Alcohols - 685 entries found
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Greenblatt D.R., Rosman J., Freedman M.L.
Benzene and ethanol additive inhibition of rabbit reticulocyte heme and protein synthesis.
The haeme and protein synthesis were measured in vitro. The protein synthesis inhibitions were: benzene 29.9%, ethanol 20.5%, both 42.3%, haeme synthesis: benzene 26.6%, ethanol 25.5%, both 39.7%. It is suggested that it might be prudent for workers exposed to benzene to limit their intake of alcohol.
Environmental Research, June 1977, Vol.13, No.3, p.425-431. 22 ref.
Begley J., Reichert E.L., Rashad M.N., Klemmer H.W., Siemsen A.W.
Association between renal function tests and pentachlorophenol exposure.
Report on studies in 18 workers at a wood treatment plant. Blood pentachlorophenol levels averaged 5.1ppm, falling to 2.2ppm during a 20-day vacation. Creatinine clearance and phosphorus reabsorption values were low before vacation, but recovered during the non-exposure period. Pentachlorophenol exposure appeared to reduce both glomerular filtration rate and tubular function reversibly.
Clinical Toxicology, 1977, Vol.11, No.1, p.97-106. Illus. 17 ref.
Steward R.D., Hake C.L., Wu Z., Kalbfleisch J., Newton P.E., Marlow S.K., Vucicevic-Salama M.
Effects of perchloroethylene/drug interaction on behaviour and neurological function.
This study attempted to determine the degree of hazard if the effect of a central nervous system depressant is added to the effect of perchloroethylene (PCE) exposure. There appeared to be no decreases in neurological or behavioural performance due to the combined effects of the substances. Six men and six women volunteers were exposed to PCE vapour and ethanol (as vodka) or diazepam was added. Several neurological and behavioural tests were given at peak blood levels of the drugs. There were decreases in performances with the drugs alone.
DHEW Publication No.(NIOSH)77-191, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Apr. 1977. 145p. Illus. 23 ref.
Formaldehyde-p-tert-butylphenol resins and p-tert-butylphenol in occupational medicine
Les résines formaldéhyde-paratertiaire butylphénol et le paratertiaire butylphénol en médecine du travail. [in French]
Report of a study of the role of formaldehyde-p-tert-butylphenol resins and their starting materials in allergic disorders in the footwear industry and in shoe repair workers. Preventive measures include: modification of concentration, gluing to be carried out in isolated premises, precautions in handling, use of impermeable aprons, personal hygiene, worker information. A group allergy may exist between p-tert-butylphenol and the resin itself, although each product individually is capable of producing sensitisation; p-tert-butylphenol, in the manufacturing stage and in the chemical industry, can cause achromia which can be reproduced in animal experiments.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Apr.-May 1977, Vol.38, No.4-5, p.427-435. Illus. 19 ref.
Poisoning by pentachlorophenol or its sodium salt in treatment of wood by soaking
Intoxication au pentachlorophénol ou à son sel de sodium dans le traitement des bois par la technique de trempage. [in French]
MD thesis. General review of wood. Physical, chemical and biological data on pentachlorophenol; determination in biological media; methods of use. Literature survey of animal experiments to establish the minimum lethal dose, route of entry (mainly the skin), maximum permissible concentrations, and lesions produced (liver, kidney, lung, CNS). The physiopathology is not fully understood. Description of 13 cases of poisoning in 1952-1970 and a new fatal case in 1973. This rare but serious event involves a febrile course characterised by profuse sweating preceding the rise in temperature, the possibility of hepatonephritis, and rapid progression. Preventive measures can be directed at labelling and storage but the medical and personal protective aspects are the most important.
Université de Paris-Sud, Faculté de médecine Paris-Sud, Paris, France, 1977. 66p. 26 ref.
H45, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Prevention Association, London.
Details are given of uses of isopropyl alcohol, fire and explosion hazards, precautions, fire fighting, source of further information, relevant British regulations, British standards for flameproof enclosure of electrical apparatus, etc., physical and chemical properties, toxicity, chemical reactions.
Fire Prevention, Mar. 1976, No.113, p.29-30.
Lomonova G.V., Klimova Ė.I.
Toxicology of higher aliphatic alcohol acrylates
K toksikologii ėfirov akrilovoj kisloty i vysših alifatičeskih spirtov [in Russian]
Animal experiments to determine the toxicity of heptyl acrylate (HA) and nonyl acrylate (NA), used in the plastics industry. HA is much more toxic than the (presumed) hydrolysis products, acrylic acid and heptyl alcohol, and is extremely toxic on acute administration. Chronic exposure to HA and NA affects the oxidation-reduction processes and produces nervous, renal and myocardial toxicity. Proposed TLV for these substances, on the basis of acute and chronic exposure tests: 1mg/m3.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1976, No.11, p.41-44. Illus. 6 ref.
