Alcohols - 685 entries found
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Conde-Salazar L., Guimaraens D., Romero L., González M.A., Harto A.
Contact allergy to para-tertiary butylphenol-formaldehyde resin (PTBP)
Sensibilidad de contacto a resina para-terciario-butil-feno-formol (Resina PTBP) [in Spanish]
A study of 1,400 patients in an occupational dermatology clinic. Positive patch tests to PTBP were found in 15 cases, of which 3 could be identified as of certain occupational origin (all 3 were shoemakers with exposure to PTBP-containing glue).
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, July-Sep. 1984, Vol.31, No.123, p.27-35. Illus. 26 ref.
Contents of this data sheet on phenol: physical properties; fire hazard; uses; hazardous reactions; toxicity (acute and chronic exposure) and biological hazards; safety precautions; medical examination; leakage and spillage; handling and storage; first aid measures.
Safety Practitioner, Nov. 1984, Vol.2, No.11, p.6-7. 13 ref.
Andersen K.E., Hamann K.
How sensitizing is chlorocresol? Allergy tests in guinea pigs versus the clinical experience
The sensitising potential of the biocide chlorocresol, used widely in pharmaceutical products, was judged strong using the guinea pig maximisation test (GPMT) and doubtful in the less sensitive open epicutaneous test. An optimal sensitising concentration above which no further increase in the sensitisation rate occurred was found. Rechallenge after 2 weeks showed a marked decrease in sensitivity. Consecutive human patch tests with 2% chlorocresol showed 11 reactions among 1,462 patients tested, but none were explainable and reproducible during re-tests and provocative tests indicating that the GPMT overestimated the sensitisation potential.
Contact Dermatitis, July 1984, Vol.11, No.1, p.11-20. 29 ref.
Brusewitz S., Wennberg A.
Criteria document for setting exposure limits for butanol and butyl acetate
Kriteriedokument för gränsvärden - Butanol och butylacetat [in Swedish]
Contents of this critical literature survey: uses; activities involving exposure to the title substances; toxicology (metabolic models of butanol isomers and butyl acetate, toxicological mechanisms, effects on various organs (in particular the central nervous system), reproductive effects); allergy; genotoxic effects; carcinogenic effects; exposure indicators; dose-effect relations; definitions.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1984. 45p. 60 ref.
Silkowski J.B., Horstman S.W., Morgan M.S.
Permeation through five commercially available glove materials by two pentachlorophenol formulations
5 glove materials (natural rubber, 2 PVC formulations, nitrile rubber, latex/neoprene) were tested for permeation by solutions of 4.3% pentachlorophenol (PCP) in diesel oil and 4.2% sodium pentachlorophenate (SPCP) in water. Nitrile rubber and one of the PVC materials resisted best to the diesel solution of PCP. The natural rubber material was the only one to perform poorly in contact with the SPCP solution. The breakthrough times and permeation rates are given for each brand of the gloves tested.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1984, Vol.45, No.8, p.501-504. 10 ref.
Olsen J.H., Jensen O.M., Gallagher R.P., Threlfall W.J.
Nasal cancer and chlorophenols (1). Cancer and occupational exposure to chlorophenols (2)
Article 1 is an analysis of the occupational histories of 839 cases of nasal cancer in Denmark. 2465 cases of other kinds of cancer served as controls. A slightly higher, but not significant, relative risk was found in persons with occupational exposure to chlorophenols, with the risk further reduced when adjustment was made for occupational wood-dust exposure. Article 2 is an analysis of proportional mortality ratios for workers in British Columbia (Canada). Among workers potentially exposed to chlorophenols (woodworkers, farmers, railway labourers), no significant increases were found in the incidence of nasopharyngeal tumours, lymphomas or soft tissue tumours, with Hodgkin's disease showing a significant increase (PMR of 250-290) among wood workers.
Lancet, 7 July 1984, Vol.2, No.8393, p.47-48. 9 ref.
Frederick L.J., Schulte P.A., Apol A.
