Pneumoconioses - 1,356 entries found
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Tse L.A., Li Z.M., Wong T.W., Fu Z.M., Yu I.T.S.
High prevalence of accelerated silicosis among gold miners in Jiangxi, China
This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of accelerated silicosis among Chinese gold mine workers. A medical cross-sectional examination was conducted among 574 miners; all participants were male rock-drillers. The concentrations of total dust and quartz content were obtained from government documentation. Descriptive data analyses were performed. The prevalence of accelerated silicosis was 29.1% after an average of 5.6 years of dust exposure. A history of tuberculosis seemed to increase the risk. The concentration of respirable silica dust was estimated to be 89.5 mg/m3 (range 70.2-108.8) in the underground goldmine, far exceeding the permissible exposure limits. This study illustrates a serious health threat in small-scale goldmines in China and indicates an urgent need for environmental control and disease prevention.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2007, Vol.50, p.876-880. Illus. 15 ref.
Tse L.A., Yu I.T.S., Leung C.C., Tam W., Wong T.W.
Mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases among people with silicosis in Hong Kong: Exposure-response analyses for exposure to silica dust
The objective of this study was to examine the exposure-response relationships between exposure to silica dust and the mortality from non-malignant respiratory diseases (NMRDs) and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) among a cohort of 2789 workers with silicosis in Hong Kong. Exposures in each industry were evaluated on the basis of historical industrial hygiene data. Exposure indices included cumulative dust exposure (CDE) and mean dust concentration (MDC). Findings were subjected to statistical analyses. From 1981 to 1999, there were 371 deaths from NMRDs in the cohort, of which and 101 were COPDs. CDE and MDC were significantly associated only with NMRD mortality. Subgroup analysis showed that deaths were significantly associated with both CDE and MDC among underground caisson workers and among those with high exposure to silica dust. A clear upward trend was also found for both NMRDs and COPDs mortality with increasing severity of radiological silicosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2007, Vol.64, No.2, p.87-92. 35 ref.
Mello de Capitani E., Algranti E., Handar A.M.Z., Altemani A.M.A., Ferreira R.G., Barbosa Balthazar A., Cerqueira E.M.F.P., Sanae Ota J.
Wood charcoal and activated carbon dust pneumoconiosis in three workers
This article presents three cases of wood charcoal pneumoconiosis, two due to activated carbon, and one from wood charcoal artisan handling. The three cases had their X-rays classified as p/q round opacities with profusion ranging from 2/2 to 3/3. High-resolution computed tomography of two of the patients showed a diffuse centrilobular ground glass nodular pattern with sub-pleural small areas of consolidations. Trans-bronchial biopsies showed deposition of black pigment in the bronchiolar interstice similar to the histological appearance of simple coal workers pneumoconiosis, with no signs of fibrosis. Spirometry showed no abnormalities in the three cases. The respiratory risk related to wood charcoal manipulation is probably underestimated, particularly in developing countries, where often deficient workplace conditions can lead to exposure above limit levels.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2007, Vol.50, No.3, p.191-196. Illus. 15 ref.
World Health Organization (WHO)
Elimination of silicosis
Silicosis is a form of pneumoconiosis caused by the inhalation of crystalline silica dust. It causes inflammation and scarring of the upper lobes of the lungs. It is characterized by shortness of breath, fever and cyanosis (bluish skin). Contents of this issue on the elimination of silicosis: ILO/WHO global programme for the elimination of silicosis; preventing exposure to dust; other silica-related diseases, including chronic obstructive bronchitis; silicosis prevention programmes in Chile, the USA, India and Brazil.
GOHNET Newsletter, 2007, No. 12. p.1-20 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref.
http://www.who.int/entity/occupational_health/publications/newsletter/gohnet12e.pdf [in English]
http://www.who.int/entity/occupational_health/publications/newsletter/gohnet12eref.pdf [in English]
Akgun M., Mirici A., Ucar E.Y., Kantarci M., Araz O., Gorguner M.
Silicosis in Turkish denim sandblasters
Between August 2004 and March 2006, 16 young men with a history of working in small workplaces producing sandblasted denim were admitted to the respiratory diseases department of a Turkish hospital. Of these, 14 presented with respiratory symptoms. In the first two cases, open-lung biopsy was required to confirm the diagnosis of silicosis. Later cases were diagnosed through a combination of their work history and the clinical and radiological findings. The mean age at presentation was 23 years with mean duration of employment as a sandblaster being three years. The first two cases died and the remainder, except two, are still receiving treatment. The production of sandblasted denim fabric in small uncontrolled workplaces may entail significant exposure to silica dust and the development of rapidly fatal silicosis. Urgent action is required to prevent further cases.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.554-558. Illus. 7 ref.
Dawkins P., Robertson A., Robertson W., Moore V., Reynolds J., Langman G., Robinson E., Harris-Roberts J., Crook B., Burge S.
An outbreak of extrinsic alveolitis in a car engine plant
Twelve workers from a car engine-manufacturing plant in the United Kingdom presented with extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) diagnosed on the basis of clinical, radiological and pathological findings. They were exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF) that cooled, lubricated and cleaned the machine tools. Data were collected on their occupational history, and they were subjected to medical examinations, spirometry, radiology, bronchoscopic lavage, lung biopsy and serology. Sera were tested for precipitins to used MWF and to reference cultures of bacteria suspected to be implicated. All were males and none were current smokers. All had dyspnoea, many had weight loss and cough, but only half had influenza-like symptoms and auscultator crackles. There was an overall loss of lung function and lung volumes. Other findings are discussed.
