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ILO-CIS Bulletin 2002/04

CIS 02-1501 --- CIS 02-2000

Laws, regulations, directives
Chemical data sheets and criteria documents
Training materials and practical information
Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals
   001 General safety, health and conditions of work
   002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology
   003 Industries and occupations
   004 New technologies
   005 Chemical safety
   006 Fires, explosions and major hazards
   007 Electrical safety
   008 Physical hazards
   009 Mechanical hazards, transport
   010 Biological hazards
   011 Physiology, ergonomics
   012 Stress, psychosocial factors


Laws, regulations, directives

CIS 02-1501 Labour Code - Act No.3/94 of 21 Nov. 1994, modified by Law No.12/2000 of 12 Oct. 2000 [Gabon]. (French: Code du travail - Loi n°3/94 du 21 nov. 1994, modifiée par la loi n°12/2000 du 12 oct. 2000 [Gabon]) Publications officielles, B.P. 563, Libreville, Gabon, 2001. 89 + [5]p. (In French)

Internet:

The Labour Code covers all aspects of the relationship between employers and workers. Among OSH-related aspects are: Title III - General working conditions, including working hours, night work, work by women and children, work by the handicapped; Title IV - Occupational safety and health, including general provisions (responsibilities of employers and workers, work aptitude, medical supervision), OSH conditions, OSH committees, special protection measures for specific occupations, occupational medicine; Title V - Control organizations (incl. the Labour Inspectorate and the Technical Consultative Commission on OSH). Act 5/78 of 1978 containing the old Labour Code (see CIS 80-588) is revoked. (100853)

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CIS 02-1502 Act No.133 - Act modifying the Act respecting occupational health and safety and other legislative measures [Canada - Quebec]. (French: Loi n°133 - Loi modifiant la loi sur la santé et la sécurité du travail et d'autres dispositions législatives [Canada - Québec]) Gazette officielle du Québec, 22 Jan. 2003, 135th Year, No.4, p.313.321. (In French)

Internet:

This law (entry into force: 1 Jan. 2003) modifies the Act respecting occupational health and safety (see CIS 87-1131). It introduces changes into the way the Occupational Health and Safety Fund is managed. In addition, it obliges the provincial Occupational Health and Safety Commission to make a declaration of its objectives concerning the level and quality of its services, and to prepare a strategic plan for its operations. Changes involving the Fund are also introduced into the Industrial Accident and Occupational Diseases Act (see CIS 86-1480). (100884)

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CIS 02-1503 Ordinance No.7 of 23 Sept. 1999 on the minimum requirements for healthy and safe working conditions in workplaces and in the use of working equipment [Bulgaria]. CIS Copy, 1999. 24p. (In English)

Internet:
http://osha.mlsp.government.bg/legislation/ordinance_no7.htm

Translation of the Decree abstracted as CIS 00-1503. It implements the Act of 16 Dec. 1997 concerning safety and health at work (see CIS 98-354), provides for basic safety and health standards in the workplace, such as those relating to electrical safety, emergency exits, lighting, temperature, harmful substances, ventilation, noise and vibration. It applies to all workplaces, with the need for compliance with existing safety and health rules in certain industries and workplaces: transportation outside enterprises, temporary and mobile workplaces, mining, fishing boats, agriculture and forestry. Ordinances 1/1987 (CIS 88-707), 41/1995 and 6/1996 (CIS 99-366) are revoked. (100916)

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CIS 02-1504 Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 1989 [Ireland]. (Irish: An tAcht um Shábháilteacht, Sláinte agus Leas ag an Obair, 1989) Government Publications Sale Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Ireland, 1989. 157p. (In English, Irish)

Internet:
http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1989_7.html
http://193.120.124.98/ZZA7Y1989.html

The basic OSH law in Ireland, which became effective on 1 Nov. 1989. Contents: duties of employers, the self-employed, employees, designers and manufacturers regarding safety and health; role of safety representatives; establishment of the National Authority for Occupational Safety and Health; issuing and role of Regulations and Codes of Practice; use of Codes of Practice in the courts; enforcement; obtaining and disclosure of information; investigations and special reports; offences, penalties and legal proceedings. In the annex: list of existing enactments of regulations related to OSH and made under the European Communities Act 1972; modifications of existing Irish legislation on OSH matters. An annotated version of this law is available at CIS 90-1751. (100961)

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CIS 02-1505 Decree No.2003-546 of 24 June 2003 issued in application of Art. L.241-2 of the Labour Code and modifying the Labour Code (2nd part: Decrees by the Council of State) [France]. (French: Décret n°2003-546 du 24 juin 2003 pris pour l'application de l'article L.241-2 du code de travail et modifiant le code du travail (2e partie: Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 26 June 2003, No.146, p.10715. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/WAspad/Visu?cid=332843&indice=12&table=JORF&ligneDeb=1

This Decree modifies the Labour Code by defining the qualifications, role, conditions of hiring and conditions of service of "occupational safety and health intermediaries" (intervenants en prévention des risques professionnels) in French workplaces. (100881)

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CIS 02-1506 Regulations on occupational health and safety [Canada - Quebec]. (French: Règlement sur la santé et la sécurité du travail [Canada - Québec]) Gazette officielle du Québec, 18 July 2001, 162p. (In French)

Internet:
http://www2.publicationsduquebec.gouv.qc.ca/dynamicSearch/telecharge.php?type=2&
   …file=%2F%2FS_2_1%2FS2_1R19_01.htm

Regulations issued under the authority of the Act respecting occupational health and safety (see CIS 87-1131). Contents: interpretation and scope; general measures; layout of workplaces; emergency measures; air quality; individual respiratory protective equipment; flammable fumes and gases; explosive dusts and dry material; special measures related to dangerous substances; storage and handling of dangerous substances; ventilation and heating; thermal environment and heat load; lighting; noise; dangerous radiation; water quality; welfare facilities; hygiene facilities; particular ergonomic measures; machine safety; hand tools and portable electric tools; material handling and transport; piling of materials; handling and use of explosive materials; confined spaces; welding and cutting; other work presenting special hazards; vehicle maintenance; personal and collective protective measures and equipment; transportation of workers. In annex: list of TLVs of exposure to gases, dusts, fumes, vapours and mists in the workplace (CAS numbers, TWA and peak exposure values in ppm and mg/m3); list of dangerous substances, by category; minimum rates of air replacement; temperature standards. (100885)

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CIS 02-1507 Health and Safety - The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 [United Kingdom]. HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 1999. 26p.Price: GBP 3.50., ISBN 0-11-085625-2 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hmso.gov.uk/si/si1999/19993242.htm

These regulations (effective: 29 Dec. 1999) re-enact the 1992 regulations with the same title (see CIS 92-1754, modified by CIS 95-11), which are repealed, as are the Health and Safety (Young Persons) Regulations 1997 (CIS 97- 362). The main purpose of the Regulation is to implement with respect to Great Britain the provisions of Directive 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401) concerning the obligations placed on the employer to implement preventive and protective measures on the basis of general principles of prevention. The Regulations require employers to (a) make, review and record risk assessments in workplaces; (b) make, give effect to and, in certain cases, record appropriate health and safety arrangements; (c) ensure that their employees are provided with appropriate health surveillance; (d) appoint "competent persons" to assist them with carrying out their OSH obligations; (e) establish emergency procedures; (f) provide their employees with OSH information; (g) ensure that appropriate OSH measures are carried out when their premises are shared with other employers or when outside or temporary employees are present on their premises; (h) take their employees' capabilities as regards OSH into account when entrusting tasks to them; (i) ensure that their employees are provided with OSH training and information when necessary. Modifications introduced into the 1999 re-enactment deal mostly with provisions related to the appointment of competent persons and to preparations for fire protection. Certain other related regulations are also amended. (100913)

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CIS 02-1508 Order TAS/2926/2002 of 19 Nov., by which new models are established for the notification of occupational accidents and their electronic transmission is made possible [Spain]. (Spanish: Orden TAS/2926/2002, de 19 de noviembre, por la que se establecen nuevos modelos para la notificación de los accidentes de trabajo y se posibilita su transmisión por procedimiento electrónico) Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Boletín Oficial del Estado, 21 Nov. 2002, Vol.342, No.279, p.40988-40989 + annexes (ca. 50p.) (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://noticias.juridicas.com/base_datos/Laboral/o2926-2002-tas.html

This Order establishes a new form to be used for the notification of occupational accidents in Spain, in order to make the system compatible with that in effect throughout the European Union. The System for the Electronic Notification of Occupational Accidents (Delt@) is also given legal basis. In annex: lists of codes to be used in the filling out of the electronic notification forms - codes for countries, accident location (within the enterprise), type of work, physical activity, displacement, contact, location of injury, description of injury, material agent. (100915)

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CIS 02-1509 Agreement modifying the name of the National Consultative Committee for the Standardization of Safety, Hygiene and the Working Environment to the National Consultative Committee for the Standardization of Occupational Safety and Health; Establishment of the organization and operational rules of the Committee [Mexico]. (Spanish: Acuerdo por el que se modifica la denominación del Comité Consultivo Nacional de Normalización de Seguridad, Higiene y Medio Ambiente Laboral, para quedar como Comité Consultivo Nacional de Normalización de Seguridad y Salud en el Trabajo; se establece su organización y se fijan sus reglas de operación) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Diario Oficial de la Federación, 3 Feb. 2003, Vol.DXCIII, No.1, p.44-48. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.coparmex.org.mx/aplicaciones/BoletinT.nsf/0/55316c61b03f0dd186256d3e0
   …0035f96?OpenDocument

This legal instrument renames the national consultative committee responsible for drawing up official Mexican standards on occupational safety and health and for promoting their implementation. It sets out the committee's functions, the rules for the selection of its members and for its operations, as well as the special provisions for its working groups dedicated to specific subject areas. The Agreement of 1 July 1993 on the setting up of the committee under its original name is revoked. (100917)

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CIS 02-1510 Act No.98-019 of 21 March 2003 instituting the Social Security Code [Benin]. (French: Loi n°98-019 du 21 mars 2003, portant code de sécurité sociale [Bénin]) Document with CIS, 44p. (In French)

Internet:

This Code applies to all workers covered by the Labour Code, as well as managers of limited and privately owned companies (except for managers of privately owned companies with an ownership share of >50%). Book III of the Code concerns the compensation of occupational accidents and diseases. Provision is made for the notification of occupational accidents and diseases, and for the keeping of statistics based on such notifications. There is also provision for the financing of preventive activities and for the formation of technical committees in the workplace aimed at the prevention of accidents and diseases. (100882)

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CIS 02-1511 Royal Order of 28 May 2003 concerning the health monitoring of workers [Belgium]. (Dutch: 28 mei 2003 - Koninklijk besluit betreffende het gezondheidstoezicht op de werknemers; French: 28 mai 2003 - Arrêté royal relatif à la surveillance de la santé des travailleurs [Belgique]) Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 16 June 2003, Vol.173, No.218, p.32158-32216. Also available on the Internet site: http://www.just.fgov.be/ (In Dutch, French)

Internet:


This Order, aimed at all employers and workers covered by the 1996 Act concerning the welfare of workers during the performance of their work (see CIS 97-1), consolidates Belgian legislation concerning the medical surveillance of workers in the workplace. Contents: definitions; purpose (the promotion and maintenance of workers' health through risk prevention); obligations of the employer; prevention practices and the specific obligations of the OSH adviser/occupational physician; different forms of health evaluation (preliminary, periodic, on return to work [after sick-leave, outside posting or maternity leave], spontaneous, prolonged, of incapacitated workers, extended, of specific categories of workers); decisions by the OSH adviser/occupational physician concerning the health evaluation of workers; vaccinations and tuberculosis tests; health files of workers; notifications of occupational diseases. Modifications are introduced into various related pieces of legislation. (100860)

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CIS 02-1512 Ministerial standard on occupational health and safety in the clothing industry [Nicaragua]. (Spanish: Norma ministerial en materia de higiene y seguridad del trabajo en el sector maquilas de prendas de vestir en Nicaragua) La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Nicaragua), 20 Nov. 2002, Vol.106, No.221, p.7321-7338. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ops.org.ni/opsnic/tematicas/salud-trabaj/d/norma-ministerial-maquila.pdf

Contents of this regulation: definitions; obligations of employers, workers and contractors and sub-contractors of services; role and responsibilities of employers in OSH matters; training and information of workers; health maintenance and supervision; fire prevention and safety; structural safety of buildings, minimum workplace requirements and welfare facilities; boilers, machinery and tools; electrical safety; soldering; noise and vibration; lighting; temperature, humidity and ventilation; chemical contaminants; industrial ergonomics and physical workload; establishment of joint health and safety committees; personal protective equipment; safety signs; industrial waste; prohibitions. (100859)

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CIS 02-1513 Decree No.401 of 6 Feb. 2003 of the Minister of Infrastructure concerning occupational safety and health during construction work [Poland]. (Polish: Rozporządzenie Ministra Infrastruktury z dnia 6 lutego 2003 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy podczas wykonywania robót budowlanych) Dziennik Ustaw, 19 Mar. 2003, No.47, p.3104-3125. (In Polish)

Internet:
http://www.ciop.pl/5599.html

This Decree (entry into force: 3 Aug. 2003) covers all aspects of occupational safety and health during construction work. In particular, it covers safety during: work at heights; earthmoving operations; bricklaying and plastering; reinforcement and concrete work; assembling; decoration; demolition; work with explosives. Related decrees of 28 March 1972 and 4 Feb. 1956 are revoked. (100887)

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CIS 02-1514 Occupational Health and Safety (Mines) Regulations 2002 [Australia - Victoria]. Statutory Rules - Victoria, 2002, Vol.2, p.1161-1205. Index. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.dms.dpc.vic.gov.au/l2d/O/STAT01403/0_1.html

Regulation (effective 28 Oct. 2002) issued under the authority of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 (see CIS 88-1751). Contents: definitions; general provisions; safety duties of mine operators (risk control in all mines, specific safety duties in all mines, additional duties in prescribed mines); consultation and information; duties of workers. Modifications are introduced into related legal intruments. (100888)

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CIS 02-1515 Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Fishing Vessels) Regulations, 1999 [Ireland]. Government Publications Sale Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Ireland, 1999. 27p. Price: EUR 6.09. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZSI325Y1999.html
http://193.120.124.98/ZZSI325Y1999.html

These Regulations were introduced under the authority of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 1989 (see CIS 02-1504), and they transpose into Irish legislation the provisions of Directive 93/103/EEC (CIS 94-759). They provide for the minimum health and safety requirements applicable to work on fishing vessels, and set out the duties of owners in this regard, including duties related to information, training, instruction and consultation of workers. Schedules: requirements for new and for existing fishing vessels; requirements for life-saving and survival equipment; requirements concerning personal protective equipment. (100970)

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CIS 02-1516 Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Construction) Regulations, 2001; Amendments, 2003 [Ireland]. Stationery Office, Dublin 8, Ireland, 2001, 2003. 104p.+ 8p. Price: EUR 22.35 + EUR 1.27. (In English)

Internet:
http://193.120.124.98/ZZSI481Y2001.html2001
http://www.hsa.ie/files/file_20040603023409si481_2001.pdf
http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZSI481Y2001.html

