Pneumoconioses - 1,356 entries found
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Attfield M.D., Seixas N.S.
Prevalence of pneumoconiosis and its relationship to dust exposure in a cohort of U.S. bituminous coal miners and ex-miners
Information on radiographic evidence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is presented for a group of 3,194 underground bituminous coal workers and ex-miners examined between 1985 and 1988. Prevalence of CWP was related to estimated cumulative dust exposure, age and rank of coal. Miners of medium to low rank coal who worked for 40 years at the current federal dust limit of 2mg/m3, are predicted to have a 1.4% risk of having progressive massive fibrosis on retirement. Higher prevalences are predicted for less severe categories of CWP. Miners in high rank coal areas appear to be at greater risk than those mining medium and low rank coals. Ex-miners who said that they left mining for health-related reasons had higher levels of abnormality compared to current miners.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.27, No.1, p.137-151. Illus. 25 ref.
A review of the durability of inhaled fibres and options for the design of safer fibres
The hazards associated with inhaled fibres are linked with fibre shape, size, composition and durability. In general the asbestos minerals are more durable than most man-made vitreous fibres (MMVF), although some ceramic fibres may be more durable than chrysotile. The most soluble of the MMVF have relatively high alkali (Na and K) and alkali earth (Ca, Mg) contents, and low alumina and boron contents. The least soluble MMVF are the high alumina silicate glasses (the ceramic fibres). The relative durability of different fibre types is governed by the physical and chemical environment which contains the fibres. The effective assessment of fibre durability is an important aspect in fibre safety and requires the development of better and more coordinated experimental design. It may ultimately be possible to design vitreous fibres which have low durabilities in the lung but are adequately durable in the intended environment of use.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Dec. 1994, Vol.38, No.6, p.839-855. 67 ref.
Occupational lung disorders
Contents of this manual include: morphology of the respiratory tract; lung physiology; deposition and clearance of aerosols; pathogenesis of mineral pneumoconiosis; imaging in occupational lung diseases; epidemiology; chronic bronchitis, airflow obstruction and emphysema; bronchitis, airways obstruction and occupation; pneumoconiosis associated with non-fibrogenic minerals and with coal and other carbonaceous materials; silicosis and related diseases; disorders related to asbestos and to non-asbestos silicates; beryllium disease; non-neoplastic disorders due to metallic, chemical and physical agents; lung cancer; hypersensitivity pneumonia; occupational asthma and byssinosis; infectious diseases and zoonoses; diseases caused by other organic agents; the lungs in aerospace and at high altitude; the lungs and diving.
Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Linacre House, Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1994. xix, 892p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBP 145.00.
Selected papers from the Biopersistence of Respirable Synthetic Fibers and Minerals conference, Sept. 7-9, 1992, Lyon, France
A collection of papers on the following topics: the epidemiological significance of mineral fibre persistence in lung tissue; biopersistence of man-made vitreous silicate fibres in the lung; chrysotile biopersistence in the lungs of persons in the general population and exposed workers; influence of particle size and chemical composition on efficiency of clearance mechanisms; lung content analysis of cases occupationally exposed to chrysotile asbestos; environmental asbestotic pleural plaques in northeast Corsica; retention of asbestos fibres in the human body; comparative analysis of inhaled particles contained in human bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, lung parenchyma and lymph nodes; fibre levels and disease in workers from a factory predominantly using amosite; biopersistence of the mineral matter of coal mine dusts in silicotic human lungs; biopersistence of nonfibrous mineral particles in the respiratory tracts of subjects following occupational exposure.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Oct. 1994, Vol.102, Suppl.5, p.221-275. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Fu H., Gu X., Jin X., Yu S., Wu K., Guidotti T.L.
Lung cancer among tin miners in Southeast China: Silica exposure, silicosis and cigarette smoking
Incidence of lung cancer was studied among miners in Dachang tin mine (China), known to have relatively high levels of suspended dust (silica and other potential carcinogens) and low radon levels. Among the risk factors for excess mortality from lung cancer, only the years spent drilling underground and the cumulative smoking index (product of daily cigarette consumption and number of years smoking) were independent contributors to risk; no interaction between the two was observed. The presence of silicosis did not contribute to predicting the risk independently of the years spent underground.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 1994, Vol.26, No.3, p.373-381. 18 ref.
Boujemaa W., Lauwerys R., Bernard A.
Early indicators of renal dysfunction in silicotic workers
The aim of the study was to determine whether silicosis is associated with renal alterations detectable in urinary or blood-borne indicators of nephrotoxicity. Subjects comprised 116 male workers who had been exposed to silica for a least two years and had been diagnosed as having silicosis and 61 age-matched controls. The considered outcome measures were the concentrations of beta2-microglobulin and creatinine in serum and the urinary excretion of albumin, retinol-binding protein and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase. Compared with the controls, the silicotic subjects excreted, on average, slightly higher amounts of albumin, retinol-binding protein and beta-N-acetyl-D-glucosaminidase. The concentration of beta2-microglobulin in the serum of silicotic subjects showed a tendency to rise that became significant in the subgroup with pseudotumoral opacities. These results confirm that silicosis is associated with some infraclinical renal alterations. However, in the absence of a relationship with length of exposure or severity of silicosis, the implication of silica in their causation needs to be examined further.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1994, Vol.20, No.3, p.180-183. 17 ref.