Occupational Medicine, Dec. 2006, Vol.56, No.8, p.559-565. Illus. 23 ref.
Suganuma N., Kusaka Y., Hering K.G., Vehmas T., Kraus T., Parker J.E., Shida H.
Selection of reference films based on reliability assessment of a classification of high-resolution computed tomography for pneumoconioses
There is increasing worldwide demand for a computed tomography (CT) classification system that supplements the ILO classification of radiographs for pneumoconioses. This study aimed to demonstrate the reliability of preliminary test results for selected referent films for the CT classification system developed through an international effort by researchers from seven countries. Findings are discussed.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2006, Vol.79, No.6, p.472-476. Illus. 10 ref.
Veillette M., Cormier Y., Israël-Assayaq E., Mériaux A., Duchaine C.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a hardwood processing plant related to heavy mold exposure
Two workers employed in a hardwood floor plant presented symptoms of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). At that plant, kiln-dried wood often showed mouldy growth and was subsequently brought inside for processing. This study evaluated the environment to identify the causative agent and to verify whether other workers of this and similar plants were at risk of developing HP. Dust from dust-removing systems and moulds on the surface of wood planks were collected and air samples taken from the plant under investigation and from a sister plant. Blood samples, spirometry measurements and symptoms' questionnaires were obtained from 11 co-workers. Dense Paecilomyces growth was observed on the surface of the dried processed wood in the plant under investigation, but not at the sister plant. An additional worker had symptoms suggestive of HP, and his bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a lymphocytic alveolitis. The three confirmed cases of HP and the other 10 workers had positive specific IgG antibodies to Paecilomyces.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, June 2006, Vol.3, No.6, p.301-307. Illus. 13 ref.
Smit L.A.M., Wouters I.M., Hobo M.M., Eduard W., Doekes G., Heederik D.
Agricultural seed dust as a potential cause of organic dust toxic syndrome
Repeated episodes of organic dust toxic syndrome (ODTS) in workers of a seed quality inspection laboratory prompted this study of endotoxin exposure levels. Inhalable dust and endotoxin levels were assessed in 101 samples from 57 workers who were handling mainly grass seeds as bulk product, and horticulture seeds in smaller quantities. Endotoxin concentrations in personal samples were high, with the recommended endotoxin exposure limit of 50 EU/m3 being amply exceeded in almost all personal samples. Seed mixing was associated with highest dust and endotoxin exposures. Microbial infestation was found in almost all seed samples. Most seed extracts were capable of inducing a pronounced dose dependent cytokine release. It is concluded that occupational exposure to inhalable agricultural seed dust can induce inflammatory responses, and is a potential cause of ODTS.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.63, No.1, p.59-67. Illus. 37 ref.
Day G.A., Stefaniak A.B., Weston A., Tinkle S.S.
Beryllium exposure: Dermal and immunological considerations
Persons exposed to beryllium are at increased risk of developing sensitization and chronic beryllium disease (CBD). This review presents current understanding regarding the potential importance of skin exposure to beryllium. It is based on a review of the published literature, including epidemiological, immunological, genetic, and laboratory-based studies of in vivo and in vitro models. It was found that a reduction in inhalation exposure to beryllium has not resulted in a concomitant reduction in the occurrence of beryllium sensitization or CBD, suggesting that continued prevalence may be due in part to skin exposure to beryllium-containing particles. A prudent approach to worker protection is therefore to assess and minimize both skin and inhalation exposures to beryllium.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Feb. 2006, Vol.79, No.2, p.161-164. 37 ref.
Stanton M.L., Henneberger P.K., Kent M.S., Deubner D.C., Kreiss K., Schuler C.R.
Sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers in copper-beryllium distribution centers
Little is known about the risk of sensitization and chronic beryllium disease among workers performing limited processing of copper-beryllium alloys downstream of the primary beryllium industry. In this study, a cross-sectional survey of employees was performed at three copper-beryllium alloy distribution centres. A total of 100 workers were tested for beryllium sensitization using the beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test. Available data on beryllium concentrations in air were used to characterize airborne exposure. One participant, who also had exposure to other forms of beryllium, was found to be sensitized and to have chronic beryllium disease, resulting in a prevalence of sensitization of 1% for all tested. This prevalence is lower than for workers in primary beryllium production facilities.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.204-211. Illus. 26 ref.
The beryllium occupational exposure limit: Historical origin and current inadequacy
This review article discusses the historical development of the occupational exposure limit for beryllium and argues in favour of its lowering from the current level of 2µg/m3 at which instances of chronic beryllium disease continue to be reported.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2006, Vol.48, No.2, p.109-116. Illus. 70 ref.
Raymond L.W., Wintermeyer S.
Medical surveillance of workers exposed to crystalline silica
This article outlines the objectives, key elements and implementation strategies of a medical surveillance programme for workers exposed to crystalline silica. Contents: overview of the main health effects of silica (silicosis, chronic bronchitis, connective tissue disorders, lung cancer); principles of medical surveillance; recommended surveillance programme (target population, components for evaluation, frequency of evaluations, education, reporting, record keeping, responsibilities).
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2006, Vol.48, No.1, p.95-101. 66 ref.