These Regulations (effective: 1 Jan. 2002) were introduced under the authority of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 1989 (see CIS 02-1504), and they give effect in Ireland to Directive 92/57/EEC (CIS 93-1062) on safety and health on temporary and mobile construction sites. The 1995 Regulations on the same topic are repealed. Contents: interpretation and general; design and management; general duties of contractors and others; safety of workplaces; excavations, shafts, earthworks, underground works and tunnels; cofferdams and caissons; compressed air; explosives; dangerous or unhealthy atmospheres; work on or adjacent to water; machinery for transport, earthmoving and materials handling; demolition; work at heights; lifting appliances; chains, ropes and lifting gear; special provisions on hoists; carriage of persons and secureness of loads. In schedules: particulars to be notified to the competent authority before construction begins; non-exhaustive list of particularly hazardous kinds of work; general principles of prevention; minimum OSH requirements of construction sites, on-site indoor work stations, work in compressed air and work with excavators or loaders used as cranes; procedures for selecting safety representatives. The 2003 amendment replaces Schedule 9 by providing a new list of work elements to be included in the training leading up to the Construction Skills Certification Scheme. (100963)

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CIS 02-1517 Maritime Labour Conventions and Recommendations - Third edition, including standards on fishing, port labour and interior navigation [ILO]. (Spanish: Convenios y recomendaciones sobre el trabajo marítimo - Tercera edición con inclusión de las normas sobre la pesca, el trabajo portuario y la navegación interior) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 3rd ed., 2000. vii, 288p. Index. Price: CHF 30.00., ISBN 92-2-310332-0 (In Spanish)

Internet:

This publication contains the text of 30 ILO Conventions, 23 Recommendations and one Protocol dealing with conditions of employment of seafarers. It also gives the text of four ILO Conventions which apply to all workers including seafarers, but which are considered to form part of minimum maritime standards, as well conventions and recommendations concerning fishing, port work and interior navigation. Main topics covered: general recommendations; training and entry into employment; conditions for admission to employment; certificates of competency; general conditions of employment; safety, health and welfare (food, accommodation, prevention of accidents, health protection and medical care); labour inspection; social security; fishing; port work; interior navigation. (101000)

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CIS 02-1518 Commission Directive 2002/64/EC of 15 July 2002 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC to include cinidon-ethyl, cyhalofop butyl, famoxadone, florasulam, metalaxyl-M and picolinafen as active substances [European Union]. (French: Directive 2002/64/CE de la Commission du 15 juillet 2002 modifiant la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil en vue d'y inscrire les substances actives cinidon-éthyl, cyhalofop butyl, famoxadone, florasulam, métalaxyl-M et picolinafène [Union européenne]; Spanish: Directiva 2002/64/CE de la Comisión, de 15 de julio de 2002, por la que se modifica la Directiva 91/414/CEE del Consejo a fin de incluir las sustancias activas cinidón-etilo, cihalofop-butilo, famoxadona, florasulam, metalaxilo-M y picolinafeno [Unión europea]) Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 18 July 2002, Vol.45, No.L 189, p.27-32. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2002/l_189/l_18920020718en00270032.pdf

http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2002/l_189/l_18920020718es00270032.pdf

http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2002/l_189/l_18920020718fr00270032.pdf

This Directive adds six new substances to the list of authorized active plant protection products (PPPs) introduced by Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). The substances include 4 herbicides (cinidon-ethyl, cyhalofop butyl, florasulam and picolinafen) and 2 fungicides (famoxadone and metalaxyl-M). In annex: table presenting details about the substances, including specific provisions for their safe use. (100851)

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CIS 02-1519 Ordinance No.443 of 30 Apr. 2001 concerning protection against exposure to chemical substances in the workplace (Chemicals Ordinance) (as amended to 2003) [Norway]. (Norwegian: Forskrift om vern mot eksponering for kjemikalier på arbeidsplassen (Kjemikalieforskriften)) Norsk Lovtidend, 11 June 2001, No.6, Part I, p.744-762. (In Norwegian)

Internet:
http://www.lovdata.no/ltavd1/lt2001/hele-1-2001-06.pdf
http://www.nikas.no/HMS/lovtidend/2001/HMS/2001-04-30-443.htm
http://www.arbeidstilsynet.no/regelverk/forskrifter/pdf/566.pdf

This Ordinance (published here with its updates up to 20 Mar. 2003) corresponds in part to EU directives 98/24/EC (CIS 98-1094), 90/394/EEC (CIS 90-1758), 97/42/EC (CIS 99-17) and 1999/38/EC (CIS 00-1516). Entry into force: 5 May 2001. Contents: definitions; hazard evaluation; measurements, exposure limits (lead: 0.05mg/m3, vinyl chloride: 3mg/m3, benzene: 3mg/m3 and hardwood dust: 1mg/m3, all 8h TWA) and administrative standards; accident preparedness; special rules for work with sandblasting, isocyanates and carcinogens (the production, preparation or use of the following carcinogens are forbidden: 2- naphthylamine and its salts, 4-aminobiphenyl and its salts, benzidine and its salts, 4-nitrobiphenyl); registers of carcinogens, mutagens and lead in the workplace; health monitoring and removal of workers from hazardous situations; penalties. Extensive commentary. The following ordinances are repealed: 9417/1937 on the prevention of silicosis in mining, 2/1960 and 9369/1975 on foundries, 31/1975 on diisocyanates, 9/1978 on sandblasting, 9418/1980 on the handling of cytostatic substances, 570/1997 on lead and lead compounds, 242/1998 on carcinogens (see CIS 99-12 and CIS 01-1298) and 1525/1998 on spray painting. (100858)

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CIS 02-1520 Ordinance of 23 May 2001 of the Regional Government relative to the conditions applicable to decontamination work sites for buildings and civil engineering works containing asbestos and to work sites where asbestos encapsulation takes place [Belgium - Brussels-Capital Region]. (Dutch: 23 mei 2001. - Besluit van de Brusselse Hoofdstedelijke Regering betreffende de voorwaarden die van toepassing zijn op e werven voor de verwijdering van asbest in gebouwen en kunstwerken en op de werven voor de isolatie van asbest; French: 23 mai 2001 - Arrêté du Gouvernement de la Région de Bruxelles-Capitale relatif aux conditions applicables aux chantiers de décontamination de bâtiments ou d'ouvrages d'art contenant de l'amiante et aux chantiers d'encapsulation de l'amiante [Belgique - Région de Bruxelles-Capitale]) Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 12 July 2001, 171st Year, No.202, p.24072-24079. (In Dutch, French)

Internet:

This Ordinance specifies safe working methods in the presence of asbestos during operations of decontamination and encapsulation. Contents: definitions; general precautions; safety measures; air quality, confinement zones and permissible air concentrations (at the air extractor level: 0.01 fibre/cm3, elsewhere outside the confinement zone: 0.01 fibre/cm3 above the level measured before the work started); waste disposal; disposal of waste water in public sewers; particular measures on sites of minimal importance. In annex: indicative list of applications in which friable and non-friable asbestos are used. (100886)

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CIS 02-1521 Occupational Health and Safety (Asbestos) Regulations 2003 [Australia - Victoria]. CIS copy, 2003. 39p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.dms.dpc.vic.gov.au/l2d/O/STAT01831/0_1.html

Regulation (effective 1 Feb. 2003) issued under the authority of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 (see CIS 88-1751) and of the Dangerous Goods Act 1985 (see CIS 88-1760). Contents: definitions; exemptions; general requirements; prohibitions (basically, the supply, storage, transport, sale and use of asbestos are prohibited; some derogations for asbestos already present in buildings and/or equipment); licensing; occupier and employer duties in connection with asbestos already present in workplaces (in situ); provisions in the case of demolition (incl. refurbishment) work where asbestos is present; removal of asbestos from buildings, structures, ships and plant by licence holders; activities involving asbestos-containing products and materials (including removal of asbestos waste). In annex: information to be included in applications for a licence to conduct removal work, in control plans and in notifications of removal work. The 1992 regulations on the same subject (see CIS 92-1423) are revoked. (100889)

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CIS 02-1522 Royal Order of 17 July 2002 concerning the modification of Royal Order of 24 May 1982 on the placing on the market of substances which may be dangerous for man and his environment [Belgium]. (Dutch: 17 juli 2002 - Koninklijk besluit tot wijziging van het koninklijk besluit van 24 mei 1982 houdende reglementering van het in de handel brengen van stoffen die gevaarlijk kunnen zijn voor de mens of voor zijn leefmilieu; French: 17 juil. 2002 - Arrêté royal modifiant l'arrêté royal du 24 mai 1982 réglementant la mise sur le marché de substances pouvant être dangereuses pour l'homme ou son environnement [Belgique]) Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 29 Aug. 2002, Vol.172, No.275, p.37958-38216. Illus. Bibl. references. Also available on the Internet site: http://www.just.fgov.be/ (In Dutch, French)

Internet:

This Order modifies the 1982 Order (as modified since) on the placing on the market of dangerous substances (see CIS 83-446). Changes involve modifications of various annexes. In Annex V: Chapter B.1 (acute toxicity testing - oral administration) is eliminated; the prescribed subchronic oral toxicity testing methods on rodents and on non-rodents are modified; seven new environmental toxicity testing methods are introduced. Annex VI of the 1982 Order is replaced by Annex II of this Order (general criteria for the classification and labelling of dangerous substances and preparations). Changes are also introduced into Annexes VII A, VIII and X of the 1982 Order. Very extensive annexes. The Order introduces into Belgian legislation certain provisions of Directive 2001/59/EEC (see CIS 01-962). (100911)

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CIS 02-1523 Royal Order of 17 July 2002 concerning the modification of Royal Order of 11 Jan. 1993 on the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous preparations with a view to placing them on the market or to their use [Belgium]. (Dutch: 17 juli 2002 - Koninklijk besluit tot wijziging van het koninklijk besluit van 11 januari 1993 tot regeling van de indeling, de verpakking en het kenmerken van gevaarlijke preparaten met het oog op het op de markt brengen of het gebruik ervan; French: 17 juillet - Arrêté royal modifiant l'arrêté royal du 11 janvier 1993 réglementant la classification, l'emballage et l'étiquetage des préparations dangereuses en vue de leur mise sur le marché ou de leur emploi [Belgique]) Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 29 Aug. 2002, Vol.172, No.275, p.38217-38404. Illus. Also available on the Internet site: http://www.just.fgov.be/ (In Dutch, French)

Internet:

This Order modifies the 1993 Order, as already modified several times since. The modifications concern: definitions; objectives and scope; general principles of classification and labelling; packaging; labelling; danger signs and indications; implementation of labelling rules; exemptions to labelling and packaging rules; safety data sheets. In annex: methods for the evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of preparations, of their health hazards and of their environmental hazards; special provisions for the labelling of certain preparations; list of hazardous substances contained in preparations, with identification numbers, classification and labelling codes, and exposure limits (when they exist); list of chemical families and sub-families; guide to the preparation of safety data sheets; list of R- and S-phrases. The Order implements in Belgian legislation the provisions of several relevant EU directives. (100912)

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CIS 02-1524 Safety, Health and Welfare at Work (Chemical Agents) Regulations, 2001 [Ireland]. Government Publications Sale Office, Sun Alliance House, Molesworth Street, Dublin 2, Ireland, 2001. 23p. Price: EUR 4.06. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hsa.ie/files/file_20040618124510si619_2001.pdf
http://193.120.124.98/ZZSI619Y2001.html
http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/ZZSI619Y2001.html

These Regulations were introduced under the authority of the Safety, Health and Welfare at Work Act, 1989 (see CIS 02-1504), and they transpose into Irish legislation the provisions of Directives 98/24/EC (CIS 98-1094) and 2000/39/EC (CIS 01-966). The Regulations define the various terms used in chemical safety. They set out the obligations on employers, when there are harmful chemicals present, to engage in the following activities: hazard determination and evaluation; prevention and control of exposure; specific protection and prevention measures; information, training and consultation; health surveillance (including biological monitoring) and the keeping of exposure records. Duties for employees are also outlined. There is provision for the limitation of exposure to or prohibition of specific chemical agents (lead: occupational exposure limit [8h TWA]: 0.15mg/m3 [inorganic lead and its compounds], biological limit value: 70µ/100mL blood [lead and its ionic compounds]; prohibitions: 2-naphthylamine and its salts, 4-aminobiphenyl and its salts, benzidine and its salts, 4-nitrobiphenyl), with exemptions where appropriate. Four sets of regulations are repealed: S.I. 1988 No.219 on lead (CIS 01-956); S.I. 1989 No.251 on exposure to chemical, physical and biological agents; S.I. 1991 No.285 on the control of specific substances and activities; and S.I. 1994 No.445 on chemical agents (CIS 95-1947). (100969)

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CIS 02-1525 Decree No.2002-1553 of 24 Dec. 2002 concerning explosion prevention measures applicable in workplaces and modifying Chapter II of Part III of Book II of the Labour Code (2nd part: Decrees by the Council of State) [France]. (French: Décret n 2002-1553 du 24 décembre 2002 relatif aux dispositions concernant la prévention des explosions applicables aux lieux de travail et modifiant le chapitre II du titre III du livre II du code du travail (deuxième partie : Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 29 Dec. 2002, Vol.134, No.303, p.21939-21940. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.adminet.com/jo/20021229/SOCT0211901D.html

These modifications of the French Labour Code were introduced in order to conform with the provisions of Directive 99/92/EC (see CIS 00-1523) concerning the protection of workers against the dangers of explosion. The modifications involve improved protection against the formation of explosive atmospheres and of sparks potentially initiating an explosion. They also provide for improved protection of workers in case an explosion takes place. (100855)

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CIS 02-1526 Decree No.2002-1554 of 24 Dec. 2002 concerning explosion prevention measures that must be observed by building contractors during the construction of workplaces and modifying Chapter V of Part III of Book II of the Labour Code (2nd part: Decrees by the Council of State) [France]. (French: Décret n 2002-1554 du 24 décembre 2002 relatif aux dispositions concernant la prévention des explosions que doivent observer les maîtres d'ouvrage lors de la construction des lieux de travail et modifiant le chapitre V du titre III du livre II du code du travail (deuxième partie : Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 29 Dec. 2002, Vol.134, No.303, p.21940-21941. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.adminet.com/jo/20021229/SOCT0211902D.html

These modifications of the French Labour Code were introduced in order to conform with the provisions of Directive 99/92/EC (see CIS 00-1523) concerning the protection of workers against the dangers of explosion. Building contractors engaged in the construction of facilities to be used as workplaces must include explosion protection measures prescribed by Decree No.2002-1553 in the design and construction of such facilities (see CIS 02-1525). (100856)

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CIS 02-1527 Occupational Health and Safety (Major Hazard Facilities) Regulations 2000 [Australia - Victoria]. CIS copy, 2000-2002. 38p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/vic/consol_reg/ohashfr2000569/