Investigation and control of occupational hazards associated with the use of spirit duplicators
Health hazard evaluation conducted by NIOSH to determine the possibility of adverse health effects in teacher aides using direct-process methanol duplicating machines. Concentrations of airborne methanol in the duplicating room ranged from 365-3080ppm; 15 of 21 measurement exceeded the 800ppm (15min) limit recommended by NIOSH. Workers reported significantly more methanol poisoning symptoms than a non-exposed control group. A mean 96% reduction in exposure was accomplished using inexpensive enclosures and existing room exhaust systems.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1984, Vol.45, No.1, p.51-55. Illus. 10 ref.
(Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
2,4,5-Trichlorophenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol
2,4,5-trichlorophénol et 2,4,6-trichlorophénol [in French]
This data sheet contains the various names, uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, and fire hazards of these trichlorophenols. Pathology and toxicology: experimental toxicology (acute, subacute and chronic poisoning; research into teratogenic, embryotoxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic effects); toxicity in man (acute and chronic, epidemiology of carcinogenesis). Regulations: OSH (in France), transport (France and international). Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1984, No.114, p.131-134. 22 ref.
Pentaclorofenato de sódio [in Portuguese]
Data sheet on sodium pentachlorophenolate, containing information on: chemical composition, properties, main hazards, emergency measures, first-aid measures, handling and storage, and treatment of residues. The TLV in Brazil is: (suggested) 0.5mg/m3 for a 40h week.
Fundacentro, C.P.11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1983. 2p. Bibl.
Pentachlorofenol [in Portuguese]
Data sheet on pentachlorophenol, containing information on: chemical composition, properties, main hazards, emergency measures, first-aid measures, handling and storage, and treatment of residues. The TLV in Brazil is: (suggested) 0.5mg/m3 for a 40h week.
Fundacentro, C.P.11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1983. 2p. Bibl.
Fenol [in Portuguese]
Data sheet on phenol, containing information on: chemical composition, properties, main hazards, emergency measures, first-aid measures, handling and storage, and treatment of residues. The TLV in Brazil is: 4ppm (15mg/m3).
Fundacentro, C.P.11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1983. 2p. Bibl.
Konasewich D.E., Henning F.A., Wile K.H., Gerencher E.
Chlorophenate wood protection - Recommendations for design and operation
Code of practice on the use of chlorophenols and chlorophenates for protecting lumber against fungi in specialised undertakings in British Columbia, Canada. Aspects covered: the need for wood protection; hazards of chlorophenols and chlorophenates; personnel protection; general practices at wood protection facilities; recommended design features and operating practices; transportation of treated materials; disposal of wastes; summary of legislation.
British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Environment Canada, British Columbia, Canada, Dec. 1983. 90p. Illus. 32 ref.
Krapotkina M.A., Galickaja V.A., Egorov Ju.L., Bereznjak I.V., Fedorova S.G., Ivanov Ju.V.
Experimental bases of the maximum allowable level of hand and arm skin contamination by C5-C10 aliphatic alcohols
Ėksperimental'nye materialy k obosnovaniju PDU zagrjaznenija koži ruk alifatičeskimi spirtami C5-C10 [in Russian]
The 5-carbon (C5) amyl alcohol and the 7-carbon (C7) heptyl alcohol were taken as representatives of the C5-C10 family of fatty alcohols. No skin contamination limits have been established for these compounds, which are widely used in the chemical industry. Neither alcohol showed local irritant action on rat or rabbit skin. The lowest doses that produced physiological responses in rats as a result of skin absorption were 500mg/kg for amyl alcohol and 100mg/kg for heptyl alcohol. Chronic exposure of rats to ≥20mg/kg heptyl alcohol gave metabolic disturbances, alterations in liver and central nervous system function and morphological changes in the skin. The 20mg/kg dose is close to the threshold for chronic action. A maximum allowable level of 0.2mg/cm2 is recommended for contamination of hand and arm skin by C5-C10 alcohols.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1983, No.8, p.8-12. 4 ref.
Dmitriev M.T., Miščihin V.A.
Gas-chromatographic determination of phenol in air
Gazohromatografičeskoe opredelenie fenola v vozduhe [in Russian]
Phenol in air is determined by passing the air to be analysed through a 15cm by 2.5mm tube filled with silica gel. The silica gel is washed with chloroform, the eluate is concentrated by evaporation, and an aliquot is applied to a 2m by 3mm column of 15% Reoplex 400 on Chromosorb AW-HMDS (granulation 0.16-0.25mm). At a carrier gas flow of 40mL/min, an injector temperature of 250°C and a column temperature of 150°C, phenol has a retention time of 4min 25s. With a 20-30L air sample, the method can detect as little as 0.002-0.005mg/m3 with a precision of 3-6%.
