Pneumoconioses - 1,356 entries found
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"Pneumoconiosis" seminar of the Commission for Scientific and Technical Research in the Mining Industry (CORSS)
Journée "Pneumoconioses" de la Commission des recherches scientifiques et techniques sur la sécurité et la santé dans les industries extractives (CORRS) [in French]
Proceedings of a seminar on pneumoconiosis of the Commission for Scientific and Technical Research in the Mining Industry (Paris, France, 28 November 1996). Contents: introduction; definition, areas of application and biological mechanisms of pneumoconiosis; historical overview and statistics of coal miners' pneumoconiosis; role of occupational practitioners in prevention, experience of France, technical progress in the prevention area; silicosis in the mining region of Nord-Pas-de-Calais in France.
Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 1997, Vol.24, No.2, p.61-102. Illus.
Kokkarinen J.I., Tukiainen H.O., Terho E.O.
Asthma in patients with farmer's lung during a five-year follow-up
An assessment of the incidence of asthma in 1,031 Finnish patients who had occupational farmer's lung diagnosed from 1983 to 1988. Seventy-four (7%) cases of asthma were found up to the end of the 5 years following the year of the diagnosis for farmer's lung. Prevalence of asthma was 1% in the year preceding the diagnosis.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.149-151. Illus. 12 ref.
A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of lung cancer in welders
This meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies carried out on the lung cancer risk among shipyard, mild steel and stainless steel welders consisted of calculating combined relative risks (RR). Similar values were observed in studies of the "any welding" or "study design" category. Furthermore, welders are likely to be exposed to asbestos and seem to smoke more than the general male population. A 30-40% increase in the RR of lung cancer cannot be explained by hexavalent chromium and nickel exposure among stainless steel welders. The combination of the carcinogenic effects of asbestos exposure and smoking may account for part of the observed lung cancer excess.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.104-113. 73 ref.
Hillerdal G., Henderson D.W.
Asbestos, asbestosis, pleural plaques and lung cancer
The carcinogenic risks of exposure to asbestos and the radiological findings related to pleural plaques (which by themselves are considered harmless) are surveyed. Epidemiologic studies usually do not prove that asbestos-exposed patients without asbestosis are without risk. There is an increasing body of evidence that, at low exposure levels, asbestos produces a slight increase in the relative risk of lung cancer even in the absence of asbestosis. Thus all exposure to asbestos must be kept to a minimum.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1997, Vol.23, No.2, p.93-103. 153 ref.
A cohort study of graphite workers in Sri Lanka
A cohort of workers from a graphite mine in Sri Lanka was studied in 1987, 1990 and 1993. Radiographic lesions were found in 8.5%, 8.9% and 4.1% of the workers in these respective rounds. Clinical examination of the affected workers revealed 18 cases of graphite pneumoconiosis and 7 cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis in the 3 rounds. The decline in the prevalence of these diseases in 1993 was probably the result of dust control measures introduced in 1972. Five workers who had worked in the mine for an average of 22.6 years developed graphite pneumoconiosis during the course of the study.
Occupational Medicine, July 1997, Vol.47, No.5, p.269-272. 12 ref.
Asbestosis and silicosis
The causes and clinical presentation of asbestosis and silicosis are reviewed. The diseases are chronic non-malignant lung diseases caused by inhalation of asbestos and silica dusts found in a variety of workplaces, in particular, mining, construction, manufacturing and building maintenance. Since there is no effective treatment to reverse the course of the diseases, prevention through elimination of hazardous exposure conditions is of primary importance. Lung cancer and other diseases are often associated with asbestosis and silicosis.
Lancet, 3 May 1997, Vol.349, No.9061, p.1311-1315. 36 ref.
Hnizdo E., Murray J., Klempman S.
Lung cancer in relation to exposure to silica dust, silicosis and uranium production in South African gold miners
In a cohort of 2260 South African gold miners, 78 cases of lung cancer were found during the follow-up period from 1970 to 1986. The risk of lung cancer was associated with tobacco smoking, cumulative dust exposure, duration of underground mining and silicosis. No association was found with uranium production. The results cannot be interpreted definitively in terms of causal association. High levels of exposure to silica dust on its own are important in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and silicosis is either coincidental or represents an increased risk. The risk is also increased in miners spending many hours underground, in which case high levels of silica dust exposure may be a surrogate for exposure to radon daughters.
Thorax, Mar. 1997, Vol.52, p.271-275. 19 ref.
Yi Q., Zhang Z.