Weiner R., Rees D., Zwi A.
Guidelines: Monitoring dust, pneumoconiosis and pulmonary tuberculosis in South African foundry workers
These guidelines describe a procedure for the monitoring of dust and lung disease among foundry workers. They contain background information about South African foundries in general. The results of recent foundry surveys as well as surveillance practices are outlined. The guidelines give advice on the procedures for the monitoring of the workers' health and the dust conditions in workplaces.
National Centre for Occupational Health, P.O. Box 4788, Johannesburg 2000, South Africa, 1994. 20p. 4 ref.
The diagnosis of byssinosis among textile workers
A questionnaire survey was carried out on 309 workers at a Bombay textile mill manufacturing cotton cloth. On the basis of reported symptoms, lung function tests were carried out on 273 workers. In all, 70 workers were diagnosed as suffering from byssinosis; 54 of these worked in the dusty spinning and winding departments. Incidence of the disease increased with years of service. Problems in diagnosis of the disease are discussed.
Occupational Health and Safety Centre (OHSC), 6 Neelkant Apartments, Gokuldas Pasta Road, Dadar (E), Bombay, India, 1994. 12p. 5 ref.
Sjögren B., Ljunggren K.G., Almkvist O., Frech W., Basun H.
Aluminosis and dementia
This brief communication describes a case study of a patient, born in 1915, who worked in an aluminium powder mill between 1944 and 1946. Aluminosis was diagnosed in 1946. At the age of 78, he showed clear signs of dementia with no evidence of cerebrovascular disease. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid revealed a high concentration of aluminium.
Lancet, 22 Oct. 1994, Vol.344, No.8930, p.1154. 5 ref.
Bui A.M., Germaud P., Normand de la Tranchade M., Touranchet A.
Silage and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Ensilage et aspergillose broncho-pulmonaire allergique [in French]
Case study on an occupation-related allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA). A 41 years old farmer, without history of asthma, presented acute respiratory symptoms, during maize silage activities, with diagnostic criteria for ABPA: blood hypereosinophilia, episodic bronchial obstruction, positive immediate skin reactivity, serum precipitating antibodies, elevated serum IgE level, history of pulmonary infiltrates, central bronchiectasis, Aspergillus fumigatus positive sputum cultures. High levels of Aspergillus spores were found in the air samples obtained from the patient's workplace which can account for this ABPA in a patient without a bronchial past history.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, 1994, Vol.55, No.5, p.335-337. 9 ref.
Pairon J.C., Martinon L., Iwatsubo Y., Vallentin F., Billon-Galland M.A., Bignon J., Brochard P.
Retention of asbestos bodies in the lungs of welders
Retrospective study of asbestos body (AB) retention in 211 welders. Optical microscopy of ABs was performed on samples of sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) and lung tissue obtained after thoracotomy. Information on previous jobs and exposure was obtained using a questionnaire. The duration of welding activities correlated with the density of AB in BAL or lung tissue. On the basis of the questionnaire, only two of the welders with significant ABs retention had other occupational exposure to asbestos. Welding activities may increase lung retention of ABs and consequently produce higher risks of fibrotic and/or malignant pulmonary diseases.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1994, Vol.25, No.6, p.793-804. Illus. 35 ref.
Buick J.B., Lowry R.C., Magee T.R.A.
Isolation, enumeration, and identification of gram negative bacteria from flax dust with reference to endotoxin concentration
To investigate the microbial contamination of flax dust in the linen industry, particularly the gram negative bacteria, (GNB) content and associated endotoxin level, standard bacteriological techniques were used. The results were contrasted with studies in the cotton industry. The microbial flora of cotton and flax is similar but greater GNB contamination, with consequently higher endotoxin levels, was found in flax. Flax byssinosis and cotton byssinosis may share a common microbial aetiology.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Jan. 1994, Vol.55, No.1, p.59-61. 14 ref.
Dusty work: How to protect yourself from pneumoconiosis
Topics: airborne dust; determination in air; dust control; housekeeping; inspection; legislation; medical supervision; pneumoconiosis; respirators; safety films; training material; videotape.
Public Relations Consultant Co., Ltd., 3-3-11, Ginza, Chuo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, 1993. PAL Videotape. Price: JPY 59,000, USD 510.00.
Choudat D., Triem S., Weill B., Vicrey C., Ameille J., Brochard P., Letourneux M., Rossignol C.
Respiratory symptoms, lung function and pneumoconiosis among self employed dental technicians
From the registry of self-employed workers living in Paris, a group of 105 dental technicians (divided into 2 age groups) was studied to evaluate occupational exposure, to determine respiratory manifestations, and to investigate immune disturbances and compared to a control group. The findings contrast with previous reports on the occurrence of autoantibodies and even of connective tissue diseases in dental technicians. In conclusion, the study confirms an increased risk of pneumoconiosis among dental technicians. Moreover, there may be other lung disorders such as impairment of lung function, especially in association with cigarette smoking. These findings emphasize the need for control of the work environment and medical surveillance even after retirement.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.50, No.5, p.443-449. Illus. 29 ref.