Gigiena i sanitarija, May 1983, No.5, p.42-44. Illus. 8 ref.
Pylev L.N., Vasil'eva L.A., Koval'skaja G.D., Soldatova N.G., Gurski T., Galkevič Ė., Sikora M.
Mutagenic and carcinogenic activity of 1-(N-dimethyl)amino-7-naphthol
Mutagennaja i kancerogennaja aktivnost' 1-(N-dimetil)-amino-7-naftola [in Russian]
The title compound was administered intragastrically and subcutaneously to rats and mice. Subcutaneous administration produced tumours of various types, but the carcinogenic activity of the compound was weak. There was no difference between rats and mice in the effects of the compound. The compound was weakly mutagenic (no data given) in cultures of Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test); it was completely inactive without preliminary activation by rat-liver microsome preparations.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, May 1983, No.5, p.25-28. 2 ref.
Wilcosky T.C., Tyroler H.A.
Mortality from heart disease among workers exposed to solvents
A survivorship analysis was used to compare the cardiovascular disease mortality in a cohort of 1,282 white male workers exposed and non-exposed to solvents in a rubber and tyre manufacturing plant during a 15-year follow-up period. Detailed exposure estimates for 25 solvents were available. The known association between carbon disulfide exposure and ischaemic heart disease (IHD) was apparent among these workers, and 2 other solvents, ethanol and phenol, were also significant predictors of IHD. Solvents other than carbon disulfide may cause atherosclerotic disease.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Dec. 1983, Vol.25, No.12, p.879-885. Illus. 20 ref.
Kalman D.A., Horstman S.W.
Persistence of tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol in exposed woodworkers
The decline in urinary concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) and 2,3,4,6-tetrachlorophenol (TCP) was monitored in a group of 40 woodworkers during two successive annual 16-day vacation periods. Samples were taken on the last working day prior to shutdown and on the first day after the shutdown. Among workers with the highest pre-shutdown levels, uniform TCP reductions of 90±6% were observed, indicating elimination rates similar to those reported for PCP in a single-dose human exposure study. In 2 of 4 workers with significant pre-shutdown levels, sampled on alternate days during the shutdown, the declines in urine TCP were consistent with a simple one-compartment first order decay. The possible effect of environmental PCP exposure on observed biological decay rates, when occupational PCP exposures are low, was indicated by a wide variation in urinary PCP reduction and slight decreases or actual increases observed during the shutdown period.
Journal of Toxicology - Clinical Toxicology, 1983, Vol.20, No.4, p.343-352. Illus. 11 ref.
Pentaclorofenato de sódio [in Portuguese]
This data sheet on sodium pentachlorophenolate (C6Cl5ONa) covers: properties of the substance; tolerance levels (suggested: 0.5mg/m3 of pentachlorophenol); symptoms of poisoning; effects of exposure; suggested warning sign; first-aid measures and follow-up; handling storage; treatment of residues; preventive measures.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Sep. 1983, Vol.11, No.43, betw. pp.74-75. 8 ref.
Miller T.L., Lorusso D.J., Walsh M.L., Deinzer M.L.
The acute toxicity of penta-, hexa-, and heptachlorohydroxydiphenyl ethers in mice
The acute intraperitoneal LD50 values determined for a series of polychlorohydroxydiphenyl ethers (Cl=5-7) were slightly less than those found for Irgasan DP-300 and substantially less than those observed for nonachlorohydroxydiphenyl ether and pentachlorophenol. A marked hypothermic effect was found, and symptomatology suggested a non-specific depressant effect on the central nervous system.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Aug.-Sep. 1983, Vol.12, Nos. 2-3, p.245-253. Illus. 23 ref.
Kušneva V.S., Koloskova G.A., Koltunova I.G., Kirilenko V.T.