The survival analyses of 2738 patients with simple pneumoconiosis
To explore whether the inhalation of coal mine dust increases the risk of premature death in miners, a survival analysis was conducted in a cohort of 2738 patients with simple pneumoconiosis in the Huai-Bei coal mine in China. During a follow up period (mean 8yrs) 3.2% of patients with simple pneumoconiosis developed progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). The patients with PMF presented higher age specific mortalities than those remaining in a state of simple pneumoconiosis (SMR: 3.42). After adjustment for tuberculosis and duration of work, the relative risk (RR) of premature death due to development of PMF was 2.4. Tuberculosis was found to be a main risk factor which not only facilitated premature death (RR=2.0), but was also a strong facilitator for development of PMF (RR=7.0). Also, a long term of work underground and drilling as a main job were identified as risk factors for development of PMF.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.53, No.2, p.129-135. 30 ref.
Lewis S., Bennett J., Richards K., Britton J.
A cross sectional study of the independent effect of occupation on lung function in British coal miners
Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were obtained on 1286 miners in Nottinghamshire with no evidence of pneumoconiosis on X-ray film. Lung function data were also obtained from a control sample of 567 Nottinghamshire men. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the mean independent effect of mining on FEV1 and FVC after adjustment for age, height, and smoking, in all miners and controls. There was a significant mean effect of mining on FEV1 after adjustment for age, height, and smoking of -155mL, but the size of effect was inversely related to age such that in men of 45 and under the estimated mean effect of mining was -251mL. Occupational exposure to coal dust is associated with a small mean deficit in lung function even in the absence of simple pneumoconiosis, and independently from the effects of smoking. The requirement that miners should have evidence of pneumoconiosis to qualify for compensation for impaired lung function is therefore unjustified.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 1996, Vol.53, No.2, p.125-128. Illus. 14 ref.
Cocârla A., Petran M., Olinici C.D.
Silicosis and alveolar lipoproteinosis
Silicose et lipoprotéinose alvéolaire [in French]
Topics: bronchopulmonary lavage; cristobalite; silica; case study; diagnosis; pulmonary alveolar proteinosis; radiological diagnosis; Romania; silicosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1996, Vol.57, No.8, p.601-605. 28 ref.
Kreiss K., Zhen B.
Risk of silicosis in a Colorado mining community
The exposure-response relationship for silicosis was investigated among 134 men over age 40 who had been identified in a previous community-based random sample study in a mining town. Thirty-two per cent of the 100 dust-exposed subjects had radiologic profusions of small opacities of 1/0 or greater at a mean time since first silica exposure of 36.1 years. Of miners with cumulative silica exposures of 2mg/m3-years or less, 20% had silicosis; of miners accumulating > mg/m m3-years, 63% had silicosis. Logistic regression models demonstrated that time since last silica exposure and either cumulative silica exposure or a combination of average silica exposure and duration of exposure predicted silicosis risk. Exposure-response relations were substantially higher using measured silica exposures than using estimated silica exposures based on measured dust exposures assuming a constant silica proportion of dust, consistent with lower levels of exposure misclassification.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 1996, Vol.30, No.5, p.529-539. Illus. 17 ref.
Medical surveillance of pneumoconioses
Topics: asbestosis; asbestos; quartz; chest radiography; coal dust; coalworkers pneumoconiosis; dose-response relationship; hazard evaluation; medical supervision; pneumoconiosis; progressive massive fibrosis; silicosis.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 1996, Vol.2, No.3, Supplement, p.S27-S32. Illus. 7 ref.
Starzyński Z., Marek K., Kujawska A., Szymczak W.
Mortality among different occupational groups of workers with pneumoconiosis: Results from a register-based cohort study
Topics: coal mining; epidemiologic study; foundries; lung cancer; mortality; occupation disease relation; ore reduction; pneumoconiosis; Poland; pottery industry; quarrying industry; refractories; respiratory diseases; tuberculosis; underground work.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1996, Vol.30, No.6, p.718-725. 35 ref.
Breum N.O., Møller Nielsen E.
Dust content of cotton - Quality control in terms of airborne dust and endotoxin: A pilot study
Method for the determination of the dust and endotoxin content of cotton for preventing byssinosis in the cotton industry. Topics: airborne dust; bacterial toxins; byssinosis; cotton industry; cotton; description of equipment; description of technique; determination of concentration; dust measurement; Germany; textile industry.
Gefahrstoffe Reinhaltung der Luft, 1996, Vol.56, No.10, p.389-392. Illus. 22 ref.
Asbestos-related diseases. Setting the national research agenda 1996 to 2006
Proceedings of a symposium on asbestos-related diseases held in Sydney, Australia, 11-12 June 1996. Papers cover: the importance of a national research agenda for asbestos-related diseases; health effects of asbestos exposure; national prevention programme in Finland; predicted future numbers of cases of asbestos-related disease in Australia; manufacture and use of asbestos products in Australia; social aspects of exposure; early diagnosis and patient care.
Worksafe Australia, GPO Box 58, Sydney, NSW 2001, Australia, 1996. 68p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Screening and surveillance of workers exposed to mineral dusts
This book presents different approaches of screening and surveillance programmes for workers exposed to mineral dusts, focusing on asbestos, crystalline silica and coal mine dust. The diseases associated with exposure to these dusts are reviewed, as are the diagnostic tests. Technical annexes contain examples of existing programmes in several countries and examine the use of questionnaires, lung spirometry and chest radiography.
