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Alcohols - 685 entries found

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  • Alcohols

1986

CIS 87-1423 Swensson A.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Threshold Limit Values - 65. Allyl alcohol
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 65. Allylalkohol [in Swedish]
A critical review of the literature relevant to discussions for an exposure limit is presented. In man the earliest symptom of exposure to allyl alcohol is irritation of the mucous membranes. Damage to internal organs has not been registered. In animal experiments the liver was found to be the most severely damaged organ, while damage to other organs was slight. In long-term experiments a certain adaptation was demonstrated in that the liver when damaged may heal in spite of continued exposure. There is no information on teratogenicity or carcinogenicity. The metabolite glycidaldehyde may have slight carcinogenic properties. Allyl alcohol is mutagenic in the Ames test. A threshold limit value should prevent mucous membrane irritation.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1986. 38p. Illus. 81 ref.

CIS 87-1406 Medical monitoring of workers exposed to pentachlorophenol
This guideline for the prevention of adverse effects includes: background on pentachlorophenol; entry, metabolism and excretion; health effects; protective measures; health and biological monitoring; treatment of pentachlorophenol intoxication.
Alberta Community and Occupational Health, Medical Services Branch, 10709 Jasper Ave., Edmonton, Alberta T5J 3N3, Canada, Dec. 1986. 8p. 13 ref.

CIS 87-849 Phenol
Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: systemic poison; very corrosive to the skin and eyes. Phenol in solution is absorbed easily through the skin. Exposure limit recommended in Ontario: ACGIH (USA, 1985-86) TLV = 19mg/m3. Combustible liquid.
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1986. 2p.

CIS 87-817 Ethyl alcohol
Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: ethanol. Exposure limit recommended in Ontario: ACGIH (USA, 1985-86) TLV-TWA = 1,900mg/m3. Toxic effects: dizziness, headache; liver damage from prolonged exposure; dermatitis; irritation of the eyes. Highly flammable. Transportation code: UN 1170 (II,II).
Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor St. West, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, 1986. 2p.

CIS 87-608 Ogata M., Yamasaki Y., Kawai T.
Significance of urinary phenyl sulfate and phenyl glucuronide as indices of exposure to phenol
Urine samples from 20 workers who had been using phenol for treatment of chemical fibres were analysed for phenyl sulfate (PhS) and phenyl glucuronide (PhG) by high pressure liquid chromatography. The urinary concentration of phenol metabolites, as the total of PhS and PhG, levels of PhG and PhS had a correlation with the environmental concentration of phenol. The urinary concentration of phenol metabolites, as the total of PhS and PhG, corresponding to 5ppm of environmental phenol was 251mg phenol/g creatinine.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1986, Vol.58, No.3, p.197-202. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 86-1934 Dally S.
Solvents and organic mental illnesses
Solvants et troubles mentaux organiques [in French]
Definition of organic mental illness. Description of such illnesses reported in the literature: methodology, retrospective studies, occupational groups concerned (painters, in particular), studies of certain solvents (carbon disulfide, kerosene, toluene and xylenes, white spirit, trichloroethylene, other solvents). Difficulties in transferring epidemiological results to clinical studies. Methods of research (psychometric tests, electrophysiological methods, scanners, measurement of blood flow in the brain).
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Apr. 1986, No.25, p.11-16. 51 ref.

CIS 86-1915 Ethanol
Contents of this data sheet on ethanol (ethyl alcohol, or - simply - alcohol): properties; 8-h TWA recommended in the United Kingdom for vapours: 1000ppm, 10-min short-term TWA: 3000ppm); industrial uses; fire hazards and extinguishants to be used; hazardous reactions; toxicity and biological hazards; carcinogenicity (no evidence if used carefully); handling and storage; safety precautions; leakage and spillage; first aid. The dangers of illicit consumption of industrial alcohol are stressed.
Safety Practitioner, Feb. 1986, Vol.4, No.2, p.36-37. 9 ref.

CIS 86-1914 Methanol
Contents of this data sheet: industrial uses; properties; occupational exposure limits (8-h TWA recommended in the United Kingdom: 200ppm, 10-min short-term TWA: 250ppm); fire hazards and extinguishants to be used; toxicity (particularly, blindness or death due to severe poisoning by ingestion); medical surveillance; handling and storage; safety precautions; leakage and spillage; first aid.
Safety Practitioner, Jan. 1986, Vol.4, No.1, p.20-21. 9 ref.