Regulation (effective 1 July 2000 and amended to 28 Oct. 2002) issued under the authority of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1985 (see CIS 88-1751) and of the Dangerous Goods Act 1985 (see CIS 88-1760). Contents: objective and definitions; scope; general provisions; safety duties of operators (safety management system, identification of major incidents and hazards, safety assessments, control measures, emergency planning, reviews, safety role for employees); safety case; consulting, informing, instructing and training of employees, non-employees and the local community; duties of employees; registration and notification of major hazard facilities; licensing; protection of property. The Dangerous Goods (Storage and Handling) Regulations 1989 are amended. In schedules: materials at major hazard facilities (and their threshold quantities); additional matters to be included in a safety management system and in a safety case; matters to be included in an emergency plan. The Regulations will "sunset" (expire) on 22 June 2010. (100890)

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CIS 02-1528 Explosives Regulations [South Africa]. (Afrikaans: Regulasies op ontplofbare stowwe) Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 17 Jan. 2003, Vol.451, No.24272, p.3-56. (In Afrikaans, English)

Internet:
http://www.gov.za/gazette/regulation/2003/24272.pdf

These regulations were issued under the authority of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1451). Contents: definitions; scope of application (any workplace where explosives are manufactured, tested, stored or used, with the exception of workplaces where cartridges for small arms are loaded or reloaded for private use); classification and licensing of explosives; non-detonable and non-sensitized explosives; danger areas; danger buildings; safeguarding of explosives workplaces; design, construction and manufacture of explosives workplaces; safety distances; supervision of explosives workplaces; safe handling of explosives; emergencies; incidents; closure of workplaces where explosives may be present; setting up of a National Explosives Council; approved inspection authorities. In annex: tables of safety distances. (100914)

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CIS 02-1529 Ministerial Standard on OSH concerning the prevention and extinction of fires in workplaces [Nicaragua]. (Spanish: Norma ministerial de higiene y seguridad del trabajador relativa a la prevención y extinción de incendios en los lugares de trabajo) La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Nicaragua), 21 June 2002, Year 106, No.116, p.4315-4323. (In Spanish)

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Contents of this legal standard on fire safety: definitions; responsibilities of employers and workers; fire prevention; workplace structures (fireproof construction); interior layout of workplaces with a fire hazard; passageways, corridors, doors and windows; stairways; passenger and goods lifts; special fire precautions on industrial premises; storage, handling and transportation of flammable materials; portable fire extinguishers; classification of fires; different methods of fire fighting; evacuation plans; emergency exits; fire detectors; training and personal protective equipment; alarms and fire drills. (100919)

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CIS 02-1530 Decree No.2002-1199 establishing the general principles of protection against ionizing radiation [Madagascar]. (French: Décret n°2002-1199 fixant les principes généraux de la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants [Madagascar]; Malagasy: Didim-panjakana laharana faha-2002-1199 mamaritra ny foto- kevi-dehibe momba ny fiarovana amin'ny taratra mamorona iona) Journal officiel de la République de Madagascar, 19 May 2003, No.2836, p.1514-1540. (In French, Malagasy)

Internet:

This decree establishes the conditions and standards of protection applicable to workers potentially exposed to ionizing radiation in the workplace. Workers below the age of 18yrs are not authorized to work in danger zones. Dose limits are: 20mSv per year (averaged over 5 consecutive years), 50mSv (in one year), 150mSv (equivalent yearly dose affecting the eye), 500mSv (equivalent yearly dose, affecting the limbs or the skin); special rules apply to pregnant women, students, apprentices and members of the public. Other aspects covered: basic principles of medical supervision (administrative, technical and medical measures; recording of results); surveillance of the health of the public; monitoring of equipment emitting radiation and/or radioactive substances. In annex (in French only): definitions of terms, technical expressions and measuring units. (100857)

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CIS 02-1531 Grinding and brushing tools [Germany]. (German: Schleif- und Bürstenwerkzeuge) Steinbruchs-Berufsgenossenschaft (StBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Oct. 2002. 18p. Illus. Index (In German)

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This document reproduces the full text of the version of safety regulation BGV D12 (of 1 October 2002) of the German Insurance Association for the Prevention of Accidents in Quarries on grinding and brushing tools, together with its application directive. Contents: scope; definitions; marking of tools; safety factors and sturdiness requirements; magnesium grinding wheels; intermediate layers; planing tools; layout of premises; configuring the equipment for transport; use in compliance with the provisions, use restrictions; storage and transport of grinding and brushing tools; fixing of grinding tools; safety tests; trimming of grinding wheels; fixing of brushing tools; violations of the regulations; effective date. Appendices include: marking of grinding and brushing tools; safety factors for grinding tools; examples of labelling. (100773)

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CIS 02-1532 Decree No.204 of 3 Sep. 2002 approving the Regulation on the substantive requirements and the evaluation of conformity of pressurized equipment [Bulgaria]. (Bulgarian: Naredba za săštestvenite iziskvanija i ocenjavane săotvetsvieto na săorăženijata pod naljagane) Dăržaven vestnik, 13 Sep. 2002, No.87, p.6-31. Illus. (In Bulgarian)

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Chapters I-III of this regulation enter into force after 18 months only from its date of promulgation. (100854)

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CIS 02-1533 Ministerial Standard on OSH concerning the functioning of steam-generating plant or boilers in workplaces [Nicaragua]. (Spanish: Norma ministerial sobre condiciones de higiene y seguridad para el funcionamiento de los equipos generadores de vapor o calderas que operen en los centros de trabajo) La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Nicaragua), 20 June 2002, Year 106, No.115, p.4278-4290. (In Spanish)

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Contents of this legal standard on the safe operation of steam-generating equipment and boilers: objectives and scope; definitions; responsibilities of employers and of the operators of steam-generating equipment; applications for authorizations and licences; boiler rooms; accessory equipment; rules related to the water supply; chimneys and gas pipes; systems of fuel supply; cleaning of equipment; soot precipitation; boiler operation; cleanliness and repairs; technical inspections. (100920)

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CIS 02-1534 Official Mexican Standard - Environmental Protection - Environmental Health - Dangerous Biologically Infectious Residues - Classification and Specifications for Handling [Mexico]. (Spanish: Norma Oficial Mexicana - Protección ambiental - Salud ambiental - Residuos peligrosos biológico-infecciosos - Clasificación y especificaciones de manejo) Secretaría de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales, Diario Oficial de la Federación, 17 Feb. 2003, Vol.DXCIII, No.10, p.10-20. Illus. 42 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.semarnat.gob.mx/ssfna/NOM/NOM087ECOL.zip

This standard was emitted in accordance with the provisions of the General law on ecological balance and environmental protection. Contents: definitions and terminology; classification of biologically dangerous infectious residues; classification of establishments generating biologically dangerous infectious residues; handling of such residues. The previous standard on the same subject (NOM-087-ECOL-1995) is repealed. (100656)

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CIS 02-1535 Ministerial Resolution on OSH concerning the maximum weight of manual load that can be transported by a worker [Nicaragua]. (Spanish: Resolución ministerial de higiene y seguridad del trabajo relativo al peso máximo de la carga manual que pueda ser transportada por un trabajador) La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Nicaragua), 21 June 2002, Year 106, No.116, p.4313-4315. (In Spanish)

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This resolution sets the maximum weight that is allowed to be lifted manually by a worker (for heavy-set workers, the strongest category, this is 55kg for a man and 32kg for a woman). Employers' and workers' responsibilities connected with this load limit are outlined. Minors below the age of 16 are not allowed to be engaged in manual lifting in the workplace. Women and male workers 16-18 years old are not allowed to be engaged in manual lifting if this entails physical effort. (100918)

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CIS 02-1536 Government Decree No.668 of 18 June 2002 approving the list of psychiatric counterindications for the performance of several types of professional activities, and of jobs which pose related dangers (Text No.201) [Kazakhstan]. (Russian: Perečen' medicinskih psihiatričeskih protivopokazanij dlja osuščestvlenija otdel'nyh vidov professional'noj dejatel'nosti, a takže rabot, svjazannyh s istočnikom povyšennoj opasnosti) Aktiler Žinagy - Sobranie Aktov, 25 July 2002, No.18, p.77-103. (In Russian)

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This Decree lists psychiatric conditions (including drug addiction) together with occupations for which these conditions are counterindications. Entry into force: 18 June 2002. (100883)

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Chemical data sheets and criteria documents

CIS 02-1537 Toxicological assessments - General section. (German: Toxikologische Bewertungen - Allgemeiner Teil) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 66p. Illus. (In German)

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This booklet explains the general approach adopted by the German Chemical Industry Occupational Accident Insurance Association with respect to establishing priorities for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals. Appendices include the inventory of chemicals compiled by the association, listed by reference number attributed to the substance, with mention of the IUPAC and CAS numbers, and by CAS number with mention of the toxicological testing status (requested, under way, with available results). (100521)

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CIS 02-1538 2-Methylpropen. (German: 2-Methylpropen) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 27p. 45 ref. (In German)

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Synonym: isobutene. Inhalation of 100ppm of 2-methylpropen by human volunteers during 20min showed a 17% retention (difference of concentration between inhaled and exhaled air). Animal experiments show a low inhalation toxicity and no toxic effects upon acute oral exposure. Narcotic-like effects have been reported. No mutagenic or genotoxic activity has been found. (100522)

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CIS 02-1539 Phenyl isocyanate. (German: Phenylisocyanat) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 35p. 40 ref. (In German)

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Workers exposed to isocyanates including phenyl isocyanate showed specific IgE for isocyanate-albumin conjugates. These workers also showed asthmatic symptoms. Animal experiments show the substance to be harmful upon oral administration. A low dermal toxicity and a high inhalation toxicity have been observed. Phenyl isocyanate induces severe skin and eye irritation and sensitization. No mutagenic or embryotoxic activity has been observed. A comparison of the toxic effects of 4-chlorophenyl isocyanate, phenyl isocyanate and 4-isopropylphenyl isocyanate in humans and animals is also presented. In humans, the only toxic effect described is an itchy erythema after repeated contact with chlorophenyl isocyanate. (100523)

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CIS 02-1540 Mucochloric acid. (German: Mucochlorsäure) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 27p. 52 ref. (In German)

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Effects reported following accidental exposure to mucochloric acid include damage to the skin, dyspeptic complaints, mild enlargement of the liver and alteration of biochemical parameters. Animal experiments show that the substance is harmful to toxic upon acute oral administration. It is also corrosive to rabbit skin and mutagenic in in vitro tests. (100524)

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CIS 02-1541 Aminoguanidine bicarbonate. (German: Aminoguanidinbicarbonat) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 19p. 28 ref. (In German)

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Aminoguanidine bicarbonate is a skin irritant and skin sensitizer. Animal experiments show acute toxicity upon oral administration. The substance is weakly mutagenic but not genotoxic. (100525)

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CIS 02-1542 Benzyl chloride. (German: Benzylchlorid) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 79p. 158 ref. (In German)

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Inhalation of benzyl chloride causes irritation of the eye and respiratory tract mucose and induces symptoms such as fatigue, headache and even disturbed liver function. Skin contact may cause skin blistering. Lung tumours have been observed in workers involved in the production of benzyl chloride. A carcinogenic risk cannot be excluded. Animal experiments show toxicity upon oral administration and inhalation exposure. Carcinogenic and foetotoxic effects have been observed as well as in vitro mutagenic effects. (100526)

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CIS 02-1543 Dimethylbenzylamine. (German: Dimethylbenzylamin) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 23p. 29 ref. (In German)

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Dimethylbenzylamine concentration in the urine of workers at the end of a shift has been shown to be significantly correlated with the exposure concentration. No skin or respiratory sensitization have been reported. Animal experiments show toxicity upon acute oral, dermal and inhalation exposure. The substance is a severe irritant to the skin and eyes of rabbits. No mutagenic or genotoxic effects have been reported. The results of a carcinogenic study on rabbits are not suitable for the evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of the substance. (100527)

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CIS 02-1544 4-Chlorophenyl isocyanate. (German: 4-Chlorphenylisocyanat) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 23p. 20 ref. (In German)

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Repeated contact with 4-chlorophenyl isocyanate causes itchy erythema and dryness of the skin. The substance irritates the eyes. Animal experiments show high toxicity upon inhalation exposure and harmful to toxic effects upon acute oral and dermal administration. No genotoxic effect has been observed. A comparison of the toxic effects of 4-chlorophenyl isocyanate, phenyl isocyanate and 4-isopropylphenyl isocyanate in humans and animals is also presented. In humans, the only toxic effect described is an itchy erythema after repeated contact with chlorophenyl isocyanate. (100528)

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CIS 02-1545 1,3-Di-o-tolylguanidine. (German: 1,3-Di-o-tolylguanidin) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 19p. 33 ref. (In German)

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1,3-Di-o-tolylguanidine may cause dermatitis but does not induce skin sensitization. It is probably carcinogenic. Animal experiments show toxicity upon acute oral exposure. No mutagenic activity has been observed. (100529)

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CIS 02-1546 2-(1-Methylpropyl)-4,6-dinitrophenol (dinoseb). (German: 2-(1-Methylpropyl)-4,6-dinitrophenol (Dinoseb)) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 63p. 102 ref. (In German)

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Dinoseb induces symptoms including diarrhoea, pyrexia, dyspnoea, hyperthermia, convulsions, jaundice and disturbances of liver function; outcome may be fatal. Animal experiments show toxicity upon acute oral and dermal exposure. The substance is highly toxic upon inhalation exposure. There are no indications of mutagenic activity. Impairment of fertility has been observed in male rats and embryotoxic effects in rabbits. (100530)

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CIS 02-1547 Fluorides. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. xx, 268p. Illus. Approx. 750 ref., ISBN 92-4-157227-2 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc227.htm

Conclusions of this criteria document: there is little conclusive epidemiological evidence of negative health effects on humans resulting from occupational exposure to fluorides. There are several reports of skeletal fluorosis associated with the consumption of drinking water containing elevated levels of fluoride, but further work is required on the accumulation of fluoride in organisms. Effects on the skeleton, such as inhibition of bone mineralization and delayed fracture healing have been observed in several animal studies involving high doses. There are no indications of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity or reproductive disorders from other animal studies. Detailed summary and conclusions in French and Spanish. (100551)

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CIS 02-1548 Dimethyl thiophosphonyl chloride. (German: Dimethoxythiophosphonylchlorid) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 27p. 43 ref. (In German)

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Acute exposure to dimethyl thiophosphonyl chloride vapour leads to eye irritation (reddening, oedema), reversible damage to the cornea and photophobia. Animal experiments show a moderate toxicity upon acute oral and dermal exposure and a high toxicity upon inhalation exposure. The administration of single oral doses leads to a slight inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain and erythrocytes. Data on genotoxicity are contradictory. An in vitro test on cells has given indications of cell transformation potential. No teratogenic effect has been found. (100701)

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CIS 02-1549 p-Chlorobenzotrifluoride. (German: p-Chlorobenzotrifluorid) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 27p. 40 ref. (In German)

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The olfactory threshold of p-chlorobenzotrifluoride (synonym: 1-chloro-4-trifluoromethylbenzene) is at 0.27mg/m3. Animal experiments show low acute oral and dermal toxicity. Target organs are the kidneys. Subchronic inhalation indicates changes in red cell counts and functional disturbances of the central nervous system. Results of in vitro tests on cells indicate a possible weak genotoxic activity. No reproductive effects have been found. (100702)