World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1996. ix, 68p. Bibl.ref.
Chronic beryllium disease: Diagnosis and management
Chronic beryllium disease is a pulmonary granulomatosis. Individuals at risk include workers involved in beryllium extraction and in the production of metallic beryllium and beryllium products. Immunologic studies have demonstrated a cell-mediated response to beryllium. Diagnosis depends on the demonstration of pathologic changes (granuloma) and evidence that the granuloma were caused by hypersensitivity to beryllium. Using these criteria, diagnosis of the disease can now be made before the onset of clinical symptoms. Early diagnosis and treatment may lead to regression of symptoms and prevention of further progression of the disease.
Environmental Health Perspectives, Oct. 1996, Vol.104, Suppl.5, p.945-947. 21 ref.
Gambini G., et al.
Comparison of inter-observer reproducibility between conventional chest radiography and AMBER in the evaluation of silicosis
The aims of this study were to test inter- and intraobserver agreement in the diagnosis of silicosis, using conventional chest radiography and Advanced Multiple Beam Equalization Radiography (AMBER). Five readers independently evaluated the radiograms of 115 patients with standard ILO/UC classification scales. AMBER showed a better technical quality of radiograms; inter- and intraobserver agreement was high for the five readers.
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.87, No.4, p.323-329. Illus. 11 ref.
Scansetti G., et al.
Asbestos bodies in sputum of asbestos exposed workers
The prevalence of asbestos bodies (AB) was determined in sputum specimens, obtained from 220 asbestos-exposed workers who had put in a claim for compensation. The mean duration of exposure was 13 years. The overall AB prevalence was 34%, higher among workers exposed to amphiboles than in those exposed to chrysotile. The highest AB prevalence was among currently exposed textile workers (65.7%).
Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1996, Vol.87, No.4, p.283-288. 12 ref.
Starzyński Z., Marek K., Kujawska A., Szymczak W.
Mortality among coal miners with pneumoconiosis in Poland
The mortality of a cohort of 7065 hard coal miners with pneumoconiosis diagnosed during 1970-1985 was investigated to end 1991. The miners showed significantly elevated total mortality and mortality due to respiratory diseases compared with the general male population of Poland. Mortality from all diseases of the circulatory system was lower among the miners. No significant increase in the risk of death from malignant neoplasms of the lung was observed among the miners as a whole or among sub-groups which varied according to their risk of pneumoconiosis and their level of exposure to ionizing radiation.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1996, Vol.9, No.4, p.279-289. 13 ref.
Meijers J.M.M, Swaen G.M.H., Slangen J.J.M.
Mortality and lung cancer in ceramic workers in the Netherlands: Preliminary results
A retrospective cohort study in 1794 male ceramic workers in the Netherlands was carried out to analyze the lung cancer risk in relation to crystalline silica exposure and silicosis. They had all been employed for two years or longer in ceramic industries between 1972 and 1982. During a health survey, 124 cases of simple pneumoconiosis were diagnosed. After 14 years of follow-up, 161 deaths had occurred. No increased overall and cause-specific mortality was found in the total group of ceramic workers and a statistically significant cumulative dose-response relation for silica exposure and lung cancer did not emerge. An excess lung cancer mortality appeared among workers with simple pneumoconiosis. The authors conclude that the disease process resulting in silicosis in the ceramic industry carries an increased risk of lung cancer, which is supportive of a nongenotoxic pathway.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 1996, Vol.30, No.1, p.26-30. 27 ref.
Silicosis in automobile foundries
Silicoses dans les fonderies automobiles [in French]
In 1989, eight occupational physicians from the largest French automobile foundries decided to organize joint meetings in order to discuss and find solutions to common OSH problems, to uniformize the procedures of medical surveillance in their enterprises and to organize epidemiologic and inter-enterprise studies. One of these study topics was that of silicosis: the physicians collected all relevant data concerning the workers in their enterprises so that they could provide a quantitative evaluation of the extent of the silicosis problem in large French automobile foundries. As a result of this survey, one can arrive at a better understanding of the silicosis hazard in these enterprises, and possibly extrapolate to medium-size foundries.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 1996, No.68, p.323-328. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.inrs.fr/htm/silicoses_dans_les_fonderies_automobiles.html [in French]
Wang Z., Dong D., Liang X., Qu G., Wu J., Xu X.
Cancer mortality among silicotics in China's metallurgical industry
A retrospective cohort study of lung cancer among silicotics in the Chinese metallurgical industry was conducted on 4372 male subjects. Significant excess lung cancer mortality risk was observed among silicotics in all occupational categories. A more than twofold excess lung cancer risk was reported among both smoking and non-smoking silicotics.