Experimental data for setting standards for isobutyl alcohol in workplace air
Ėksperimental'nye dannye k gigieničeskomu reglamentirovaniju izobutilovogo spirta v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Isobutyl alcohol was tested in a standard battery of toxicological tests with rats, mice, guinea pigs and rabbits. Its LD50 was 3100-3500mg/kg and its LC50 was 15,500-26,250mg/m3. Probit analysis gave a threshold for acute toxicity (Limac) of 670mg/m3. Isobutanol administration produced functional and/or morphological abnormalities in the bone marrow, thyroid gland, liver and brain. The compound showed irritant action, with a threshold concentration (Limir) of 270mg/m3, and affected breathing rate at 100mg/m3. The data support a MAC of 10mg/m3; this value has been made official in list No.15 of USSR standard GOST 12.1.005.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Jan. 1983, No.1, p.46-47. 6 ref.
Andersson R., Carlsson A., Byfält Nordqvist M., Sollenberg J.
Urinary excretion of hippuric acid and o-cresol after laboratory exposure of humans to toluene
Volunteers were exposed to 80ppm toluene for 2h under different workloads for periods of 30min and with varying diet. There was no correlation between total urinary excretion, excretion rate and concentration of the metabolites and respiratory uptake of toluene. Thus neither metabolite was a reliable measure of individual toluene uptake under the conditions of the trial. A number of other factors are considered to influence the fraction of the retained toluene that is excreted as hippuric acid and o-cresol in the urine.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Dec. 1983, Vol.53, No.2, p.101-108. Illus. 21 ref.
Propylenglykol [in Swedish]
Literature survey to serve as a basis for determination of exposure limits: metabolism, toxicity, organ effects, other effects. Propylene glycol has low toxicity; high doses have been given to animals in long-term experiments without negative effects. No studies that can be used to determine a hygienic standard are available. There is no evidence that inhalation of air saturated with propylene glycol has any deleterious effects.
Arbetarskyddsstyrelsen, Publikationsservice, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1983. 38p. 113 ref. Bibl.
Wood S., Rom W.N., White G.L., Logan D.C.
5 cases of pentachlorophenol (PCP) poisoning in workers at wood preservative manufacturing plants are described. 2 cases were fatal. All presented fever, severe in 2. An increased anion gap and renal insufficiency occurred in 2. PCP may uncouple oxidative phosphorylation. Hot weather appears to be a predisposing factor, and exposure to PCP should be kept to a minimum during hot periods. Treatment is briefly discussed.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1983, Vol.25, No.7, p.527-530. 26 ref.
Bond G.G., Ott M.G., Brenner F.E., Cook R.R.
Medical and morbidity surveillance findings among employees potentially exposed to TCDD
204 men potentially exposed to TCDD and 61 men who had been involved in a chloracne incident in the area of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (TCP) production were compared with matched unexposed controls. There were few significant differences between exposed and unexposed subjects. Workers potentially exposed to TCDD during manufacture of 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid had a significantly higher incidence of ulcer and digestive diseases, but these were absent in TCP production workers.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1983, Vol.40, No.3, p.318-324. 15 ref.
Hasegawa K., Shiojima S., Koizumi A., Ikeda M.
Hippuric acid and o-cresol in the urine of workers exposed to toluene
74 male and 56 female factory workers were studied. Correlation co-efficients between the TWA toluene concentration in the air and urinary excretion suggested that hippuric acid is a better index of toluene exposure than o-cresol. There was a significant correlation between o-cresol and hippuric acid in respect of the increase in urinary levels as a function of exposure. In 8 female workers, the slopes of the regression lines between o-cresol and hippuric acid in the urine were identical regardless of variation in exposure intensity. An individual difference exists in the pattern of toluene metabolism which is presumably set congenitally. The possible toxicological significance is discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1983, Vol.52, No.3, p.197-208. Illus. 33 ref.
Oomens A.C., Schuurhuis F.G.
A method for the collection and determination of phenol and bisphenol A in air
The method is described. Air samples are concentrated on commercial silica by tube pump, and the trapped components are desorbed and analysed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Using a 10l air sample, a concentration range of 0.5-50mg/m3 can be detected. Linearity of response, adsorption/desorption efficiency, and influence of humidity, temperature and storage are reported. The technique provides a selective and sensitive method for environmental monitoring and personal exposure measurement.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1983, Vol.52, No.1, p.43-48. Illus. 5 ref.
Golding J., Sladden T.