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CIS 02-1550 Diphenyl-2-ethylhexyl phosphate. (German: Diphenyl-2-ethylhexylphosphat) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 27p. 34 ref. (In German)

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Diphenyl-2-ethylhexyl phosphate may cause slight skin irritation and may have a moderate sensitizing potential. Animal experiments show practically no toxicity following oral, dermal or intravenous administration. No genotoxic, carcinogenic or teratogenic effects have been observed. (100703)

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CIS 02-1551 Zinc ethylphenyl dithiocarbamate. (German: Zinkethylphenyldithiocarbamat) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 19p. 26 ref. (In German)

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Zinc ethylphenyl dithiocarbamate may cause hypersensitivity reactions to alcohol similar to those caused by disulfiram; skin sensitization is relatively rare. Animal experiments show no toxicity upon acute oral exposure. A mutagenic as well as an embryotoxic effect at maternal toxic doses have been observed. (100704)

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CIS 02-1552 N,N'-di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine. (German: N,N'-Di-sek-butyl-p-phenylendiamin) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 19 ref. (In German)

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No methaemoglobin formation has been observed in workers involved in the manufacture of, or during contact with, N,N'-di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine. Animal experiments indicate that the substance is toxic upon acute oral administration but harmful upon dermal application. It causes methaemoglobin formation and typical signs of toxicity. In vitro tests show no genotoxic activity. (100705)

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CIS 02-1553 p-Nitrosophenol. (German: p-Nitrosophenol) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 19p. 31 ref. (In German)

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Irritation and discoloration of the skin may occur upon contact with p-nitrosophenol. Animal experiments show oral and dermal toxicity upon acute exposure. The results of mutagenic studies are contradictory. Carcinogenic effects are possible. (100706)

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CIS 02-1554 o-Phthalodinitrile. (German: o-Phtalodinitril) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 31p. 35 ref. (In German)

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Intoxications following percutaneous absorption and dust inhalation have been reported. Symptoms, which were delayed, included dizziness, nausea, vomiting, headache, sudden unconsciousness and convulsive attacks. Irritation of the skin and mucous membranes have been observed. Animal experiments show toxicity upon acute oral exposure, as well as intraperitoneal and subcutaneous administration. (100707)

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CIS 02-1555 Triethylenediamine. (German: Triethylendiamin) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 19p. 19 ref. (In German)

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Vision disturbances (corneal oedema) and breathing difficulties have been observed in workers involved in the manufacture of triethylenediamine. Animal experiments show that the substance is toxic upon oral administration, while toxicity upon acute dermal application is low. (100708)

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CIS 02-1556 2-Amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole. (German: 2-Amino-6-methoxybenzthiazol) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 17 ref. (In German)

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There is no information on human exposure to 2-amino-6-methoxybenzothiazole. Animal experiments show low acute toxicity upon dermal application. Mutagenic and genotoxic effects have been observed in cell tests, as well as chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchange. (100709)

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CIS 02-1557 α-Chloropropionic acid; Sodium α-chloropropionate. (German: α-Chlorpropionsäure; Natrium-α-chlorpropionat) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 19p. 26 ref. (In German)

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Exposure to concentrations of α-chloropropionic acid exceeding the TLV (0.1ppm=0.44mg/m3) causes slight to moderate caustic skin lesions. Animal experiments show a low to moderate acute toxicity. α-Chloropropionic acid is severely corrosive to the skin and eyes wheras sodium α-chloropropionate is not irritating to rabbit skin but causes severe eye irritation. (100710)

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CIS 02-1558 Glycidyl phenyl ether. (Spanish: Éter glicidílico de fenilo) Noticias de seguridad, Jan.-Feb. 2003, Vol.65, No.1/2, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limits: TWA 60mg/m3 or 10ppm (OSHA); ceiling value 5mg/m3 or 1ppm for 15min (NIOSH); 6mg/m3 or 1ppm (ACGIH). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of eyes, nose, respiratory tract and skin; drying of the skin, dermatitis, blisters, oedema, skin eruptions and skin sensitization. (100862)

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CIS 02-1559 n-Propyl bromide - Hazard assessment document. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 40p. 38 ref. Price: GBP 7.50., ISBN 0-7176-2350-5 (In English)

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There are no data on the effects of human exposures to n-propyl bromide. Available data are from experiments on rats. Target organs are the lungs (inflammation) and the central nervous system (depression). N-propyl bromide is a skin irritant. The most severe neurotoxic effects following prolonged inhalation appear in the form of histopathological lesions of the brain and peripheral nerves, a paralysis of the lower extremities and a decrease in nerve conduction speed. Spermatogenic inhibition has also been demonstrated. (100864)

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CIS 02-1560 Screening information data set SIDS for high production volume chemicals - Volume 8, Parts 1 and 2. United Nations Environment Programme, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, Nov. 2002. viii, 264p. Bibl.ref. (Part 1); viii, 302p. Bibl.ref. (Part 2). (In English)

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Ecotoxicological and toxicological (acute toxicity, chronic toxicity, effects on reproduction, genetic effects) data for the risk assessment of 7 chemicals: 1,4-butanediol, p-tert-butylphenol, diacetone alcohol, 4-5-dihydroxy-1,3-bis(hydroxymethyl) imidazolidin-2-one (synonym: dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea), glycidyl methacrylate, 4,4'- methylenedianiline and 1,1,2-trichloroethane. (100870)

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Training materials and practical information

CIS 02-1561 Life vests and flotation equipment: guide to the selection and use of PPEs. (Spanish: Chalecos salvavidas y equipos auxiliares de flotación: guía orientativa para la elección y utilización de los EPI) Montes Mayorga M., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 21p. Illus. Price: EUR 2.89., ISBN 84-7425-618-6 (In Spanish)

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Contents of this guide to the selection and use of life vests and flotation equipment: definition of personal protective equipment (PPE); functions of PPEs; risks to which workers without life vests are exposed (drowning); risks resulting from their use (discomfort, sweating, impeded movement, etc.); precautions to be taken; position adopted by the body in water with and without the wear of appropriate life vests; structure and properties of different types of life vests (with foam core, gas inflatable); description of accessories; different types and classes according to floatability properties; labelling (text and pictograms); selection criteria; use and storage; maintenance. An appendix includes a check list for selecting life vests adapted to the needs of individual workers. (100628)

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CIS 02-1562 Personal protective equipment user manual. (French: Manuel d'utilisation des équipements de protection individuelle) D'Hauthuille J.F., SEPR, 32 rue Alexandre Dumas, 75011 Paris, France, 2002. 52p. Illus. Price: EUR 10.00., ISBN 2-9516847-1-1 (In French)

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In the form of a personal notebook, this personal protection equipment (PPE) user manual is aimed at all users. Its purpose is to improve the understanding of hazards to which workers are exposed and to provide occupational safety solutions through the use of appropriate PPE in compliance with standards and regulations. Contents: definition of PPE; legislation, responsibilities of employers and employees; safety signs (colours and pictograms); selection, effectiveness, evaluation and individual fitting of PPE; regular checks; protective clothing; safety shoes; safety spectacles and face shields; head protection; hearing protection; noise protection; fall arresters; respirators. (100717)

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CIS 02-1563 Occupational safety and health as a subject for teaching - Guide for secondary school teachers. (Spanish: La seguridad y la salud en el trabajo como materia de enseñanza transversal - Guía para el profesorado de enseñanza secundaria) Gutiérrez Beneito M., Miranda Villalba I., Llacuna Morera J., Cañada Clé J., Díaz Olivares I., Medina Chamorro F.J., Puebla Hernanz M.A., Mata J.S., Soriano Serrano M., Medina Gómez A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 163p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: EUR 19.54., ISBN 84-7425-616-X (In Spanish)

Internet:

The purpose of this guide is to provide secondary school teachers with the necessary tools for continuing the teaching of occupational safety and health, a subject whose teaching is initiated in primary school (see CIS 99-1802). It advocates a "cross-sectional" mode of teaching, namely by integrating this topic in the teaching of all other subjects and in the life of the school in general. Contents: values in secondary education, with an emphasis on safety; safety at work and at school; industrial hygiene at work and at school; health at work and at school; ergonomics and psychology applied to work and to school; occupational safety and health management. Appendices include: practical proposals of activities related to occupational safety and health involving various teaching subjects, grouped by theme. (100626)

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CIS 02-1564 Control hazards - Important information for your safety. (French: Maîtrisez le danger - Informations importantes pour votre sécurité; German: Gefahr im Griff - Das Wichtigste für Ihre Sicherheit; Italian: La gestione dei pericoli - Tutto quello che è importante sapere per la vostra sicurezza) Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., June 2002. 35p. Illus. (In French, German, Italian)

Internet:



Aimed at workers and craftsmen, this booklet presents the basic principles of occupational safety. Various hazardous situations are described, together with guidance on appropriate preventive action. Main topics covered: hazard identification; slips and falls; training in the use of equipment and machines; use of ladders; appropriate work clothing and personal protective equipment; eating and drinking at work; manual handling of loads; fork-lift trucks; hand trucks; accidents caused by suspended loads; risks for persons giving signals; workplace ergonomics; work on screens; safety during maintenance work; hazardous substances; water protection; hand tools; electrical hazards; explosion hazards; emergency exits; alarms and first aid. (100539)

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CIS 02-1565 Course on the prevention of fatal occupational accidents. (Portuguese: Curso de combate aos acidentes fatais decorrentes do trabalho) Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego, Brasília, Brazil, [c2000]. 39p. 13 ref. (Vol.I); 152p. Illus. (Vol.II). (In Portuguese)

Internet:

Working documents of a training course on the prevention of fatal occupational accidents, in two volumes. The first volume presents an approach for analysing accidents and for accident investigations. It also defines accident indicators (incidence and frequency rates). The second volume presents the following case studies: accident having occurred while walking to the factory restaurant; accident during the unloading of goods; accident involving contact with a high-voltage electrical cabinet; fatal accident during dock work; fatal accident during machine maintenance; fatal accident in a goods lift; application of the causal tree method for accident investigations in power distribution utility; fatal accident during maintenance of an overhead gantry crane; fatal accident during aircraft maintenance; comment on a film on an occupational accident caused by poor maintenance and housekeeping of the premises. (100658)

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CIS 02-1566 Work and your health. (Spanish: El trabajo y tu salud) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2003. 85p. Illus. Price: EUR: 6.46., ISBN 84-7425-638-0 (In Spanish)

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Aimed at workers, this booklet explains what is meant by prevention of occupational hazards, what these hazards are, what are the preventive measures and how prevention is organized within the enterprise. Main topics covered: conditions of work and risk factors; various aspects to be taken into consideration to ensure occupational safety (housekeeping and cleanliness, machinery and equipment, hand tools, lifting tools, conveyor belts, electrical hazards, fires); physical work environment (noise, vibration, thermal environment, lighting, radiation); chemical and biological contaminants; physical and mental workload (workplace ergonomics, work postures, repetitive movement); work organization (hours of work, shift work); hazard evaluation; safety and health organization within the enterprise. (100630)

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CIS 02-1567 Strategic control of occupational safety and health. (Portuguese: Auditoria estratégica em segurança e saúde no trabalho) Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego, Brasília, Brazil, [c2000]. 115p. Illus. (Vol.I); 213p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (Vol.II). (In Portuguese)

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Working documents of a training course on the strategic control of occupational safety and health in two volumes. The first contains prints of the viewgraphs. Main topics covered: OSH policy; global strategies; action plans; accident indicators; integrated occupational safety and health management systems; labour inspection; audits; tripartite negotiations; legislation and labour protection. The second volume contains background reading material for the topics covered in the programme. (100660)

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CIS 02-1568 Reproduction and maternity. (Spanish: Reproducción y maternidad) Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Dirección General de la Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Spain, 2002. 6p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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This leaflet published by the Spanish National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health describes the contents of four new occupational safety and health guides focused on risks to reproductive health, pregnancy and nursing mothers: guide to good practices for improving occupational safety and health with respect to reproduction and pregnancy (see 02-1719); guide to collective bargaining in the area of occupational risks to reproduction and pregnancy; guide for labour inspectors including check lists for risks to reproductive health and pregnancy; proposals for improving standards on the prevention of occupational risks to reproductive health and pregnancy. (100622)

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CIS 02-1569 Paper, glass and plastic recycling plants. (Spanish: Plantas de reciclado: papel, vidrio y plástico) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 37p. Illus., ISBN 84-7425-611-9 (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_023.pdf

This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in paper, glass and plastic recycling plants and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method. (100699)

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CIS 02-1570 Course on occupational safety and health management in rural activities. (Portuguese: Curso de gestão em segurança e saúde nas atividades rurais) Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego, Brasília, Brazil, [c2000]. 489p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In Portuguese)

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Working documents of a training course on safety and health management in the farming sector aimed at encouraging actions for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases. Main topics covered: development of Brazilian agriculture and its impact on work in rural areas; training of workers; occupational safety and health in forestry; contractual relations; occupational safety and health legislation applicable to agricultural work; strategic planning of interventions in farming areas; intervention projects. Documents for background reading are also included, some in English and Spanish. (100657)

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CIS 02-1571 Greenhouses. (Spanish: Invernaderos) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 55p. Illus., ISBN 84-7425-601-1 (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_021.pdf

This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in greenhouses and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals (in particular pesticides); biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method. (100695)

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CIS 02-1572 Bicycle and motorcycle sales and repair shops. (Spanish: Comercio y talleres de bicicletas y motocicletas) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 51p. Illus., ISBN 84-7425-606-2 (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_025.pdf

This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in bicycle and motorcycle sales and repair shops and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method. (100698)

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CIS 02-1573 Automobile washing and lubricating workshops. (Spanish: Talleres de lavado y engrase de coches) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 47p. Illus., ISBN 84-7425-607-0 (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_024.pdf

This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in automobile washing and lubricating workshops and the principal applicable prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method. (100694)

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CIS 02-1574 Having construction work done? Duties of clients under the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, May 2002. 6p. 1 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/misc193.pdf

This leaflet sheet provides guidance on the client's duties under the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 95-1372). Advice is given on: projects to which the Regulations apply; appointing an agent to carry out the client's duties; appointment of a planning supervisor and a principal contractor; provision of information; making arrangements for designers or contractors to carry out work; preparation of a health and safety plan and a health and safety file; relevant legislation. (100964)

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CIS 02-1575 Road passenger transport. (Spanish: Transporte de personas) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 51p. Illus., ISBN 84-7425-602-X (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_020.pdf

This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in road passenger transport (loading, driving and issuing tickets) and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; risk assessment method. (100697)

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CIS 02-1576 Flower shops. (Spanish: Floristerías) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 41p. Illus., ISBN 84-7425-615-1 (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://internet.mtas.es/Insht/practice/gap_022.pdf

This guide in the form of check lists of potential hazards in flower shops and the main corresponding prevention measures is aimed at managers of small enterprises. Contents: workplaces and equipment; electrical hazards; physical hazards; harmful chemicals; biological agents; fires and explosions; workplace design; work organization; legislation; method for risk assessment. (100696)