Dodson R.F., O'Sullivan M., Corn C.J., Garcia J.G.N., Stocks J.M., Griffith D.E.
Analysis of ferruginous bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage from foundry workers
Classical ferruginous bodies in tissue samples are considered to be markers of past exposure to asbestos. Recent studies have shown that the presence of ferruginous bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid correlates with past exposure to asbestos and offers a more sensitive reference than occupational history. Lavage samples from five subjects who had worked in foundries were evaluated by light microscopy for the presence of ferruginous bodies and by transmission electron microscopy for both characterization of the uncoated fibre burden and analysis of the cores of the ferruginous bodies. All samples at lower magnification (light microscopy (200 x)) contained ferruginous bodies. At higher magnification (400 x), a separate population from this group could be identified by the presence of a thin black ribbon. Transmission electron microscopy of the core materials of ferruginous bodies and comparable uncoated particulates supported the reliability of higher magnification light microscopy for distinguishing most of these non-asbestos cores.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1993, Vol.50, No.11, p.1032-1038. Illus. 24 ref.
Dalphin J.C., Debieuvre D., Pernet D., Maheu M.F., Polio J.C., Toson B., Dubiez A., Monnet E., Laplante J.J., Depierre A.
Prevalence and risk factors for chronic bronchitis and farmer's lung in French dairy farmers
The prevalence of chronic bronchitis and of clinical farmer's lung was studied in 30 districts of the French Doubs département in relation to individual (age, sex, smoking habits) and geographical (altitude) factors. 5,703 dairy farmers exclusively (response rate 83%) participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. Prevalences of chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung were 9.3% and 1.4% respectively. A logistic regression model was used to evaluate risk factors for chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung. A risk of chronic bronchitis was associated with the male sex (p<10-4), age (p<10-4), smoker category (p<10-4), and altitude (p<10-4). A risk of clinical farmer's lung was associated with non-smokers (p<0.05), and linearly with altitude (p<10-4). There was also a strong positive relation between chronic bronchitis and clinical farmer's lung (odds ratio 19.5 (95% CI: 12.1-31.4)) after adjustment for confounding variables. The main finding of this study was the highly significant increase of prevalence of the diseases in relation to altitude.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.50, No.10, p.941-944. 15 ref.
Karjalainen A., Antilla S., Heikkilä L., Kyyrönen P., Vainio H.
Lobe of origin of lung cancer among asbestos-exposed patients with or without diffuse interstitial fibrosis
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1993, Vol.19, No.2, p.102-107. 31 ref. ###
Kaburaki K., Nagumo M.
On the life-span of the patients with pneumoconiosis at a mine
Bō kōzan ni okeru jinpai chōki ryōyōsha no raifu supan ni tsuite [in Japanese]
Data on 109 patients who had level-4 pneumoconiosis according to the Japanese grading scheme and who died between 1948 and 1993 were analyzed. All had undergone long-term treatment. The mean age at death increased from 48.0±3.8 years in the 1940s to 75.2±5.7 years in the 1990s. The mean age at which the patients were diagnosed as requiring medical treatment also increased, from 46.7±3.9 to 58.3±10.1 years. The same tendency is found among those with other levels of pneumoconiosis. The later onset and increased life expectancy in more recent years are probably due to (1) reduced dust exposure thanks to improvements in the work environment and (2) improvements in occupational health management and the workers' compensation system.
Annual Reports of the Medical Research Society for Mining and Smelting, 1 Nov. 1993, No.32, p.23-28. Illus. 3 ref.
Respiratory dysfunction in pneumoconiosis. Blood gas analysis and evaluation
Jinpai shō no kokyū kinō shōgai. Ketsueki gasu bunseki oyobi hantei o megutte [in Japanese]
The Japanese Pneumoconiosis Law specifies that blood gas analysis for the determination of respiratory dysfunction be performed on blood collected from the ear lobe by capillary tube. In the experiments reported here, results obtained with ear-lobe blood were less reproducible than those obtained with arterial blood drawn with a syringe. Although the value of alveolar-arterial difference in partial pressure of oxygen (AaDO2) that is used as a criterion of respiratory dysfunction in the Pneumoconiosis Law agreed with the 5th-percentile figure for the health volunteers studied here, AaDO2 increased with age, so the criterion may need to be corrected for older workers. No differences in arterial oxygen tension of AaDO2 between men and women or between smokers and non-smokers were seen.
Japanese Journal of Traumatology and Occupational Medicine, 1 Sep. 1993. Vol.41, No.9, p.567-574. 16 ref. Illus.
Bérylliose pulmonaire [in French]
Data sheet on lung berylliosis. Pathophysiology: pathogenesis of acute berylliosis; pathogenesis of chronic berylliosis. Prevalence and epidemiology. Diagnosis of berylliosis: acute berylliosis; chronic lung berylliosis (diagnosis in the workplace, diagnosis in specialized environments; aetiologic diagnosis). Evolution. Prevention: medical and technical prevention. Compensation in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1993, No.55, p.259-263. 41 ref.