Silicosis elimination programme: Silicosis prevention information resource
This information resource was developed to strengthen dust-control programmes in the South African mining industry. It comprises: a booklet on mining industry best practice for the prevention of silicosis; 4 CDs containing information resources on silicosis prevention from Australia, Europe, North America and South Africa; the World Health Organization (WHO) document, Hazard Prevention and Control in the Work Environment; Airborne Dust, a programme for a two-day course on airborne dust control and additional training material; and 2 DVDs containing videos on silicosis and dust control.
Mine Health and Safety Council, Safety in Mines Research Advisory Committee (SIMRAC), Braamfontein Centre, 23 Jorissen Street, Braamfontein 2001, South Africa, Mar. 2006. Information package (booklet, 4 CDs, 2 DVDs).
Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses
Guía para el uso de la Clasificación Internacional de la OIT de Radiografías de Neumoconiosis [in Spanish]
Spanish translation of the document analysed under CIS 03-226. The aim of these guidelines is to standardize classification methods and facilitate international comparisons of pneumoconiosis statistics and research reports. It retains the principles embodied in previous editions of the ILO Classification (1950, 1958, 1968, 1971, 1980, 1989). All types of pneumoconiosis are covered. Contents: introduction and general instructions; the complete classification (technical quality, parenchymal and pleural abnormalities, symbols and comments); specific instructions for the use of the abbreviated classification; using the ILO classification. In appendices: note on technical quality for chest radiographs of dust-exposed workers; reading sheets; description of standard radiographs; diagrams; summary of details of the ILO (2000) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2006. ix, 43p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: CHF 10.00.
Working with cement roofing tiles - A silica hazard
Cutting, drilling or crushing cement roofing tiles can create respirable silica-containing dust that can cause silicosis among exposed workers. Contents of this leaflet on the risk of silicosis when working with roofing tiles: how roofers are at risk; definition and symptoms of silicosis; protection of workers (use of wet cutting methods, local exhaust, positioning the cutting station to reduce exposure); respirators.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, 2006. 6p. Illus.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2006-110/pdfs/2006-110.pdf [in English]
Boulet L.P., Prince P., Desmeules M.
Analysis of induced expectoration in silicosis and asbestosis: Correlation with pulmonary function
Analyse de l'expectoration induite dans la silicose et l'amiantose: corrélation avec la fonction pulmonaire [in French]
Asbestosis and silicosis are the most common types of pneumoconiosis in Quebec and are often associated with a gradual deterioration in pulmonary function. In this report, the possible role of induced expectoration (IE), a non-invasive technique for analyzing bronchial inflammation, was studied as a means of evaluating the severity of pneumoconiosis and the decline in pulmonary function. The study involved 15 patients diagnosed with asbestosis, 17 with silicosis and 15 controls. Their lung function test data for the previous ten years were analysed, and they were subjected to an additional lung function test and an IE analysis. Findings are discussed. It is concluded that IE could be a useful method to evaluate workers and to follow subjects at risk.
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2006. iii, 31p. Illus. 50 ref. Price: CAD 5.35. Downloadable version (pdf format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-450.pdf [in French]
Rodrigues G.L., Mantovani L.E., Duarte U., Lopes K.
Comparative study of breathable dust generated by basalt and gneiss during stone-crushing in the regions of Londrina and Curitiba, in the state of Paraná, and its impact on workers
Estudo comparativo entre as poeiras respiráveis de basalto e gnaisse na produção de brita nas regiões de Londrina e Curitiba, no estado do Paraná, e sua influência para os trabalhadores [in Portuguese]
The purpose of this study was to analyse the basalt and gneiss dusts formed during stone-crushing operations in companies located in a Brazilian state. An individual sampling pump fitted with PVC filters was attached to the workers' lapel to collect the breathable particles, which were later analysed by X-ray diffraction; a chemical and morphological analysis was also performed. Breathable dust concentrations were high compared to the acceptable limits set by the environmental legislation. The rate of SiO2 for basalt ranged from 1.0 to 5.4% and was over 10% for gneiss. The rate of gneiss was 15% higher than the rate of basalt for particles ranging from 0.5 to 3.0µm, where particles are more irregular in shape and more fibrous. The study showed that gneiss-exposed workers are more prone to silicosis nodule formations (classical silicosis), while basalt is more conducive to mixed dust pneumoconiosis.
Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, 2005, Vol.30, No.112, p.37-47. Illus. 30 ref.
The ILO/WHO global programme for the elimination of silicosis (GPES)
This article comments on the ILO/WHO programme for the elimination of silicosis (GPES) which was initiated in 1995. The objectives of the GPES are to promote the establishment of national programmes for the elimination of silicosis and to eliminate it as a worldwide occupational health problem by 2030. Contents: description of silicosis and historical developments aimed at its prevention; present situation; possibilities for elimination by implementing measures at the national and enterprise levels; global action; future efforts.