International Journal of Epidemiology, 1996, Vol.25, No.5, p.913-917. 14 ref.
ABC of work related disorders: Building related illnesses
Information note on building-related illnesses, sometimes referred to as sick building syndrome (SBS)., a term used to describe a situation where more than the expected number of people working in a building suffer from various symptoms for no apparent reason. These symptoms are those associated with common illnesses and allergies, usually in a mild form. There is no single known cause of the syndrome, but several risk factors related to work, buildings and the environment have been identified. SBS not only occurs in office buildings, but has been identified in schools, nurseries, libraries and apartment buildings as well. Common indoor air pollutants and their sources are described. In some workplaces airborne allergens may be involved. Two other kinds of bacterial agents involved in SBS are: actinomycetes, to which outbreaks of humidifier fever are attributed, and Legionella implicated in flu-like illnesses (legionnaires' disease and Pontiac fever). Some suggestions for prevention are made.
British Medical Journal, Sept. 1996, Vol.313, p.674-677. Illus. 4 ref.
Rosenman K.D., Reilly M.J., Rice C., Hertzberg V., Tseng C.Y., Anderson H.A.
Silicosis among foundry workers: Implication for the need to revise the OSHA standard
The incidence of pneumoconiosis in 1,072 current and retired workers of an American automotive foundry was investigated. Approximately half of these workers had worked at the foundry for 20 or more years. Sixty workers had radiographic evidence of pneumoconiosis. Twenty-eight workers had radiographs consistent with silicosis. The asbestos-related changes were not associated with increasing exposure to silica, but rather with being in the maintenance department. An increased risk of 1.45 was found for having a radiograph consistent with silicosis after 20 years of work at the current US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standard, and an increased risk of 2.10 after 40 years of work. The data show that the current OSHA standard (0.1mg/m3) is not sufficiently low to protect workers against the development of radiologic evidence of silicosis. Exposures at the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 0.05mg/m3 already result in a lower prevalence (0.3-0.8%) of radiographic evidence of silicosis, suggesting that the OSHA standard is set at too high a value.
American Journal of Epidemiology, Sep. 1996, Vol.144, No.9, p.890-900. Illus. 21 ref.
Dawson M.W., Scott J.G., Cox L.M.
The medical and epidemiologic effects on workers of the level of airborne Thermoactinomyces spp. spores present in Australian raw sugar mills
Total airborne bacteria spore concentrations were monitored in and around two cane sugar mills before, during and after the cane processing season. Viable airborne bacteria counts were obtained to confirm the presence of Thermoactinomyces sacchari, a bacterium known to cause bagassosis. The total airborne bacteria spore count was lower than those reported in other industries (cotton milling, wood chip handling) during normal operations. Airborne counts during activities known to generate higher levels than usual were also lower than expected. Medical examinations of workers at both mills revealed no cases of acute bagassosis and no evidence of the development of chronic bagassosis.
American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Nov. 1996, Vol.57, No.11, p.1002-1012. 36 ref.
Duchaine C., Bédard G., Mériaux A., Cormier Y.
Hay treatment with lactic bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus) does not seem to protect the respiratory health of agricultural workers
Le traitement du foin avec des bactéries lactiques (Pediococcus pentosaceus) ne semble pas protéger la santé respiratoire des travailleurs agricoles [in French]
In the province of Quebec (Canada), lyophilized lactic bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus) are added to hay in order to prevent the development of farmer's lung and other respiratory diseases among exposed farmers. A study was conducted on 19 farms of the Quebec City area that had used this kind of treatment for at least 2 years and on 18 "control" farms that had not. The study relied on answers to a questionnaire survey concerning respiratory symptoms and on the evaluation of specific serum IgG in blood samples (in particular, against P. pentosaceus and 3 common air contaminants). Spirometry was used to measure ventilatory capacity. The proportion of farmers with specific serum IgE against the antigens in question was similar in the two groups, while the respiratory health indices did not differ significantly either. It appears therefore that P. pentosaceus does not protect the health of farm workers, even though almost one half (47%) of users rely on this microorganism for this purpose.
Travail et santé, Dec. 1996, Vol.12, No.4, p.S-20 to S-23. 15 ref.
Occupational asthma and other respiratory diseases
This article is a synopsis of information on the medical aspects of occupational asthma and other work-related respiratory disorders. The estimated number of cases of these disorders in 1994 in the UK (3267) are reported and broken down by category. Major causes of occupational asthma and groups at risk are analyzed, with indications of the most common respiratory sensitizers in the workplace. Some sensitizers might not be immediately obvious: e.g. latex gloves. The diagnostic aspects and investigations to be performed on patients to identify specific causes are summarized. Pneumoconiosis, extrinsic allergic alveolitis and non-malignant and malignant disorders induced by asbestos are also presented. Finally, the relative frequency of inhalation accidents is discussed, although fatalities from exposure to gases in the workplace are now rare in Britain.
