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Document ID (ISN)109033
CIS number 09-121
ISSN - Serial title 1545-9624 - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Year 2008
Convention or series no.
Author(s) Todd L.A., Mottus K., Mihlan G.J.
Title A survey of airborne and skin exposures to chemicals in footwear and equipment factories in Thailand
Bibliographic information Mar. 2008, Vol.5, No.3, p.169-181. Illus. 35 ref.
Abstract This research reports on an exposure evaluation study at four footwear factories and two equipment factories in Thailand. Workers in these factories were exposed through inhalation and dermal contact to a large number of organic vapors from solvents and adhesives that were applied by hand. In addition, these workers were exposed to highly toxic isocyanates primarily through the dermal route. A total of 286 personal air samples were obtained at the four footwear factories, where 64 samples were also collected from working and tool surfaces. Between 8% and 21% of the workers sampled in each footwear factory were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals from solvents and adhesives. Up to 100% of the workers performing specific job tasks were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals. Between 39% and 69% of the surface samples were positive for unreacted isocyanates. Many of the real-time measurements obtained in the equipment factories exceeded occupational exposure limits. Personal protective equipment and engineering controls were inadequate in all of the factories.
Descriptors (primary) manufacturing industries; Thailand; isocyanates; toxic substances; shoe industry; adhesives; solvents; exposure evaluation; volatile substances
Descriptors (secondary) threshold limit values; personal sampling; responsibilities of employers; chemical products; disobeying safety instructions; safe working methods; supply of personal protective equipment; sampling and analysis; determination in air; limitation of exposure
Document type D - Periodical articles
Country / State or ProvinceUSA
Subject(s) Leather, fur and footwear
Toxic and dangerous substances
Broad subject area(s) Chemical safety
Browse category(ies) Exposure evaluation
Isocyanates
Cyano compounds
Footwear, leather and fur industry