Pneumoconioses - 1,356 entries found
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Nordness M.E., Zacharisen M.C., Schlueter D.P., Fink J.N.
Occupational lung disease related to Cytophaga endotoxin exposure in a nylon plant
Workers at a nylon plant developed pulmonary disease with systemic symptoms. Cytophaga, an endotoxin-producing bacteria, was isolated from the plant air-conditioning system. Several workers underwent lung biopsies, demonstrating hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Inhalation challenges with purified Cytophaga endotoxin were performed on three groups of subjects: employees with clinical features and biopsy consistent with HP (group 1); asymptomatic exposed workers with precipitins (group 2); and non-exposed healthy individuals (group 3). All subjects had fever and leukocytosis after inhalation challenge. Acute and/or late pulmonary function changes occurred in groups 1 and 2. Group 3 only had acute and transient pulmonary function changes. It is concluded that the Cytophaga bacterial endotoxin is capable of inducing HP as well as humidifier fever.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.45, No.4, p.385-392. Illus. 31 ref.
Su Y.M., Su J.R., Sheu J.Y., Loh C.H., Liou S.H.
Additive effect of smoking and cotton dust exposure on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of cotton textile workers
Two surveys to investigate the prevalence of byssinosis among cotton textile workers were conducted, the first (1991) enrolling 169 workers and second (1996) 175. The synergistic effect of smoking on cotton dust exposure was also evaluated. Although the difference in prevalence of abnormal pulmonary function between the first (38.5%) and second study (38.9%) was not statistically significant, smokers had a significantly higher frequency than nonsmokers in both surveys. A significant trend existed between cotton dust levels and the frequency of abnormal lung function. The frequency of respiratory symptoms and the prevalence of severe byssinosis in the second survey were significantly lower than in the first survey. This was due to the remodelling of this old cotton mill. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms and byssinosis in smokers was significantly higher than in nonsmokers in the first survey. These results indicate that smoking potentiates the effect of cotton dust exposure. The second study reveals that a high prevalence of byssinosis still existed in this Taiwanese cotton mill, although the prevalence was declining. Smoking was found to show an additive effect on cotton dust exposure.
Industrial Health, Apr. 2003, Vol.41, No.2, p.109-115. 24 ref.
The asbestos war
Asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal disease. This issue on asbestos-related problems covers following aspects: the fight to ban asbestos; scientific controversy; statistics of malignant mesothelioma in Australia; legal actions for compensation in South Africa and France; history of asbestos mining in Southern Africa; cross-country comparative overview of the asbestos situation in ten Asian countries; asbestos-related morbidity in India; impact of asbestos waste around the Roro hills, India, on the neighbouring population's health; asbestos situation in Japan, Korea, Mexico and Belgium; globalization and the transfer of a hazardous industry.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2003, Vol.9, No.3, p.173-298 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/0903_KazanAllen.pdf (Introduction) [in English]
Chattopadhyay B.P., Saiyed H.N., Mukherjee A.K.
Byssinosis among jute mill workers
This study involving 148 jute mill workers was carried out to evaluate the prevalence of byssinosis in this occupational group. Workers were subjected to spirometric testing, and data on work-related respiratory symptoms were collected by means of standard questionnaires. Dust levels, particle size distributions and gram-negative bacterial endotoxins were determined in the workplace atmosphere. Batching was found to be the dustiest process in the mill. Analysis of size distribution showed that the diameter of 70-80% of the dust particles was <10µm, 40-50% was <5µm and 10-20% was <2µm. Mean endotoxin levels found in batching, spinning and weaving and beaming were 2.319µg/m3, 0.956 µg/m3 and 0.041µg/m3 respectively. Respiratory morbidity study reported typical byssinotic symptoms along with acute post shift FEV1 changes (31.8%) and chronic changes in FEV1 (43.2%) among exposed workers. The group with higher exposures showed significantly lower lung function values. The study confirmed that Indian jute mill workers also suffer from byssinosis, as had been previously determined among cotton, flask and hemp workers.
Industrial Health, July 2003, Vol.41, No.3, p.265-272. Illus. 29 ref.
Dement J.M., Welch L., Bingham E., Cameron B., Rice C., Quinn P., Ringen K.
Surveillance of respiratory diseases among construction and trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites
Medical screening programs were initiated in 1996 at three nuclear weapons facilities to evaluate whether current and former construction workers were at significant risk for occupational illnesses. The focus of this report is pneumoconiosis associated with exposures to asbestos and silica among workers enrolled in the screening programs through 30 September 2001. Workers provided a detailed work and exposure history and underwent a respiratory examination, which included a respiratory symptom questionnaire, a chest radiograph and spirometry. Of the 2,602 workers enrolled in the project, 25.2% showed one or more chest X-ray changes by ILO criteria and 42.7% demonstrated one or more pulmonary function defects. The overall prevalence of parenchymal changes by ILO criteria was 5.4%. In the logistic regression models, the odds ratio for parenchymal disease was 2.6 for workers employed 6 to 20 years and increased to 3.6 for workers employed more than 35 years, with additional incremental risks for workers reporting routine exposures to asbestos or silica.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2003, Vol.43, No.6, p.559-573. Illus. 35 ref.
Lee Y.C.G., Singh B., Pang S.C., de Klerk N.H., Hillman D.R., Musk A.W.
Radiographic (ILO) readings predict arterial oxygen desaturation during exercise in subjects with asbestosis
The purpose of this study of subjects with asbestosis was to determine whether radiographic scores correlated with resting lung function and abnormal ventilatory responses to exercise. It also attempted to determine whether radiographic scores added value to resting lung function tests in predicting abnormal ventilatory responses to exercise. 38 male subjects with asbestosis were included. Chest radiographs were read according to the ILO classification independently by three observers. All subjects underwent assessment of lung functions at rest and an incremental exercise test. It was found that arterial oxygen desaturation correlated with the profusion and extent of parenchymal abnormality observed on the radiographs. The addition of morphological indices to physiological measurements is valuable for predicting oxygen desaturation during exercise but not for VO2max. Refinement of the radiographic scoring system and the addition of more sophisticated imaging techniques may further improve the predictive power.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.60, No.3, p.201-206. 36 ref.