Koen E., Ivanov G.
Polarographic method for determination of phenol in air
Polarografski metod za opredeljane na fenol văv văzduha [in Bulgarian]
Description of a specific, highly sensitive and precise polarographic method for determination of atmospheric phenol concentrations, indicating sampling methods and conditions. The authors study the influence of the pH of the polarographic solution on the peak and on the half-wave potential. This method appears to be convenient, easily reproducible and rapid.
Problemi na higienata, Dec. 1976, No.2, p.71-80. Illus. 14 ref.
Details are given of uses of ethylene glycol, hazards, fire precautions, source of further information, fire fighting, physical and chemical properties.
H 47, Information sheets on hazardous materials, Fire Protection Association, Aldermary House, Queen Street, London EC4N 1TJ, United Kingdom, June 1976. 2p.
Chlorophenols cause skin disorders and headache in sawmills
Klorfenoler i sågverk ger hudskador och huvudvärk [in Swedish]
Chlorophenol salts used to preserve sawn wood are a source of skin irritation when they contain impurities such as dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans, which are formed by the action of light or heat. Vapours and dust from the treated wood are also irritating for the respiratory tract and have neurotoxic effects. Highly toxic impurities precipitate to the bottom of the dipping tanks. Replacement of chlorophenols by difluorides, which are easier to monitor, the use of salts containing less impurities, and information of personnel of the hazards and suitable preventive measures are recommended.
Arbetsmiljö, 1976, No.15, p.23-24.
Experimental data to evaluate 2,6-dimethylphenol toxicity
Ėksperimental'nye materialy k ocenke toksičnosti 2,6-dimetilfenola [in Russian]
Studies in various animal species of the acute, subacute, chronic and percutaneous toxicity of 2,6-dimethylphenol, used as a monomer in polyphenylene oxide production: limited acute inhalational intoxication hazard on account of its low volatility at ambient temperatures; virtually no cumulation; marked percutaneous toxicity; threshold concentration for chronic inhalation: 6.1mg/m3. A provisional TLV of the order of 1mg/m3 is proposed.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Apr. 1976, No.4, p.43-46. 8 ref.
The benzenediols: catechol, resorcinol and hydroquinone - A review of the industrial toxicology and curent industrial exposure limits.
This article reviews the acute animal toxicity data (oral LD50, skin penetration LD50, eye irritation, primary skin irritation, inhalation) for catechol, resorcinol and phenol, and studies on plant exposures to resorcinol and hydroquinone. Threshold limit values are discussed. The data suggest a TLV for catechol close to that for phenol (5ppm). Resorcinol is significantly less toxic than phenol, and a TLV of at least 10ppm, possibly 20ppm or higher, is suggested. The TLV for hydroquinone (2mg/m3) appears appropriate. Appendix: physical properties of the 3 benzenediols.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1976, Vol.37, No.10, p.596-606. Illus. 16 ref.
Neundörfer B., Wolpert E.
Neuropsychiatric disorders following phenol intoxication
Neuropsychiatrische Störungen nach Phenol-Intoxikation [in German]
Case report (circumstances of accident, acute symptoms, late symptoms, psychological observations, diagnostic conclusions) and discussion of the results in the context of the literature. A 30-year-old engineer in the chemical industry had intensive skin absorption and inhalation of phenol after overturning of a container. After discharge from a week's hospital treatment he showed characteristic symptoms of chronic phenol poisoning (loss of appetite, headache after effort, fatigue, severe insomnia), although some typical symptoms of acute phenol poisoning (liver and kidney damage, cerebral convulsions) were absent. Other symptoms of central nervous disturbance (behavioural changes with loss of initiative and irritability, concentration and memory disorders) were recognised to be the consequence of cerebral injury only later. The importance of psychological tests for the differential diagnosis is stressed.
Münchener medizinische Wochenschrift, 10 Sep. 1976, Vol.118, No.37, p.1177-1178. 11 ref.
Folland D.S., Schaffner W., Ginn H.E., Crofford O.B., McMurray D.R.
Carbon tetrachloride toxicity potentiated by isopropyl alcohol.