Shih J.F., Hunninghake G.W., Goeken N.E., Galvin J.R., Merchant J.A., Schwartz D.A.
The relationship between HLA-A, B, DQ, and DR antigens and asbestos-induced lung disease
To evaluate the relationship between human leukocyte antigen (HLA) and both asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis and pleural fibrosis, HLA-A, B, C, DQ and DR phenotypes were obtained in 42 long-term asbestos-exposed workers. There was an increased percentage of HLA-A29, HLA-B44, and HLA Bw4 in the subjects with asbestosis. In addition, there was a marginally positive relationship between HLA-A29 and the severity of pulmonary fibrosis. Similarly, there was a higher prevalence of HLA-DRw53 and DQ2 in the subjects with asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis. HLA-A29, HLA-B44, HLA-Bw4, HLA-DRw53, and HLA-DQ2 do not have a significantly shorter duration or latency of asbestos exposure. These results suggest that the HLA-A29 phenotype may be associated with the development of asbestosis and the HLA-DQ2 phenotype with the development of asbestos-induced pleural fibrosis. Caution is advised, however, in that the associations are not particularly strong, physiological correlation is lacking, and previous studies do not support the findings.
Chest, July 1993, Vol.104, No.1, p.26-31. 28 ref.
Di Donna V., Bernardini P., Gerardino L., Giordano A.
Pulmonary silicosis associated with MacLeod's syndrome: A case report
Silicosi polmonare associata a sindrome di MacLeod: Nota su un caso [in Italian]
This article reports a case of silicosis associated with idiopathic unilateral hyperlucent lung - MacLeod's disease (ML) - in a 65-year old miner. The patient had been exposed to silica dust for about 15 years as a truck operator in water supply tunnelling work. Impaired ventilatory function due to left pulmonary dystrophy was the favouring or even the causal factor of dust accumulation in the functionally active right lung and of the tissue reaction to the dust, leading to interstitial fibrosis. Revealed pathogenic alterations: absence of ventilation associated with severe vascular impairment in the left lung, inequality of the ventilation/perfusion rate, due to pneumoconiosis, in the right lung. ML is rare, but must be considered a mandatory contra-indication for work involving dust exposure risk since it can cause an occupational disease even if environmental exposure standards are observed. Summary in English.
Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 1993, Vol.84, No.5, p.387-393. Illus. 15 ref.
Kusiak R., Liss G.M., Gailitis M.M.
Cor pulmonale and pneumoconiotic lung disease: An investigation using hospital discharge data
Cor pulmonale has been reported in the past to be associated with pneumoconioses as an end-stage complication. Whether the association can be demonstrated among cases of pneumoconioses acquired in more recent decades is still not clear. The authors examined the relation between these conditions using data summarized in hospital records in Ontario for males discharged between 1979 and 1990 with a diagnosis of chronic cor pulmonale or one of the pneumoconioses. Based on the age-specific frequency rates, cor pulmonale was diagnosed 17 times more frequently than expected among men with pneumoconioses than among other men admitted to hospital. The results show that cor pulmonale still appears to be associated with dust exposure at the workplace and demonstrates the usefulness of hospital discharge information in addressing questions in occupational health.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.2, p.161-173. 36 ref.
Muir D.C.F., Julian J.A., Roos J.O., Maehle W.M., Chan J., Mountain W., Morgan W.K.C.
Classification of radiographs for pneumoconiosis: The Canadian pneumoconiosis reading panel
A method of providing experience for readers in the classification of radiographs for pneumoconiosis is described. It is based on an exchange of films by mail, with provision for ongoing feedback of results. The effects of this feedback on reading levels is described. The method is suitable for readers who are unable to attend major centres for formal instruction, and has the additional advantage of continual monitoring of reading levels.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.2, p.139-147. 8 ref.
Eterović D., Dujić Ž., Tocilj J., Čapkun V.
High resolution pulmonary computed tomography scans quantified by analysis of density distribution: Application to asbestosis
A new method for quantitative evaluation for high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs was developed by assessment of the distribution of radiological densities within the lung slices. To improve the sensitivity of detection of abnormalities, the density distributions were analyzed using a curve fitting technique. The method was applied to seven patients with early asbestosis, 15 with advanced asbestosis and 13 normal controls. Results of the study indicated that the curve fitting technique enables a more objective assessment of HRCT pulmonary scans, especially in the early stage of asbestosis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.514-519. Illus. 22 ref.
Forst L.S., Abraham J.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis presenting as sarcoidosis
A case report is presented to illustrate a misdiagnosis of sarcoidosis in a spraypainter whose history was suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by exposure to toluene diisocyanate in the workplace. The two diseases have similar clinical, laboratory and pathological features and are thus difficult to distinguish. Since early recognition of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can lead to complete reversal of the disease in many cases, it is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.497-500. Illus. 15 ref.
