylase was modified by exposure of rats to benzene. Hexobarbital sleeping time was prolonged in benzene-exposed rats. How these conclusions may be of value for industrial toxicology is discussed.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1975, Vol.32, No.1, p.42-48. Illus. 21 ref.
Elmino O., Fati S., Mazza V.
Blood coagulation in acute experimental aniline poisoning
L'emocoagulazione nell'intossicazione acuta sperimentale da anilina [in Italian]
12 rabbits were given 300mg/kg aniline parenterally, repeated after 12 hours. A powerful haemolytic action was evidenced (RBC down from 5.22 to 4.25 (after first dose) to 3.85 million after second dose). The platelet count was reduced. The WBC count and coagulation factors were not appreciably affected. The thromboelastogram showed considerable changes. The authors attribute these effects to a direct action of aniline on the peripheral blood.
Folia medica, 1974, Vol.57, No.4-5-6, p.57-63. Illus. 7 ref.
Gohlke R., Schmidt P.
4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane - Histological, enzyme histochemical and autoradiographic investigations in acute and subacute experiments in rats, with and without additional heat stress
4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethan - histologische, fermenthistochemische und autoradiographische Untersuchungen im akuten und subakuten Versuch an Ratten mit und ohne zusätzliche Hitzebelastung [in German]
4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane is used as a hardener or primary product in the plastics industry and has been reported to be hepatotoxic. The results of this study confirm that it induces liver enlargement (necrotising cholangitis, small paraportal necrotic foci in liver parenchyma, marked mitotic activity). Additional heat load caused no significant changes in the effect of this substance. Its carcinogenic potential is discussed.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 4 Jan. 1974, Vol.32, No.3, p.217-231. Illus. 17 ref.
Occupational hygiene evaluation of the production of dianisidine sulfate from the viewpoint of its carcinogenic effect
Sanitarno-gigieničeskaja ocenka proizvodstva dianizidin-sul'fata s točki zrenija kancerogennoj opasnosti dlja rabotajuščih [in Russian]
A literature review of the carcinogenic effects of 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine (dianisidine, an important intermediary product in the aniline dyestuff industry) is followed by an account of technological changes in the production of this compound which is obtained in the form of both dianisidine hydrochloride and dianisidine sulfate in the USSR. Brief description of plant modifications which greatly contributed to reducing exposure to dianisidine sulfate and hydrazoanisole, as well as substantially reducing production costs: hermetic enclosure, automation of zinc powder charging into reductors and of filtering equipment, hermetic sampling probes. Since the introduction of the technologically improved dianisidine-sulfate process no new cases of bladder tumour have been notified.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1974, No.6, p.18-22. 17 ref.
Biological monitoring for industrial exposure to cyanogenic aromatic nitro and amino compounds.
Description of the medical surveillance programme which has been applied to the control of exposure to cyanogenic aromatic nitro and amino compounds at Du Pont's Chamber Works, which the author claims as an example of completely successful biological monitoring. The control programme is based primarily on urine analysis to provide early warning of excessive exposure and secondarily on blood analysis to detect the effects of the cyanogenic agent after absorption. Biological threshold limit values (BTLVs) derived from urinary excretion data (in mg/l urine) were established for industrial hygiene control of heavy metals and cyanogenic chemicals, and suggested additions and revisions of the TLV table for airborne nitro and amino compounds are tabulated.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July 1974, Vol.35, No.7, p.426-432. Illus. 8 ref.
Some aromatic amines, hydrazine and related substances, N-nitroso compounds and miscellaneous alkylating agents.