Congenital malformations and agricultural workers
Information collected for all births in Oxfordshire and West Berkshire (United Kingdom) since 1965 shows no evidence of excess congenital malformation in the children of agricultural, horticultural or forestry workers. There is no evidence to suggest that the herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenol has a teratogenic effect.
Lancet, 18 June 1983, Vol.1, No.8338, p.1393. 7 ref.
Determination of allyl alcohol concentration in air by gas chromatography
Oznaczanie stężenia alkoholu allilowego w powietrzu metodą chromatografii gazowej [in Polish]
Allyl alcohol in air samples was adsorbed on activated carbon and extracted with a 5% solution of isopropyl alcohol in carbon disulfide. The allyl alcohol in the extract was determined by gas chromatography at 80°C on a 2.3mm by 1.8m column of 15% Carbowax 4000 on Chromosorb WAW, with nitrogen as the carrier gas and flame ionisation as the detection method. With a 10dm3 air sample, the method can detect 1mg/m3 of allyl alcohol, which is half the Polish MAC.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1983, Vol.33, No.117, p.111-120. Illus. 13 ref.
Cherry N., Johnston J.D., Venables H., Waldron H.A., Buck L., MacKay C.J.
The effects of toluene and alcohol on psychomotor performance
8 male subjects were exposed to 4 combinations of the 2 substances (1) placebo (toluene) + placebo (ethanol); (2) 80ppm toluene + placebo (ethanol); (3) 0.4cm3 ethanol/kg body weight + placebo (toluene); (4) 80ppm toluene + 0.4cm3 ethanol/kg body weight. Alcohol caused a significant deterioration in performance on pursuit tracking, visual search tasks and mood. Toluene had no significant effect on any of the behavioural measures. Performance and mood scores were lower when alcohol and toluene were administered together.
Ergonomics, Nov. 1983, Vol.26, No.11, p.1081-1087. 10 ref.
Wimer W.W., Russell J.A., Kaplan H.L.
Contents: nomenclature; history; methanol; ethanol; propanol; isopropanol; butanols; comparison of properties; history of industrial hygiene; exposure limits; processing; exhaust emissions; bibliography.
Noyes Data Corporation, Mill Road at Grand Ave., Park Ridge, NJ 07656, USA, 1983, 278p. Illus. 822 ref. Price: US$36.00.
Morel C., Reynier M., Falcy M., Protois J.C.
French National Research and Safety Institute (Institut national de recherche et de sécurité)
Résorcinol [in French]
Synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, methods of detection and determination in air, fire hazards, pathology and toxicology (acute and chronic experimental toxicity; toxicity for humans: irritant action on skin, allergic reactions, ingestion or percutaneous absorption may cause serious symptoms; American TLV (ACGIG): 10ppm). Information on French health and safety regulations and on French and international regulations concerning transport. Technical and medical recommendations.
Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 1st quarter 1983, No.110, p.133-136. 14 ref.
tert-butanoli [in Finnish]
Chemical safety information sheet. Highly flammable liquid. Exposure limit = 300mg/m3. The solution irritates the eyes and dries the skin. The vapour irritates the skin, the eyes and the mucous membranes. High concentrations of the vapour have a narcotic effect. Mandatory European labelling: F, XN, R11, R20, S9, S16.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, May 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Aminometyylipropanoli [in Finnish]
Corrosive liquid. Toxicity: LD50 = 1300mg/kg. Can irritate the eyes and the mucous membranes. Long term exposure: irritation of the skin.
Register of Safety Information of Chemical Products, National Board of Labour Protection, Box 536, 33101 Tampere, Finland, June 1982. 2p. Original on microfiche.
Álcool metílico [in Portuguese]
Data sheet on methyl alcohol, containing information on: chemical composition, properties, main hazards, emergency measures, first-aid measures, handling and storage, and treatment of residues. The TLV in Brazil is: 156ppm (200mg/m3).
Fundacentro, C.P. 11484, CEP 05499 São Paulo, SP, Brazil, 1982. 2p. Bibl.
Psaltyra S.A., Tiščenkova I.A., Čeremuhin E.P.