CIS 86-1356 Enarson D.A., Chan-Yeung M., Embree V., Wang R., Schulzer M.
Occupational exposure to chlorophenates - Renal, hepatic and other health effects
71 sawmill workers were identified as part of a group undergoing an extensive health and environmental evaluation in a pulp mill. This group was compared with a non-exposed control group. Exposure was highest for workers in direct contact with the wood. The peripheral blood leukocyte count was slightly lower in the exposed groups and their hematocrit was reduced, significantly so for heavily exposed workers. Urinalysis showed an increased prevalence of microscopic hematuria, especially with lower cell counts. No significant renal or hepatic effects were observed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1986, Vol.12, No.2, p.144-148. 14 ref.

CIS 86-1355 Jongeneelen F.J., Bos R.P., Anzion R., Theuws J., Henderson P.T.
Biological monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Metabolites in urine
Assays of urinary mutagenicity, urinary 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene, and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene were used to study their suitability in estimating exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in coal tar products. Experiments on rats showed a significant correlation between coal tar exposure and levels of excreted mutagens and metabolites. Experiments involving 5 dermatologic patients undergoing topical coal tar treatment and smoking workers of a coal tar distillation plant showed that only 1-hydroxypyrene could be used as a sensitive and specific marker for the assessment of occupational exposure to PAH.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1986, Vol.12, No.2, p.137-143. Illus. 22 ref.

CIS 86-1354 Iregren A., Åkerstedt T., Anshelm Olson B., Gamberale F.
Experimental exposure to toluene in combination with ethanol intake - Psychophysiological functions
Effects of experimental exposure to toluene (300mg/m3 for 4.5h) and ethanol ingestion (15 mmol/kg) on the results of 4 performance tests were studied in 12 volunteers. Toluene exposure produced symptoms like headache and local irritation but did not reduce performance capability. Ethanol ingestion impaired performance on 2 of the tests and also increased heart rate. Mood was likewise altered by ethanol, but no increase in subjective symptoms due to ethanol ingestion could be demonstrated. Physiological indices of wakefulness were not affected by toluene exposure or ethanol intake. No interaction effects were found.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1986, Vol.12, No.2, p.128-136. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 86-1070 Kauppinen T.P., Partanen T.J., Nurminen M.M., Nickels J.I., Hernberg S.G., Hakulinen T.R., Pukkala E.I., Savonen E.T.
Respiratory cancers and chemical exposures in the wood industry: a nested case-control study
This case-control study involved 3805 men who had worked at least 1yr in the particleboard, plywood, sawmill or formaldehyde glue industries between 1944 and 1965, and who were then followed up until 1981. No relationship was found between exposure to wood dust and respiratory cancer, though significantly raised odds ratios were observed for exposures to pesticides and/or phenol present in wood dust. Exposure to terpenes and other products of the heating of coniferous woods was associated with a risk of respiratory cancer when the length of exposure exceeded 5yr.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1986, Vol.43, No.2, p.84-90. 27 ref.

CIS 86-1069 Pearce N., Smith A.H., Howard J.K., Sheppard R.A., Giles H.J., Teague C.A.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and exposure to phenoxyherbicides, chlorophenols, fencing work, and meat works employment: a case-control study
This case-control study, conducted in New Zealand, involved 83 men with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 168 controls with other kinds of cancer, and 228 controls from the general population. There were no significant differences between cases and controls regarding potential exposure to phenoxy herbicides or chlorophenols. There were significantly raised odds ratios for fencing work (odds ratio: 2.0), which involves exposure to several potential risk factors including arsenic and sodium pentachlorophenate, and for employment in meat-processing plants (odds ratio: 1.8), which entails exposure to 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and zoonotic viruses.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1986, Vol.43, No.2, p.75-83. 41 ref.

1985

CIS 88-1116 Kelthane
Dikofoli [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Insecticide. Synonym: Dicofol. Toxicity: LD50 = 575mg/kg (oral, rat), LD50 = 100mg/kg (skin, rat); harmful if inhaled, ingested or in contact with skin; can irritate the skin and is absorbed through skin. Long term exposure can cause allergic eczema and hepatic damage. Carcinogenic in animals. Mandatory European labelling: XN, R20, R21, R22, S2, S13.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, July 1985. 2p. Original on microfiche.