African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2005, Vol.15, No.3, p.56-58. Illus. 5 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/39784837-0345-4122-974D-822B6CEC29CA/0/african_newsletter305.pdf [in English]
International Labour Office
Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses
Diretrizes para utilização de Classificação Internacional da OIT de radiografias de Pneumoconioses [in Portuguese]
Portuguese translation of the document analysed under CIS 03-226. The aim of these guidelines is to standardize classification methods and facilitate international comparisons of pneumoconiosis statistics and research reports. It retains the principles embodied in previous editions of the ILO Classification (1950, 1958, 1968, 1971, 1980, 1989). All types of pneumoconiosis are covered. Contents: introduction and general instructions; the complete classification (technical quality, parenchymal and pleural abnormalities, symbols and comments); specific instructions for the use of the abbreviated classification; using the ILO classification. In appendices: note on technical quality for chest radiographs of dust-exposed workers; reading sheets; description of standard radiographs; diagrams; summary of details of the ILO (2000) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente, 710, CEP 05409, São Paulo, Brazil, 2005. 66p. Illus. 6 ref
Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses
Hu'ó'ng dân su' dung bang phân loai quô'c tê ILO-2000 phim x-quang các bênh bui phôi [in Vietnamese]
Vietnamese translation of the document analysed under CIS 03-226. The aim of these guidelines is to standardize classification methods and facilitate international comparisons of pneumoconiosis statistics and research reports. It retains the principles embodied in previous editions of the ILO Classification (1950, 1958, 1968, 1971, 1980, 1989). All types of pneumoconiosis are covered. Contents: introduction and general instructions; the complete classification (technical quality, parenchymal and pleural abnormalities, symbols and comments); specific instructions for the use of the abbreviated classification; using the ILO classification. In appendices: note on technical quality for chest radiographs of dust-exposed workers; reading sheets; description of standard radiographs; diagrams; summary of details of the ILO (2000) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis.
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2005. 56p. Illus. 6 ref
Bhagia L.J., Sadhu H.G., Saiyed H.N.
Prevention and control of silicosis - Experience in agate industry
The Indian agate industry is principally a cottage industry situated in the state of Gujarat, employing around 15,000 workers. Airborne silica dust is generated during the grinding process, pervading the work environment and adjacent areas, often situated within living premises. Silicosis is prevalent within this industry, affecting 38% of the workers. Among workers showing radiological evidence of silicosis, 60% had worked for less than 10 years. This article discusses some of the key steps for the prevention and control of silicosis in this industry, including local exhaust and encouraging workers to adopt improved working methods.
Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Nov. 2005, Vol.12, No.3, p.71-74. Illus. 10 ref.
http://www.ttl.fi/NR/rdonlyres/E2C6828F-263C-49C1-99AD-4C782F627153/0/AsianPacificNewsletter20053.pdf [in English]
Lacasse Y., Martin S., Simard S., Desmeules M.
Meta-analysis of silicosis and lung cancer
This study examined the association between silicosis and lung cancer in 31 studies (27 cohort studies and four case-control studies) that reported a measure of association (standardized mortality ratio, relative risk or odds ratio) relating lung cancer to silicosis. Without adjustment for smoking, the analysis indicated that the common standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was 2.45. When the results of the cohorts for which mortality data were adjusted for smoking were pooled, the common SMR was 1.60. In a dose-response analysis, the profusion of small and large opacities found in chest X-rays correlated with the risk of death from lung cancer. Because of biases inherent to observational studies, it is likely that the risk of lung cancer among silicosis patients is overestimated in current literature. There is nevertheless evidence that silicosis and lung cancer are associated.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Dec. 2005, Vol.31, No.6, p.450-458. Illus. 66 ref.
Bérylliose pulmonaire [in French]
Pulmonary berylliosis is defined by respiratory symptoms following the inhalation of dust or smoke containing beryllium particles. Workers in the beryllium smelting and metalworking industries are most at risk of exposure. Contents of this review article on berylliosis: physiopathology; prevalence and epidemiology; diagnosis of acute and chronic berylliosis; development of the disease; prevention (medical supervision, monitoring of workplace air, ventilation, personal protective equipment); compensation of occupational diseases in France.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2005, No.104, p.513-521. 77 ref.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TR%2036/$File/TR36.pdf [in French]
Tonori Y., Niitsuya M., Sato T., Sugiura Y., Miyake H., Aizawa Y.
Relationship between chest x-ray findings and pulmonary function tests in dust workers
Based on a survey of pneumoconiosis carried out in Japan in 1994, this study compared age, number of years at the job and pulmonary function across various occupations, and examined the characteristics of cases in which pulmonary function was worse than expected from the chest x-ray findings. Ventilatory capacity was lower among workers exposed to silica or asbestos, and one-second forced expiratory volume appeared to be lower among silica-exposed workers. Dissociation between x-ray findings and pulmonary function tests were found in certain types of work environment. In this study, all subjects showed pneumoconiosis in their chest x-ray. A longitudinal survey on pneumoconiosis-free subjects is required to clarify the precise association of lung function tests with chest x-ray.
Industrial Health, Jan. 2005, Vol.43, No.1, p.256-266. Illus. 37 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2005/pdf/43-1-34.pdf [in English]
Mulenga E.M., Miller H.B., Sinkala T., Hysong T.A., Burgess J.L.
Silicosis and tuberculosis in Zambian miners
Silicosis and tuberculosis (TB) are significant mining-related illnesses in developing countries. This study examined annual cases of these diseases in Zambian miners, including comparison of periods before (1960-1970) and after (1992-2002) the arrival of the HIV/AIDS pandemic. The Occupational Health and Safety Research Bureau of Zambia reported 2114 cases from 1945 to 2002. Of these, 22.7% were silicosis, 65.4% TB, and the remaining 11.9% silicotuberculosis. While silicosis cases decreased from 28.6% to 12.4% with the arrival of HIV/AIDS, there was a large increase in TB cases (37.1% to 86.1%), with a corresponding decrease in silicotuberculosis cases (34.3% to 1.6%). Although silicosis remains an occupational health issue in Zambian miners, the most significant problem appears to be the marked increase in cases of TB.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2005, Vol.11, No.3, p.259-262. Illus. 16 ref.
http://www.ijoeh.com/pfds/IJOEH_1103_Mulenga.pdf [in English]
Pillière F., Vincent R.