British Medical Journal, Aug. 1996, Vol.313, p.291-294. Illus. 2 ref.
Wilt J.L., Banks D.E., Weissman D.N., Parker J.E., Vallyathan V., Castranova V., Dedhia H.V., Stulken E., Ma J.K.H., Ma J.Y.C., Cruzzavala J., Shumaker J., Childress C.P., Lapp N.L.
Reduction of lung dust burden in pneumoconiosis by whole-lung lavage
While no effective therapy exists to prevent the progression of pneumoconioses, whole-lung lavage (WLL) might limit the rate of disease progression through the removal of dust, inflammatory cells and cytokines. WLL was performed on two miners who both demonstrated normal lung function and chest radiographs showing ILO profusion category 2 nodular interstitial changes. Relatively large quantities of non-coal mineral dust and cells were recovered along with proinflammatory cytokines, growth factors and cellular enzymes. Long-term clinical trials are necessary to establish the value of this treatment in the management of dust-induced pulmonary disease.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 1996, Vol.38, No.6, p.619-624. Illus. 35 ref.
Is simultaneous occurrence of silicosis and lung cancer coincidental or associational?
The incidence of silicosis in the Mecsek coal and uranium mining region of Hungary was determined from local autopsy records (1958-1994) and mortality data (1980-1988). Data on coal miners who died from lung cancer between 1980 and 1988 were also analyzed. In agreement with other published studies, results indicate that a simultaneous occurrence of silicosis and lung cancer is coincidental and lacks any pathogenetic connection. Problems in the diagnosis of silicosis are also discussed.
Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1996, Vol.2, No.1, p.37-46. Illus. 13 ref.
Prince T.S., Frank A.L.
Causation, impairment, disability: An analysis of coal workers' pneumoconiosis evaluations
Impairment evaluation data for a group of 374 coal miners who filed for disability for coalworkers' pneumoconiosis were reviewed. Several pulmonary function variables declined in association with years mining, even after controlling for smoking and roentgenograph findings of pneumoconiosis. Of the 203 cases settled, 157 (77%) received some kind of disability payment, although only 49 (24%) had a roentgenograph positive for pneumoconiosis. Among 59 with completely normal roentgenographs and pulmonary function tests, 38 received some disability award. Findings support development of a more rational impairment/disability system for those with potential coal dust disease.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1996, Vol.38, No.1, p.77-82. 18 ref.
Harkin T.J., McGuinness G., Goldring R., Cohen H., Parker J.E., Crane M., Naidich D.P., Rom W.N.
Differentiation of the ILO boundary chest roentgenograph (0/1 to 1/0) in asbestosis by high-resolution computed tomography scan, alveolitis, and respiratory impairment
In a study of 37 asbestos-exposed individuals, the 1980 ILO International Classification of the Radiographs of the Pneumoconioses for asbestosis was compared with the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan using a grid scoring system to better differentiate between normal and abnormal in the ILO boundary 0/1 to 1/0 chest roentgenograph. Clinical symptoms, bronchoalveolar lavage and pulmonary function tests were used to assess the presence or absence of disease. The ILO classification and HRCT grid scores were both excellent modalities for the assessment of asbestosis and its association with impaired physiology and alveolitis; their combined use provided statistical associations with alveolitis and reduced diffusing capacity.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1996, Vol.38, No.1, p.46-52. Illus. 35 ref.
Kulcsar Neto F., Gronchi C.C., Ferreira de Souza Duarte I., de Ângelo da Cunha I., Possebon J., Teixeira M.M., do Amaral N.C.
Silica - Worker's manual
Sílica - Manual do trabalhador [in Portuguese]
Topics: basic metal industries; Brazil; silica; chemical industry; glass industry; limitation of exposure; mining industry; responsibilities of employees; safe working methods; silicosis; training manuals; training material; tunnelling.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente, 710, Sao Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, 1995. v, 47p. Illus. 8 ref.
Goldsmith D.F., Wagner G.R., Saffiotti U., Rabovsky J., Leigh J.
Second international symposium on silica, silicosis and cancer
Proceedings of a symposium held in San Francisco, USA, 27-30 October 1993. Topics: animal experiments; biochemical effects; cancer; carcinogenic effects; conference; dust measurement; epidemiologic study; exposure evaluation; extrapolation animal man; fibrogenic effects; gold mining; hazard evaluation; inhalation toxicity; lung cancer; lung diseases; mineralogy; mining industry; mortality; ongoing research; pathogenesis; pottery industry; pulmonary fibrosis; quartz; refractory brick industry; sampling and analysis; silica; silicosis; USA; workmen's compensation.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1995, Vol.21, Suppl.2, p.1-120. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Shinozaki T., Yano E.