CIS 87-1230 Propylene glycol, allyl ether
Chemical safety information sheet. No established exposure limit. No available health hazard information. LD50 (oral, mouse) = 4mg/kg.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 87-430 Propylene glycol
This Workplace Environmental Exposure Level Guide (WEEL) presents the available toxicological data and recommends appropriate exposure limits for industrial chemicals for which no standards have been developed. Synonym: 1,2-propanediol. Has a low level of toxicity by all routes of exposure. Skin irritation or sensitisation may occur from prolonged or repeated contact. Recommended exposure limits: 8h TWA limit =125mg/m3 for total vapour and aerosol; 8h TWA limit=10mg/m3 for aerosol alone.
American Industrial Hygiene Association, 475 Wolf Ledges Parkway, Akron, OH 44311, USA, 1985, 5p. 34 ref.

CIS 87-237 Dmitriev M.T., Kuleš T.A., Rastjannikov E.G.
Study of the toxic substances formed in the oxo process
Izučenie toksičnyh veščestv, obrazujuščihsja v processe oksosinteza [in Russian]
In the oxo process, olefins are reacted with carbon monoxide and hydrogen to yield alcohols; aldehydes are intermediate reaction products. Various volatile by-products may also be formed, so that workplace air can be contaminated by a wide range of substances. To identify and quantitate these contaminants, air was sampled by being drawn through a glass tube packed with Tenax sorbent. The material collected was desorbed onto a glass capillary gas-chromatography column coated with SE30. The gas chromatograph was coupled to a mass spectrometer. 165 organic compounds were identified. They included saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes, halogenated hydrocarbons, nitriles, thiocyanates, sulfides, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes and ketones.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1985, No.8, p.51-54. 12 ref.

CIS 87-83 Dinoterb
Chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical data; fire and explosion data; reactivity data; health hazards; uses (herbicide); precautions for safe handling and use.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1932 Japukovič J.B.
Method for the determination of phenol in atmospheric air
Metod opredelenija fenola v atmosfernom vozduhe [in Russian]
Air to be sampled is drawn through a bed of Silochrom sorbent in a tube. The tube is placed in a heated chamber at the injector end of a gas chromatography column, where adsorbed phenol is thermally desorbed. The column is peaked with 15% polymethylphenylsiloxane on Chromaton NAW. A flame-ionisation detector is used. The method can detect 0.005mg/m3 in a 1L sample with a relative error of ±10%.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Sep. 1985, No.9, p.53-54. Illus. 5 ref.

CIS 86-1928 Zenina G.A., Voronin A.P.
Gas-chromatographic determination of benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and benzyl acetate in air
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie benzilovogo spirta, benzal'degida i benzilacetata v vozduhe [in Russian]
Air for analysis is sampled by being drawn through a 0.7-0.8 by 10cm tube of diatomaceous earth (Risorb BLK) at a rate of 0.5L/min for 20min. Benzyl compounds are eluted from the sorbent with chloroform and separated on a 4mm by 2m steel column packed with (a) 5% XE-60 silicone on Chromaton N-AW-DMCS, (b) 10% Apiezon L on Inerton AW-DMCS, or (c) 10% PMS-100 on Dinochrom-II. The chromatograph is fitted with a flame-ionisation detector, and nitrogen is used as carrier gas. The limit of detection is 0.01µg, or 0.8mg/m3. The method has been approved for use under industrial conditions (fabric dyeing).
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1985, No.5, p.55-57. Illus.

CIS 86-1912 Ethylene glycol
Contents of this data sheet: properties; occupational exposure limits (8-h TWA: 100ppm, 10-min short-term TWA: 125ppm, both as recommended for the United Kingdom for vapours; no limits for particulates); industrial uses; fire hazards and extinguishants to be used; hazardous reactions; toxicity and biological hazards (minor if absorbed orally or affecting the eye, but can be absorbed through the skin in toxic amounts); carcinogenicity (none); handling and storage; safety precautions; first aid.
Safety Practitioner, Nov. 1985, Vol.3, No.11, p.32-33. 9 ref.