Beryllium research: International conference
Recherche sur le béryllium: conférence internationale [in French]
Report of a conference on advances in the prevention, detection, diagnosis and treatment of chronic berylliosis held in Montreal, Canada, 8-11 March 2005. Papers are grouped under following topics: uses of beryllium and health effects; exposure monitoring; medical supervision programmes; chronic berylliosis and exposure evaluation; prevention measures against beryllium sensitization in industrial hygiene; molecular and genetic mechanisms involved in chronic berylliosis; new approaches in the field of medical supervision tests.
Documents pour le médecin du travail, Sep. 2005, No.103, p.347-356.
http://www.dmt-prevention.fr/inrs-pub/inrs01.nsf/IntranetObject-accesParReference/TD%20142/$File/TD142.pdf [in French]
One agent, many diseases: Exposure-response data and comparative risks of different outcomes following silica exposure
Evidence in recent years indicates that silica causes lung cancer and renal disease in addition to its well-known relationship to silicosis. The available exposure-response data for silica and silicosis, lung cancer and renal disease were reviewed. The risks of death or disease incidence by age 75 were compared for these three diseases, subsequent to 45 years of exposure to silica at the current exposure limit of 0.1mg/m3 respirable crystalline silica. The absolute risk of silicosis ranged from 47% to 77%. The absolute risk of death from silicosis was estimated at 1.9%. The excess risk of lung cancer death, assuming US male background rates, was 1.7%. The excess risk of end-stage renal disease was 5.1%, and the excess risk of death from renal disease was estimated to be 1.8%. Given that the usual OSHA acceptable excess risk of serious disease or death for workers is 0.1%, it is clear that the current limit is far from sufficiently protective of workers' health. Kidney disease emerges as a higher risk than either mortality from silicosis or lung cancer, although the data are based on fewer studies.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2005, Vol.48, No.1, p.16-23. Illus. 40 ref.
Harrison J., Chen J.Q., Miller W., Chen W., Hnizdo E., Lu J., Chisholm W., Keane M., Gao P., Wallace W.
Risk of silicosis in cohorts of Chinese tin and tungsten miners, and pottery workers (II): Workplace-specific silica particle surface composition
It is hypothesized that surface occlusion of silica particles by an alumino-silicate coating lowers their toxic activity in respirable dust. In conjunction with an investigation of silicosis disease risk in tin and tungsten mine and pottery workplaces (see CIS 06-392), this study analysed respirable silica dusts using a technique that allows the identification of silica particles that are homogeneously coated with alumino-silicate. Forty-seven samples of respirable particles from 13 worksites were analysed. The average sample percentages of respirable silica particles with alumino-silicate occlusion were: 45% for potteries, 18% for tin mines and 13% for tungsten mines. The companion epidemiological study found lower silicosis risk per unit cumulative respirable silica dust exposure for pottery workers compared to metal miners. It is suggested that silica particle surface occlusion by alumino-silicate clay may have partially but substantially diminished the fibrogenic activity of pottery workplace silica dusts.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2005, Vol.48, No.1, p.10-15. 23 ref.
Chen W., Hnizdo E., Chen J.Q., Attfield M.D., Gao P., Hearl F., Lu J., Wallace W.E.
Risk of silicosis in cohorts of Chinese tin and tungsten miners, and pottery workers (I): An epidemiological study
This study examined the risk of silicosis among male cohorts of silica dust-exposed Chinese tin miners, tungsten miners and pottery workers and assessed whether gravimetric measurements of respirable silica dust sufficiently determine the risk of silicosis or whether other factors of exposure may play a significant role. Cohorts were selected from 20 mines and potteries. The cohorts included 4,028 tin miners, 14,427 tungsten miners and 4,547 pottery workers who had similar onset of employment and duration of follow-up. For a given exposure level, the risk of silicosis was higher for the tin and tungsten miners than for the pottery workers. The observed differences in the risk of silicosis among the three cohorts suggest that silica dust characteristics, in addition to cumulative respirable silica dust exposure, may affect the risk of silicosis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2005, Vol.48, No.1, p.1-9. Illus. 21 ref.
Severity of silicosis at compensation between screened and unscreened workers
In this study, clinical data from 1388 compensated silicotic workers in Quebec, Canada, were analysed. The severity of disease at compensation was compared between workers in the medical surveillance program and those who were not. A vital capacity at compensation of less than 80% of predicted value was less likely among workers under surveillance than among those who were not (odds ratio=0.59); the occurrence of a radiological image with large opacities and profusion of category 1/1 or more was also less likely in the group with surveillance (odds ratio=0.60). The data indicate a benefit from medical surveillance but possible alternative explanations are also discussed.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.47, No.3, p.265-271. 17 ref.
Barnard J., et al.
Job and industry classifications associated with sarcoidosis in a case-control etiologic study of sarcoidosis (ACCESS)
A case-control aetiological study was carried out to determine whether specific occupations and industries may be associated with sarcoidosis. Occupational histories on 706 newly-diagnosed sarcoidosis cases and matched controls were obtained. The Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) and Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) were used to assess occupational contributions to sarcoidosis risk. Univariate analysis identified elevated risk of sarcoidosis for workers with industrial organic dust exposures, especially among Caucasian workers. Workers for suppliers of building materials, hardware and gardening materials were also at an increased risk of sarcoidosis as were educators. Childcare was negatively associated with sarcoidosis risk for all workers, while jobs with metal dust or metal fume exposures were negatively associated with sarcoidosis risk in Caucasian workers.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2005, Vol.47, No.3, p.226-234. Illus. 31 ref.