Potentiation of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) by isopropyl alcohol has previously been shown only in rats. Here 14 cases of toxicity in an isopropyl alcohol packaging plant following exposure to CCl4 are described. Renal failure or hepatitis developed in 4. Expired alveolar gas had high acetone levels and the workers were thus metabolically predisposed to CCl4 injury. Stricter limits for CCl4 exposure (present U.S. TLV: 10ppm) are required when there is concomitant exposure to isopropyl alcohol.
Journal of the American Medical Association, Oct. 1976, Vol.236, No.16, p.1853-1856. Illus. 20 ref.
Criteria for a recommended standard - Occupational exposure to phenol.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of occupational diseases due to exposure to phenol. The time-weighted average exposure (10h working day) should not exceed 20mg/m3 over a 40h week. The ceiling concentration is fixed at 60mg/m3 for any 15min period. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, sanitation, monitoring and recordkeeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed under the following heads: biological effects of exposure, environmental data, development of the standard, research priorities. Procedures for sampling and analysis in air are detailed and useful additional information is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-196, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, July 1976. 167p. 349 ref.
Balmer M.F., Smith F.A., Leach L.J., Yuile C.L.
Effects in the liver of methylene chloride inhaled alone and with ethyl alcohol.
Guinea-pigs were exposed for 1-5 days to concentrations of up to 12,400ppm methylene chloride and 27,900ppm ethanol. An antagonism between the 2 substances appeared to be present at high concentrations, while exposure to high concentrations of ethanol seemed to potentiate the effect of 500ppm methylene chloride.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1976, Vol.37, No.6, p.345-352. Illus. 19 ref.
Hirosawa I., Asaeda G., Arizono H., Shimbo S.I., Ikeda M.
Effects of catechol on human subjects.
Data from medical examinations of 13 workers exposed simultaneously to catechol and phenol vapours are reported and supplemented by data from animal experiments. Procedures for colorimetric determination of catechol in the air and urine in the presence of phenol are described. Average exposure concentrations of catechol and phenol were 1.8ppb and 55.6ppb respectively. The chief complaints were related to the upper respiratory tract, confirmed by clinical examination. No evidence suggested metabolic inhibition between phenol and catechol.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 3 June 1976, Vol.37, No.2, p.107-114. Illus. 17 ref.
Toxicological features of dimethylvinylethynyl-p-hydroxyphenylmethane
Harakteristika toksikologičeskih svojstv dimetilvinilėtinil-p-oksifenilmetana [in Russian]
Dimethylvinylethynyl-p-hydroxyphenylmethane (DVP) or 4-(1,1-dimethyl-4-penten-2-ynyl)phenol is used as a corrosion inhibitor and sealing agent. The dermatological, haematotoxic and genetic effects of DVP were assessed in experiments on white rats and rabbits. Based on the results obtained, a TLV of 0.6mg/m3 for DVP vapour concentrations in workpost air is recommended.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1976, No.1, p.95-96. 2 ref.
Ozerskij Ju.G., Akimov Ju.A., Kabreljan S.N.
Method of determination of phenols in gaseous effluents in a coal by-products plant
Metodika opredelenija fenolov v vybrosah koksohimičeskogo proizvodstva [in Russian]
Description of a sampling and analysis method for determining concentrations of phenols in gaseous effluents from plants producing phenol from coal. Gas-liquid chromatography is used. A comparison of the results obtained with this method and those obtained with colorimetry (reaction with 4-aminoantipyrine) shows that the chromatography method is more precise.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Jan. 1976, No.1, p.69-71. Illus. 1 ref.
Resistance of protective gloves to industrial solvents - Results obtained with ethanol on some 100 types of commercial gloves
Résistance des gants de protection aux solvants industriels - Résultats obtenus avec l'éthanol sur une centaine de gants du commerce. [in French]
Results of tests carried out by the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) on the deterioration of gloves by soaking them in the solvent (combined mechanical and chemical actions), permeability to the solvent and time taken for the solvent to pass through the glove. The findings are classified on a qualitative scale, graded according to how the gloves are used, and accompanied by advice for users.
Travail et sécurité, Nov. 1976, No.11, p.509-516. Illus.
Criteria for a recommended standard: Occupational exposure to methyl alcohol.