Mortality from lung cancer in asbestos workers
Reprint of a classic study originally published in the BJIM in 1955 (12:81-86). A mortality study was carried out on 113 men who had been potentially exposed to asbestos dust for at least 20 years. 39 deaths occurred, compared with 15.4 expected in the whole male population. The excess was entirely due to excess deaths from lung cancer (11 against 0.8 expected) and from other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (22 against 7.6 expected); all cases of lung cancer were associated with the presence of asbestosis. Results of this study together with available necroscopy data indicate that the risk of lung cancer has become progressively less since the introduction of regulations for the control of asbestos dust in 1931.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.485-490 (given as p.81-86). 14 ref.
Dufresne A., Loosereewanich P., Harrigan M., Sébastian P., Perrault G., Bégin R.
Pulmonary dust retention in a silicon carbide worker
Pulmonary dust retention was determined in lung tissue removed from a man who worked 42 years in the vicinity of an Acheson furnace of a silicon carbide plant and developed carborundum pneumoconiosis. Special attention was paid to the retained silicon carbide fibres in the lung parenchyma. The concentration of silicon carbide fibres longer than 5µm was 39,300 fibres/mg dry lung. These fibres had a similar morphology to fibres observed in the working environment. The observed pulmonary retention is longer than that of asbestos in exposed workers.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.327-330. Illus. 18 ref.
Pappas G.P., Newman L.S.
Early pulmonary physiologic abnormalities in beryllium disease
By using the beryllium-specific blood lymphocyte transformation test (BeLT) as a screening tool, it is possible to identify beryllium disease before clinical symptoms or radiographic abnormalities develop. Two groups were compared: (1) "surveillance-identified" early beryllium disease patients, detected using the BeLT in workplace screening (n=21), and (2) "clinically identified" beryllium disease patients who had symptoms or radiographic abnormalities (n=15). Physiological abnormalities occurred in 12 of 21 (57%) surveillance-identified patients. In comparison, 93% of the clinically identified patients had one or more abnormalities, the most sensitive indicator being the exercise capacity. Clinically identified patients performed less work, had more severe gas exchange abnormalities, and had higher dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) at maximal exercise than did surveillance-identified patients. These results show that alterations in gas exchange and the pulmonary vascular bed occur early in beryllium disease.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Sep. 1993, Vol.148, No.3, p.661-666. 40 ref.
Lalancette M., Carrier G., Laviolette M., Ferland S., Rodrique J., Bégin R., Cantin A., Cormier Y.
Farmer's lung - Long-term outcome and lack of predictive value of bronchoalveolar lavage fibrosing factors
This study evaluates the long-term outcome of farmer's lung (FL), adding high-resolution computed tomograms (HRCT) to previously reported procedures and verifying whether bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid markers or fibrogenic factors (FF) predict outcome. Pulmonary function tests on FL subjects revealed an obstructive profile in 13 subjects and normal values in 16. Chest radiographs (CXR) were normal in 22 subjects, abnormal in six, and suggestive of emphysema in five. HRCT revealed emphysema in nine subjects and 19 were normal. There was a good correlation between the findings on pulmonary function tests and HRCT; however, CXR alone did not suggest the existence of emphysema in four subjects who had such findings on HRCT. No correlations were found between most outcome parameters and the level of the BAL FF measured six years previously. Airflow obstruction with or without emphysema is an important long-term sequela of FL and BAL FF do not predict outcome in this disease.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.216-221. Illus. 32 ref.
Bresnitz E.A., Gilman M.J., Gracely E.J., Airoldi J., Vogel E., Gefter W.
Asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities in elevator construction workers
Elevator construction workers are exposed to asbestos dust during construction and refurbishment work on older buildings. The study screened a cohort of workers, all with more than 20 years of employment in the industry, with clinical examinations, chest radiography ("B" reader interpretations), and routine spirometry. Twenty of the 91 workers (22%) had evidence of pleural disease, but none had an interstitial process consistent with asbestosis. Of those with pleural thickening, 15 had bilateral circumscribed plaques and five had unilateral plaque formation. There were no cases of diffuse pleural thickening, benign pleural effusions, or mesothelioma in the cohort. The difference in the mean body mass index of those with pleural abnormalities (29.18 ± 3.95) and those without (27.7 ± 3.86) was not statistically significant (p=0.135). The results of this study show that elevator construction workers have an increased risk for the development of asbestos-related pleural disease.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, June 1993, Vol.147, No.6, p.1341-1344. 26 ref.
Marx J.J., Twiggs J.T., Ault B.J., Merchant J.A., Fernandez-Caldas E.
Inhaled aeroallergen and storage mite reactivity in a Wisconsin farmer nested case-control study
A study was undertaken to assess the role of antibody (Ab) to a panel of antigens associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the development of lung disease among dairy farmers. Immunological reactivity to inhaled allergens was assessed in Ab+ cases and compared to control subjects. The most prevalent allergens among the cases as determined by either skin test or RAST assays were the house dust mites (HDM) (21.6%), storage mites (11.2%), grain smuts (11.2%), Cladosporium (7.5%), Aspergillus (6.0%), and cattle (5.2%). Of the storage mite reactors, IgE to Lepidoglyphus destructor was the most frequently found. Reactions to HDM, storage mites, and grain smuts were significantly more frequent among the cases (p<0.05). There is a significant increase in reactivity to certain inhaled allergens among those dairy farmers reporting barn-associated respiratory symptoms that is unrelated to past exposure to the causative agents of farmer's lung disease.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Feb. 1993, Vol.147, No.2, p.354-358. 19 ref.