Photometric determination of tetrabromodiphenylolpropane in workplace air
Fotometričeskoe opredelenie tetrabromdifenilolpropana v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
The title compound (TBDP) is a fire retardant used in the plastics industry. Airborne TBDP dust is measured by passing air to be sampled through a filter, eluting the filter with acetic acid, and reacting the TBDP in the eluate with diazotised sulfanilic acid. The absorbance of the resulting yellow solution is measured and compared with a standard curve. As little as 10µg of TBDP is detectable. Airborne hydrogen bromide, bromine and acetic acid do not interfere with the determination.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Oct. 1982, No.10, p.50-52. Illus. 2 ref.
Alehina S.M., Kuz'minskaja U.A.
State of adaptive processes under different regimes of kelthane administration
Sostojanie adaptacionnyh processov pri različnyh režimah vvedenija kel'tana [in Russian]
The pesticide kelthane (related to DDT) was administered perorally to rats at 1/100 of the LD50 at intervals of a day ("continuously") or a week ("intermittently"), and the metabolic adaptation of the animals was determined by measurement of their hepatic and cardiac lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Changes in total LDH activity, isoenzyme spectrum and substrate/product (pyruvate/lactate) equilibrium were more marked in the case of continuous administrtion than under intermittent administration. This dependence of response on pattern of exposure should be taken into account in the formulation of regulations for the handling of pesticides.
Gigiena i sanitarija, Aug. 1982, No.8, p.20-22. Illus. 8 ref.
Information from the Soviet Toxicology Centre
Informacija sovetskogo toksikologičeskogo centra [in Russian]
Covered are: sulfotrinaphthalenofuran, styrene, acetophenone, Freon 114 B2, decane, crotonaldehyde, Freon 13 B1, triethanolamine, ethanol, dimethylphenylcarbinol, monoethanol ethylenediamine. Data given include: acronyms and synonyms, uses, physical and chemical properties, biological effects, toxicity to animals by various routes of administration, methods of determination.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, Aug. 1982, No.8, p.53-56.
Miller T.L., Lorusso D.J., Deinzer M.L.
The acute toxicity of nonachloropredioxin and 3- and 4-hydroxynonachlorodiphenyl ether in mice
The acute intraperitoneal LD50 values of hydroxynonachlorodiphenyl ethers (HNDPE), contaminants of technical pentachlorophenol (PCP) wood preservative, were determined in mice and compared with those of PCP and Triclosan, a commonly used bactericide. The acute toxicity decreased in the order 2-hydroxynonachlorodiphenyl ether, PCP, 3-hydroxynonachlorodiphenyl ether, 4-hydroxynonachlorodiphenyl ether, Triclosan. Symptomatology following exposure to HNDPE was similar to that observed for PCP. Technical PCP contains 1-5% of HNDPE which do not contribute significantly to its acute toxicity.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Oct.-Nov. 1982, Vol.10, Nos.4-5, p.699-707. Illus. 24 ref.
Filatova V.S., Smirnova E.S., Gronsberg E.Š., Russkih A.A., Klimova Ė.I., Kaštanova I.M., Gorjačeva L.A., Ždanova I.V.
Data for the establishment of a MAC for ethylene glycol in workplace air
Materialy k gigieničeskomu normirovaniju ėtilenglikolja v vozduhe rabočej zony [in Russian]
Exposure of rats and mice to ethylene glycol at a concentration of 198mg/m3 produced morphological and functional alterations in the kidney and liver and morphological alterations in the heart, thyroid, adrenals and blood. Ethylene glycol concentrations of 19mg/m3 produced no effect. Because clinical studies of workers in ethylene glycol and antifreeze production showed no adverse response to prolonged exposure to 0.1-5.0mg/m3, 5mg/m3 appears to be a reasonable MAC.
Gigiena truda i professional'nye zabolevanija, June 1982, No.6, p.28-30. 7 ref.
Canada Safety Council
Contents of this data sheet: identification and physical properties; industrial use; hazards (chloracne, foetotoxicity); emergency action information in case of fire or spill; first aid; occupational exposure limits (ACGIH TLV-TWA : 0.5mg/m3-skin); preventive measures (personal protective equipment, process control, disposal); transportation; storage and handling; training and supervision; glossary; 2-page summary for poster displays.
1765 St. Laurent Blvd., Ottawa, Ontario K1G 3V4, Canada, 1982. 8p. 10 ref.
Heinrich R., Angerer J.