Exposure to the risk of silicosis
Exposition au risque de la silicose [in French]
Silicosis is an occupational disease caused by the inhalation of crystalline silica dust. It can be characterized as an irreversible pulmonary fibrosis. Contents of this article on risk factors of silicosis: definition; activities involving exposure to crystalline silica (mining, quarrying, stone-dressing and polishing, foundry work, abrasives industry, ceramics industry, glass industry); entry routes of silica into the body; health effects; medical supervision; threshold limit values; preventive measures (local exhaust, wet work); standards; training and information of workers.
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Apr. 2005, No.33, p.30-31. Illus.
Lacasse Y., Martin S., Desmeules M.
Silicosis, silica and lung cancer: Meta-analysis of medical literature
Silicose, silice et cancer du poumon: méta-analyse de la littérature médicale [in French]
Despite significant efforts to limit exposure to silica, 494 new cases of silicosis were diagnosed in Quebec between 1988 and 2003. While the CSST acknowledges the existence of a relationship between silica exposure and certain cases of lung cancer, this view is not unanimously accepted by lung specialists. This study examines the literature concerning the relationship between silicosis, exposure to silica and lung cancer. Findings suggest that there is an increased risk of death due to lung cancer in silicotic persons. The data published to date also suggest that silica exposure represents a low risk factor for lung cancer at exposure concentrations that exceed the permitted limit based on North American standards. These results are broadly in agreement with the conclusions of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, 2005. iv, 91p. Illus. 128 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: CAD 10.70. Downloadable version (PDF format) free of charge.
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/files/documents/PubIRSST/R-403.pdf [in French]
Dalphin J.C., Reboux G.
Hypersensitivity pneumopathies in occupational settings
Pneumopathies d'hypersensibilité en milieu professionnel [in French]
Hypersensitivity pneumopathies have been widely described in the literature. However, recent publications have shown these diseases in a somewhat different light. Recent findings concern the following aspects: the appearance of a large number of new aetiologies, in particular in occupational settings, and new antigens; the key role of exposure factors and environmental co-factors, which are probably largely responsible for the incidence and development of the disease; the importance of bronchial disorders and the frequency with which they evolve towards obstructive diseases, occasionally with emphysema; the contribution to diagnosis of high-resolution chest tomodensitometry, whose images are often characteristic; finally progress with respect to therapy and prognosis, where it is now possible for affected persons, particularly farmers, to continue working under certain conditions.
Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2005, No.146, 12p. Illus. 95 ref.
Letzel S., Buchta M., Zschiesche W.
Health risks from new technologies using the example of aluminium welding
Gesundheitsgefahren durch neue Technologien am Beispiel des Aluminiumschweissens [in German]
Because of its interesting properties, aluminium is increasingly used in a wide variety of applications including vehicles and storage tanks. New techniques for the welding of aluminium have been developed for these applications. This article discusses the toxic effects related to aluminium welding, mainly due to the inhalation of welding fumes, and the risks from working with aluminium-containing components, together with the related prevention measures (threshold limit values, biological exposure limits, determination in urine, medical supervision).
Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, June 2004, Vol.54, No.6, p.202-207. Illus. 23 ref.
Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego
Workers' magazine: Silicosis
Revista do trabalhador: Silicose [in Portuguese]
This videotape examines the health effects of exposure to silica dust in various industries and describes techniques for dust control and the prevention of exposure.
Fundacentro, Rua Capote Valente 710, São Paulo, SP 05409-002, Brazil, [ca. 2004]. Videotapes (VHS format), 16min.
Moshelanoka L., Kisting S., Rees D., Sekudu D., Doyle B.
National programme for the elimination of silicosis
This booklet outlines the activities of the South African government in its efforts to significantly reduce the prevalence of silicosis by 2015 and totally eliminate silicosis in the workplace by 2030, in line with the ILO/WHO Global Programme for the Elimination of Silicosis. Describes the magnitude of the problem of silica exposure and silicosis, the identification of target groups at risk, the definition of a preventative strategy, the institutional framework and principal partners, programme implementation and operations, programme monitoring and implementation, national standards and links with international standards.
Department of Labour, Private Bag X 117, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, ca 2004. 10p. Illus.
http://www.labour.gov.za/download/10341/Useful%20Documents%20-%20OHS%20-%20National%20Programme%20for%20the%20Elimination%20of%20Silicosis.pdf [in English]
Gamble J.F., Hessel P.A., Nicolich M.
Relationship between silicosis and lung function
This review of studies on the relationship between silicosis and lung function indicates that smoking, dust exposure, and emphysema are three important confounding factors. In general, the lung function of subjects with radiographic silicosis in category 1 was indistinguishable from those in category 0. Those in category 2 had small reductions in lung function relative to those with category 0 and little difference in the prevalence of emphysema. There were slightly greater decrements in lung function with category 3 and more significant reductions with progressive massive fibrosis. Emphysema was related to higher categories of silicosis, as well as to smoking. Silica exposure was often inadequately controlled in studies examining silicosis and lung function. A few studies suggested that emphysema is an independent risk factor associated with significant reductions in lung function.
Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 2004, Vol.30, No.1, p.5-20. Illus. 41 ref.
Welch L., Ringen K., Bingham E., Dement J., Takaro T., McGowan W., Chen A., Quinn P.