Kotloff R.M., Richman P.S., Greenacre J.K., Rossman M.D.
Chronic beryllium disease in a dental laboratory technician
Workers involved in the manufacture of dental prostheses are exposed to a number of potentially harmful substances capable of inducing lung disease. This report describes a dental laboratory technician who developed chronic beryllium disease as a result of workplace exposure. The diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease was suspected from the clinical, radiographic, and histological features and confirmed by the in vitro proliferation of lung lymphocytes in response to beryllium salts. The potential risks of beryllium use in the dental industry have been recognized for some time, but this is the first documentation of chronic beryllium disease in this population of workers. Because chronic beryllium disease may be easily confused with sarcoidosis, awareness of this occupational association is essential in preventing misdiagnosis and in providing appropriate management.
American Review of Respiratory Disease, Jan. 1993, Vol.147, No.1, p.205-207. Illus. 18 ref.
Symptoms, causes and prophylaxis of sick building syndrome
Symptome, Ursachen und Prophylaxe des Sick-Buildings-Syndroms [in German]
Health problems linked to the sick building syndrome (SBS) are mostly unspecific and often can only be evaluated through subjective parameters. This article on problems of persons working in air-conditioned buildings undertakes to differentiate the physical, hygiene and technical problems in relation to SBS. Representative questionnaires were developed and measurement campaigns in selected buildings were undertaken. Prophylactic and sanitary measures are presented which include the appropriate choice and the maintenance of the system and of the filter used in the air-conditioning system. Summaries in English and German.
Sichere Arbeit, 1993, No.3, p.12-21. Illus. 41 ref.
Hnizdo E., Sluis-Cremer G.K.
Risk of silicosis in a cohort of white South African gold miners
The risk of silicosis was investigated in a cohort of 2,235 white South African gold miners who had, on average, 24 years of net service from 1940 to the early 1970s and who were followed up to 1991 for radiological signs of onset of silicosis (ILO category 1/1 or more). There were 313 (14%) miners who developed signs of silicosis at an average age of 55.9 years. The latency period was largely independent of the cumulative dust exposure. In 57% of the silicotics, the radiological signs developed, on average, 7.4 years after mining exposure ceased. The risk of silicosis increased exponentially with the cumulative dust dose, the accelerated increase being after 7mg/m3-years. At the highest exposure level of 15mg/m3-years, which represents approximately 37 years of gold mining at an average respirable dust concentration of 0.4mg/m3, the cumulative risk for mining for silicosis reached 77%. In conclusion, the risk of silicosis was strongly dose dependent; however, the latency period was largely independent of the dose.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.447-457. Illus. 22 ref.
Hnizdo E., Murray J., Sluis-Cremer G.K., Thomas R.G.
Correlation between radiological and pathological diagnosis of silicosis: An autopsy population based study
The radiological findings for the profusion of rounded opacities were compared with pathological findings for parenchymal silicosis in 557 gold miners who had, on average, 2.7 years between the radiological and pathological examination. Three readers read the radiographs, and ILO category 1/1 or more was defined as a positive diagnosis of silicosis. The sensitivity values were 0.393, 0.371, and 0.236, and the specificity values were 0.987, 0.965, and 0.978, for three readers, respectively. The sensitivity of the readers improved with increasing degree of autopsy silicosis, but a large proportion of those with a moderate and marked degree os silicosis were not diagnosed radiologically. The diagnostic sensitivity of the radiological test could be improved by using category 0/1 as a cutoff point for workers exposed to a high average concentration of respirable silica dust. The diagnostic specificity of radiology could be improved by using category 1/0 or 1/1 as a cutoff point for a positive diagnosis for workers exposed to a low average concentration of respirable silica dust.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1993, Vol.24, No.4, p.427-445. Illus. 14 ref.
French Society of Occupational Medicine - 24 October 1992 Meeting
Société française de médecine du travail - Séance du 24 octobre 1992 [in French]
Summary of papers presented at the 24 Oct. 1992 Meeting of the French Society of Occupational Medicine. Titles: "Infos Risques": a documentation service on occupational and industrial hazards - survey of 18 months of operation; a contribution to the study of lung fibrogenicity of right and left isomers of α-quartz (natural quartz); contribution of analytical transmission electron microscopy to the assessment of exposure to mineral particles in humans; bronchial non-specific hyperreactivity and occupational exposure to mineral oils; a case of toxic hepatitis caused by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4); asbestos-related round atelectasis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1993, Vol.54, No.5, p.440-443.
Merler E., Capocaccia R.
Asbestosis mortality in Italy
A total of 204 deaths due to asbestosis occurred in Italy during the period 1970-1989, including 24 women; asbestosis death rates (per million) were 0.31±0.05 among males and 0.4±0.02 among females. The rates increased a little when comparing 1980-89 with 1970-79. Deaths were concentrated in a limited number of geographical areas where an extensive industrial use of asbestos is known to have occurred and where there were also high rates of mortality due to primary pleural tumours.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1993, Vol.84, No.4, p.286-289. 17 ref.