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CIS 02-1577 Occupational safety and health management in small and medium enterprises. (Spanish: Gestión de la prevención de riesgos laborales en la pequeña y mediana empresa) Bestratén Belloví M., Marrón Vidal M.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 106p. 51 ref., ISBN 84-7425-598-8 (In Spanish)

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Aimed at SMEs, this guide was published to provide employers and employees with the basic elements of the various aspects of management of occupational safety and health. For each aspect covered, a self-appraisal questionnaire and one or several progress monitoring forms as well as the applicable regulations are provided. Main topics covered: safety and health policy and organization; general measures aimed at eliminating or reducing risks (prevention at the source, collective and personal protection, information and training of workers); control of hazards (hygienic, ergonomic and psychosocial hazards, preventive maintenance); management of planned changes (modifications and acquisitions, personnel hiring, subcontractors, transfer to other work, coordination between enterprises); management of foreseeable events (emergencies, major and imminent hazards, first aid, investigation of the causes of accidents or incidents having had an effect on health); documentation of the occupational safety and health system. (100700)

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CIS 02-1578 RIDDOR reporting: What the incident contact centre can do for you!. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Aug. 2002. 6p. 2 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/misc310.pdf

The Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR, see CIS 95-1930) requires employers or persons responsible for premises to report occupational accidents, diseases and dangerous occurrences to the relevant enforcing authority. The Incident Contact Centre (ICC) is a "single window" for submitting these reports. This leaflet briefly describes the ICC and the services it offers. (100965)

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CIS 02-1579 Basic guide for workers using visual display units for data. (Spanish: Instrucción básica para el trabajador usuario de pantallas de visualización de datos) Sanz Merino J.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 39p. Illus. Price: EUR 3.31., ISBN 84-7425-634-8 (In Spanish)

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This guide is aimed at persons working at screens and presents the main hazards related to this type of work together with the corresponding ergonomic preventive measures. Topics covered: vision problems and visual fatigue; musculoskeletal disorders; mental fatigue; radiation emitted by screens; screen filters; regulations applicable to work at screens; legal provisions applicable to users of screens; questionnaire aimed at checking the ergonomics of workplaces involving work at screens; test for evaluating the knowledge acquired from reading the guide. (100625)

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CIS 02-1580 CHIP for everyone. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 52p. Illus. 27 ref. Price: GBP 9.50., ISBN 0-7176-2370-X (In English)

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This guide explains the basic requirements of the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging) Regulations 2002 (CHIP3), which replace the earlier Regulations 1994 analysed under CIS 95-23. Contents: basic tenets of CHIP3; classification and labelling of substances; classification of preparations; supply labelling; packaging and advertising; safety data sheets. Replaces CIS 01-1015. (100587)

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CIS 02-1581 Respiratory sensitisers and COSHH - Breathe freely. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, July 2002. 6p. 8 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg95.pdf

The Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (COSHH, see CIS 00-620) requires employers to carry out an assessment of the risks to workers' health resulting from exposures to hazardous substances. This leaflet summarizes the duties of employers under COSHH applicable to respiratory sensitizers. Contents: description of respirators sensitizers; symptoms of respiratory sensitization; effects of continued exposure; legal aspects; hazard evaluation; preventing or controlling exposure; health surveillance; what to do with respect to sensitized employees; what employees need to know. (100966)

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CIS 02-1582 The idiot's guide to CHIP3. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, June 2002. 10p. Illus. 8 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg350.pdf

This guide explains the basic requirements of the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging) Regulations 2002 (CHIP3) (see CIS 93-1424 for the earlier version). Responsibilities of chemical suppliers are described in terms of classification of substances, provision of hazard information (safety data sheets, labelling) and packaging. Responsibilities of chemical manufacturers and importers are also outlined. (100968)

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CIS 02-1583 Basic principles of chemical safety and the prevention of major accidents. (Portuguese: Conceitos básicos de segurança química e prenvenção de grandes acidentes industriais) Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego, Brasília, Brazil, [c2000]. 233p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (Vol.I); 203p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (Vol.II). (In Portuguese)

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Working documents of an introductory course on chemical safety and the prevention of major accidents in Brazil in two volumes. Main topics covered: environmentally sound management of toxic chemicals, including prevention of illegal international traffic in toxic and dangerous products; main problems related to the production, import, export and use of chemicals; risk factors in the chemical industry; labelling and safety data sheets of chemicals; hazards due to benzene; muiltidisciplinary and cooperative analysis in the process industry; analysis of a chemical accident; preliminary report of a fatal accident caused by mechanical failure; improvement of working conditions in the fireworks industry. (100659)

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CIS 02-1584 Noise in construction - Further guidance on the Noise at Work Regulations 1989. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, Jan. 2002. 6p. Illus. 3 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg127.htm

This leaflet outlines duties of employers in the construction industry in relation to: assessing and reducing noise levels; providing ear protection; informing workers about personal exposure levels; and marking ear protection zones. Employees' responsibilities include: use and maintenance of ear protection and other protective equipment, and reporting suspected hearing damage. Replaces CIS 97-642. (100967)

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CIS 02-1585 Mental workload. (Spanish: La carga mental de trabajo) Sebastián García O., del Hoyo Delgado M.Á., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 51p. 22 ref., ISBN 84-7425-605-4 (In Spanish)

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This booklet begins with a definition of mental workload, and proceeds with a description of the determinants of mental workload in occupational settings (job requirements and capacity of the worker to respond), its main characteristics and consequences (fatigue giving rise to decreases and/or errors in performance). Several methods and scales for evaluating mental workload, as well as measures for the prevention of mental fatigue, are also presented. A summary of the ISO 10075 standard on ergonomic principles with respect to mental workload is also included. (100693)

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[ Top of page ]

Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals


001 General safety, health and conditions of work

CIS 02-1586 Profile of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic. Brhel P., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.3-4, p.282-287. 7 ref. (In English)

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A profile of occupational diseases in the Czech Republic is presented. In a retrospective study, the causes, structure, and occurrence of occupational diseases diagnosed and notified over the period of 5 years (from 1996 to 2000) are analyzed. In this five-year period, 10,459 occupational diseases were recorded. In 2000, the incidence amounted to 38.3 cases per 100,000 insured employees. The percentage of men was higher (62%) than that of women (38%). Disorders caused by physical factors were the most frequent (38.7%), followed by respiratory disorders (20.3%), occupational dermatoses (19.9%), and occupational infections (18.2%). During the period investigated, the decreasing trend of occupational diseases, which began in 1992, continued. More detailed information is provided in tabular form. (100513)

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CIS 02-1587 Serious accidents: Complex management. (French: Accident grave: une gestion délicate) Prévention BTP, Feb. 2002, No.38, p.49-57. Illus. (In French)

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In 1999 in France, there were 717 occupational fatalities and more than 45,000 occupational accidents resulting in permanent invalidity. This special feature on serious accidents is aimed at all persons who may be faced with managing an emergency caused by an accident. Contents: role of occupational physicians, first-aid workers, workers' representatives and delegates of the French organization for occupational safety and health in the construction industry (Organisme professionnel de prévention du bâtiment et des travaux publics - OPPBTP); file to be compiled by employers following serious occupational accidents; sharing of the costs of occupational accidents and diseases; legal responsibilities of employers; case where the victims are temporary workers; rules to follow in the event of a serious accident. (100904)

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CIS 02-1588 IAPA's pursuit of excellence. Accident Prevention, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.49, No.4, p.12-13. Illus. (In English)

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This article highlights the activities of the Industrial Accident Prevention Association (IAPA) of the province of Ontario, Canada during its 85 years of existence. Currently, IAPA has 225 employees, 13 branch offices, over 20 divisions and hundreds of services and training programmes serving 45,000 member firms responsible for 1.5 million employees. (100568)

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CIS 02-1589 Investing in safety - An analytical precautionary principle. Farrow S., Hayakawa H., Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.165-174. 29 ref. (In English)

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Governments and businesses must respond to increasing safety requirements and balance the associated costs with productivity and competing pressures. A real options approach has been introduced for decision making in the private sector; this approach is adapted for regulatory decisions that can involve irreversible and uncertain safety impacts, social costs that differ from direct costs, and differences in perception among the stakeholders. The outcome is an economic decision gage that determines if it is optimal to invest in safety even if the estimated costs significantly exceed the estimated benefits. Potential applications include civil aviation, ground transportation, pipelines, nuclear facilities, natural disaster planning and terrorism. (100574)

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CIS 02-1590 Considerations on the concepts of danger, hazard and hazard evaluation. (Spanish: Reflexiones sobre los conceptos de peligro, riesgo y evaluación de riesgos) Rubio Romero J.C., Prevención, Apr.-June 2002, No.160, p.20-33. Illus. 20 ref. (In Spanish)

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This article explores the concepts of danger, hazards and hazard evaluation. These frequently-used concepts are not clearly defined in Spanish legislation and depending on the documents or regulations, may have slightly different meanings. The ambiguity between the meanings of the terms "danger" and "hazard" is highlighted. Different types of hazards (such as personal, social or occupational) are discussed. Finally, the different meanings of the term "hazard evaluation" (general hazard evaluation, workplace evaluation, overall hazard evaluation) are also discussed. (100672)

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CIS 02-1591 Defining and implementing an emergency plan. (Spanish: Documento e implantación de un plan de emergencia) Pérez Lomillo M., Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2002, No.162, p.54-62. Illus. 15 ref. (In Spanish)

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After defining emergency plans and why they are important for the enterprise, this article explains how to develop such a plan. The example presented is based on fire hazards. The development of an emergency plan begins with the collection of data on the means of extinguishing and evacuation (extinguishers, fire hydrants, alarms, smoke detectors, escape ways). The various elements that constitute the emergency plan (description of the enterprise, flow diagrams, procedures according to the different degrees of emergency, evacuation instructions, etc.) need to be combined. Once the plan is written, it is presented to the workers and the staff involved in emergency procedures is trained. Practical exercises or exercises simulating real conditions then need to be conducted and repeated if necessary. To be efficient, the emergency plan needs to be regularly reviewed and updated. (100679)

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CIS 02-1592 Is a calculated risk still a risk?. (French: A partir du moment où le risque est calculé, est-ce qu'il y a encore du risque?) Rödel P., Seillan H., Préventique-Sécurité, July-Aug. 2002, No.64, p.32-36. Illus. (In French)

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This article presents the philosophical considerations of Patrick Rödel, professor of philosophy and writer, during an interview on the question of risk. Within the notion of risk, there is the concept of going beyond what can be expected from calculations; risk consists of the little act of folly beyond the calculations. Managing risk means staying within the boundaries of the calculations. (100718)

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CIS 02-1593 Interaction between maintenance and production - Exploratory study. (French: Interactions maintenance-exploitation et sécurité - Etude exploratoire) Grusenmeyer C., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.186, p.53-66. Illus. 57 ref. (In French)

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This article presents the results of a study on the safety implications of the interaction between maintenance and production operators. Following a literature review of the various aspects of maintenance work, it goes on to describe the observations carried out in enterprises for the purpose of improving the understanding of the importance of the safety implications of these interactions. During a scheduled outage of a nuclear power plant, the information flow related to maintenance operations, conveyed by the maintenance process control operators, was examined. The content analyses emphasize that, in the case of corrective maintenance, there is little interaction between maintenance and production operators, while their interdependence relationships are judged to be high. Mutual regulations of maintenance and production operators' activities are observed. Implications for operator safety are discussed. (100949)

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CIS 02-1594 Industrial accidents or incidents during the year 2001. (French: Les accidents ou incidents industriels de l'année 2001) Face au risque, June-July 2002, No.384, p.17-21. Illus. (In French)

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In 2001,1589 industrial accidents in France were recorded in the Aria database. In all, 13,903 accidents were recorded between 1992 and 2001. This article classifies these accidents according to the type of event (fire, hazardous waste spills, explosions, domino effects, collisions with equipment or equipment collapse, near accidents, serious cases of long-term pollution, radiation, boil-over and others), of activity, of the broad class of material involved, of the main cause of the accident and of its consequences. The breakdown is expressed as a percentage of the number of accidents having occurred in 2001 as well as for the total period from 1992 to 2001. (100536)

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CIS 02-1595 Fatal occupational accidents: Estimates based on multiple data sources. (Italian: Infortuni lavorativi mortali: stime basate su più fonti informative) Baldasseroni A., Chellini E., Zoppi O., Giovannetti L., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.92, No.4, p.239-248.16 ref. (In Italian)

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This survey conducted in the Italian region of Tuscany confirms the essential importance of occupational accident registers, but also the need, which has been already stressed in the scientific literature, of combining data with those supplied by mortality registries. (100841)

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CIS 02-1596 The only way for the employer to get off the hook is the misplaced or untimely act. (French: Le seul moyen pour que l'employeur se sorte d'affaire, c'est l'acte intempestif) Faure B., Seillan H., Préventique-Sécurité, July-Aug. 2002, No.64, p.65-66. (In French)

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Recent jurisprudence in France has altered the notion of inexcusable error. In the course of an interview, Bertrand Faure, Chief Judge of the Paris Court of Appeals, analyses this jurisprudence, explains how the Court arrives at a decision in cases of errors judged to be inexcusable and discusses current gaps in legislation in this area. (100719)

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CIS 02-1597 Positions adopted by the European Council of Ministers and the European Parliament on the legislative package on public procurement - "Innovations" and "Adaptations" introduced in the new proposals of the European Commission. (French: Les positions du Conseil des ministres et du Parlement européen sur le paquet législatif relatif aux marchés publics - Les "innovations" et "adaptations" introduites dans les nouvelles propositions de la Commission européenne) Mattera A., Revue Technique Apave, Apr.-June 2002, No.298, p.26-34. Illus. 2 ref. (In French)

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This article presents the positions adopted by the European Council of Ministers and the European Parliament with respect to the amendments and adaptations introduced in the legislative package on public procurement. The changes introduced concern central procurement agencies, dynamic acquisition systems and reverse electronic auctions. Various modifications were made to the general conditions on framework agreements. Requirements with respect to environmental protection (sustainable development, eco-labelling) and social protection have been integrated into public procurement policy. Among the amendments proposed by the Parliament that were not adopted by the Commission, the one related to the raising of the threshold by 50% caused the most objection. (100510)

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CIS 02-1598 Good practice guidelines for occupational health research funded by the private sector. Quinn M., Levenstein C., DeLaurier G.F., New Solutions, 2001, Vol.11, No.4, p.295-306. (In English)

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The role of the private sector in funding academic research is increasing and good practice guidelines for privately-funded occupational health research in the United States are necessary. Industry sponsors and academic researchers belong to differing systems with differing goals and means to achieve and evaluate them. As a result, problems are inherent in the relationship. Guidelines would benefit industry by providing criteria against which industry-funded research could be judged and evaluated and would help university researchers assure that their work has academic rigour and merit. This article explores the questions that were raised during a recent workshop on the topic. (100555)

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CIS 02-1599 Estimating and controlling workplace risk: An approach for occupational hygiene and safety professionals. Toffel M.W., Birkner L.R., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.477-485. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