Occupational chronic exposure to organic solvents - X. Biological monitoring parameters for methanol exposure
Methanol levels in blood and urine and urinary formic acid excretion were measured in 20 exposed workers. Exposure to 93ml/m3 methanol for 8h produced average methanol levels of 8.9mg/l in the blood and 21.8mg/l in the urine, and formic acid excretion of 29.9mg/l. These values were significantly higher than in controls. There was a correlation between methanol levels in the blood and urine. Arguments for and against the use of each of these parameters are considered. Difficulties were encountered in their application for biological monitoring on account of the overlap in the values found between exposed and non-exposed persons. The overlap is least for the urine levels: about 80% of urinary methanol levels in exposed workers were above the upper limit of the control group. Urinary methanol excretion best meets the requirements for biological monitoring of workers exposed to methanol, especially from the epidemiological standpoint. The urinary methanol concentration for an 8h exposure at 200ml/m3 is about 40mg/l.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1982, Vol.50, No.4, p.341-349. Illus. 9 ref.
Drummond I., Van Roosmalen P.B., Kornicki M.
Determination of total pentachlorophenol in the urine of workers
Free pentachlorophenol (PCP) represents a small and variable fraction of total PCP in the urine of exposed workers. In the method of determination described, 3,5-dichloro-2,4,6-tribromophenol (DTP) is added as internal standard. PCP is measured using high-pressure liquid chromatography. Detection is by fixed wavelength detector at 313nm. The biological threshold value used in Alberta, Canada, to trigger action to reduce exposure is 7mg/l.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, 1982, Vol.50, No.4, p.321-327. Illus. 23 ref.
Larsen K.O., Hardt F., Sørup P., Kristiansen E., Larsen J.C., Lynge E., Hansen T.
Chlorophenols - Phenoxycarboxylic acids
Klorfenoler - Fenoxykarbonsyrer [in Danish]
Literature surveys and the conclusions of a research group were used to produce this report. The group's work included animal and human experiments, dealing with absorption, excretion, acute and subacute toxicity, genetic and carcinogenic effects. Discussed were: chemical data; the toxicology of chlorophenols and of their impurities; the toxicity of phenoxycarboxylic acids and of their impurities; the production of these compounds; epidemiology of the cancers associated with phenoxycarboxylic acids (sarcomas, lymphomas, etc.); toxicologic and technical data on chlorophenols and chlorocresols; toxicologic data on phenoxycarboxylic acids and their impurities.
Arbejdstilsynet, Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet, Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Oct. 1982. 127p. Illus. 250 ref. Price: Dan.cr.25.00.
Damgård Nielsen G., Kragh Hansen M., Mølhave L.
Toxicological evaluation of a number of substances that may pollute the workplace air
Toksikologisk vurdering af en række forureningsstoffer i indeluften [in Danish]
Summary of this report based on literature surveys: dose-effect relations (synergic effects, odours, carcinogens, extrapolation models); alkanes; benzene and other aromatic hydrocarbons; phenyl alkenes (styrene, etc.); terpenes; cyclohexanes; alkenes; alcohols; ketones; aldehydes; esters; halogenated hydrocarbons. In total, 80 organic compounds are discussed from the points of view of biological effects, toxicity (acute and subacute), genetic and carcinogenic effects. Each chapter is followed by a table summarising toxicological data.
Arbejdstilsynet, Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet, Rosenvængets Allé 16-18, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Aug. 1982. 102p. Illus. 268 ref. Price: Dan.cr.25.00.
Koizumi A., Ikeda M.
Dynamic of methanol adsorption on carbon felt with special reference to interaction with co-existing toluene
The loading amount of methanol on carbon felt in a passive diffusion dosimeter increased linearly with increasing exposure intensity in 4h exposures, but the value was below theoretical levels. Spontaneous desorption may explain this discrepancy. On exposure to mixed vapours containing 150ppm toluene and 350ppm methanol, the adsorption rate for methanol decreased to 80% of that observed with methanol alone, and spontaneous desorption was accelerated. Spontaneous desorption of toluene did not occur and toluene adsorption was not affected by the presence of methanol. Carbon-felt dosimetry is valid for exposure to methanol alone, but should be restricted for vapour mixtures containing methanol and non-polar substances.