Johnson W.M., Busnardo M.S.
Silicosis following employment in the manufacture of silica flour and industrial sand
Description of silicosis in a patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who worked as a maintenance mechanic for less than 5 years in a plant in South Carolina producing silica flour and industrial sand. An open lung biopsy showed an early stage of silicosis manifested by perivascular and peribronchial collections of macrophages as well as early granuloma formation. Excessive occupational exposure levels of respirable free silica were documented.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, July 1993, Vol.35, No.7, p.716-719. 24 ref.
Peng L., Wang X.
Lymphocyte B and T cell subsets in peripheral blood from patients with asbestosis
Peripheral blood lymphocytes were analyzed in 55 asbestos-exposed workers and 40 controls. Results agreed with previous findings showing aberrations of cell-mediated immunity (reduced T cell numbers) and hyperactive humoral immunity (increased percentage of B cells) in the exposed subjects. A correlation between changed lymphocyte activity and radiological abnormalities of the lung was also found. The findings contribute to the investigation of the immunological pathogenesis of asbestosis.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 1993, Vol.50, No.2, p.183-184. 6 ref.
Murray J., Reid G., Kielkowski D., de Beer M.
Cor pulmonale and silicosis: A necropsy based case-control study
The presence of cor pulmonale at death in relation to other factors such as emphysema, silicosis, and thromboembolism was analyzed in a case-control study of 732 South African gold miners. Marked emphysema was the highest risk factor with an odds ratio of 21.32 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.02-90.7), then extensive silicosis (OR 4.95, 95% CI 2.92-8.38) and thromboembolic disease (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.37-2.69). Age and smoking were not significant predictors of cor pulmonale.
British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.544-548. 28 ref.
Kreiss K., Wasserman S., Mroz M.M., Newman L.S.
Beryllium disease screening in the ceramics industry - Blood lymphocyte test performance and exposure-disease relations
Nine new cases of biopsy-confirmed chronic beryllium disease were identified among 505 employees and ex-employees in a company that had manufactured beryllia ceramics from 1958 to 1975. Of tests commonly used in medical surveillance, only a confirmed blood beryllium lymphocyte transformation test had a high positive predictive value for beryllium disease (100%). However, two beryllium disease cases had either a normal or inconsistently abnormal blood test and were identified for diagnostic work-up by abnormal chest radiography. The only risk factor for beryllium disease was beryllium exposure. Degree of exposure was associated with disease rates, which ranged from 2.9% to 15.8% for beryllia-exposed subgroups. The data support efforts to prevent beryllium disease by lowering beryllium exposures and to identify subclinical and early disease by broad-based medical surveillance using the blood beryllium lymphocyte test and chest radiography.
Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.35, No.3, p.267-274. 13 ref.
Luftbefeuchtung [in German]
Umidificazione dell'aria [in Italian]
Humidification de l'air [in French]
Some enterprises require the installation of humidification equipment because constant relative humidity is necessary in the production process. However, poorly or infrequently cleaned humidifiers can cause diseases, such as "humidifier fever" or "humidifier lung". This booklet describes measures for preventing these diseases.
SUVA, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Sep. 1993. 8p. Illus. 3 ref.
A diagnostic approach to asbestosis, utilizing clinical criteria, high resolution computed tomography, and gallium scanning
Seventy-five individuals known to have significant exposure to asbestos were evaluated by physical examination; pulmonary function tests (PFT), chest radiographs, high resolution computed tomography (HRCT), gallium-67 scanning, and various laboratory tests. Sixteen subjects met three of the following four criteria and were considered to have clinical asbestosis: 1) bibasilar rales, 2) FVC<80% of predicted, 3) DLCO<80% of predicted, and 4) an abnormal chest radiograph. Evaluations which included HRCT and Ga scanning detected pulmonary disease in these asbestos-exposed individuals in many cases where other modalities were unable to demonstrate significant abnormalities. While only 21% of the subjects satisfied commonly accepted criteria for the diagnosis of asbestosis, 75% had evidence of disease by both HRCT and gallium scanning. These data suggest that it may be time to include HRCT and Ga scanning when evaluating asbestos-exposed individuals, especially in cases where evaluations by physical exam, PFTs, and chest radiographs are non-diagnostic.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 1993, Vol.23, No.5, p.801-809. 18 ref.
Mamolen M., Lewis D.M., Blanchet M.A., Satink F.J., Vogt R.L.
Investigation of an outbreak of "Humidifier Fever" in a print shop
An outbreak of "humidifier fever" affected 16 (57%) of 28 workers in a print shop. The most common symptoms were myalgia, chills or subjective fever, and cough. Illness began 5-13 hours after entering the workplace, and lasted 2-24 hours. A humidifier in use on the day of the outbreak was found to be contaminated with fungi, amoebae, and Gram-negative bacteria. The risk of illness was highest for those who had been on the job three months before the outbreak, a time when the humidifier was in constant use. Serological studies of print shop workers showed positive reactions to extracts of organisms isolated from the humidifier, but could neither distinguish ill from well workers, nor identify causative organisms. The presence of endotoxin-producing bacteria and the clinical syndrome are consistent with an organic dust toxic syndrome. Previous exposure appeared to be the major risk factor for illness.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1993, Vol.23, No.3, p.483-490. 19 ref.