Results of pneumoconiosis examination - Different trends among industries
This report describes yearly changes (1979-1992) in pneumoconiosis patients and pneumoconiosis progression in each industry in Japan, using the statistics compiled by the Ministry of Labour on the basis of the results of pneumoconiosis examinations performed at plants in accordance with the Pneumoconiosis Law (CIS 92-360). The number of workers exposed to mineral dust decreased yearly. The number of subjects with positive findings, the number of new cases with pneumoconiosis, the ratio of positive findings and the incidence rate of pneumoconiosis also decreased. However, there were large differences among industries in the rate of decrease and in the absolute values of the ratios of positive findings. In the sector including metal mining, the number of cases increased, and the ratio of positive findings was 70-79% (compared to 10% for industry as a whole). The ratio of pneumoconiosis with complications, along with the progression ratio, decreased. Overall, the number of subjects with advanced pneumoconiosis and the severity of the symptoms decreased annually. These trends have been obscured in studies that focus on cumulative totals of victims and severity indicators.
Industrial Health, 2 June 1995, Vol.33, No.1, p.23-27. Illus. 2 ref.
Swaen G.M.H., Meijers J.M.M., Slangen J.J.M.
Risk of gastric cancer in pneumoconiotic coal miners and the effect of respiratory impairment
This study was carried out to investigate the mortality patterns in a group of 3790 coal miners. The study population had abnormal chest X-ray films at a routine medical examination that was performed in the 1950's. The total group of 3790 coal miners was followed up for mortality up to 1 January 1992. Total mortality in this group of coal miners was significantly higher than expected, mainly a reflection of the increase in mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease. Mortality from gastric cancer was also significantly increased. This risk of mortality from gastric cancer was confined to workers with no pneumoconiosis or only a mild from. Despite the strong relation to duration of employment and pneumoconiosis the group of workers with more severe manifestations of pneumoconiosis did not experience an excess in mortality from gastric cancer. This study confirms the earlier reported risk of gastric cancer in coal miners. Also it confirms the hypothesis that this risk of gastric cancer is limited to workers with a mild degree of pneumoconiosis or none. In workers with severe forms of pneumoconiosis the pulmonary clearance system is impaired in such a way that the inhaled coal dust does not reach the digestive tract.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 1995, Vol.52, No.9, p.606-610. 15 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
This leaflet explains how dust from hay, straw, grain and other farm products can cause farmer's lung and other diseases (mushroom worker's lung, harvest worker's lung, poultry breeder's lung). Protective measures include: not creating more dust than is necessary when working; ensuring that machinery contains dust as far as possible; ventilation; good housekeeping; protective clothing; wearing respiratory protective equipment (RPE). Includes guidance on legal requirements, health checks, and selection and use of RPE.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Dec. 1995. 8p. 7 ref.
Schins R.P.F., Borm P.J.A.
Epidemiological evaluation of release of monocyte TNF-alpha as an exposure and effect marker in pneumoconiosis: A five year follow up study of coal workers
Study to determine the reproducibility with previous cross-sectional findings and the predictive value of initial release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) towards later progression of coalworkers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). Release of monocyte TNF-alpha after in vitro stimulation with coal mine dust, silica and endotoxin was measured in 104 retired miners and was related to stage of CWP and cumulative exposure. A subgroup of 46 miners was screened by high resolution computed tomography (HRCT). As observed previously, dust stimulated release of TNF-alpha was increased in miners, especially in the early stages of pneumoconiosis. Cumulative exposure was related to pneumoconiotic stage but not to release of TNF-alpha. Initial concentrations of TNF-alpha were related to later progression of CWP. The results show the significant involvement of TNF-alpha in pneumoconiosis in humans induced by coal dust and that this routine test possibly constitutes a powerful tool to estimate individual prognosis of pneumoconiotic disease, even after the end of occupational exposure.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 1995, Vol.52, No.7, p.441-450. 31 ref.
Partanen R., Koskinen H., Hemminki K.
Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in patients who have asbestosis and develop cancer
Concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were assayed by radioimmunoassay in serum samples collected between 1981 and 1987 from 111 patients with asbestosis who where at a high risk of cancer. Follow up of these patients until 1993 showed that 38 had developed cancer (27 lung, three mesothelioma and eight diverse malignancies). The mean serum concentrations of TNF-alpha given in fmol/100µL serum in all the cases with cancer and the cases with lung cancer were significantly higher than the mean concentrations in the exposed controls. The serum concentrations of TNF-alpha correlated moderately with cancer, lung cancer and Neu oncoproteins and epidermal growth factor receptor. Also, there was a significant correlation between development of cancer and severity or progression of asbestosis. There was no correlation between the concentrations of TNF-alpha and severity or progression of asbestosis. The results showed high concentrations of TNF-alpha in the patients who had cancer. TNF-alpha may offer an auxiliary method in early diagnosis of cancers related to asbestosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 1995, Vol.52, p.316-319. Illus. 15 ref.