Screening for beryllium disease among construction trade workers at Department of Energy nuclear sites
To determine whether current and former construction workers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) nuclear weapons facilities are at significant risk of occupational illnesses resulting from their exposure to beryllium, screening programmes were undertaken at three DOE sites. Data on medical history and exposures to beryllium were collected during interviews by industrial physicians, and a beryllium blood lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) was carried out. Stratified and multivariate logistic regression were used to explore the risk of disease by age, race, sex, trade, duration of DOE employment, self-reported work in buildings where beryllium was used and time since last DOE site employment. Of the 3,842 workers included in this study, 34% reported exposure to beryllium. Overall, 2.2% of workers had at least one abnormal BeLPT test, and 1.4% were also abnormal on a second test. Regression analyses demonstrated increased risk of having at least one abnormal BeLPT to be associated with ever working in a site building where beryllium activities had taken place.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2004, Vol.46, No.3, p.207-218. Illus. 30 ref.
Churchyard G.J., Ehrlich R., teWaterNaude J.M., Pemba L., Dekker K., Vermeijs M., White N., Myers J.
Silicosis prevalence and exposure-response relations in South African goldminers
The objective of this study was to measure the prevalence of silicosis among black migrant contract workers on a South African goldmine and to investigate exposure-response relations with silica dust. 520 miners were interviewed and had chest radiographs taken. Silicosis was defined as a radiological profusion of 1/1 or greater according to the ILO classification. Mean length of service was 21.8 years. The mean air concentrations of respirable dust and quartz were 0.37mg/m3 and 0.053mg/m3 respectively. The prevalence of silicosis was 18.3-19.9% depending on reader. Significant trends were found between the prevalence of silicosis and length of service, mean intensity of exposure and cumulative exposure. These workers developed silicosis while exposed to a quartz concentration below the recommended occupational exposure limit (OEL) of 0.1mg/m3. This confirms a mounting body of evidence that this OEL is not protective against silicosis.
Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2004, Vol.61, No.10, p.811-816. Illus. 20 ref.
Ulm K., Gerein P., Eigenthaler J., Schmidt S., Ehnes H.
Silica, silicosis and lung-cancer: Results from a cohort study in the stone and quarry industry
A cohort study among workers compensated for silicosis between 1988 and 2000 from the stone and quarry industry in Germany was initiated. The cohort consisted of 440 workers who were followed up until the end of 2001. A detailed assessment of the jobs of all workers was carried out. During the follow-up 144 workers died, compared with 74.35 expected cases based on the mortality rates of the general population from Germany, leading to a standard mortality ratio (SMR) of 1.94. Lung cancer was the cause of death in 16 cases (SMR 2.40). All workers had a peak exposure above 0.15mg/m3, the current threshold value. The cumulative exposure was above 2mg/m3-years and the average exposure was 0.10mg/m3 or higher. In order to reduce the risk of lung cancer among workers in the stone and quarry industry, current levels of exposure to silica should be reduced.
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, June 2004, Vol.77, No.5, p.313-318. Illus. 26 ref.
Kurihara N., Wada O.
Silicosis and smoking strongly increase lung cancer risk in silica-exposed workers
It remains controversial whether silica is a human lung carcinogen. A literature search was performed on papers published from 1966-2001 which epidemiologically reported on the relationship between silica/silicosis and lung cancer. Papers which did not exclude the effects of asbestos and radioactive materials including radon were removed. Based on the selected papers, the lung cancer risks from silica, silicosis and non-silicosis with exposure to silica were summarized by meta-analysis. The pooled relative risks were 1.32 for silica, 2.37 for silicosis and 0.96 for non-silicosis with exposure to silica. Since some papers on silica did not exclude silicosis, the risk due to silica itself may be smaller than 1.32. It was less possible that silica exposure directly increases lung cancer risk. On the other hand, the relative risk of 2.37 for silicosis suggested that silicosis increases lung cancer risk. The meta-analysis also revealed that cigarette smoking strongly increased the lung cancer risk in silicotic patients (relative risk, 4.47).
Industrial Health, July 2004, Vol.42, No.3, p.303-314. Illus. 67 ref.
http://www.h.jniosh.go.jp/en/indu_hel/2004/pdf/42-3-1.pdf [in English]
Guidelines for the use of the ILO International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconioses
Richtlinien für die Anwendung der internationalen Klassifikation des IAA von Pneumokoniose-Röntgenfilmen [in German]
Instructions pour l'utilisation de la Classification internationale du BIT des radiographies des pneumoconioses [in French]
French and German versions of the document analysed under CIS 03-226. The aim of these guidelines is to standardize classification methods and facilitate international comparisons of pneumoconiosis statistics and research reports. It retains the principles embodied in previous editions of the ILO Classification (1950, 1958, 1968, 1971, 1980, 1989). All types of pneumoconiosis are covered. Contents: introduction and general instructions; the complete classification (technical quality, parenchymal and pleural abnormalities, symbols and comments); specific instructions for the use of the abbreviated classification; using the ILO classification. In appendices: note on technical quality for chest radiographs of dust-exposed workers; reading sheets; description of standard radiographs; diagrams; summary of details of the ILO (2000) International Classification of Radiographs of Pneumoconiosis. Replaces the previous edition (CIS 90-1238 and CIS 96-1330).
ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, rev.ed. 2004. ix, 42p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: CHF 10.00.
Daly L., Rammah H., Nouaigui H.