CIS 86-1891 Ethylene fluorohydrin
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1876 Sodium pentachlorophenate
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1646 Koga M., Hori H., Tanaka I., Akiyama T., Inoue N.
Quantitative analysis of urinary ethylene glycol in rats
Ethylene glycol in urine was separated by azeotropic distillation and esterified with n-butylboronic acid. The derivatised ethylene glycol was separated by gaz chromatography at 70° on a 2m by 3mm glass column of 2% OV-225 on 60-80 mesh Uniport HPS. A flame ionisation detector was used. Known amounts of z-methylcyclohexanone were included in the samples as internal standards. A linear calibration curve was obtained up to 500µg/mL of ethylene glycol. The detection limit was 10µg/mL and the relative standard deviation was 3.5% for 100µg/mL of ethylene glycol. This method was used to determine the urinary excretion of ethylene glycol in rats exposed to ethylene oxide at various concentrations (50-500ppm). The amounts of ethylene glycol excreted were sigmoidally dependent on the concentration of ethylene oxide to which the rats had been exposed.
Journal of UOEH, Mar. 1985, Vol.7, No.1, p.45-49. Illus. 7 ref.

CIS 86-1641 Hydroquinone
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1620 Phenol
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 3p.

CIS 86-1593 Chloroethanol
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1588 Allyl alcohol
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1577 Cresylic acid
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1566 Pentachlorophenol
Aspects covered in this data sheet: chemical identity; exposure limits; physicochemical properties; fire and explosion hazards; reactivity; health hazards; uses; handling of spills or releases.
In: EPA Chemical Profiles, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20460, USA, Dec. 1985. 4p.

CIS 86-1440 Sorokin Ju.G., Sibilev M.S.
Labour protection in the petroleum refining and petrochemical industry. Rules and standards
Ohrana truda v neftepererabatyvajuščej i neftehimičeskoj promyšlennosti - Pravila i normy [in Russian]
This manual for engineering staff and occupational health services of manufacturing, research and design organisations includes major extracts from safety regulations and requirements in the title industry. It covers: quotations from safety regulations of gas and petroleum refining enterprises, synthetic rubber, synthetic ethyl alcohol, organometallic compound, schist reprocessing and asbestos plants; safety requirements for design of ventilation; operation of pressure vessels; operation, inspection and repair of safety valves; design of steel piping; fire protection requirements for design of petroleum refineries and petrochemical enterprises.
Izdatel'stvo Himija, Stromynka 21, 107076 Moskva, USSR, 1985, 380p. Illus. Price: Rbl.1.90.

CIS 86-1367 Bittersohl K.U., Bittersohl G.
Epidemiological investigations into the haematotoxic and hepatotoxic effects of benzene and benzene-containing mixed solvents
Epidemiologische Untersuchungen zur hämatotoxischen und hepatotoxischen Wirkung von Benzen und benzenhaltigen Lösungsmittelgemischen [in German]
An assessment of the data on 85 persons newly registered between 1973 and 1982 as suffering from occupational disease due to exposure to benzene has shown that this intoxication occurs primarily in the chemical and shoemaking industries. The disease has to be considered severe, because >20% of the affected persons have a disability of > 50% and/or die of the consequences of the intoxication. The mean exposure time was 15.2 (2-38) years. Only 16% of the persons newly registered as suffering from this occupational disease had been exposed to benzene alone. All the other persons were exposed to mixed solvents. After elimination of the persons who were abusing alcohol and those suffering from previous non-occupational lesions, the assessment reaffirms the haematotoxic effect of benzene; liver lesions are the result of the simultaneous effect of other solvents, especially alcohols. No hepatotoxic effect can be attributed to benzene.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, 1985, Vol.31, No.3, p.168-170. Illus. 30 ref.

CIS 86-453
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Propyl alcohol
Alcool propylique [in French]
Contents of this data sheet: synonyms; uses; physical and chemical properties; storage; detection and determination in air; fire hazards (highly flammable); pathology and toxicology (acute and subacute toxicity, mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, toxicokinetics and metabolism in animals, acute, subacute and chronic toxicity in man); indicative exposure limits in France (200ppm or 500mg/m3); French regulations concerning occupational health and safety, environmental protection and transport; international regulations concerning transport; technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 4th quarter 1985, No.121, p.597-600. 25 ref.