Recommendations are made for the prevention of adverse effects of methyl alcohol on the health and safety of workers. The time-weighted average exposure (10-h working day) should not exceed 200ppm (262mg/m3) over a 40-h week with a ceiling value of 800ppm (1048mg/m3) as determined by a sampling time of 15min. Other recommendations relate to medical supervision, labelling, personal protection, information of employees, work practices, monitoring and record keeping. The criteria on which the recommendations are based are discussed at some length under the following heads: biological effects of exposure; environmental data; development of a standard; work practices. Procedures for sampling and analysis of the alcohol in air are described in detail and useful additional information (recommendation for an identification data sheet for methyl alcohol shipments; future research priorities for methyl alcohol; methyl alcohol consumption in the USA; occupations exposed to methyl alcohol; tabulated animal experimentation results; etc.) is given in appendices.
HEW Publication No.(NIOSH)76-148, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, Ohio 45226, USA, Mar. 1976. 136p. 91 ref.
Åstrand I., Övrum P., Lindqvist T., Hultengren M.
Exposure to butyl alcohol - Uptake and distribution in man.
12 subjects were exposed to 300 or 600mg/m3 of n-butyl alcohol in inspired air during rest and exercise (4 periods, 30min each) on a bicycle ergometer. The results were puzzling in view of the high blood/air partition coefficient for the alcohol. The arterial blood concentration was low, as was the concentration in the last part of the expired air ("alveolar" concentration). The ratio of alveolar concentration to inspired air concentration was low in relation to the low percentage uptake. The high solubility of the alcohol in water may explain the results. Butyl alcohol was probably partially taken up in the water of the dead space mucous membranes during inspiration. It was then partially released from the membranes. Therefore the concentration of butyl alcohol in the last part of expiration was probably not the same as the concentration in the alveolar air.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Sep. 1976, Vol.2, No.3, p.165-175. Illus. 10 ref.
Seńczuk W., Litewka B.
Absorption of cumene through the respiratory tract and excretion of dimethylphenylcarbinol in urine.
5 men and 5 women were exposed to cumene vapours of 240, 480 and 720mg/m3 for 2.5-48h, and urinary dimethylphenylcarbinol determined. The average retention of cumene vapours in the respiratory tract was about 50%, depending on the duration of exposure. Excretion of dimethylphenylcarbinol was directly proportional to the absorbed dose of cumene. From these results a test was developed permitting calculation of the absorbed cumene dose over 8h with a precision of about ±13.5%.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1976, Vol.33, No.2, p.100-105. Illus. 12 ref.
Göthe C.J., Övrum P., Hallen B.
Exposure to anesthetic gases and ethanol during work in operating rooms.
Measurement of halothane and ethanol in operating theatres yielded levels of up to 34ppm (exposure of anaesthetic nurses to halothane) and 46.6ppm (ethanol, surgical nurses), with time-weighted averages of up to 12.5 and 15.3ppm respectively. In controlled experiments with exposure to halothane or ethanol about 60% of the substances were retained; ethanol rapidly fell to zero in the end-expired air, while halothane persisted for more than 1h. Effective ventilation of operating theatres calls for local exhaust close to the leakage source in addition to general ventilation. Various aspects of ventilation are discussed.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.96-106. 70 ref.
Levin J.O., Rappe C., Nilsson C.A.
Use of chlorophenols as fungicides in sawmills.
Occupational hygiene studies at the trimming, grading and packaging positions of 2 sawmills, with results of chromatographic analysis of 3 commercial chlorophenol formulations and of wood dust. Chemistry and toxicology of chlorophenols. The most frequent impurities of the commercial chlorophenols, which are applied by dipping or spraying, were chlorinated phenoxyphenols, diphenyl ethers, dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins. Analysis of wood dust showed the impurities to be enriched in relation to the chlorophenols themselves, probably because of their low volatility and high stability. Contaminant concentrations were much higher at the plant employing spraying as method of application; the dipping method is therefore preferable, provided that the highly contaminated sludge from the dipping tank is adequately disposed of.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1976, Vol.2, No.2, p.71-81. Illus. 25 ref.
Åstrand I., Övrum P., Lindqvist T., Hultengren M.
Exposure to butanol - Uptake and distribution in man.
Exposition för butanol - Upptag och distribution hos människa [in Swedish]
12 subjects were exposed for 2h to 200 or 600mg/m3 butanol in inspired air during rest and exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The butanol concentrations in arterial blood and in the last ("alveolar") part of expired air were low. The ratio of the "alveolar" concentration to inspired concentration was low in relation to the low percentage uptake. The solubility of butanol in water may explain the results; the alcohol was probably dissolved in the water of the mucuous membranes in the dead-space during inspiration. It was then partly released from the membranes and the concentration in the last part of the expiration was not the same as the concentration in the actual alveolar air.