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Meeting safety and health objectives requires financial resources. This article proposes that risk decisions should be made with probabilistic processes used in financial decision-making, which are familiar and recognizable to business managers. It develops the processes and demonstrates the use of incident probabilities, past outcome information and incremental impact analysis to estimate risk of multiple alternatives in the chemical industry. It also analyses how the ethical aspects of decision-making can be addressed in formulating safety and health risk management plans. It is concluded that easily understood applied probabilistic risk assessment methods used by business to assess financial and outcome risk have applicability to improving workplace safety and health. (100564)

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CIS 02-1600 Work disability in the Netherlands: Data, conceptual aspects, and perspectives. Willems H., de Kleijn-de Vrankrijker M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.510-515. 38 ref. (In English)

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Data on work disability are not standardized with respect to the definitions of the main variables. As a consequence, such data do not usually provide reliable information about health problems and related outcome measures. Examples of this unreliability are provided by the different approaches used in Dutch social security compared with national statistics on disability. It is recommended that a single concept be developed and used in order to make data comparable. The recently-presented International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health by the WHO seems to be a sound base for further exploration of the possibilities of standardization in occupational health and social security. (100602)

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CIS 02-1601 Evaluation of an occupational health and safety management system performance measurement tool - II: Scoring methods and field study sites; III: Measurement of initiation elements. Redinger C.F., Levine S.P., Blotzer M.J., Majewski M.P., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, II: p.34-40. Illus. 22 ref.; III: p.41-46. 11 ref. (In English)

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With the proliferation of occupational safety and health management systems (OSHMSs) in the 1990s, an assessment instrument was developed to measure a wide range of OSHMSs. The first part of this series (see CIS 99-95) involved a universal OHSMS performance measurement tool. Part II presents the methods used in the assessment instrument's initial field evaluation at three test sites using different OSHMSs. The case study methods, measurement scales and data management system were found to be effective in performing the initial validation efforts. Part III reports on the initial evaluation of the instrument's first four sections: management commitment and resources; regulatory compliance and system performance; accountability, responsibility and authority; employee participation. (100683)

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CIS 02-1602 Safety information and documentation. (Spanish: La información y documentación en seguridad) Revilla Guzmán M., Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.86, p.39-49. Illus. 6 ref. (In Spanish)

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This article explains how to collect the information and documentation necessary for designing occupational safety management systems, and where this information can be found (National Library of Spain, National Occupational Safety and Health Institute, MAPFRE documentation centre, use of Internet search engines, lists of Web documents on safety). (100714)

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CIS 02-1603 The Spanish presidency of the European Union 2002 - Assessment of results. (Spanish: Presidencia española de la Unión Europea 2002 - Balance de resultados) Grau Ríos M., Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.19, p.4-36. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Collection of articles that assess the Spanish presidency of the European Union during the first half of 2002 with respect to occupational safety and health. Contents: interview of the Minister of Labour and Social Affairs, Juan Carlos Aparcio, presentations by Spanish delegates at the Barcelona Conference (22-23 April 2002); new community strategy on health and safety at work for the period 2002-2006, Council resolution on the community strategy; results obtained in the area of occupational safety and health during the Spanish presidency. (100715)

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CIS 02-1604 International trends in occupational health research and practice. Knave B., Ennals R., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.69-73. 19 ref. (In English)

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Occupational health deals with issues which are at the heart of the economy and of society, and are beginning to attract increasing attention by policy makers. This article discusses the need for a new approach to occupational health, laying foundations for future demands. Old disciplinary barriers must be crossed, and communication improved so that healthy work is accepted as a mainstream concern. This presents challenges both to occupational health professionals and to those with responsibilities for policy. As a first step, it is necessary to make more effective use of the body of available research, and develop an understanding of how the conclusions from research can form the basis of responsible decision making. (100721)

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CIS 02-1605 Trends of research and practice in "occupational risk prevention" as seen in Germany. Luczak H., Cernavin O., Scheuch K., Sonntag K., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.74-100. Illus. 66 ref. (In English)

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This article discusses occupational risk prevention (ORP) in Germany. Hypotheses and scenarios of future developments in ORP and ORP research were derived based on an analysis of past events, on the content and process of research projects in the German program on the humanization of work, on literature analysis and expert interviews. 19 anamnesis-to-diagnosis relationships were formulated, concentrating on the following areas: innovation potential and value systems of ORP research; fields and topics of future ORP research; service-oriented systems of ORP participants; demands and limits for technology transfer. Recommendations with respect to future ORP developments were made based on the creative potential of the ORP community in Germany. (100722)

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CIS 02-1606 Work improvement and occupational safety and health management systems: Common features and research needs. Kogi K., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.121-133. Illus. 50 ref. (In English)

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This review article discusses the experiences of various Asian countries with respect to the implementation of occupational safety and health management systems. Examples are provided from recent work improvement projects dealing with technology transfer, small workplaces and rural areas. These experiences clearly show that locally adjusted procedures for risk assessment and control must be developed. Research is needed to find effective ways of encouraging voluntary control at the workplace, practical methods for local risk assessment and the types of participatory steps leading to continual improvements in the local context. (100725)

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CIS 02-1607 The introduction of an occupational health management system for solving issues in occupational health activities in Japan. Mori K., Takebayashi T., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.167-174. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

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The "Five Management system" (FMS) used until now in Japan to manage occupational health activities does not show the interactions among the listed activities. Nor is it clear how this system contributes to the PDCA (Plan, Do, Check, Act) cycle for continual improvement. The items listed in the FMS were compared to the guidelines of the Occupational Safety and Health Management System (OSHMS) from the International Labour Office and issues that should be solved for occupational health activities with OSHMS were clarified. Seven issues are discussed in this paper: occupational safety and health policy and audit that can drive the PDCA cycle effectively; reclassification of occupational health activities with several different objectives; defining targets; risk assessment methods that can prioritize health risks compared to safety risks; exposure assessment methods for risk assessment; flexibility of laws and regulations; development of talented professionals for occupational health activities. (100729)

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CIS 02-1608 Organization and education in occupational safety and health in Maghreb countries. Laraqui C.H., Rahhali A., Laraqui O., Mounassif M., Gharbi R., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.92, No.4, p.272-280. 15 ref. (In English)

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The Maghreb countries are Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. This article describes the organization of occupational medicine in these countries, as well as the systems of protection for workers and of OSH training prevalent in them. Relevant socio-economic and demographic data are also covered, as are legal aspects, epidemiological data and information on the organization of occupational medicine training. In Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia there has been progress in this discipline, although problems persist. Just as in the European Union, cooperation among the Maghreb countries in the area of occupational medicine seems indispensable. (100844)

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CIS 02-1609 Electronic version of the Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety as a source of definitions. Dryzek H., Journal of Safety Research, 2002, Vol.33, p.155-163. (In English)

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Obtaining authoritative definitions is very important in many fields of endeavour, including occupational safety and health. When a large number of definitions is needed, it is usually very difficult to find them in printed sources, as definitions tend to be scattered in many publications, or in several parts of the same publication, and they tend not to be well-indexed. Using creditable electronic information sources is a good alternative, and a controlled experiment in a specialized library in Poland proved that searching the CD-ROM version of the ILO's Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety (see CIS 99-1868) is far more effective in finding reliable definitions than perusing the printed version (see CIS 99-1860). (100962)

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CIS 02-1610 Lessons learned: Worker health and safety since September 11, 2001. Landrigan P.J., Spadafora R., Lippy B.E., Thurston G.D., Chen L.C., Levin S., Herbert R., Skloot G., Szeinuk J., Teirstein A., Fischler D., Milek D., Piligian G., Wilk-Rivard E., Moline J., Malievskaya E., Rosenberg N., Morkowitz S., Clark P., Clark N., Kotelchuck D., Lioy P.J., Shufro J., Gochfeld M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec 2002, Vol.42, No.6, p.529-565. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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Brief reports presented at the annual meeting of the New York/New Jersey Occupational Safety and Health Educational Research Center (UOSHERR) held on 5 April 2002 on occupational safety and health issues in light of experiences gained following the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center in New York City on 11 September, 2001. Contents: fire fighter safety and health; safety and health of heavy equipment operators; risk communication; health effects; assessing the health of immigrant workers; response of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); joint labour-management safety and health model; fire and emergency safety issues; perspective on the tragedy; lessons learned on environmental, occupational and residential exposures. (100973)

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CIS 02-1611 Guide to personal protective equipment. (French: Guide des équipements de protection individuelle) Les Editions d'Ergonomie, BP 138, 13267 Marseille cedex 08, France, 3rd ed., 2002. 132p. Illus. Price: EUR 20.00., ISBN 2-908191-23-7 (In French)

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Contents of this buyers' guide for the selection of personal protective equipment (PPE): role and function of personal protection within the enterprise; classification and certification of PPEs; practical rules when using PPEs; lists of manufacturers and distributors classified by type of PPE (head protection, face and eye protection, hearing protection, respirators, protection of hands and arms, foot and leg protection, protective clothing, fall arresters). (100758)

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CIS 02-1612 Occupational accident statistics - Year 2000. (Spanish: Estadística de accidentes de trabajo - Año 2000) Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Subdirección General de Publicaciones, c/Agustín de Bethencourt 11, 28003 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 287p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Occupational accident statistics for the year 2000 in Spain. Tables present the breakdown of accidents by severity, sector, place where the accident occurred, type of accident, causal factor, time of the day and day of the week of the accident, type of work involved, sex and age of the victims, type of employment contract, length of employment, nature and location of injury, and size of the enterprise. Data also include a breakdown of the days of work lost during 2000, relapses, and incidence, frequency and severity rates. (100629)

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CIS 02-1613 National occupational safety and health statistics 1999. (French: Statistiques nationales des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles 1999) Caisse nationale des assurances sociales des travailleurs salariés, Direction de la prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles, Centre familial de Ben-Aknoun, Alger, Algeria, 2002. 156p. Illus. (In French)

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Contents of the statistics of occupational accidents and diseases in Algeria in 1999: introduction, general remarks, definitions; overview of occupational accidents, commuting accidents and occupational diseases; analysis of the year's statistics; detailed statistics. The decrease in the number of occupational accidents and fatalities that began in 1995 was confirmed, with 8% and 16% less occurrences respectively in 1999 compared to 1998. However, the number of occupational disease cases remained stable and there is a clear upward trend in the amounts paid in compensation. (100649)

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CIS 02-1614 National occupational safety and health statistics 2000. (French: Statistiques nationales des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles 2000) Caisse nationale des assurances sociales des travailleurs salariés, Direction de la prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles, Centre familial de Ben-Aknoun, Alger, Algeria, 2002. 162p. Illus. (In French)

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Contents of the statistics of occupational accidents and diseases in Algeria in 2000: introduction, general remarks, definitions; overview of occupational accidents, commuting accidents and occupational diseases; analysis of the year's statistics; detailed statistics. In 2000, the decrease in the number of occupational accidents and fatalities that began in 1995 was confirmed, with 2% and 9% fewer occurrences, respectively, when compared with 1999. However, the number of occupational disease cases remained stable and there is a clear upward trend in the amounts paid in compensation. (100650)

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CIS 02-1615 Occupational accidents in Brazil in 2000. (Portuguese: Acidentes do trabalho no Brasil: ano 2000) Pitanga do Amparo P., SESI, Departamento Nacional SBN, Quadra 1 Bloco C, Edifício Roberto Simonsen, CEP 70 040-903 Brasília, Brazil, 2002. 285p. Illus., ISBN 85-88199-33-5 (In Portuguese)

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This document analyses the fatal and non fatal occupational accidents that occurred in Brazil during the year 2000 in industry (manufacturing industries, mining, construction industry, power generation and distribution, water utilities). Data are provided for the country as a whole, as well as by state and region. (100653)

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CIS 02-1616 Fatal injuries to civilian workers in the United States, 1980-1995 (National profile). Marsh S.M., Layne L.A., Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, June 2001. xiv, 56p. 55 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/NTOF2000/pdfs/ntof2fbc.pdf

This document contains data from the National Traumatic Occupational Fatalities surveillance system for the years 1980 to 1995, during which more than 93,000 workers were fatally injured while working in the United States. On average, there were 16 occupational fatalities per day. The leading causes were motor vehicle accidents, homicides, machines, falls of persons, electrocutions and falling objects. Tables provide details on the frequency of fatal occupational accidents by year, age group, sex, race, cause, industry and occupation. (100667)

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CIS 02-1617 How the courts are interpreting HSE guidance and health and safety regulations: An exploratory study of Court Judgments in personal injury claims for WRULDs. Pearce B., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 71p. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2536-2 (In English)

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This report presents the findings of a study of how courts in Great Britain have interpreted safety and health regulations and Health and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance by analyzing court judgments in personal injury claims for work-related upper limb disorders (WRULDs). The courts frequently considered issues which HSE guidance on WRULDs had rarely addressed explicitly. A lay person reading HSE guidance might not appreciate some of the issues which courts consider important with respect to an employer's duty of care. Analysis of the judgments suggests that the county courts are inconsistent in their interpretations of the Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations (CIS 93-24) and the Manual Handling Operations Regulations (CIS 93-664) and that, as yet, there is no definitive interpretation of any of these regulations by a higher court. The report proposes practical approaches for addressing these issues. (100584)

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CIS 02-1618 Occupational safety and health jurisprudence 2001/2002. (French: Jurisprudence de la santé et de la sécurité au travail 2001/2002) Lamy P., Quiviger V., Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France, Sep. 2002. 166p. Price: EUR 45.00., ISBN 2-901806-95-3 (In French)

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All working persons in France are concerned by the court rulings in the area of employment contracts, rights of employees and the consequences of occupational accidents. This publication reports on trends in jurisprudence in the field of occupational safety and health structured around the following three basic topics: labour legislation (protection of the safety and health of employees, protection of workers' privacy); social security (compensation of occupational accidents, compensation of asbestos-related diseases); occupational safety and health legislation and regulations (prevention and compensation of occupational hazards, protection and respect of employees). (100647)

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CIS 02-1619 Annual report 2001. (French: Compte rendu de l'exercice 2001) Association d'assurance contre les accidents, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 56p. Illus. (In French)

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Contents of this annual report of the Accident Insurance Association of Luxembourg for 2001: presentation (organizational structure, objectives of the insurance, affiliated organizations, persons covered in the industrial and agricultural sectors, accident prevention, reporting of accidents, benefits); financial results of the industrial and agricultural sections. Appendices provide the names of voting members, the management board and auditors. (100648)

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CIS 02-1620 Labour inspection: What future?. (French: Inspection du travail: quel avenir?; German: Arbeitsinspektion wohin?) Aubert G., Aubry Girardin F., Auf der Maur A., Scheidegger H.U., eds., Schulthess Polygraphischer Verlag, Zürich, Switzerland, 1995. 177p. Illus., ISBN 3-7255-3271-0 (In English, French, German)

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Ever since the introduction of the Federal Labour Law of 1964 (see CIS 01-1272) and the Federal Accident Insurance Law of 1981, the role of labour inspection in Switzerland has been the subject of controversy. The question of the respective roles of labour inspection and accident insurance has again come to the forefront during attempts to harmonize Swiss and European Union legislation. This document includes papers presented at a workshop on the organization and mode of operation of safety and health systems of various European countries. Contents: European trends; systems adopted by various countries (Germany, Austria, France, United Kingdom, Belgium and Sweden); prospects for Switzerland from the viewpoints of the Federal agency concerned, a cantonal government and the National Accident Insurance Fund (Suva). (100505)