Silicosis: A disease of current concern
La silicose: une maladie d'actualité [in French]
Silicosis is a lung disease, generally caused by occupational factors, resulting from the inhalation of silica dust. It may cause death. Although it has long been recognized as an occupational disease, its worldwide prevalence remains high, with many workers still insufficiently protected, particularly in developing countries. Contents of this special feature on silicosis: general aspects and definitions; pathogenicity of crystalline silica; toxicity of crystalline silica; exposure hazards; clinical picture; diagnosis; prevention; compensation; Tunisian national data on silicosis (studies and projects, reported cases, number of exposed workers).
SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Apr. 2004, No.29, p.2-18. Illus. 23 ref.
Silicosis - Learn the facts!
¡Silicosis: Conozca los datos! [in Spanish]
This booklet presents information in an easy-to-read format describing work environments involving silica exposures, the effects of silicosis and methods of protection against silicosis. Contents: description of silicosis; jobs with risk of exposure to silica dust; persons at risk of developing silicosis; types of silicosis; symptoms; case descriptions; some facts about silicosis; what workers can do to protect themselves and their families; types of respirators to be used.
Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-2002, USA, Aug. 2004. 20p. Illus. 8 ref.
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-108/pdfs/2004-108.pdf [in English]
http://www.cdc.gov/spanish/niosh/docs/pdfs/2004-108sp.pdf [in Spanish]
Kobayashi H., Ohara I., Kanoh S., Motoyoshi K., Aida S., Kohyama N.
Clinicopathological features of pure mica pneumoconiosis associated with Sjögren syndrome
There are few reports on the clinical, radiological, and pathological features of pure mica pneumoconiosis. A case of pure mica pneumoconiosis in a rubber factory female worker in Japan is presented, together with the clinical-pathological findings. Chest HRCT demonstrated subpleural and peribronchovascular interstitial thickening. The characteristic histological features were pulmonary fibrosis accompanied by prominent histiocytic granulomas containing giant cells. It is concluded that pure mica pneumoconiosis can be identified by specific radiological and pathological observations.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2004, Vol.45, No.3, p.246-250. Illus. 9 ref.
Dangman K.H., Storey E., Schenk P., Hodgson M.J.
Effects of cigarette smoking on diagnostic tests for work-related hypersensitivity pneumonitis: Data from an outbreak of lung disease in metalworkers
Following an earlier outbreak of hypersensitivity pneumonitis among a group of metalworkers, a re-examination of data of the 61 patients seen in connection with the outbreak was carried out to explore possible effects of cigarette smoking on the clinical tests used to diagnose hypersensitivity pneumonitis. It is concluded that cigarette smoking can affect the physical examination findings, spirometry and electron spin resonance spectroscopy changes associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, making these tests less sensitive and specific, and potentially obscuring the diagnosis. Such changes may contribute to the apparent "protective" effect of smoking on the development of hypersensitivity pneumonitis.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2004, Vol.45, No.5, p.455-467. Illus. 68 ref.
dos Santos Antão V.C., Araujo Pinheiro G., Kavakama J., Terra-Filho M.
High prevalence of silicosis among stone carvers in Brazil
In the city of Petrópolis, Brazil, artisans carve souvenirs from a variety of silica-containing minerals. The finding of pulmonary massive fibrosis in one of the workers motivated an investigation of the prevalence of silicosis in this group. A cross-sectional study of 42 workers was carried out. Clinical and occupational histories were obtained by means of questionnaires. Tests included spirometry, lung volumes and carbon monoxide diffusion capacity measurements. Chest radiographs and high-resolution computed tomographies (HRCT) were evaluated. Personal air samples were analysed. The prevalence of silicosis was 53.7%. Silicotic lesions were better characterized by HRCT than by chest radiographs. Early coalescence of small opacities was associated with lung function impairment. The concentration of dust exceeded permissible limits in 91% of the workplaces. It is concluded that exposures to high levels of silica dust is the cause of increased prevalence of silicosis among stone carvers.
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2004, Vol.45, No.2, p.194-201. Illus. 28 ref.
Wang X.R., Christiani D.C.
Occupational lung disease in China
Occupational lung disease is a major public health problem in China. The recently transformed industrial structure and expansion of the industrial labour force pose both tremendous challenges and opportunities for occupational health policy and research. New occupational health problems are emerging, while traditional occupational lung diseases continue to occur. This review covers the current status of occupational lung diseases in China with reference to the major challenge this country has been facing, namely pneumoconioses. It also describes relevant scientific research advances made during the past decade.
International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2003, Vol.9, No.4, p.320-325. 28 ref.
http://mhssn.igc.org/IJOEH_Wang.pdf [in English]
Nordness M.E., Zacharisen M.C., Schlueter D.P., Fink J.N.
Occupational lung disease related to Cytophaga endotoxin exposure in a nylon plant
Workers at a nylon plant developed pulmonary disease with systemic symptoms. Cytophaga, an endotoxin-producing bacteria, was isolated from the plant air-conditioning system. Several workers underwent lung biopsies, demonstrating hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Inhalation challenges with purified Cytophaga endotoxin were performed on three groups of subjects: employees with clinical features and biopsy consistent with HP (group 1); asymptomatic exposed workers with precipitins (group 2); and non-exposed healthy individuals (group 3). All subjects had fever and leukocytosis after inhalation challenge. Acute and/or late pulmonary function changes occurred in groups 1 and 2. Group 3 only had acute and transient pulmonary function changes. It is concluded that the Cytophaga bacterial endotoxin is capable of inducing HP as well as humidifier fever.
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2003, Vol.45, No.4, p.385-392. Illus. 31 ref.
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