Arbete och hälsa - Vetenskaplig skriftserie 1976:12, Arbetarskyddsverket, Stockholm, Sweden, 1976. 28p. Illus. 11 ref.
Virtamo M., Tossavainen A.
Gases formed from furan binding agents.
Furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde concentrations in the air of coremaking areas of 10 iron and steel foundries were measured. The mean concentration of furfuryl alcohol and formaldehyde was 4.3cm3/m3 and 2.7cm3/m3 respectively. Furfuryl alcohol exceeded its threshold limit value (TLV) of 5cm3/m3 in 22% of the determinations; and formaldehyde (TLV = 2cm3/m3) in 38%. In addition phenol concentration was determined in one foundry; and phosphoric acid concentration in two foundries. The concentrations of phenol and phosphoric acid were far lower than their TLVs.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1976, Vol.2, Supplement 1, p.50-53. Illus. 16 ref.
Eben A., Kimmerle G.
Metabolism studies in N,N-dimethylformamide - III. Studies about the influence of ethanol in persons and laboratory animals.
Some industrial physicians have pointed out that in workers exposed to N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) the intake of ethanol can produce symptoms similar to those caused by Antabuse (disulfiram). Because no information is available concerning the levels of DMF and ethanol involved, inhalation studies were carried out in animals and man with known concentrations. In general, a reciprocal inhibition of the metabolism of DMF and ethanol was found. After exposure and previous administration of ethanol in man no increase in the blood DMF level was found. The blood N-methylformamide concentration was however comparatively lower. The mechanism underlying the inhibition of DMF metabolism is discussed together with findings of other authors.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 9 Mar. 1976, Vol.36, No.4, p.243-265. 23 ref.
Humbert B.E., Fernández J.G.
Simultaneous determination of trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol by gas chromatography.
The analytical method described is based on extraction of halogenated hydrocarbons with ether containing the internal standard, and rapid methylation of the trichloroacetic acid with 3-methyl-1-p-tolyltriazene at room temperature. Urochloralic acid (β,β,β,-trichloroethyl-D-glucuronide) is hydrolysed with concentrated sulfuric acid. After dilution with hexane, gas-liquid chromatography analysis is conducted with a highly sensitive electron capture detector permitting determination of concentrations <1mg/l. A statistical study showed good reproducibility for determination of trichloroacetic acid and trichloroethanol concentrations between 0.5 and 6mg/l. The use of 1,3-dibromopropane as internal standard and the rapid and efficient methylation method make this analysis simple, accurate and reproducible.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 9 Mar. 1976, Vol.36, No.4, p.235-241. Illus. 17 ref.
Hazardous chemical reactions - 37. Alcohols
Réactions chimiques dangereuses - 37. Alcools. [in French]
Enumeration and description of the possible reactions between acetylenic, allyl, amyl, benzyl, cyclohexyl, ethyl, furfuryl, isopropyl and methyl alcohols, 2-butyne-1,4-diol, glycerol, glycol, 3-methyl-2-penten-4-yn-1-ol, and 1-phenyl-2-methyl-2-propanol, and various organic and inorganic substances. The references used are listed for each reaction.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1976, No.82, Note No.999-82-76, p.121-125.
Mel'nikova L.V., Beljakov A.A., Smirnova V.G., Kučenko L.T.
Methods for determination of harmful substances in workplace air during sodium pentachlorophenolate production
Sanitarno-himičeskie metody opredelenija vrednyh veščestv, vstrečajuščihsja v proizvodstve pentahlorofenoljata natrija [in Russian]
Description of some methods of determination developed for an occupational health survey in a pesticide plant producing sodium pentachlorophenolate (SPCP) where the workplace air contained SPCP dust, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) dust and hexachlorane (lindane), trichlorobenzene (TCB) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) vapours: determination of HCB by phototurbidometry, colorimetric determination of PCP and of PCPS aerosols by reactions with 4-amino antipyrine, pyramidon and safranine (the last-mentioned being found to be the best reagent); determination of PCP and SPCP by spectrophotometry.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, July 1975, No.7, p.37-39. 8 ref.
Larionov A.G., Brojtman A.Ja.
Combined effects of 2,6-dimethylphenol and methanol
O kombinirovannom dejstvii 2,6-dimetilfenola i metanola [in Russian]
Mixtures of the vapours of 2,6-dimethylphenol (2,6-xylenol) and of methanol, which are formed during production of polyphenylene oxide, are hazardous to the health of exposed workers. Results are reported of experiments in which white rats were exposed to various doses of 2,6-xylenol and methanol, and subjected to repeated inhalation of their vapours separately and together. A synergistic effect of the 2 compounds was noted on both acute (single) and chronic exposure. The combined concentration of 2,6-xylenol and methanol should thus be less than the sum of their TLVs when both are present in the workplace air.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Nov. 1975, No.11, p.27-30. 5 ref.