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CIS 02-1621 Litigation in the field of occupational safety and health. (French: Contentieux en santé et sécurité au travail) Guérin S., Malingrey P., Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France, May 2002, No.12, 32p. 4 ref. (In French)

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Contents of this practical guide to litigation in the area of occupational safety and health in France: attributing responsibilities in cases of breach of safety and hygiene legislation; different types of violations (violations constituting a breach of law or an offence; non-intentional or intentional attempts on the life or the physical integrity of a person; attempts on persons' dignity); legal process (reports of the offence, decisions to prosecute, court rulings); litigation in the field of occupational accidents and diseases (various possibilities for appeal, authorities for appeals, medical or technical evidence). (100508)

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CIS 02-1622 Work and health country profiles of twenty-two European countries. Rantanen J., Kauppinen T., Lehtinen S., Mattila M., Toikkanen J., Kurppa K., Leino T., eds., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. 444p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-499-5 (In English)

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During the Second Meeting of the European Network of WHO Collaborating Centres held in Budapest, Hungary in September 2001, the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health (FIOH) was assigned the task of compiling a list of work and health profiles of European countries. The data were submitted by the responding countries on the basis of a questionnaire and a sample entry provided by FIOH. This publication consists of the profiles based on the responses of 22 European countries, and may be used as a tool for benchmarking and improving occupational safety and health efforts. The countries surveyed are: Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Norway, Portugal, the Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and Yugoslavia. (100542)

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CIS 02-1623 China in transition: Towards a better workplace and environment. International Labour Office (ILO), ILO East Asia Multidisciplinary Advisory Team (ILO/EASMAT), P.O. Box 2-349, Radjamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 1995. xii, 50p. 9 ref. (In English)

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This report was prepared following an ILO mission to China (27 October to 17 November 1994), undertaken at the request of the Chinese Government to review programmes on working conditions and environmental protection. The report recommends a number of priority actions for the implementation and improvement of OSH programmes, including: establishing a national tripartite advisory body on OSH; formulating more comprehensive OSH legislation; improving the mechanisms and capacity for the enforcement of OSH legislation; establishing a national system for classification, marking and labelling of chemicals; using chemical safety data sheets; developing and implementing special OSH programmes for the coal mining and constriction industries; strengthening the capacity of employers' and workers' organizations to support and assist their members in improving working conditions and the environment. (100543)

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CIS 02-1624 Protecting and saving lives at work: The emerging challenge in Asia. International Labour Office (ILO), ILO East Asia Multidisciplinary Advisory Team (ILO/EASMAT), P.O. Box 2-349, Radjamnern Nok Avenue, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 1994. vi, 36p. Illus. 14 ref., ISBN 92-2-109695-5 (In English)

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This booklet presents a practical plan of action for promoting occupational safety and health in hazardous occupations among ILO member states in the Asia-Pacific region. It is based on the Occupational Safety and Health Convention 1981 (ILO Convention 155, see CIS 87-1133) and the Occupational Health Services Convention (ILO Convention 161, see CIS 86-859). Contents: impact of industrialization in Asia; hazardous industries (construction, mining, transport, agriculture and forestry); from Bhopal to small workplaces (hazards in large and small enterprises); policies and programmes for improving occupational safety and health; practical actions to improve occupational safety and health; regional cooperation. (100545)

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CIS 02-1625 Asian-Pacific regional programme on occupational safety and health - Report of activities 1 May 1992 - 31 December 1994. Gold D., International Labour Office (ILO), ILO, ROAP, P.O. Box 2-349, Bangkok 10200, Thailand, 1995. x, 139p., ISBN 92-2-109964-4 (In English)

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The ILO's Asian-Pacific Regional Programme on Occupational Safety and Health (ASIA-OSH) is a technical programme funded by the government of Finland aimed at strengthening occupational safety and health (OSH) in twenty countries of the region. The programme has three main objectives: strengthen national OSH infrastructures; establish or upgrade a network of training and information units; directly improve working conditions in selected enterprises in different economic sectors to demonstrate what can be accomplished and to serve as examples. This report addresses activities from 1 May 1992 to 31 December 1994. It describes the current status of projects according to their objectives, as well as the profiles of major activities in each country. (100547)

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CIS 02-1626 Labour inspection - A guide to the profession. von Richthofen W., ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. xv, 362p. 182 ref. Index. Price: CHF 45.00., ISBN 92-2-112710-9 (In English)

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This manual on labour inspection is aimed at labour inspectors, labour inspection services, employers' and workers' organizations and their representatives in enterprises. It discusses current approaches to labour inspection, and identifies and analyses some of the best practices in labour inspection systems in ILO member states. Contents: background, evolution and context; inspections systems policy; inspection systems organization and management; sectoral aspects of labour inspection (child labour, small enterprises, agriculture, non-commercial services sector, construction, major hazards prevention, psychosocial hazards). An appendix includes the major international standards on labour inspection. (100548)

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CIS 02-1627 Project INT/95/M10/DAN - Promoting OSH activities in fisheries and construction industries in Vietnam. Luong N.A., Cong N.T., Vietnam General Confederation of Labour, Hanoi, Vietnam, 1997. 8p.; 12p.; 10p.; 73p.; 79p. Illus. 20 ref. (5 documents). (In English)

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These reports present the tasks and conclusions of an ILO project aimed at developing occupational safety and health (OSH) activities in fisheries and the construction industry in Vietnam. The project was carried out between 1 November 1996 and 1 November 1997. It involved ILO several field missions, translation of ILO training materials into Vietnamese and the running of several workshops, as well as a six-week mission by a technical expert in fisheries. Action programmes for improving OSH in these two sectors are included. (100620)

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CIS 02-1628 Evaluating the effectiveness of the Health and Safety Executive's health and safety climate survey tool. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 48p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-7176-2159-6 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr042.pdf

The climate safety tool (CST) is a computer-based product that enables organizations to customize and print a safety climate survey questionnaire adapted to their own use. The software also enables organizations to analyse the results and produce graphical summaries and reports. Evidence from a number of users of the CST was analysed to determine its effectiveness and actions resulting from its use. This was achieved by an analysis of responses to telephone interviews of 213 users and in-depth interviews of 25 users. Three case studies provide detailed information on how the CST could be used to improve health, safety and risk control. The report concludes that the CST has helped to identify actions that could improve the health and safety culture and climate within organizations. (100633)

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CIS 02-1629 Measuring the Health and Safety Executive's Field Operations Division inspection effectiveness. Simpson G.C., Scotney V., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 16p. Illus. Price: GBP 5.00., ISBN 0-7176-2375-0 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr046.pdf

This study was undertaken to identify a systematic approach to the evaluation of inspection effectiveness within the Field Operations Division of the Health and Safety Executive (HSE). Tasks involved a combination of interviews and workshops with HSE staff and a questionnaire addressed to persons responsible for safety and health within enterprises to establish their perception of the objectives and expectations of inspection. These expectations were used to evaluate the potential health and safety performance indicators that had been proposed in the literature to devise a collection of indicators suitable for use in a regulatory context, since there appeared to be no obvious choice of suitable indicators based on previous research. (100635)

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CIS 02-1630 Audit of the Health and Safety Executive's openness procedures and practices. Amos J., Bastow S., Baxter R., Cook M., Hedges A., Hazell R., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. xii, 42p. (Vol.I); iv, 112p. (Vol.II); iv, 35p. Illus. (Vol. III). Price: GBP 30.00., ISBN 0-7176-2590-7 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr052.pdf

The objectives of this project were to identify and assess the suitability and effectiveness of HSE's existing administrative procedures within the current legal framework on openness. Aspects examined in a first phase include: relevant legal duties and government policies; public notices and internal policies; release of information in response to requests; publication of information; third party information; complaints and appeals. A second phase of the project involved research on staff attitudes, focusing mainly on openness between HSE and the outside world. A third phase assessed the HSE's website, in particular the services which support HSE's policy on openness; it concludes that the site is well designed and maintained, and ranks high in comparison to other United Kingdom government sites. (100638)

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CIS 02-1631 Brazilian OSH systems - Incidence rates and mortality of occupational accidents. (Portuguese: Padrões brasileiros em SST - Incidência e mortalidade por acidentes do trabalho) Gomes Pinto V., Laurenti R., de Mello Jorge M.H., SESI, Departamento Nacional SBN, Quadra 1 Bloco C, Edifício Roberto Simonsen, CEP 70 040-903 Brasília, Brazil, 2002. 55p. Illus. 40 ref., ISBN 85-88199-31-9 (In Portuguese)

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The first part of this document covers new Brazilian occupational safety and health systems as well as the accident risk reduction programme developed by the SESI and implemented in enterprises. The second part provides definitions of occupational accident incidence and mortality rate indicators for the purpose of developing coherent statistical data in Brazil. (100651)

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CIS 02-1632 Safety and health of Brazilian workers: The role of occupational accident insurance - Employers' civil responsibility for occupational accidents and diseases. (Portuguese: Segurança e saúde do trabalhador no Brasil: o papel do seguro de acidentes do trabalho - Responsabilidade civil por acidentes e moléstias ocupacionais) Schubert B.O., Beltran A.P., SESI, Departamento Nacional SBN, Quadra 1 Bloco C, Edifício Roberto Simonsen, CEP 70 040-903 Brasília, Brazil, 2002. 104p. Illus. 85 ref., ISBN 85-88199-32-7 (In Portuguese)

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In the first part of this document an analysis of the Brazilian occupational safety and health situation, occupational hazard insurance systems and possible improvements in worker protection is presented. The second part covers the responsibilities of employers under civil law in the event of occupational accidents or diseases as well as the system for the compensation of material and psychological damage. (100652)

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CIS 02-1633 Preventive measures in hazardous occupations in Asia: A guide. ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. vi, 35p. Illus. 14 ref., ISBN 92-2-109696-3 (In English)

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Published on the occasion of the ILO's 75th anniversary in 1994, this booklet presents a brief overview of the occupational safety and health situation in East Asia, and highlights the issues which require special attention. It also provides guidance concerning the practical steps that need to be taken at both the national and enterprise levels to improve workers' safety and health. Contents: background and scope; key elements and practical steps for action; policy framework; legislation and guidelines; inspection and advisors services; promotional activities; direct support for enterprise action; training and information; joint industry-wide action. (100690)

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CIS 02-1634 Conference on the coordination of supervision and control of and penalties for violations of the regulations on the prevention of occupational hazards. (Spanish: Jornadas de coordinación de actuaciones en materia de vigilancia, control y sanción por incumplimiento de la normativa de prevención de riesgos laborales) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 150p., ISBN 84-7425-614-3 (In Spanish)

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Proceedings of a conference on the coordination of actions relating to supervision, control and penalties for violation of the regulations on the prevention of occupational hazards held in Madrid, Spain, in May 2001. Presentations and workshops focused on the coordination of these actions between various ministries and judicial institutions, the respective roles of safety representatives appointed by employers and employees, as well as the application of penalties. (100692)

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CIS 02-1635 Ergonomics, health and safety - Conditions of work and the environment. (French: Ergonomie, hygiène et sécurité - Conditions de travail et environnement) Bernard C.P., Les éditions d'ergonomie, B.P. 138, 13267 Marseille Cedex 08, France, 38th ed., 2002. 1299p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: EUR 175.00 (without VAT)., ISBN 2-908191-22-9 (In French)

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This reference manual is intended both as an encylopaedia for the scientific improvement of health and the quality of work as well as a practical guide to occupational safety and health in France. Five main sections cover: 1) safety and heath organization and management; 2) occupational hygiene, ergonomics and safety in the enterprise; 3) guide to safety and health techniques; 4) guide to hazardous or doubtful substances; and 5) guide to environmental protection. Previous edition: CIS 01-277. (100720)

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CIS 02-1636 Occupational safety and health issues associated with knowledge transfer: Case of machinists and cooks. (French: Enjeux de santé et de sécurité au travail dans la transmission des savoirs professionnels: le cas des usineurs et des cuisiniers) Cloutier E., Lefebvre S., Ledoux E., Chatigny C., St-Jacques Y., Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. x, 205p. Illus. 76 ref., ISBN 2-551-21648-6 (In French)

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http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-316.pdf

The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of the occupational safety and health issues related to knowledge transfer in occupational settings. A first phase of the study consisted in taking stock of the current situation of apprenticeship within enterprises with the Quebec employment agency (Emploi-Québec). The study then focused on two high-risk occupations, cooks and machinists. It was conducted within two enterprises and involved discussions with managers, trade union representatives, skilled workers and apprentices. As highlighted by the two case studies, the issue of transmission of knowledge is mutli-faceted and complex. It is important that the assignment of tasks takes into account the age and experience of the workers. Furthermore, numerous organizational and environmental factors influence the way in which knowledge transmission occurs. Proposals for further studies are made, together with recommendations addressed to Emploi-Québec for facilitating apprenticeships in enterprises. (100755)

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CIS 02-1637 Practice of occupational safety and health management - Mastering and implementing OHSAS 18001. (French: Pratiquer le management de la santé et de la sécurité au travail - Maîtriser et mettre en œuvre l'OHSAS 18001) Gey J.M., Courdeau D., AFNOR, 11 avenue Francis de Pressensé, 93571 Saint-Denis La Plaine cedex, France, 2002. xviii, 165p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: EUR 37.05., ISBN 2-12-465068-8 (In French)

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In addition to the regulatory framework, it is important for enterprises to have access to management tools in the field of occupational safety and health management. This publication presents the whole range of elements necessary for implementing an occupational safety and health management system within the enterprise. Contents: concepts and general principles of occupational safety and health management systems; OHSAS series and the BS 8800 standard; analysis of the main features of the OHSAS 18001 standard; implementation and integration of OHSAS; OHSAS certification. Among the several appendices, there is a glossary as well as the full text of OHSAS 18001. (100757)

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CIS 02-1638 Methods and support tools for the analysis and management of occupational hazards. (French: Méthodes et supports d'analyse et de gestion des risques professionnels - Document technique) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. 110p. Illus. (In French)

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Working documents of the 4th Regional Forum of Hygiene and Safety held from 5 to 9 August 2002 in Cotonou, Benin, on the topic of methods and supporting tools for the analysis and management of occupational hazards. It includes speakers' presentations on the following topics: methods for analysing occupational hazards; general strategy for the prevention of occupational hazards; methods and tools for analysing occupational hazards; job study at a forge in Benin; prevention approach. (100760)

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CIS 02-1639 Encyclopaedia of occupational health and safety - Part V-VII. (Korean: Sanup anjeon bojun bakjua sajeon) Stellman J.M., International Labour Office, ed., Korean Occupational Safety and Health Agency, 34-4 Gusan-dong, Bupyeong-gu, Inchoen, Korea 403-711, 4th ed., 1998. Approx. 1200p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. (In Korean)