Buchanan D., Miller B.G., Soutar C.A.
Quantitative relations between exposure to respirable quartz and risk of silicosis
The objective of this study was to gain a more detailed knowledge of the relations between exposure to quartz and risks of silicosis in coal miners. Detailed data on working times at different quartz concentrations were combined to produce exposure profiles for 371 male miners aged 50-74 who had provided a chest radiograph. Results indicated that cumulative quartz exposure at higher concentrations resulted in proportionally greater risks of abnormalities. A cumulative exposure of 1g.h/m3 at quartz concentrations greater than 2mg/m3 was estimated to have equivalent risks to 3g.h/m3 at lower concentrations. Quantification of the risks of silicosis should take account of variations in quartz exposure intensity, particularly for exposure to concentrations of greater than 1 or 2mg/m3, even if exposure is for relatively short periods. The risks of silicosis over a working lifetime can rise dramatically with even brief exposure to such high quartz concentrations.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2003, Vol.60, No.3, p.159-164. Illus. 25 ref.
A slow and silent death awaits a country ranking first in the world in exposure to silica
Morte lenta e silenciosa ronda o país que está em primeiro no ranking mundial de expostos ŕ sílica [in Portuguese]
Brazil ranks first in the world with respect to occupational exposure to silica (5% of workers). This article provides an overview of the problem of silicosis in this country and presents the national programme for its elimination that the government has decided to implement. This programme could be managed by public occupational safety and health institutions in collaboration with international organizations such as the ILO and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO).
Proteçăo, Sep. 2003, Vol.XVI, No.141, p.32-48. Illus.
Tjoe Nij E., Burdorf A., Parker J., Attfield M., van Duivenbooden C., Heederick D.
Radiographic abnormalities among construction workers exposed to quartz containing dust
Construction workers are exposed to quartz-containing respirable dust at levels that may cause fibrosis in the lungs. To measure the extent of radiographic abnormalities among construction workers primarily exposed to quartz-containing dust, a cross-sectional study on radiographic abnormalities indicative of pneumoconiosis was conducted among 1339 construction workers mainly involved in grinding, (jack)-hammering, drilling, cutting, sawing and polishing. Radiological abnormalities were determined by median results of the 1980 ILO system of three readers. Questionnaires were used for assessment of occupational history, presence of respiratory diseases, and symptoms and smoking habits. An abnormality of ILO profusion category 1/0 and greater was observed on 10.2% of the chest radiographs, and profusion category of 1/1 or greater on 2.9% of the radiographs. The average duration of exposure of this group was 19 years and the average age was 42. The predominant type of small opacities is presumably indicative of mixed dust pneumoconiosis. The prevalence of early signs of nodular silicosis was low (0.8%). An association between radiographic abnormalities and cumulative exposure to quartz-containing dust from construction sites was observed, after correction for potentially confounding variables.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2003, Vol.60, No.6, p.410-417. Illus. 31 ref.
de Klerk N.H., Ambrosini G.L., Pang S.C., Musk A.W.
Silicosis compensation in Western Australian gold miners since the introduction of an occupational exposure standard for crystalline silica
The aims of this study were to re-examine the incidence of silicosis among Western Australian gold miners and to estimate the risk of silicosis among these workers since 1974, when the current exposure standard for crystalline silica was implemented. Work histories of cases compensated for pneumoconiosis after 1974 were examined. The number of workers likely to be exposed to crystalline silica in Western Australia were considered as the population at risk. It was found that there were no cases of compensated silicosis in Western Australian miners whose first dust exposure began during or after 1974. The upper 95% confidence interval for this zero rate was estimated to be 4.8 per 100,000 person-years.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 2002, Vol.46, No.8, p.687-692. Illus. 12 ref.
McCanlies E., Landsittel D.P., Yucesoy B., Vallyathan V., Luster M.L., Sharp D.S.
Significance of genetic information in risk assessment and individual classification using silicosis as a case model
This study addresses how, given a known exposure, genetic information affects the characterization of risk groups. The probability of developing silicosis in a population of coal miners in Turkey was estimated using logistic regression on the basis of lung tissue samples from autopsy. This probability was then used to construct predicted risk deciles, first for a model with occupational exposure only, and later for a model containing occupational exposure and genetic main effects and interactions. The results indicate that genetic information plays a valuable role in effectively characterizing risk groups and mechanisms of diseases in a substantial proportion of the population. However, in the case of fibrotic lung disease caused by silica exposure, information about the presence or absence of the minor variants of interleukin-1α, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumour necrosis factor-α is unlikely to be a useful tool for individual classification.
Annals of Occupational Hygiene, June 2002, vol.46, No.4, p.375-381. Illus. 21 ref.
Wognin S.B., Infante-Rivard C., Yeboue-Kouame B.Y., N'Gbesso R., Ostiguy D., Bonny J.S., Tuo N., Kouassi Y.M.