Hurych J., Lesage M., David A.
Eighth international conference on occupational lung diseases - Proceedings
Huitième conférence internationale sur les maladies pulmonaires professionnelles - Compte rendu [in French]
Proceedings of the eighth international conference on occupational lung diseases held in Prague, Czechoslovakia, 14-17 September, 1992. Papers are presented under the following headings: monitoring of exposure to asbestos; asbestos-related diseases (epidemiology, cancer); lung cancer; international activities; man-made fibres; coalworkers' pneumoconiosis; silicosis; pneumoconiosis (general aspects, biochemistry); ILO classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses; allergy and organic dust; chemicals; hard metals; welding; working environment, monitoring and control (general aspects, coal mines); experimental studies (aetiopathogenesis, biological reaction to dust); experimental therapy.
Czech Medical Society J.Ev.Purkyně, Society of Occupational Health, 100 42 Prahá 10, ¿robárova 48, Czech Republic, 1993. 3 vols. 1,356p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: USD 30.00.
Nordic Expert Group for the Documentation of Exposure Limits. 106. Crystalline silica
Nordiska Expertgruppen för Gränsvärdesdokumentation. 106. Krystallinsk silika [in Norwegian]
Crystalline silica (SiO2) is the most abundant element in the earth's crust. This criteria document reviews environmental and occupational exposure to silica-containing dust and various health effects which may result from such exposure. The epidemiological and experimental evidence for a possible carcinogenic effect of silica dust is reviewed and discussed. Exposures which are today regarded as low enough to prevent the occurrence of silicosis (<0.04mg/m3 of respirable crystalline silica), will probably also be sufficiently low to prevent any possible observable increase risk of lung cancer in humans.
Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1993. 77p. 439 ref.
Nurminen M., Corvalan C., Leigh J., Baker G.
Prediction of silicosis and lung cancer in the Australian labor force exposed to silica
Currently 77% of the at-risk labour force in Australia is exposed to silica dust levels of ≤0.1mg/m3. With this level as the limit, about 440 (range 140-1210) silicosis cases and 410 (interval 90-780) extra lung cancer cases would occur in 40 years. Adopting this level as the national exposure standard would reduce the risk of silicosis cases by 52% and the excess risk of lung cancer by 36%.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 1992, Vol.18, No.6, p.393-399. 11 ref.
Arenas-Huertero F., Salazar Flores M., Pasquel-García P.
Ferruginous bodies in cases with occupational and non-occupational exposure to inorganic dusts - A study of 40 matched cases
Concentrations of ferruginous bodies (FB) were estimated in samples of lung tissue obtained from 40 patients with a history of exposure to inorganic dusts and from 40 controls with no such exposure. Concentrations of FB in the exposed patients were higher than in the controls; 70% of exposed patients had more than 100f/g of dry lung tissue compared to 27.5% in the control cases. It was concluded that lung digest and fibre counts help to confirm exposures to inorganic dusts above the background values found in the general population. A table shows occupations, working time and fibre concentrations in 19 cases with pneumoconiosis.
Archives of Medical Research, Winter 1992, Vol.23, No.4, p.169-175. Illus. 21 ref.
Lehnert G., Raithel H.J., Valentin H.
Asbestos exposure, asbestosis, and lung cancer
Asbestfeinstaubexposition, Asbestose und Lungenkrebs [in German]
The connection between asbestos exposure, asbestosis and pleural or peritoneal mesothelioma has been well established by epidemiological studies. On the other hand, it is still unclear whether asbestos-exposed persons without asbestosis are also at a higher risk of developing mesothelioma. In order to answer this question, the international literature of the past ten years is reviewed. No evidence is found in support of an asbestos-related lung cancer without asbestosis or asbestos-induced lesions of the pleura. It is recommended that this kind of lung cancer not be included in the German list of occupational diseases.
Arbeitsmedizin - Sozialmedizin - Präventivmedizin, Mar. 1992, Vol.27, No.3, p.96-101. Illus. 28 ref.
French Society of Occupational Medicine of Dauphiné-Savoie - Meeting of 25 Oct. 1991
Société de médecine du travail Dauphiné-Savoie - Réunion du 25 octobre 1991 [in French]
Topics of communications presented at the meeting of 25 Oct. 1991 of the French Society of Occupational Medicine for Dauphiné-Savoie: tobacco growing and alveolitis (3 cases); polymer-fume fever associated with the use of mould-release agents containing fluorocarbons (1 case); asthma and bronchio-alveolitis due to Penicillium nalgiovense in sausage mould (2 cases); screening campaign for breast, colorectal and cervical cancer among women aged 50-69 in the French department of Isère; critical assessment of 1,724 spirographic tests; review of the videocassette "Attention Phosgène"; use of audiovisuals and other available materials for training sessions; development of a multidisciplinary health and safety training programme for electroplaters; industrial medicine and video on the job site and in inter-enterprise services.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, 1992, Vol.53, No.7, p.665-678.
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