Schaffernicht H., Hädge H.
Study of formaldehyde and phenol concentrations in the workplace air of foundries
Untersuchung der Formaldehyd- und Phenolkonzentrationen in der Luft von Giessereiarbeitsplätzen [in German]
After a brief presentation of the health hazards of phenol and formaldehyde, the methods and results of concentration measurements of these substances in the moulding shop of a large foundry are given. Measurements were made with personal samplers which permitted continuous monitoring of air concentrations. The excursions above the maximum permissible concentrations observed should be eliminated by the use of less toxic resin/hardener mixtures, formaldehyde-binding substances and appropriate ventilation.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Aug. 1975, Vol.21, No.8, p.610-613. 20 ref.
Gas chromatography method for determination of methanol in industrial workplace atmospheres
Gashromatografski metod za opredeljane na metanol v industrialnata atmosfera [in Bulgarian]
Description of the above method, which involves the following parameters: filling material: Porapak Q; temperature of column: 170°C; calibration by ethanol; detection by flame ionisation. The chromatogram and calibration curve are reproduced.
Letopisi na higienno-epidemiologičnata služba, 1975, Vol.9, No.3, p.135-141. Illus. 6 ref.
Rodermund O.E., Wieland H.
Vitiligo-like depigmentation, hepatosplenomegaly and goitre caused by occupational contact with p-tert-butylphenol - A new systemic occupational disease
Vitiligoartige Depigmentierungen, Leber-, Milz-Veränderungen und Struma durch beruflichen Kontakt mit paratertiärem Butylphenol - eine neue systemische Berufskrankheit [in German]
Vitiligoid depigmentation and, for the first time, hepatosplenopathy and goitre with disturbed thyroid hormone synthesis were observed in 3 workers employed in p-tert-butylphenol production. The authors put forward the hypothesis of a systemic action of p-tert-butylphenol affecting various organ systems, as a result of ingestion or inhalation of the substance. The findings are confirmed by observations of other authors.
Berufs-Dermatosen, Dec. 1975, Vol.23, No.6, p.193-195. 6 ref.
Dvoskin Ja., Sandrackaja S.Ė., Rahmanina N.A., Rodnikov A.V., Žarkova V.K., Volodina L.I., Erofeeva L.F., Kalinko T.A., Laškina A.V.
Study of the combined effect of phenol and formaldehyde in a warm atmosphere (+30°)
Izučenie sovmestnogo dejstvija fenola i formal'degida v kombinacii s povyšennoj temperaturoj vozduha [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments for the establishment of standards for use of phenol-formaldehyde resins in the construction of ships sailing in the tropics. Chronic exposure to 0.023mg/m3 phenol and 0.024mg/m3 formaldehyde at 30°C produces a toxic effect characterised by changes in the erythropoiesis, the phagocytic activity of the neutrophiles, neuromuscular functions, etc. As a result of these and other experiments with lower concentrations (at the same temperature) the authors recommend 0.005mg/m3 and 0.006mg/m3 as TLVs for combinations of phenol and formaldehyde, respectively.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Dec. 1975, No.12, p.17-21. 5 ref.
Phenols - Carbonyl derivatives
Phénols - Dérivés carbonylés. [in French]
General study on phenols (phenol, cresols, diphenols, triphenols) and aliphatic aldehydes (formaldehyde, metaldehyde, paraldehyde, acrolein), with consideration of the following aspects: use; occupationally-induced acute and chronic poisoning; prevention; treatment. Summary of relevant French regulations.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale. Intoxications, Fascicule 16048 A 10, 1-1975, 18 rue Séguier, 75006 Paris, France. 4p. 10 ref.
Vesterberg O., Gorczak J., Krasts M.
Methods for measuring trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid in blood and urine after exposure to trichloroethylene.
A modified revision of the method of Müller et al. for the gas chromatographic determination of the metabolites of trichloroethylene is described (materials and methods, apparatus). Trichloroethannol is determined after extraction by isooctane, and trichloroacetic acid is decarboxylated to chloroform, which is determined.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1975, Vol.1, No.4, p.243-248. 17 ref.
Clay K.L., Murphy R.C., Watkins W.D.
Experimental methanol toxicity in the primate: Analysis of metabolic acidosis.