Privalova L.I., Katsnelson B.A., Sharapova N.Y., Kislitsina N.S.
On the relationship between activation and breakdown of macrophages in the pathogenesis of silicosis (An overview)
While considering that many other authors have suggested that macrophage activation plays a key role in the development of immunopathological phenomena in silicosis, asbestosis and other pneumoconioses, this study underlines the importance exerted on pulmonary macrophages by macrophage breakdown products (MBPs) as well. Experiments conducted have shown that most of the activation phenomena could be reproduced, either in vitro or in vivo, by exposing macrophages to MBPs. Though not denying that small silica doses may be able to exert a direct activating influence upon the macrophages, the conclusion is that the primary role in the pathogenesis of silicosis is played by the damage to and the breakdown of these cells.
Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1995, Vol.86, No.6, p.511-521. Illus. 28 ref.
Rebstock-Bourgkard E., Bertrand J.P., Chau N., Bernadac P., Mahieu B., Vandeweghe S., Bertal A., Pham Q.T.
Chest radiography and computed tomography scans in the first stages of simple coal workers' pneumoconiosis
Radiographie et scanner thoracique dans les premiers stades de pneumoconiose des mineurs de charbon [in French]
Study on the contribution of computed tomography scans to the diagnosis of the early stages of pneumoconiosis when interobserver variability is significant and images unremarkable. Computed tomography (CT) scans provide additional information on micronodules, which are diffuse, posterior and peripheral at early stages of pneumoconiosis. Since half of the pneumoconioses with ILO classification 0/1 or 1/0 affecting coal miners in the Lorraine region in France evolve within four years into a 1/1 pneumoconiosis or higher, it is suggested that screening specificity should be improved. The complementarity of CT evaluation and chest radiography is obvious; when the diagnosis of the first stages of simple coal-worker's pneumoconiosis is not certain, CT scanning provides more information on pulmonary abnormalities and distinguishes between pneumoconiotic opacities, chronic lung diseases and emphysema.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1995, Vol.56, No.7, p.543-550. Illus. 24 ref.
Silicosis, radon, and lung cancer risk in Ontario miners
Uranium miners are at an increased risk of developing lung cancer. This is generally attributable to exposure to radon. However, miners are also exposed to silica, classified by IARC as a possible human carcinogen. In a study of lung cancer risk in 328 miners with silicosis, which included a small number of uranium miners (23 subjects), it was found that the radon risk factor decreased when lung cancer risk was adjusted for the presence of silicosis. Smoking is also an important risk factor, but it was not feasible to include smoking in the statistical models. The results for the radon risk factors are, however, uncertain because of the small number of uranium miners included in the sample. Additional studies of this factor are considered warranted.
Health Physics, Sept. 1995, Vol.69, No.3, p.396-399. Illus. 12 ref.
Le Bacle C., Bouchami R., Goulfier C.
Silicosis - The situation in France in the 90s
Silicose - La situation en France dans les années 90 [in French]
In the second half of the 1980s, about 300 new cases of silicosis were recognized per year in France, which means that it is still one of the most important occupational diseases covered by the country's social security system. New regulations on the prevention of exposure to silica are being developed. A review of the statistics of the National Sickness Insurance Fund for Wage Workers (CNAMTS) for the last 15 years, and of the CNAMTS's Ile-de-France (Paris region) regional medical service files for the last two years, shows that the cases now appearing cannot be imputed to the workers' most recent employers, as they involve miners who found other work after the widespread mine closures of the 70s and 80s. This observation is important for the planning of preventive measures; for the response to questions about the incidence of the disease, its consequences for the individual, its cost to society and the activities with which it is associated; and for the drafting of appropriate regulations.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 1995, No.63, p.159-165. Illus. 19 ref.
Gout D., Laforest J.C., Brochard P., Le Bacle C., Huré P.
Safe handling of asbestos
Dossier: La prévention face à l'amiante [in French]
This round-up is intended for anyone involved with asbestos. It includes a review of asbestos-related disease, an interview with a specialist from the French Research and Safety Institute (INRS) on three kinds of hazard due to asbestos, an article on the INRS asbestos laboratory, advice to occupational physicians together with a list of the principal operations that can liberate asbestos, the recommendation of the French National Health Insurance Fund concerning removal of sprayed asbestos, a bibliography of relevant INRS publications and a summary of the most important legal texts regarding asbestos.
Travail et sécurité, Dec. 1995, No.543, p.640-672. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Williams V., de Klerk N.H., Whitaker D., Musk A.W., Shilkin K.B.
Asbestos bodies in lung tissue following exposure to crocidolite
Routine asbestos body counts in lung tissue from 206 autopsies in Western Australia were analyzed. Counts for 32 cases who had worked in the asbestos industry (mining and milling of crocidolite) correlated well with estimates of their cumulative airborne exposure to crocidolite fibres. No other exposure variables, including time since ceasing exposure or age, had any significant effects on body count. It is concluded that the relatively simple technique of light microscopy for counting asbestos bodies in lung tissue provides a reliable indication of past occupational exposure to crocidolite in subjects whose exposure has been only to crocidolite.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.28, No.4, p.489-495. 11 ref.
