|Document ID (ISN)||109033|
|ISSN - Serial title
||1545-9624 - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
|Convention or series no.
||Todd L.A., Mottus K., Mihlan G.J.
||A survey of airborne and skin exposures to chemicals in footwear and equipment factories in Thailand
||Mar. 2008, Vol.5, No.3, p.169-181. Illus. 35 ref.
||This research reports on an exposure evaluation study at four footwear factories and two equipment factories in Thailand. Workers in these factories were exposed through inhalation and dermal contact to a large number of organic vapors from solvents and adhesives that were applied by hand. In addition, these workers were exposed to highly toxic isocyanates primarily through the dermal route. A total of 286 personal air samples were obtained at the four footwear factories, where 64 samples were also collected from working and tool surfaces. Between 8% and 21% of the workers sampled in each footwear factory were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals from solvents and adhesives. Up to 100% of the workers performing specific job tasks were overexposed to mixtures of chemicals. Between 39% and 69% of the surface samples were positive for unreacted isocyanates. Many of the real-time measurements obtained in the equipment factories exceeded occupational exposure limits. Personal protective equipment and engineering controls were inadequate in all of the factories.
||manufacturing industries; Thailand; isocyanates; toxic substances; shoe industry; adhesives; solvents; exposure evaluation; volatile substances
||threshold limit values; personal sampling; responsibilities of employers; chemical products; disobeying safety instructions; safe working methods; supply of personal protective equipment; sampling and analysis; determination in air; limitation of exposure
||D - Periodical articles
|Country / State or Province||USA|
||Leather, fur and footwear
Toxic and dangerous substances
|Broad subject area(s)
Footwear, leather and fur industry