Study of the prevalence of silicosis among workers at a granite quarry in Abidjan
Etude de la prévalence de la silicose chez les travailleurs d'une carričre de granit ŕ Abidjan [in French]
In order to determine the prevalence of silicosis in the Ivory Coast and its possible repercussions on the respiratory functions, a cross-sectional study was carried out in one of the most important granite quarries of the country. The 126 current workers of the quarry were given a standardized questionnaire and subjected to chest X-ray examinations. Lung functions were tested in 29 non-smoker subjects without anterior thoracic disease. The analysis allowed to identify six cases of silicosis among the 126 workers, corresponding to a prevalence of 4.76%. The affected workers (average age 44) all worked in "crushing", where exposure levels are high. No differences were found in vital capacity between the workers and non-exposed controls selected among the general Ivory Coast population. The prevalence of silicosis appears much lower than that observed in most developing countries. However, the comparison should take into account parameters such as the dust content of free silica and methodologies applied in the definition of silicosis.
Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.25-31. 28 ref.
Health and Safety Executive
Respirable crystalline silica - Phase 1 - Variability in fibrogenic potency and exposure-response relationships for silicosis - Hazard assessment document
Based on a literature survey, this report discusses the factors that influence the fibrogenic potency (ability to cause silicosis) of crystalline silica and the dose-response relationships for the development of silicosis. The analysis presented in this report reveals that there are a number of uncertainties and information gaps relating to these issues, including potential changes in the surface chemistry of crystalline silica particles following long-term residence in the lungs, and the possible toxicological consequences of such changes. However, the evidence presented clearly shows that all forms of respirable silica dust of occupational relevance have the potential to cause silicosis. The importance of the following factors are discussed: crystalline silica type; presence or otherwise of other minerals; number, size and surface area of the particles; freshly-milled silica surfaces as opposed to aged surfaces.
HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2002. vi, 80p. 54 ref. Price: GBP 7.50.
Zhang Q., Huang X.
Induction of ferritin and lipid peroxidation by coal samples with different prevalence of coal workers' pneumoconiosis: Role of iron in the coals
To establish whether differences in levels of bioavailable iron in coal may be responsible for the observed regional differences in the prevalence and severity of coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP), 29 coal samples from the coal mining regions of Utah (UT), West Virginia (WV) and Pennsylvania (PA) with CWP prevalences of 4, 10 and 26%, respectively, were found in vitro in human lung cells. Iron bound by chelating agents, ferritin and lipid peroxidation were found in increasing order of UT
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2002, Vol.42, No.3, p.171-179. Illus. 30 ref.
Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses
The aim of these guidelines is to standardize classification methods and facilitate international comparisons of pneumoconiosis statistics and research reports. It retains the principles embodied in previous editions of the ILO Classification (1950, 1958, 1968, 1971, 1980, 1989). All types of pneumoconiosis are covered. Contents: introduction and general instructions; the complete classification (technical quality, parenchymal and pleural abnormalities, symbols and comments); specific instructions for the use of the abbreviated classification; using the ILO classification. In appendices: note on technical quality for chest radiographs of dust-exposed workers; reading sheets; description of standard radiographs; diagrams; summary of details of the ILO (2000) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis. Replaces the previous edition (CIS 90-1238).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genčve 22, Switzerland, Rev.ed., 2000-2002. ix, 43p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: CHF 10.50.
Silicosis in sandblasters - A case study adapted for use in U.S. high schools
More than two million workers in the United States are potentially exposed to dusts containing crystalline silica. Prolonged inhalation of silica-containing dusts puts these workers at risk of silicosis, a fibrosis of the lungs that causes shortness of breath. More than 100,000 workers in the United States are in high-risk occupations such as sandblasting. The purpose of this booklet is to explain the basic principles of epidemiology to high school students, using the example of silicosis among sandblasters. Contents: glossary; case study of silicosis among oil field drilling pipe sandblasters; understanding silicosis; prevention of silicosis; suggested reading.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, June 2002. 21p. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2002-105/2002-105.html [in English]
Apportionment in asbestos-related disease for purposes of compensation
Workers' compensation systems attempt to evaluate claims for occupational disease on an individual basis using the best available guidelines. This may be difficult when there is more than one risk factor associated with the outcome, such as exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking, and when the occupational exposure is not clearly responsible for the disease. Apportionment is an approach that involves an assessment of the relative contribution of work-related exposures to the risk of the disease or to the final impairment that arises for the disease. This review article discusses the concept of apportionment and applies it to asbestos-associated diseases. Apportionment, attractive as it may be as an approach to the adjudication of asbestos-related disease, is difficult to apply in practice. Even so, these models may serve as a general guide to the assessment of asbestos-related disease outcomes for purposes of compensation.
Industrial Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.40, No.4, p.295-311. Illus. 68 ref.
Karjalainen A., Martikainen R., Klaukka T.
The risk of asthma among Finnish patients with farmer's lung
Farmers and animal-husbandry workers notified in 1988-1999 for farmer's lung (n=1272) or other occupational diseases (n=5,045) to the Finnish Register of Occupational Diseases were followed until 31 December 2000. Among the patients with farmer's lung, 109 (8.6%) were diagnosed with asthma compared with 202 (4.0%) incident cases of asthma among those in the reference population. The crude relative risk of asthma was 2.1. The age- and occupation-adjusted relative risk of asthma among patients with farmer's lung was 2.5 in men and 1.4 in women. The rate of asthma was especially high during the first two years after notification of farmer's lung.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct. 2002, Vol.75, No.8, p.587-590. Illus. 17 ref.
Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N., Wilczyńska U., Szymczak W., Strzelecka A.
Mortality study of workers compensated for asbestosis in Poland, 1970-1997
To assess the risk of asbestos-related malignancies among persons with suffering from asbestosis, a cohort composed of 907 men and 490 women for whom asbestosis had been diagnosed in between 1970 and 1997 was identified. The follow-up continued until 31 December 1999. 421 deaths were registered and causes of death were retrieved for 93.3% of the deceased. A significantly increased mortality was observed both in the male (SMR=127) and female (SMR=150) subcohorts. The elevated number of deaths in both subcohorts were noted mainly due to respiratory diseases (SMR 344 for men, 789 for women) malignant neoplasms (SMR 146 for men, 159 for women), including lung cancer (SMR 168 for men, 621 for women) and pleural mesothelioma (SMR 2680 for men, 7207 for women). Taking into account a cumulative dose of fibers, a significantly increased mortality from lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma was found in persons exposed to a dose above 25 f-y/mL. The results indicate that persons with asbestosis are at higher risk of developing malignant neoplasms, especially lung cancer and mesothelioma.