Methanol was administered to rats, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), and pigtail monkeys (Macaca nemestrina). Of these animals, only the pigtail monkey reliably developed a severe metabolic organic acidosis resembling that observed in humans. Blood and urine specimens drawn from methanol-treated pigtail monkeys were analysed for organic acid content by gas chromatography - mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and specific assays were performed for formate. A preliminary study suggested that, after methanol administation to pigtail monkeys, formate concentrations may be significantly greater in the vitreous humour than in the blood, a finding that may have particular significance in methanol blindness. The anion gap resulting during methanol acidosis was accounted for in full by increased blood concentrations of formate. Systemic formate concentrations remained low in rats and monkeys which failed to become acidotic following methanol administration. Formate appears therefore to play a role comparable to that of formaldehyde in the toxicity of methanol.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Oct. 1975, Vol.34, No.1, p.49-61. Illus. 36 ref.
Morel C., Cavigneaux A., Protois J.C.
Alcool isobutylique. [in French]
Uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology. References to French regulations concerning occupational safety and health, environmental protection and transport. Recommendations on technical and medical aspects.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, Fiche toxicologique No.117, French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14. Paris, France, 3rd quarter 1975, No.80, Note No.979-80-75, p.411-414. 15 ref.
Brown V.K.H., Box V.L., Simpson B.J.
Decontamination procedures for skin exposed to phenolic substances.
Spraying or swabbing with a mixture of polyethylene glycol 300/methylated spirits (PEG-300/IMS) (2:1 by volume) was shown to markedly reduce mortality, systemic intoxication and burns from exposure to phenol, cumene hydroperoxide, or phenol/acetone cleavage product. In the case of sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide, PEG-300/IMS (2:1 by volume) was slightly less effective than water as a decontaminant. The mixture did not cause permanent eye irritation and should not present a hazard when used as a spray.
Archives of Environmental Health, Jan. 1975, Vol.30, No.1, p.1-6. 5 ref.
Wills J.H., Coulston F., Harris E.S., McChesney E.W., Russell J.C., Serrone D.M.
Inhalation of aerosolized ethylene glycol by man.
After a brief review of the literature and a description of the signs and symptoms observed after experimental ethylene glycol ingestion, the authors present their own experiments in humans, in which 19 male volunteers were exposed to aerosolized ethylene glycol in mean daily concentrations of 3-67mg/m3 almost continually for 4 weeks. Blood and urine examinations gave no evidence of the absorption of important quantities of ethylene glycol. There were no serious signs of toxicity but some complaints of irritation of the upper respiratory tract. Irritation became common with an ethylene glycol concentration of 140mg/m3, and more than 200mg/m3 was intolerable. It was concluded that an individual with normal sensory apparatus could not absorb a harmful quantity of ethylene glycol through the respiratory tract. Detailed results of laboratory and psychometric tests are given in tables.
Clinical Toxicology, Oct. 1974, Vol.7, No.5, p.463-476. Illus. 27 ref.
Velizarov A., Georgiev A., Hadžieva J.
Histopathological liver changes after chronic experimental phenol poisoning
Histologični promeni v černija drob pri eksperimentalno hronično otravjane s fenol [in Bulgarian]
Results of research in 35 rabbits given 0.18g/kg phenol daily for 7-35 days by the intravenous route. The authors noted severe dystrophic changes (non-fatty parenchymal and vacuolar dystrophy) of the hepatic parenchyma, necrobiotic lesions of the hepatocytes, a considerable decline (to complete disappearance) in glycogen and a very great fall in cytoplasmic ribonucleic acid. In animals in which administration was stopped after 35 days they noted a reversal of the dystrophic processes and the return of glycogen and RNA levels in the liver cells to normal values.
Trudove na Instituta po higiena, ohrana na truda i profesionalni zaboljavanija, 1974, Vol.22, No.1, p.141-146. 4 ref.
Müller G.M., Grigorowa R.
Morphological changes in subacute allyl alcohol poisoning and at high environmental temperature
Morphologische Veränderungen bei der subakuten Einwirkung von Allylalkohol und erhöhter Umgebungstemperatur [in German]
Histochemical techniques in a series of experiments in rats showed increased liver toxicity due to allyl alcohol under high environmental temperature (35°C) conditions. These results confirm the hypothesis that elevated environmental temperatures may enhance the toxicity of certain chemical substances.
Zeitschrift für die gesamte Hygiene und ihre Grenzgebiete, Feb. 1974, Vol.20, No.2, p.78-80. 30 ref.
Schaffernicht H., Deicke H.