Goldsmith D.F., Beaumont J.J., Morrin L.A., Schenker M.B.
Respiratory cancer and other chronic disease mortality among silicotics in California
Mortality risks were estimated for 590 silicotics claiming workers' compensation claims in California from 1946 to 1975. Findings confirmed that these claimants had an elevated risk for all causes of death, and for tuberculosis, non-malignant respiratory diseases, cancers of the trachea, bronchus and lung and malignancies of the large intestine. Mortality from heart diseases and cancers of the prostrate and lymphatic system was low. Data are tabulated for four industries: construction, mining and quarrying, metallurgy and foundries, and utilities and transportation.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1995, Vol.28, No.4, p.459-467. 23 ref.
Kuempel E.D., Stayner L.T., Attfield M.D., Buncher C.R.
Exposure-response analysis of mortality among coal miners in the United States
In a study of 8,878 coal miners in the USA, significant exposure-response relationships were observed for cumulative exposure to respirable coal mine dust and mortality either from pneumoconiosis or from chronic bronchitis or emphysema. Miners exposed at or below the current U.S. coal dust standard of 2mg/m3 over a working lifetime, have an elevated risk of dying from these diseases. No exposure-related increases in lung cancer or stomach cancer were observed. Pneumoconiosis mortality varied significantly according to the rank of coal dust to which the miners were exposed.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1995, Vol.28, No.2, p.167-184. Illus. 30 ref.
Holanda M.A., Martins M.P.S., Felismino P.H., Pinheiro V.G.F.
Silicosis in Brazilian pit diggers - Relationship between dust exposure and radiologic findings
A study of 366 pit diggers in northeastern Brazil, including a questionnaire and chest X-ray, revealed 121 (33.306%) silicotics and possible silicotics. Since the study population comprised itinerant workers performing occasional digging activities, a dust exposure index was developed to determine the exact duration of dust exposure; the mean value of the index was 391.4 days. A clear association was revealed between duration of exposure and the incidence of silicosis. The geoclimatic conditions of the area resulted in very high dust concentrations and the silicosis occurred in its accelerated form.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 1995, Vol.27, No.3, p.367-378. Illus. 20 ref.
Occupational silicosis - Ohio 1989-1994
During the period 1989 to 1992, the Ohio Department of Health identified silicosis cases through reports of Bureau of Workers' Compensation claims, physician reports and death certificates. The addition in 1993 of hospital discharge reports resulted in a substantial increase in the number of silicosis cases identified annually. The advantages and limitations of this means of silicosis reporting are discussed.
Journal of the American Medical Association, 1st Mar. 1995, Vol.273, No.9, p.694-695. 7 ref.
Consumer Education & Research Centre
Landmark Supreme Court judgement on asbestosis
This petition to the Indian Supreme Court, filed by the private pressure group Consumer Education & Research Centre, concerns the protection of workers exposed to asbestos. Its recommendations include: health records should be maintained for all exposed workers for 40yrs from the beginning of employment; the Membrane Filter Test for the detection of asbestos fibres should be adopted by all workplaces covered by the Metalliferous Mines Regulations; all factories concerned should provide health insurance to their workers; the Union and State governments should review the exposure limits for asbestos, reducing them in tune with international standards; the appropriate Inspector of Factories (in particular of the State of Gujarat) should send all workers for re-examination for asbestosis (with compensation of INR 10,000 to be paid to those who have the disease). Basing its decision on the provisions of ILO Convention No.162 (of which India is a signatory), on a detailed examination of scientific information relating to asbestos and on court decisions in India and abroad, the Supreme Court of India allowed the writ petition and directed its recommendations to be implemented.
Industrial Safety Chronicle, Jan.-Mar. 1995, Vol.25, No.4, p.9-25. Bibl.ref.
Attfield M.D., Seixas N.S.
Prevalence of pneumoconiosis and its relationship to dust exposure in a cohort of U.S. bituminous coal miners and ex-miners
Information on radiographic evidence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is presented for a group of 3,194 underground bituminous coal workers and ex-miners examined between 1985 and 1988. Prevalence of CWP was related to estimated cumulative dust exposure, age and rank of coal. Miners of medium to low rank coal who worked for 40 years at the current federal dust limit of 2mg/m3, are predicted to have a 1.4% risk of having progressive massive fibrosis on retirement. Higher prevalences are predicted for less severe categories of CWP. Miners in high rank coal areas appear to be at greater risk than those mining medium and low rank coals. Ex-miners who said that they left mining for health-related reasons had higher levels of abnormality compared to current miners.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 1995, Vol.27, No.1, p.137-151. Illus. 25 ref.
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