International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.3, p.267-278. 21 ref.
Dangman K.H., Cole S.R., Hodgson M.J., Kuhn C., Metersky M.L., Schenck P., Storey E.
The hypersensitivity pneumonitis diagnostic index: Use of non-invasive testing to diagnose hypersensitivity pneumonitis in metalworkers
Since 1993, several outbreaks of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) have been reported in metalworkers. This article reports on the largest outbreak of HP in metalworkers yet known. It occurred in a Connecticut factory producing precision parts for the aerospace industry. The workers typically presented with systemic and respiratory problems. Data from 16 biopsy-confirmed cases and 14 non-HP patients were compared, and an HP diagnostic index was derived using variables that best discriminated between the two groups. The HP diagnostic index was compared with the Kenosha epidemiological criteria. The HP diagnostic index relies less heavily on symptoms, subjective evaluations, and invasive tests than the Kenosha criteria, but both identified similar subsets of the 61 patients as having HP. The HP diagnostic index could provide a useful tool in future HP outbreaks, which are increasingly being recognized in metalworking facilities.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2002, Vol.42, No.2, p.150-162. Illus. 30 ref.
Zhai R., Liu G., Ge X., Yang C., Huang C., Wu C., Christiani D.C.
Genetic polymorphisms of MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1 and OGG1 in coal workers' pneumoconiosis
This study investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms of various enzymes such as MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, or OGG1 and susceptibility to coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The study population was composed of 259 retired coal miners who had similar dust exposure histories. Of these, there were 99 cases with ILO chest radiological criteria for CWP and 160 controls. Individual dust exposure variables were estimated from work histories, and smoking information was obtained from interviews. Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques evaluated the genotypes of all study subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed no differences in genotype frequency of MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, and OGG1 between miners with and without CWP. Cumulative dust exposures, but not genetic polymorphisms, were associated significantly with the presence of CWP. This study illustrates the complexity of factors that may contribute to the development of CWP.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.372-377. 36 ref.
Morfeld P., Lampert K., Emmerich M., Reischig H.L., Klinkner H.G., Bauer H.D., Stegmaier C., Ziegler H., Dhom G., Piekarski C.
Dust exposure, pneumoconiosis and lung cancer: An epidemiological study in the Saarland hard coal mining industry
Staubexposition, Pneumokoniose und Lungenkrebs: Eine epidemiologische Studie aus dem Saarländischen Steinkohlenbergbau [in German]
This study examines the relationship between exposure to dust and lung cancer mortality among coal miners in the German State (Land) of Saarland. The follow-up of the mortality of a cohort of 4581 miners was carried out between 1980 and 1998. The standardized mortality ratio was 0.80 overall, 0.80 for cancer and 0.79 for lung cancer. Exposures to coal and quartz dusts were evaluated by various techniques. Average concentrations of 2.79mg/m3 and 0.23mg/m3 were found for coal and quartz dusts, respectively. 95,455 chest radiographs were re-evaluated according to ILO classification criteria. There was a 23.5% risk of coal miners' pneumoconiosis after 40 years of working underground. It was not possible to prove a direct causal relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and the risk of lung cancer. However, coal miners' pneumoconiosis could represent a biological marker of lung susceptibility to lung cancer. Interactions between dust exposures, pneumoconiosis and cancer risk need to be studied further.
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2002, Vol.52, No.10, p.382-397. Illus. 36 ref.
Takahashi T., Ohtsuka Y., Munakata M., Nasuhara Y., Kamachi-Satoh A., Homma Y., Kawakami Y.
Occurrence of farmer's lung disease is relevant to meteorological conditions: A 20-year follow-up field survey analysis
A survey on farmer's lung disease (FLD) in a dairy farming community in the northernmost district of Japan has been in progress since 1978. This article investigates possible correlations between the number of FLD occurrences each year, dairy farming conditions and meteorological data. 34 FLD cases had occurred during the 20-year period. The average number of days below freezing point during the harvest season the year prior to FLD occurrence were significantly smaller than other years (2.1±0.7 days and 4.6±0.7 days, respectively). The average annual sunlight hours in the years preceding FLD occurrence was significantly smaller than those of other years (1457.1±114.0h and 1811.3±97.7h, respectively) and was also significantly smaller for the sunlight hours during a harvest season (821.9± 60.2h and 1023.2±52.7h, respectively). It is concluded that temperature and hours of sunlight are closely associated with FLD occurrence.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.506-513. Illus. 20 ref.
Weston A., Ensey J., Kreiss K., Keshava C., McCanlies E.
Racial differences in prevalence of a supratypic HLA-genetic marker immaterial to pre-employment testing for susceptibility to chronic beryllium disease
A genetic polymorphism in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the DPβ1 gene, is known to be associated with berylliosis. The specific disease marker is called HLA-DPβ1E69. This article examines the predictive value of a pre-employment screening programme of a beryllium materials manufacturer in which applicants are tested for HLA-DPβ1E69. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were used to determine HLA-DPβ1E69 population frequencies in various ethnic groups. Allelic/carrier frequencies were found to be 0.21/0.33, 0.24/0.40, 0.27/0.47 and 0.38/0.59 for Caucasians, African-Americans, Hispanics and Chinese, respectively. Ranges of positive predictive values for a genetic test based on HLA-DPβ1E69 in these populations were calculated to be 8.3-14.3% for carriers with an assumed disease frequency of 5%. For high risk subgroups with assumed disease frequencies of 15%, the range of positive predictive values was found to span between 24.9-43.0%. These estimates suggest that using HLA-DPβ1E69 genotyping for pre-employment screening has a low positive predictive value, which varies little among racial groups where carrier frequencies differ significantly.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.457-465. Illus. 41 ref.
