|Document ID (ISN)||103548|
|ISSN - Serial title
||1351-0711 - Occupational and Environmental Medicine
|Convention or series no.
||Kivimäki M., Virtanen M., Vartia M., Elovainio M., Vahtera J., Keltikangas-Järvinen L.
||Workplace bullying and the risk of cardiovascular disease and depression
||Oct. 2003, Vol.60, No.10, p.779-783. 24 ref.
||To examine exposure to workplace bullying as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and depression in employees, logistic regression models were related to prospective data from two surveys in a cohort of 5432 hospital employees (601 men and 4831 women), aged 18-63 years. Outcomes were new reports of doctor-diagnosed cardiovascular disease and depression during the two-year follow-up among those who were free from these diseases at baseline. The prevalence of bullying was 5% in the first survey and 6% in the second survey. Two per cent reported bullying experiences in both surveys, an indication of prolonged bullying. After adjustment for sex, age, and income, the odds ratio of incident cardiovascular disease for victims of prolonged bullying compared to non-bullied employees was 2.3. A further adjustment for overweight at baseline attenuated the odds ratio to 1.6. The association between prolonged bullying and incident depression was significant, even after adjustment for overweight (odds ratio 4.2). This suggests that bullying is an aetiological factor for mental health problems. The victims of bullying also seem to be at greater risk of cardiovascular disease, but this risk may partly be attributable to overweight.
||bullying; cardiovascular diseases; health care personnel; depressive neurosis
||Finland; mental disorders; hazard evaluation; body weight; cohort study; frequency rates; questionnaire survey
||D - Periodical articles
|Country / State or Province||Finland|
|Broad subject area(s)
||Stress, psychosocial factors
Occupational medicine, epidemiology
Health care services
Bullying and mobbing