CIS 86-511 Palmer W.G., James R.H., Moorman W.J.
Analysis of emissions collected from four types of iron casting molds
The levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related compounds, phenol and particulates were determined in emissions from 4 types of binders: furan, urethane, green sand with sea coal and phenol-formaldehyde resins in shell molds. The shell sample contained 50% particulates, green sand 25%, furan 10% and urethane 2%. The portion of particulate fraction soluble in cyclohexane varied from 16 to 36% between mold types. Emissions from urethane and furan molds contained the lowest quantities of cyclohexane-soluble components and of PAH and related compounds. Phenol which was fond in all 4 foundry samples, was present in the highest concentration in emissions from urethane molds. Shell mold emissions contained the highest levels of 2- and 4-nitrophenol.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Dec. 1985, Vol.46, No.12, p.724-730. Illus. 17 ref.

CIS 86-142 Baadsgaard O., Jørgensen J.
Contact dermatitis to Butin-2-diol 1,4
A 41-year-old female cleaner developped dermatitis on the face, hands and forearms after having used a new cleaning agent for a few months. The dermatitis appeared about 12h after contact with the agent and settled when she was not using it. Patch testing with the components of the cleaning agent produced a strong reaction to 2-butyne-1,4-diol ("Butin-2-diol 1,4"). The compound was present in the cleaning agent at low concentration (0.7%) as a corrosion inhibitor.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1985, Vol.13, No.1, p.34. 1 ref.

CIS 86-138 Pippard E.C., Acheson E.D.
The mortality of boot and shoe makers, with special reference to cancer
This study covers 5017 men known to have been employed in the boot and shoe manufacturing industry in 3 towns in the United Kingdom in 1939. At the end of 1982, 68.4% were known to be dead. The anticipated excess of nasal cancer was found. Excess mortality from leukaemia and rectal cancer was also found. Some supporting evidence for a risk of rectal cancer in this industry was found in the literature.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 1985, Vol.11, No.4, p.249-255. Illus. 28 ref.

CIS 85-1920 Gray R.E., Gilliland R.D., Smith E.E., Lockard V.G., Hume A.S.
Pentachlorophenol intoxication: Report of a fatal case, with comments on the clinical course and pathologic anatomy
Case study of a 33 year old man who died following exposure (3 weeks) to high levels of pentachlorophenol dust. His job involved breaking up large blocks of the compound with a jackhammer before it was ground into powder; this was done without any protective equipment. Postmortem examination revealed cerebral oedema and fatty degeneration of the viscera. The literature indicates that the clinical syndrome of poisoning with the compound results from mitochondrial toxicity with derangement of aerobic metabolism. Analysis of tissue and fluid samples revealed the following concentrations of pentachlorophenol: 162ppm in blood; 639ppm in the kidneys; 116ppm in the lung and 1130ppm in the bile.
Archives of Environmental Health, May-June 1985, Vol.40, No.3, p.161-164. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 85-1018
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Amyl alcohols or pentanols
Alcools amyliques ou pentanols [in French]
Structural formulae and synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards. Effects: acute and chronic experimental toxicity; mutagenic, carcinogenic and metabolic effects; toxicity in man; the TWA for 3-methyl-1-butanol established by the ACGIH (USA) is 100ppm (360mg/m3). Regulations: OSH (in France) and transport (in France and internationally). Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1985, No.118, p.143-146. 16 ref.

CIS 85-802 Kauppinen T., Lindroos L.
Chlorophenol exposure in sawmills
Personnel exposure to chlorophenol (CP) was measured in 10 Finnish sawmills where a chlorophenate salt formulation was used for the blue stain control of sawed wood. Average concentrations of CP in air were below the 0.5mg/m3 exposure limit. However, some workers had high CP levels in their urine, indicating a high skin adsorption rate from contact with the CP solutions. CP was also observed by breathing wood dust contaminated with the chemical. The risks associated with impurity contained in CP preparations (chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans) and the need for epidemiologic studies on possible cancer risks in sawmill work are discussed.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1985, Vol.46, No.1, p.34-38. 17 ref.