Tabak S., Broday D.M., Tabak I., Manor G.
Occupational exposure to cotton dust in cottonseed oil mills
Non-uniform airborne dust concentration was found at breathing height in the hulling-separation department of a cottonseed oil mill in Uzbekistan. The data obtained from the different air sampling procedures suggest that most of the dust consisted of particles with diameters >15µm. The high total mass readings show that workers were exposed to very high levels of nonthoracic airborne dust, which upon inhalation tends to deposit in the extrathoracic airways. Regression analysis between measured dust concentrations (by stationary vertical elutriators and personal samplers) can be used for estimating the potential occupational exposure of workers to cotton dust.
Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.121-130. Illus. 29 ref.
Evaluation of the risk of occurrence of benign asbestos-related diseases (dose-response relationship, time-response relationship and co-factors)
Evaluación del riesgo de que se produzcan patologías asbestósicas benignas (relación dosis-efecto, relación tiempo-efecto y cofactores) [in Spanish]
Despite the lack of precision of asbestos exposure assessments and the limitations of the main diagnostic tool (standard X ray films), several issues concerning the risk of development of asbestos-related diseases are well established. For asbestosis, now a rare disease, the existence of a positive dose-response relationship, with a threshold or no-effect level, has been clearly demonstrated. The slope of the relationship curve is steeper for amphiboles than for chrysotile, as it is for increased fibre length. Asbestosis is associated with an increased risk of bronchial carcinoma; however it is now known that exposure to asbestos increases the risk of cancer even in the absence of any radiographic signs of pulmonary fibrosis. Pleural plaques occur even when the level of asbestos exposure is low. They are not only dose-dependant but are also latency-related. They have no prognostic significance in asbestos-exposed workers, but are associated with an increased risk for the subsequent development of mesothelioma and bronchial carcinoma when compared to the risk of the general population. Diffuse pleural thickening is associated with higher levels of asbestos exposure than those associated with pleural plaques.
Medicina y seguridad del trabajo, 2001, Vol.XLVIII, No.191, p.87-96. 70 ref.
Evaluation and compensation of respiratory health damage caused by anthrosilicosis among underground coal miners: Comparative study of Belgium and Spain
Evaluation et indemnisation du dommage respiratoire causé par l'anthraco-silicose chez le mineur de fond: étude comparative Belgique-Espagne [in French]
Approximately 15,000 miners are still employed in coal mines in Spain. Although the last Belgian coal mine ceased operations in 1991, there continue to be claims for compensation for coal miners' pneumoconiosis. There were 1289 such cases during 1998. This thesis compares Belgium and Spain with respect to legislation and medical practices for evaluating invalidity and compensating incapacity resulting from coal miners' pneumoconiosis.
Université libre de Bruxelles, Faculté de Médecine, Bruxelles, Belgium, Oct. 2001. 181p. Illus. 78 ref.
Huuskonen O., Kivisaari L., Zitting A., Taskinen K., Tossavainen A., Vehmas T.
High-resolution computed tomography classification of lung fibrosis for patients with asbestos-related disease
High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of 602 asbestos-exposed workers were reviewed. The sensitivity (70%) and specificity (91%) of the HRCT fibrosis scores were better than those of the International Labour Office (ILO) classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses. The HRCT scoring method proved to be reliable and reproducible for the classification of lung fibrosis and for the diagnosis of asbestosis.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.106-112. Illus. 29 ref.
Kimbell-Dunn M.R., Fishwick R.D., Bradshaw L., Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen R., Pearce N.
Work-related respiratory symptoms in New Zealand farmers
A questionnaire survey of respiratory diseases was addressed at 2,203 New Zealand farmers. Breathing problems at work were reported by 17.6% of the responders, in particular by those working with oat. Dyspnoea was more common in female farmers, chronic bronchitis in males. Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome/Farmer's Lung was reported by 7% of workers. Risk factors for all respiratory symptoms were the presence of hay fever, eczema and smoking.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.292-300. 44 ref.
Yucesoy B., Vallyathan V., Landsittel D.P., Sharp D.S., Matheson J., Burleson F., Luster M.I.
Polymorphisms of the IL-1 gene complex in coal miners with silicosis
Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), play a role in the development of silicosis. The study compared 318 histopathologically confirmed pulmonary silicosis patients with controls. Genotyping was carried out through the polymerase chain reaction technique. The proportion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (allele 2 genotype) was higher in miners with silicosis than in controls. This is the first report suggesting that such a genetic polymorphism may confer an increased risk for the development of the disease.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.286-291. 28 ref.
Wang X.R., Yano E., Wang M., Wang Z., Christiani D.C.
Pulmonary function in long-term asbestos workers in China
The aim of this study was to provide further understanding of the radiographic physiological associations in nonsmoking and smoking asbestos workers. Radiographic asbestosis, pleural lesion, and pulmonary function were studied in 269 Chinese asbestos workers, with average exposure periods of 23yrs for male workers and 18yrs for female workers. Their functional data were compared with those of 274 controls without exposure to dust. Although most of the male workers were smokers, none of the female workers smoked. In comparison with controls, asbestos workers had significantly lower lung volume and diffusing capacity, irrespective of sex. Female workers and smoking male workers had lower measurements of one-second forced expiratory volume and instantaneous forced expiratory flow at 50% and 25% of forced vital capacity. After adjustment for relevant covariates, asbestos exposure, asbestosis, and pleural abnormalities were associated with decreased parameters of pulmonary function, including lung volume, diffusing capacity and airway flow.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.623-629. 30 ref.