A series of 28 monographs consisting of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 18-25 June 1973). Individual monographs are devoted to: aniline, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine, 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, magenta, 4,4'-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline), 4,4'-methylene bis(2-methylaniline), 4,4'-methylenedianiline, 1-naphthylamine, 2-naphthylamine, 4-nitrobiphenyl, N,N'-bis(2-chloroethyl)-2-naphthylamine, hydrazine, 1,1-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, 1,2-diethylhydrazine, isonicotinic acid hydrazide, maleic hydrazide, N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, N-nitroso-di-n-butylamine, N-nitroso-N-methylurethane, streptozotocin, bis(chloromethyl)ether, chloromethyl methyl ether, 1,4-butanediol dimethanesulfonate, 1,3-propane sultone, β-propiolactone, dimethyl sulfate and diethyl sulfate.
IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to man, Vol.4. International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69008 Lyon, France, 1974. 286p. 697 ref. Price: SF.18.00.
McGill D.B., Motto J.D.
An industrial outbreak of toxic hepatitis due to methylenedianiline.
Between 1966 and 1972, 12 young male workers exposed to 4,4'-methylenedianiline (4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane) developed hepatitis manifesting the following clinical features: a short prodromal period, severe right-upper-quadrant pain, high fever and chills, followed by jaundice. All recovered in 7 weeks. When re-examined 9 months to 5 1/2 years later, all were without clinical or biochemical evidence of chronic liver disease. Circumstantial evidence in the 12 cases suggested that the skin was the major portal of entry of the toxic compound. Pending the development of an automated system requiring no worker contact with methylenedianiline, protective suits with attached rubber gloves were introduced and worn by all exposed workers. No further cases of hepatitis occurred.
New England Journal of Medicine, 8 Aug. 1974, Vol.291, No.6, p.278-282. Illus. 54 ref.
Gradiski D., Limasset J.C.
Carcinogenic potential of amines of the diphenylmethane family
Potentialité cancérogčne des amines de la famille du diphénylméthane. [in French]
The study is in 2 parts: (a) a literature survey of animal experiments with 9 aromatic amines of the diphenylmethane family and their effects on man; (b) examination of the relationship between biological activity and chemical structure of these compounds. The authors are of the opinion that paradiamine derivatives of diphenylmethane should all be considered as having a chemical structure which should arouse suspicion that they may have a carcinogenic potential.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygične du travail, 3rd quarter 1973, No.72, p.305-314, Note No. 853-72-73. Illus. 31 ref.
Zavon M.R., Hoegg U., Bingham E.
Benzidine exposure as a cause of bladder tumors.
25 men formerly engaged in benzidine manufacture were investigated over a period of 13 years; 13 of the group developed bladder tumours. A survey of the process of benzidine manufacture was carried out and the hazardous stages determined. Control of benzidine exposure by engineering methods should be the first line of defence. Rotation of workers does not significantly decrease risk to the individual, while increasing the number at risk. Periodic cystoscopic examination of exposed persons is advocated as the best method of early detection. It is not recommended to wait until haematuria appears.
Archives of Environmental Health, July 1973, Vol.27, No.1, p.1-7. Illus. 21 ref.
Acute oral toxicity of mono and di-alkyl ring-substituted derivatives of aniline
A short communication on oral toxicity studies of methyl, ethyl and isopropyl ring-substituted aniline derivatives in the rat. Oral LD50 values were determined for: 2-methylaniline; 2,6-dimethylaniline; 2-ethylaniline; 2,6-diethylaniline; 2-isopropylaniline; 2,6-diisopropylaniline; and 2-methyl-6-ethylaniline. LD50 values are about the same in mono-substituted anilines for 1- to 3-carbon substituents, but increase in di-substituted anilines as carbon chain increases from C1 to C3. Di-substituted anilines are less toxic than mono-substituted anilines when C=2 and 3, but not when C=1.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, May 1972, Vol.22, No.1, p.153-154. 1 ref.
Certain problems of exposure tests for aromatic compounds
A review of studies of the Lodz Institute of Occupational Medicine (Poland). The compounds studied were: benzene; toluene; phenol; aniline; and nitrobenzene. Particular reference is made to absorption routes; excretion kinetics; exposure-test types and accuracy.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1972, Vol.24, No.2-3, p.94-97. 21 ref.
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