1984

CIS 89-1139
USSR Commission for UNEP
Phenol
Chemical safety information sheet. Expsoure limit (USSR): MAC = 0.3mg/m3. Toxicity: skin absorption; irritation and necrosis of skin; irritation of eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects; hepatic and renal disorders.
Centre for International Projects, GKNT, Moskva, USSR, 1984. 36p. 138 ref.

CIS 87-1426 Kauppinen T.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 54. Chlorophenols
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 54. Klorfenoler [in Swedish]
The document contains a review and an evaluation of selected literature to be used for setting hygienic standards for the most widely used chlorophenols. Heavy exposure to chlorophenols, especially pentachlorophenol, can cause poisoning which is based on uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation. Chlorophenols and their salts are irritants. High doses of chlorophenols have been associated with liver damage, aplastic anaemia, and immunosuppressive effects, usually after exposure to technical chlorophenols containing e.g. chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans as impurities. However, both pure and technical penta- or tetrachlorophenol are foetotoxic to rats at low doses. Human data on foetotoxicity are lacking. The most severe hazard reported is the possible carcinogenicity of certain chlorophenols. Four Swedish case-referent studies show an association between chlorophenol exposure and soft tissue sarcomas, malignant lymphomas and cancer of the nose and nasopharynx. Thus, technical chlorophenols should be held as suspected human carcinogens, although the possible risk may be due to the chlorinated dioxin and furan impurities. Hygienic and biological limit values ought to be based on the irritant effects, foetotoxic effects, and possible carcinogenicity of chlorophenols.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 59p. Illus. 137 ref.

CIS 86-1548 Øvrebø S.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 53. Methanol
Nordisk ekspertgruppe for grenseverdidokumentasjon - 53. Metanol [in Norwegian]
Review of the literature on methanol as background to discussions on occupational exposure limits. Exposure of man to extremely high concentrations of methanol affects the central nervous system and causes acidosis. Blindness is the most serious complication. Adverse effects on the eyes is mainly confined to the optic nerve as optic disk oedema. The putamen appears to be a particularly susceptible part of the brain in methanol poisoning. However, the clinical consequences of this sensitivity are unknown. Formic acid has been shown to inhibit oxidative phosphorylation. This inhibition is believed to be one of the mechanisms by which methanol exerts its toxic effects. Knowledge is limited regarding the effects of exposure to methanol at low concentrations for long periods of time. The following effects have been reported: blurred vision, eye irritation, headache, nausea and dizziness. It is recommended that an exposure limit be based on these effects.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 45p. 104 ref.

CIS 86-1541 Kristiansen E.
Nordic Expert Group for Documentation of Occupational Exposure Limits - 51. Phenol
Nordisk ekspertgruppe for grænseværdidokumentation - 51. Phenol [in Danish]
A critical survey and evaluation of the relevant literature disclosed that data are insufficient for establishing a relationship between the air concentration and response. With few exceptions, human exposure to phenol in industry has been limited to accidental skin contact or inhalation of phenol vapour. The irritating effect of phenol should be taken into account in the establishment of a hygienic standard. Phenol vapour is readily absorbed via the lungs and skin and the quantity absorbed can be greatly increased through skin absorption from aqueous solutions of phenol. Phenol is suspected as being a promoter of tumour development in mice.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 48p. 92 ref. Bibl.

CIS 86-1360 Antti-Poika M.
Nordic expert group for documentation of occupational exposure limits - 49. Furfuryl alcohol
Nordiska expertgruppen för gränsvärdesdokumentation - 49. Furfurylalkohol [in Swedish]
No reliable reports are available on dose-response relationships for furfuryl alcohol in humans that can serve as the basis of an occupational exposure limit. Irritation of mucous membranes is likely to be the most critical effect. However, exposure levels causing irritation of mucous membranes are poorly documented. One study showed that high doses of furfuryl alcohol are clastogenic. However, furfuryl alcohol has not been mutagenic in bacterial tests.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 29p. 22 ref.