Industrial Health, 1982, Vol.20, No.3, p.259-269. Illus. 13 ref.
Misumi J., Nagano M., Nomura S.
An experimental study on the neurotoxicity of 2-octanone and 2-hexanol, a metabolite of n-hexane
The compounds 2-octanone (2-O) and 2-hexanol (2-H) were administered daily as 400mg/kg doses to rats for 5 days per week for 21 weeks in order to determine the molecular structure associated with polyneuropathy. Treatment with 2-O resulted only in slight inhibition of weight gain and narcotic effects after injection. The same dose of 2-H resulted in hypersalivation, gait disturbances, crossing of hind limbs and a failure of normal growth. Retardation of the conduction velocity in the motor and sensory nerve fibres and the prolonged motor latencies of the tail nerves began to appear after week 14 when 9.6g total dose had been administered. The neurotoxic potency of 2-H appears to be greater than that of hexane but less than that of methyl butyl ketone, 2,5-hexanediol or 2,5-hexanedione.
Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 1982, Vol.24, No.5, p.475-484. Illus. 46 ref.
Pentachlorophenol, an assessment of the occupational hazard
Pentachlorophenol (PCP), a wood preservative, is absorbed into the body by all the routes of occupational exposure. It causes local irritation to the eyes and nose and systemic effects that result from its ability to uncouple mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PCP is foetotoxic and teratogenic during early gestation. Commercial PCP is contaminated with chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans, tetrachlorophenols, and hydroxychlorodiphenyl ethers, which can cause chloracne and liver damage. Direct contact with PCP should be avoided during occupational exposure, and air levels should be kept below the TLV of 0.5mg/m3.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1982, Vol.43, No.11, p.799-810. Illus. 55 ref.
Herbicides, occupation, and cancer
This letter to the Editor gives an update of a NIOSH study on mortality due to soft tissue sarcomas, Hodgkin's disease and non-Hodgkin lymphomas for men exposed to phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenols. Only farmers (not otherwise specified) have a significant excess of soft tissue sarcomas, but the total proportional mortality rate for the occupations listed is not significantly increased. The mortality patterns reported do not offer convincing support for a link between phenoxy herbicides and chlorophenyl and these cancers.
Lancet, 26 June 1982, Vol.1, No.8287, p.1464-1465. 1 ref.
Determination of 2-chloroethanol in air by gas chromatography
Oznaczanie alkoholu 2-chloroetylowego w powietrzu metodą chromatografii gazowej [in Polish]
A modification of the method recommended by NIOSH is described. The vapours are absorbed in distilled water or adsorbed onto activated charcoal and analysed at 110°C using a chromatograph column containing 15% Carbowax 20M on Chromosorb W AW DMCS (80-100 mesh) and a flame ionisation detector. The calculated surface area and height of the peaks serve as basis for quantitative analysis. The method is specific and assures good comparability and reproductibility. Concentrations 0.3-3 times the TLV can be readily determined, and the method can be adapted to both low and high chloroethanol concentrations in the workplace atmosphere. The presence of ethylene oxide, acetic anhydride, acetic acid and hydrogen chloride do not affect the measurement.
Prace Centralnego instytutu ochrony pracy, 1982, Vol.32, No.113, p.167-176. Illus. 4 ref.
Hardell L., Axelson O.
Soft-tissue sarcoma, malignant lymphoma, and exposure to phenoxyacids or chlorophenols
The evidence for a relation between the exposure to phenoxy herbicides and trichlorophenols, of agricultural, forestry and railroad workers, and the occurrence of sarcomas and lymphomas is discussed in the content of several Swedish and American studies.
Lancet, 19 June 1982, Vol.1, No.8286, p.1408-1409. 10 ref.
This data sheet contains: physical and chemical properties; metabolism; toxicity to animals and humans (acute; skin and eye irritancy; sub-acute; mutagenicity; carcinogenicity; reproductive effects); appendix on toxicity of chlorinated dioxin impurities in technical pentachlorophenol (hexachlorinated dioxin; heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin; octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin); references.
H.M. Stationery Office, P.O. Box 569, London SE1 9NH, United Kingdom, Aug. 1982. 20p. Illus. 73 ref. Price: £2.50.
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