The tale of textile workers in Amritsar
This article presents the cases of seven cotton mill workers diagnosed with byssinosis having been compensated after several years of efforts on the part of trade unions and non-governmental organizations. These cases have raised interest and awareness among workers. The participation of workers in diagnostic "camps" is increasing, and workers having received compensation are sharing their experiences with other workers. However, much remains to be done, and sustained efforts are needed to make workers aware of their rights and responsibilities.
Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, Feb. 2001, Vol.2, No.1, p.15-20. Illus.
Kanhere V., Saini R.S.
Prevalence of occupational diseases among the workers of Jiwaji Rao Cotton Mill, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India
Surveys were conducted in the year 2000 among workers of a textile mill that discontinued its operations in 1992. Data were collected through interviews and medical examinations. A preliminary survey of 86 volunteers showed that 40 had vision problems, 22 had respiratory impairment and 11 had hearing problems. In a second survey involving 80 volunteers, 11 were diagnosed with byssinosis, three with pneumoconiosis and five with noise-induced hearing loss. The workers were encouraged to claim compensation for occupational diseases under the compensation system in force in India. It is observed that many workers who would be entitled to compensation do not claim because of ignorance, apathy and complicated procedures.
Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, Feb. 2001, Vol.1, No.3, p.11-17.
Unheard voices of silicosis affected people in Lalkuan, Delhi
This article presents the results of a survey conducted in a suburb of New Delhi (India), where an important stone-crushing activity had taken place for over 40 years. The purpose was to identify persons who were affected by silicosis or silico-tuberculosis. 146 persons were interviewed, of whom 83 were suspected to be affected on the basis of their symptoms and occupational history. Information was also collected from families of persons who had died from these affections. It is hoped that the survey will give rise to increased awareness of silicosis as an occupational disease.
Collective Initiatives, Oct. 2001, Vol.2, No.2, p.14-18.
Algranti E., Mendonça E.M.C., DeCapitani E.M., Freitas J.B.P., Silva H.C., Bussacos M.A.
Non-malignant asbestos-related diseases in Brazilian asbestos-cement workers
828 former asbestos-cement workers enrolled in a cross-sectional and cohort study of respiratory morbidity were submitted to a detailed occupational history, respiratory symptoms questionnaire, spirometry, chest x-ray, and high resolution computed chest tomography (HRCT). Asbestosis and pleural thickening were assessed according to HRCT criteria. Asbestosis was present in 74 (8.9%) and pleural thickening in 246 (29.7%) cases. Latency time from first exposure was the best predictor for both asbestosis and pleural thickening. Subjects in the higher exposure groups presented lower levels of lung function. Obstructive defects were significantly related to smoking, shortness of breath, body mass index, and age, whereas restrictive defects were related to asbestosis, shortness of breath, and latency time. Chronic bronchitis increased with latency time in the three smoking groups and was significantly related to pleural thickening (OR 1.56). Shortness of breath was significantly associated with body mass index and pleural thickening (OR 1.30).
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.240-254. Illus. 69 ref.
Chen W., Zhuang Z., Attfield M.D., Chen B.T., Gao P., Harrison J.C., Fu C., Chen J.Q., Wallace W.E.
Exposure to silica and silicosis among tin miners in China: Exposure-response analyses and risk assessment
A cohort study of 3010 miners exposed to silica dust and employed for at least 1 year during 1960-5 in one of four Chinese tin mines was conducted. There were 1015 miners identified with silicosis. Among these, 684 developed silicosis after exposure ended (a mean of 3.7 years after). The risk of silicosis was strongly related to cumulative exposure to silica dust, with the risk of silicosis less than 0.1% when the Chinese measure of cumulative exposure to total dust (CTD) was under 10mg/m3-years (or 0.36mg/m3-years of respirable crystalline silica), increasing to 68.7% when CTD exposure was 150mg/m3-years (or 5.4mg/m3-years of respirable crystalline silica). Latency period was not correlated to the risk of silicosis or cumulative dose of exposure. This study predicts an approximate cumulative risk of silicosis of 36% for a 45 year lifetime exposure to these tin mine dusts at the CTD exposure standard of 2mg/m3, and a 55% risk at 45 years exposure to the current United States standards of 0.1mg/m3 100% respirable crystalline silica dust.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 21 ref.
Jiang C.Q., Xiao L.W., Lam T.H., Xie N.W., Zhu C.Q.
Accelerated silicosis in workers exposed to agate dust in Guangzhou, China
An investigation of a small private agate mill was prompted by an agate worker who presented with silicosis in Guangzhou, China, in December 1998. The work processes and records of dust measurements of the mill were examined. The mean total dust concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 9.9mg/m3; 86-88% of the particles' diameter was smaller than 5.0µm. Free SiO2 content measured from agate samples was 90.5%. 32 men involved in processing agate stone were examined. The mean age was 29.8 ± 4.9 years and the mean duration of exposure was 3.5 ± 1.7 years. Occupational history was obtained and X-ray chest and lung function examinations were carried out. 15 (47%) were diagnosed with accelerated silicosis. Up to September 1999, three died from respiratory failure and five were in critical condition.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.87-91. 10 ref.
Kelleher P.C., Martyny J.W., Mroz M.M., Maier L.A., Ruttenber A.J., Young D.A., Newman L.S.