CIS 86-118 Embree V., Enarson D.A., Chan-Yeung M., DyBuncio A., Dennis R., Leach J.
Occupational exposure to chlorophenates: Toxicology and respiratory effects
71 chlorophenate-exposed sawmill workers were identified as part of a group undergoing an extensive health and environmental evaluation in a pulp mill. This group was compared with a group (351) with no physical proximity to the area in which chlorophenates were used. A gradient of exposure was demonstrated from 230ppb in urine and 919ppb in serum for those directly handling the contaminated wood, to 139ppb in urine and 354ppb in serum for those working in the area but not in manual contact as compared with serum levels of 84ppb in the unexposed group. It was noted that the bulk chemical was primarily in the tetrachloro-form but the serum levels contained more pentachlorophenate. The urine proportions were intermediate, approximating the bulk chemical proportions at the lower levels of exposure. No excess prevalence of respiratory symptoms or spirometric abnormalities was found which could be explained by the chlorophenate exposure.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, Oct. 1984, Vol.22, No.4, p.317-329. 14 ref.

CIS 85-1931 Skvortcova R.I., Merkulov A.M., Voroncova N.L.
Study of the prophylactic action of a complex of vitamins C, B1, B2, P and PP during chronic phenol exposure
Izučenie profilaktičeskogo dejstvija kompleksa vitaminov C, B1, B2, P i PP pri hroničeskom vozdejstvii fenola [in Russian]
Workers engaged in the production and processing of phenol-formaldehyde resins had elevated blood and urine levels of pyruvic acid. These elevated levels probably reflected metabolic disturbances resulting from phenol exposure. Administration of the title vitamins in daily doses of 0.2 (riboflavin) to 400 (P group) milligrams for 1 month restored pyruvate levels to normal.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Feb. 1984, No.2, p.34-37. 13 ref.

CIS 85-1736 Halton D.M.
Occupational exposures from spirit-duplicator operations
Risques auxquels s'exposent les travailleurs qui emploient un duplicateur à alcool [in French]
The current technology used in spirit duplicating is briefly described. The potential for overexposure to methanol is discussed and preventive measures are presented.
Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main St. E., Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8N 1H6, 1984. 9p. Illus. 14 ref.

CIS 85-1336 Methanol
Aspects covered in this data sheet: uses, shipping regulations, storage and handling, handling hazards, personal protective equipment, ventilation, fire and explosion hazards and their prevention (electrical equipment, bonding and grounding of containers), symptoms of poisoning, first aid, exposure limits, medical examination, waste disposal, physico-chemical properties.
National Safety Council, 444 North Michigan Ave., Chicago, IL 60611, USA, Rev. 1984. 6p. Illus. 12 ref.

CIS 85-1324 Conso F., Mignée C.
Monohydric alcohols other than ethyl alcohol
Monoalcools autres que l'alcool éthylique [in French]
Physical and chemical characteristics, metabolism and appropriate TLVs (in France, USA and USSR) are given for the more commonly used monohydric alcohols. Details are given for 3 of the alcohols (methanol, isopropyl alcohol and butyl alcohol): uses, exposure sources, toxicokinetics, metabolism, sampling, acute and long-term poisoning, toxicologic tests, treatment.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Intoxications, 1984, 10p. 101 ref.

CIS 85-1077 Baxter R.A.
Biochemical study of pentachlorophenol workers
Biological tests were performed on a group of workers employed in the manufacture of pentachlorophenol and sodium pentachlorophenate, on another group of workers with some contact with the process, and on a group of controls. The study extended over 3 years. Signs of chloracne appeared in 25 out of 40 in the first group and in 2 out of 25 in the second. Mean values for triglycerides were generally higher in the exposed group, with a more marked effect in those with chloracne, but in only 1 year was this significant. The high-density lipoprotein chlolesterol fraction showed significantly lower values for the exposed group in 1 year, while those with chloracne showed this consistently. Total cholesterol levels tended to be lower for the exposed group, and bilirubin levels were significantly lower. No other biochemical changes were found.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1984, Vol.28, No.4, p.429-438. 6 ref.

CIS 85-775 Conde-Salazar L., Guimaraens D., Romero L., González M.A., Harto A.
Contact allergy to para-tertiary butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (PTBP)
Sensibilidad de contacto a resina para-terciario-butil-feno-formol (Resina PTBP) [in Spanish]
A study of 1,400 patients in an occupational dermatology clinic. Positive patch tests to PTBP were found in 15 cases, of which 3 could be identified as of certain occupational origin (all 3 were shoemakers with exposure to PTBP-containing glue).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1984, Vol.31, No.123, p.27-35. Illus. 26 ref.

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