Continuous personal dosimetry of phenol and sulfur dioxide at the workplace by means of colorimetric methods
Kontinuierliche personengebundene Messung von Phenol und Schwefeldioxid am Arbeitsplatz mit Hilfe colorimetrischer Methoden [in German]
Description of a portable apparatus weighing 2kg for semi-continuous dosimetry over a period of 8h. Air is aspirated by a membrane pump and conducted onto a colorimetric test paper strip, which moves every 4min for phenol and every 2min for sulfur dioxide. Concentrations are identified by coloured zones of varying intensity. Details are given as regards reactive agents, procedure, durability of test paper, etc.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 12 Mar. 1974, Vol.33, No.1, p.71-77. Illus. 3 ref.
Ogata M., Saeki T.
Measurement of chloral hydrate, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid and monochloroacetic acid in the serum and the urine by gas chromatography.
A gas-chromatographic method for the determination of trichloroethylene metabolites in serum and urine is described. Elution patterns, calibration curves and recovery rates are given. The analytical sensitivity of gas chromatography with an electron-capture detector for trichloro-compounds was found to be superior to that of colorimetric methods. Urinary trichloroacetic and monochloroacetic acid can be determined simultaneously. Methanolic hydrogen chloride was used for methyl esterification, since diazomethane may be carcinogenic.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 12 Mar. 1974, Vol.33, No.1, p.49-58. Illus. 9 ref.
Toxic effects of the mixture of kelthane, chlorophos and copper oxychloride
O toksičeskih svojstvah smesi kel'tana, hlorofosa i hlorokisi medi [in Russian]
Results of animal experiments designed to establish the toxic effects of this mixture, which has acaricidal, insecticidal and fungicidal properties. The mixture had much greater pathological effects than its different constituents given separately.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Oct. 1974, No.10, p.102-103. 1 ref.
Kassebart V., Angerer J.
Influence of dichloromethane on the disappearance rate of ethanol in the blood of rats.
After theoretical considerations on dichloromethane metabolism, results of experiments with rats, exposed to 4,200ppm dichloromethane after intraperitoneal administration of ethanol, are reported and discussed. It is concluded that an influence of dichloromethane on the metabolism of ethanol is unlikely, and that rats exposed to dichloromethane show higher blood ethanol concentrations compared to controls. Therefore, an elevation of blood ethanol level cannot be excluded in workers exposed to dichloromethane vapour. It is emphasised that a possible influence of ethanol on dichloromethane in the organism cannot be judged from the results.
Internationales Archiv für Arbeitsmedizin - International Archives of Occupational Health, 18 Sep. 1974, Vol.33, No.3, p.231-236. Illus. 13 ref..
Kredl F., Breyl I.
Methods for detecting and determining pentachlorophenol
Metody průkazu a stanovení pentachlórfenolu [in Czech]
Extensive survey of the methods for determining and detecting pentachlorophenol, followed by a detailed description of the modified colorimetric, thin-layer and gas-chromatography techniques used by the authors.
Pracovní lékařství, Mar. 1974, Vol.26, No.3, p.97-101. Illus. 27 ref.
Jäger W., Schmidt K., Weichardt H.
New method of decontaminating phenol-containing exhaust gases in shell moulding
Eine neue Methode zur Entgiftung phenolhaltiger Abluft beim Giessen nach dem Maskenformverfahren [in German]
Description of the method, based on wet oxidation by permanganate. Tests in a foundry in which shell moulding is carried out yielded a decontamination rate of 94%; the phenol concentration in the purified air was well below the threshold limit value. A curve illustrates the course of phenol build-up after pouring.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin und Arbeitsschutz, June 1974, Vol.24, No.6, p.177-180. Illus. 6 ref.
Herbolsheimer R., Funk L.
Gas chromatographic determination of trichloroethylene, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid and ethanol in one analytical procedure from one sample
Gaschromatographische Bestimmung von Trichloräthylen, Trichloräthanol, Trichloressigsäure und Äthanol in einem Analysengang aus einer Probe [in German]
Description of a new method for successive determination of trichloroethylene, trichloroethanol, trichloroacetic acid and ethanol in a single blood or urine sample: principle of the analytical method, determination procedure, calibration, sensitivity and reproducibility. The possibility of quantitative determination from a sample as small as 10µl blood permits repeated capillary blood sampling for systematic concentration studies over a period of time. The blood samples may be kept in closed vials for several days without changing the results.
Archiv für Toxikologie, 1974, Vol.32, No.3, p.209-215. Illus. 4 ref.
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