Beryllium particulate exposure and disease relations in a beryllium machining plant
The relationship between exposure to beryllium and beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) was examined in workers in a beryllium machining plant. 20 workers with BeS or CBD (cases) were compared with 206 worker-controls. Cases were more likely to have worked as machinists (odds ratio=4.4) than controls. The median cumulative exposure was 2.9µg/m3-years in the cases versus 1.2µg/m3-years in controls for total exposure, and 1.7µg/m3-years in the cases versus 0.5µg/m3-years in the controls for exposure to particles <6µm in diameter. Odds ratios were 2.4 for the intermediate exposure group and 1.2 for the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. The median lifetime-weighted (LTW) exposure was 0.25µg/m3 in both groups. The median LTW exposure to particles <6µm was 0.20µg/m3 for cases and 0.14µg/m3 for controls. None of the 22 workers with LTW exposure <0.02µg/m3 had BeS or CBD. Twelve workers in the case group had LTW exposures >0.20.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.43, No.3, p.238-249. Illus. 36 ref.
Newman L.S., Mroz M.M., Maier L.A., Daniloff E.M., Balkissoon R.
Efficacy of serial medical surveillance for chronic beryllium disease in a beryllium machining plant
There is limited information on the use of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) at regular intervals in medical surveillance. Employees of a beryllium machining plant were screened with the BeLPT biennially, and new employees were screened within 3 months of hire. Of 235 employees screened from 1995 to 1997, a total of 15 (6.4 %) had confirmed abnormal BeLPT results indicating beryllium sensitization; nine of these employees were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease. Four of the 15 cases were diagnosed within 3 months of first exposure. When 187 of the 235 employees participated in biennial screening in 1997 to 1999, seven more had developed beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease, increasing the overall rate to 9.4 % (22 of 235). The blood BeLPT should be used serially in beryllium disease surveillance to capture new or missed cases of sensitization and disease.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.43, No.3, p.231-237. 20 ref.
Rosenmann K.D., Hogan A., Reilly M.J.
What is the most cost-effective way to identify silica problem worksites?
State-based surveillance systems to identify cases of silicosis have been developed to target worksite interventions to reduce the incidence of silicosis. Using data from the Michigan silicosis surveillance system, an analysis was conducted to determine the most cost-effective way to identify problem worksites. The initial reporting source of all 470 confirmed cases of silicosis reported to the Michigan surveillance system from 1989 to 1995 was identified. The cost of identifying confirmed cases, worksites, problem worksites, silica problem worksites and the number of current silica-exposed workers was determined for four reporting sources: hospitals, physicians, workers' compensation records and death certificates. It was found that using hospital reports was the most cost-effective way to identify cases (USD 143), worksites (USD 313), and problem worksites (USD 454). Using hospital discharge records was the most cost-effective approach to identify individuals with silicosis as well as worksites with problems.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.629-635. 7 ref.
Tan K.L, Lee H.S., Poh W.T., Ren M.Q., Watt F., Tang S.M., Eng P.
Hard metal lung disease - The first case in Singapore
A 38-year-old machinist in a tool manufacturing enterprise presented with exertional dyspnoea and cough. Chest X-rays revealed bilateral reticulonodular infiltrates with honeycombing. High-resolution computed tomography scan of the thorax confirmed the presence of interstitial fibrosis. Open biopsy of the lung showed features of pneumoconiosis. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, a relatively new elemental analysis technique, performed on the lung biopsy specimen confirmed the presence of tungsten and titanium, leading to a diagnosis of hard metal pneumoconiosis. Microbiologic, serologic and histological investigations excluded infective causes. Preventive measures and permanent transfer to work not involving hard metal exposure were instituted.
Annals of the Academy of Medicine - Singapore, July 2000, Vol.29, No.4, p.521-527. Illus. 26 ref.
Moore J.S., Christensen M., Wilson R.W., Wallace R.J., Zhang Y., Nash D.R., Shelton B.
Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids: Involvement of a possible new taxon of rapidly growing mycobacteria
Contamination of air and metalworking fluid (MWF) systems by a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) was detected in a manufacturing plant with recent cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Environmental sampling was performed to determine the extent of the contamination and its variability over time. RGM were present in multiple indoor air samples, central MWF storage tanks, and cutting, drilling, and grinding machines. Contamination was essentially limited to a formulation of semi-synthetic MWF recently introduced in the plant. In general, the mycobacterial counts were stable over time, with the degree of contamination ranging from 102-107 colony forming units/mL. Using molecular techniques, it was found that the mycobacterial isolates consisted of a single strain and represented a previously undescribed taxon closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus. The relationship of this mycobacterium to the cases of HP remains unknown.
AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.205-213. Illus. 23 ref.
Caroyer J.M., Strauss P.
Cancer among Belgian coal miners
Pathologie cancéreuse chez les houilleurs belges [in French]
Coal miners are exposed to silica. However, the possibly carcinogenic effect of silica exposure is uncertain, the various studies on lung cancer risks published to date remaining inconclusive. The objective of this study was to determine the level of occurrence of neoplasms, in particular of the lungs, among Belgian coal miners compared to the overall population. The study involved examining the medical files of 1466 miners having received compensation for silicosis and for whom the cause of death and the state of health at the end of their lives was known. Although not statistically significant, the incidence of neoplasms was 32.6% in miners as opposed to 24.9% in the overall population. A statistically significant relationship was found for bronchial cancer and myeloma. However, the possibly confounding roles of other factors such as smoking and exposure to radon cannot be excluded.
Revue de médecine du travail, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.1, p.60-63. Illus. 41 ref.
Tossavainen A., Lehtinen S., Huuskonen M., Rantanen J.
New advances in radiology and screening of asbestos-related diseases
Proceedings of an expert meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 9-11 February 2000. Topics presented: up-date of the Helsinki Criteria for individual attribution of asbestos exposure and lung cancer risk factors; recommendations of the French Consensus Meeting; screening and surveillance of workers exposed to asbestos, including specific experiences in Japan, Germany and Finland; epidemiological trends for asbestos-related cancers; lung cancer screening using computed tomography (CT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); correlations of radiological and pathological characteristics of asbestosis; CT and HRCT classifications for pneumoconiosis and occupational chest disease.
Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2000. 89p. Illus. Bibl.ref.
Marquet M., Legrand C., Furon D.
Interstitial lung fibrosis among coal miners
Fibrose interstitielle pulmonaire chez le mineur de charbon [in French]
The retired miners of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais coal fields with pneumoconiosis have been regularly followed up for twenty years in the context of a post-occupational medical surveillance program. These medical observations revealed an unusually-high number of cases of interstitial lung fibrosis evolving independently from pneumoconiosis. This larger study of 7,770 coal workers confirmed the high incidence of such cases (close to 1%) and allowed to validate the diagnostic approach based on commonly-practiced screening examinations (clinical examination, radiological examination and respiratory function testing). Results raise the issue of the acceptance of the occupational origin of this coal workers pathology, and suggest that special attention be paid to other occupational exposures to dust with free silica.
Archives des maladies professionnelles, Nov. 2000, Vol.61, No.7, p.485-490. Illus. 13 ref.
Solomon A., Rees D., Felix M., Venter E.
Silicosis and tuberculosis: A proposed radiographic classification of tuberculosis to accompany the ILO international classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses
A significant proportion of workers exposed to silica dust are at risk of developing tuberculosis (TB). The higher the International Labour Organization (ILO) category of silicosis, the greater the TB risk. Subtle radiographic presentations of TB may be the initial manifestation of TB, particularly in the absence of sputum identification of TB bacilli. A proposed TB X-ray-reading form in addition to the ILO categorization of silicosis is offered. The implementation of a standardized TB X-ray reading approach should enable the detection of indolent TB lesions.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.215-219. Illus. 10 ref.
Silica, silicosis, and lung cancer: A risk assessment
To investigate exposure-response relationships for silica, silicosis and lung cancer, a quantitative review of the literature identified in a computerized literature search was carried out. The findings of the most significant studies are that the risk of silicosis following a lifetime of exposure at the current OSHA standard of 0.1mg/m3 is likely to be at least 5-10% and lung cancer risk is likely to be increased by 30% or more. The exposure-response relationship for silicosis is nonlinear and reduction of dust exposures would have a greater than linear benefit in terms of risk reduction; available data suggests that 30 years exposure at 0.1mg/m3 might lead to a lifetime silicosis risk of about 25%, whereas reduction of the exposure to 0.05mg/m3 might reduce the risk to under 5%. In conclusion, the lifetime risk of silicosis and lung cancer at an exposure level of 0.1mg/m3 is high. Lowering exposures to the NIOSH recommended limit if 0.05mg/m3 may have substantial benefits.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2000, Vol.38, No.1, p.8-18. 26 ref.
Hessel P.A., Gamble J.F., Gee J.B.L., Gibbs G., Green F.H.Y., Morgan W.K.C., Mossman B.T.
Silica, silicosis, and lung cancer: A response to a recent working group report
On the basis of numerous studies on crystalline silica and lung cancer, IARC has determined that there was sufficient evidence to conclude that quartz and cristobalite were carcinogenic in humans. However, the results of these studies are inconsistent and, when positive, only weakly positive. Other, methodologically strong, negative studies have not been considered. Several studies viewed as providing evidence supporting the carcinogenicity of silica have significant methodological weaknesses. Silica is not directly genotoxic and is a pulmonary carcinogen only in the rat, a species inappropriate for assessing carcinogenesis in humans. Data on humans show a lack of association between lung cancer and exposure to crystalline silica. Studies in which silicotic patients were not identified from compensation registries, and in which enumeration was complete, did not support a causal association between silicosis and lung cancer, which further argues against the carcinogenicity of crystalline silica.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2000, Vol.42, No.7, p.704-720. Illus. 84 ref.
Department of Labor - Employment Standards Administration
Regulations implementing the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as amended: Final Rule [USA]
These regulations implement the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969 (see CIS 91-14) and the Black Lung Benefits Act to provide simplified, less formal and less adversarial administrative procedures for the adjudication of claims pending before the Office of Workers' Compensation Programs (OWCP).
Federal Register, 20 Dec. 2000, Vol.65, No.245, p.79920-80107.
Tossavainen A., Kovalevsky E., Vanhala E., Tuomi T.
Pulmonary mineral fibers after occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos in the Russian chrysotile industry
The concentration and type of asbestos fibres were determined in 47 lung tissue samples from autopsies of workers and residents in the area of the world's largest asbestos mine at Asbest, Russia. Work histories were obtained from pathology reports and employment records. In 24 chrysotile miners, millers and product manufacturers, the pulmonary concentrations of retained fibres were 0.8-50.6 million f/g for chrysotile, and <0.1-1.9 million f/g for amphiboles. The concentrations were lower in 23 persons without any known occupational contact with asbestos, namely 0.1-14.6 million f/g for chrysotile, and <0.1-0.7 million f/g for amphiboles. On average, 90% of all inorganic fibres were chrysotile, and 5% tremolite or anthophyllite. Occupational contact was the most important source of asbestos exposure.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2000, Vol.37, No.4, p.327-333. 23 ref.
Dewitte J.D., Choucroun P., Leroyer C.
Pathologies induced by the inhalation of silica dust
Pathologies dues ŕ l'inhalation de poussičres de silice [in French]
Topics: abrasives industry; bronchitis; carcinogens; silica; compensation of occupational diseases; data sheet; diatomaceous earth; encyclopaedia; foundries; France; IARC; inhalation; lung cancer; mineral dust pneumoconiosis; mineral dust; mixed dust pneumoconiosis; opacities; pneumoconiosis; quarrying industry; respirable dust; silicosis.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 1999, No.122, 8p. Illus. 75 ref.
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