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Korean translation of parts 5, 6 and 7 of the 4th edition of the ILO Encyclopaedia of Occupational Health and Safety (for the English version, see CIS 99-1860), containing in-depth articles covering various aspects of occupational safety and health. Contents: psychosocial and organizational factors at work; general, biological and physical hazards (barometric pressure, biological hazards, natural and technological disasters, electricity, fire, heat and cold, hours of work, indoor air quality, indoor environmental control, lighting, noise, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, vibration, violence, work on screens); environment (environmental health hazards, environmental policy, environmental pollution control). (100980)

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CIS 02-1640 Personal protective equipment - Selection, use and maintenance. (French: Equipements de protection individuelle - Sélection, utilisation et entretien) AFNOR, 11 avenue Francis de Pressensé, 93571 Saint-Denis La Plaine Cedex, France, 2000. xv, 577p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: EUR 154.50., ISBN 2-12-167051-3 (In French)

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This publication consists of a compendium of standards on terminology, general requirements, buyers' guides, use and maintenance of personal protective equipment. It is divided into the following chapters: respirators; eye protection; hearing protection; fall-arresters; protective gloves; protective clothing. It also lists relevant regulations (European directives and French official regulatory texts). (100504)

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CIS 02-1641 Resolutions adopted by the International Labour Conference at its 91st Session (Geneva, June 2003). (Arabic: Al-qarārāt allati i(timadaha mu)tamar al-amal al-duwalī fī dauratihi al-hādīati wa al-tis(īn (Janīf, Hazīrān/Yuniya 2003); Chinese: Guoji Laogong Dahui di 91 jiehuiyi tongguo de jueyi (2003 nian 6 yue, Rineiwa); French: Résolutions adoptées par la Conférence internationale du Travail à sa 91e session (Genève, juin 2003); German: Von der Internationalen Arbeitskonferenz auf ihrer 91. Tagung angenommene Entschließungen (Genf, Juni 2003); Russian: Rezoljucii, prinjatye na 91-j sessii Meždunarodnoj konferencii truda (Ženeva, ijun' 2003 g.); Spanish: Resoluciones adoptadas por la Conferencia Internacional del Trabajo en su 91.a reunión (Ginebra, junio de 2003)) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2003. 17p. Price: CHF 10.00., ISBN 92-2-112887-3 (En), ISBN 92-2-212887-7 (fr), ISBN 92-2-312887-0 (es), ISBN 92-2-412887-4 (ru), ISBN 92-2-512887-8 (zh), ISBN 92-2-612887-1 (ar), ISBN 92-2-712887-5 (de) (In Arabic, Chinese, English, French, German, Russian, Spanish)

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Resolution III of the 2003 ILC is a major one on occupational safety and health. It includes conclusions concerning a global strategy for ILO standards-related activities in the field and an ILO Action Plan for the Promotion of Safety and Health at Work (promotion, awareness raising and advocacy; ILO instruments; technical assistance and cooperation; knowledge development, management and dissemination; international collaboration). Resolutions II (on the Employment Relationship) and IV (on Decent Work for Seafarers) also have safety and health aspects. (100852)

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CIS 02-1642 Qualified persons in the field of occupational safety [Germany]. (German: Fachkräfte für Arbeitssicherheit) Steinbruchs-Berufsgenossenschaft (StBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Oct. 2002. 12p. (In German)

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This document reproduces the full text of the version of safety regulation BGV A6 (of 1 October 2002) of the German Insurance Association for the Prevention of Accidents in Quarries on specialized occupational safety staff, together with its application directive. Contents: scope; required qualifications of persons responsible for occupational safety; vocational training; duties with respect to report-writing; transitional provisions and implementation; effective date. Appendices include: days of annual employment of safety specialists as a function of the number of employees in enterprises with a risk factor of 1.0; example of advice developed by the quarries association aimed enterprise managers; law on enterprise physicians, safety engineers and other qualified staff in the field of occupational safety and health. (100774)

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CIS 02-1643 Occupational safety and health management. (French: Management de la santé et de la sécurité au travail) AFNOR, 11 avenue Francis de Pressensé, 93571 Saint-Denis La Plaine Cedex, France, 2002. xiii, 147p. Illus. 4 ref., ISBN 2-12-217911-2 (In French)

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This publication describes the current situation with respect to the first AFAQ (French Association for Quality Assurance) certification experiences in France. Translations of the British standard BS 8800:1996 (see CIS 97-478), entitled "Guide to occupational health and safety management systems" as well as of OHSAS 18001:1999 entitled "Occupational health and safety management systems - Specification" are provided. Appendices include literature references by topic and country, lists of draft documents and AFNOR publications. (100503)

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CIS 02-1644 Applying occupational safety and health management - Mastering and implementing OHSAS 18001. (French: Pratiquer le management de la santé et de la sécurité au travail - Maîtriser et mettre en œuvre l'OHSAS 18001) Gey J.M., Courdeau D., AFNOR, 11 avenue Francis de Pressensé, 93571 Saint-Denis La Plaine Cedex, France, 2002. vi, 165p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: EUR 36.97., ISBN 2-12-465068-8 (In French)

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This publication discusses the implementation of OHSAS 18001 in France. It presents the concepts and principles of safety and health management systems, defines the requirements of OHSAS 18001 and the elements of the system and describes the approach for the implementation and integration of the system into the management system of the enterprise. A chapter is also devoted to certification. The translation of OHSAS 18001:1999 "Safety and health management systems - Specification" is included in an appendix. (100506)

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CIS 02-1645 Planned programming - A help for workplace design. (French: La programmation - Une aide à la conception des lieux de travail) Bourges P., Charvolin M., Duchet M., Fiegel G., Geyer G., Ungemuth M.C., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2000. 6p. Illus. 5 ref. Can also be found on the site: http://www.inrs.fr/produits/ (In French)

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This information sheet defines programmed planning as an early phase of analysis of needs prior to undertaking the design phase of a project. It proposes an approach to programmed planning applied to designing the layout of workplaces that takes occupational hazards, conditions of work and administrative and legislative constraints into account. The approach consists of three phases: inventory of the existing situation and gap analysis; write-up of the plan itself; evaluation and validation of the plan with the participation of all parties concerned, and in particular the users of the workplaces, in order to include the necessary modifications. Examples of programmed planning applied to the following areas are included: noise; in-plant traffic; ventilation; natural lighting. (100951)

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CIS 02-1646 Decent work and the informal economy. (French: Travail décent et économie informelle; Spanish: El trabajo decente y la economía informal) International Labour Office (ILO), ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. CD-ROM containing documents in English, French and Spanish in MS Word, MS Powerpoint and Adobe Acrobat formats, and a 20min video (in English) in AVI format. (In English, French, Spanish)

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This CD-ROM contains several documents on the topic of decent work and the informal economy which was one of the items on the agenda of the 90th International Labour Conference (ILC) held in Geneva, Switzerland in June 2002. Its purpose was to provide background information and a basis for discussions for participating delegates. Contents: excerpts from the conclusions of 88th and 89th ILCs pertaining to the informal economy (social security, human resources); 20min video showing examples of unacceptable working conditions in the informal economy and case studies of improvements; slide presentation providing a definition of the informal sector, explaining the goal of the ILO to make decent work a reality for all workers, discussing social protection and workers' representation, and listing proposed points of discussion at the 90th ILC; full report for discussion on decent work and the informal economy (persons who work in the informal economy and why the informal economy is growing, enhancing rights, improving social protection, strengthening representation, meeting global demand for decent employment, points for discussion). (100546)

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CIS 02-1647 Index of occupational safety and health literature - Spanish version of the "Safety and Health at Work - ILO/CIS Bulletin". (Spanish: Indice bibliográfico de salud y seguridad en el trabajo - Versión española del "ILO-CIS Bulletin - Safety and Health at Work") Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Ministerio de Sanidad y Consum, Sinesio Delgado 8, 28029 Madrid, Spain, 2003. CD-ROM. (In Spanish)

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CD-ROM including Spanish versions of all records published in the CIS Bulletin (International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre) during the years 1998 to 2000 and the first three issues of 2001. Records can be accessed by specifying the source language, year of publication and through Boolean searches of the title, abstract, source, author and identifying number fields. (100680)

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[ Top of page ]

002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology

CIS 02-1648 Malignant mesothelioma in the industrial area of Colleferro. (Italian: Mesotelioma maligno nel comprensorio industriale di Colleferro) Ascoli V., Fantini F., Carnovale-Scalzo C., Blasetti F., Bruno C., Di Domenicantonio R., Lo Presti E., Pasetto R., Nardi F., Comba P., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.91, No.6, p.547-564. 32 ref. (In Italian)

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The occurrence of pleural and peritoneal malignant mesothelioma among workers in a large chemical plant near Rome in Italy is analysed. The plant produces organic chemicals, acid mixtures, insecticides and explosives. It is also involved in the manufacturing of rail rolling stock. Asbestos was extensively used in the past. Hospital records reveal 18 cases of malignant mesothelioma (pleural/peritoneal ratio of 2.75:1) among workers and/or residents. In the area surrounding the same chemical plant the incidence of confirmed mesothelioma per 100,000 is 10.1 among men and 4.1 among women, which are the highest rates reported so far in Italy. Besides confirming the risk of mesothelioma in railroad rolling stock manufacturing and asbestos-insulated pipe maintenance workers, a cluster of malignant mesothelioma is also identified in explosives production workers. (100817)

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CIS 02-1649 Pleural mesothelioma among women in the Veneto region with past work as rag sorters for textile recycling and paper production. (Italian: Mesoteliomi pleurici insorti in donne, residenti in Veneto, addette alla cernita di stracci presso "robe vecchie" e cartiere) Merler E., Gioffrè F., Rozio L., Bizzotto R., Mion M., Sarto F., Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.181-186. 24 ref. (In Italian)

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A report of 9 cases of mesothelioma diagnosed among Italian women, whose only activity that could have involved exposure to asbestos had been as rag sorters. They had worked in textile recycling (8 cases) and in a paper mill (1 case) where cotton was used for paper production. (100836)

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CIS 02-1650 Occupation and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Zheng T., Blair A., Zhang Y., Weisengurger D.D., Zahm S.H., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.469-474. 37 ref. (In English)

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To investigate the association between occupation and the risk of non Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), data from two population-based case-control studies of NHL were analysed. A total of 555 incident NHL cases, 56 CLL cases and 2380 population-based controls were included in the analysis. Information on occupation and other confounding factors was collected through telephone interviews. In men, an increased risk of NHL and CLL was found in agriculture, forestry, and logging (odds ratio (OR) 1.6). The OR was 1.9 for crop production. An increased risk was also observed for industries involving metalworking machinery and equipment (OR 8.4), motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment (OR 4.2) and telephone communications (OR 3.1), and for teachers (OR 2.5), farmers (OR 2.0), and welders and solderers (OR 2.9). The risks for these associations increased by duration of employment. Work in the printing and publishing industry was associated with an increased risk of NHL among women. (100736)

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CIS 02-1651 Assessing the suitability of cross-sectional and longitudinal cardiac rhythm tests with regard to identifying effects of occupational chronic lead exposure. Böckelmann I., Pfister E.A., McGauran N., Robra B.P., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.59-65. Illus. 54 ref. (In English)

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The aim of this study was to examine whether signs of the neurotoxic influence of lengthy occupational lead exposure on the autonomic nervous system could be detected by cardiac rhythm analysis. A total of 109 male lead-exposed workers and 27 controls were examined in a cross-sectional study. In addition, 17 lead-exposed participants were investigated a second time in a follow-up study four years later. Heart rate variability was assessed in rest, strain and recovery phases. In the cross-sectional study, lead-exposed persons showed a delayed restoration of cardiac rhythm parameters to the initial vegetative state after the strain phase. This effect significantly increased over a period of four more years of exposure in the 17 workers participating in the follow-up study. Vagal depression caused by long-term lead exposure was found within the current threshold limit value range, but it should nonetheless be interpreted as an adverse effect. (100747)

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CIS 02-1652 Hematocrit and risk for hypertension in middle-aged Japanese male office workers. Nakanishi N., Yoshida H., Okamoto M., Nakamura K., Uzura S., Suzuki K., Tatara K., Industrial Health, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.17-20. 15 ref. (In English)

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The association of haematocrit with the development of hypertension over nine years was studied in 784 hypertension-free Japanese men aged 40 to 59 years. It was found that after correcting for other potential factors of hypertension, the relation between increased haematocrit and definite hypertension was statistically significant. The multivariate-adjusted relative risk for definite hypertension compared with haematocrit > 43.8% was 1.00, with 43.8-45.2% it was 1.29, with 45.3-46.3% it was 1.35, with 46.4-48.1% it was 1.96, and with > 48.2% it was 2.06. These results suggest that elevated haematocrit is closely associated with the development of hypertension in middle-aged Japanese men. (100515)

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CIS 02-1653 Occupational diseases in Europe. (French: Les maladies professionnelles en Europe) Vogel L., Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2002, No.63, p.42-45. Illus. 37 ref. (In French)

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This article provides a brief overview of the concept of occupational disease and highlights the importance of broadening the scope to include social inequalities with respect to health. Indeed, factors other than conditions of work have an impact on health (level of education, income, housing conditions, family situation, etc.). The starting point of occupational health is the need to protect the health of workers from any risks to health arising from their work. To reduce social inequalities with respect to health, one would need to adopt a public health approach to occupational health, which implies political and legal changes and a broadening of the scope of preventive efforts. (100534)

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CIS 02-1654 1901/2001 - 100 years ago La Medicina del Lavoro issued its first number. (Italian: La Medicina del Lavoro ricorda i suoi cento anni di vita) Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 2001, Vol.92, No.6, p.367-515 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English, Italian)

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For this anniversary edition of the journal, it reprints 26 important articles published in it during 1945-1970. Among the topics covered by these articles: benzene-induced leukaemia; health problems of printers; mercury poisoning in the felt hat industry; pulmonary asbestosis; nervous disorders due to carbon disulfide; diagnosis and pathology of silicosis, pneumoconiosis and byssinosis; unemployment and morbidity; severe respiratory insufficiency in chronic lung disease; analysis of airborne dust; assessment of work intensity during heavy vehicle driving; erythrocyte ala- dehydratase activity as a test for occupational lead poisoning; pathology of vinyl chloride poisoning. (100544)

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CIS 02-1655 Occupational risk factors for small bowel carcinoid tumor: A European population-based case-control study. Kaerlev L., Teglbjaerg P.S., Sabroe S., Kolstad H.A., Ahrens W., Eriksson M., Guénel P., Hardell L., Cyr D., Ballard T., Zambon P., Morales Suárez-Varela M.M., Stang A., Olsen J., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.516-522. 24 ref. (In English)

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Small bowel carcinoid tumour (SBC) is a rare disease of possible occupational origin. In a population-based case-control study conducted from 1995 through 1997, 84 incident SBC cases between 35 and 69 years of age and 2070 population controls were identified and interviewed in five European countries. The industries most closely associated (a twofold or more odds ratio (OR)) with SBC, taking into account a 10-year time lag after exposure were, among women, the wholesale industry of food and beverages (OR, 8.2) and among men, manufacturing of motor vehicle bodies (OR, 5.2), footwear (OR, 3.9) and metal structures (OR, 3.3). The identified high-risk occupations with an OR above 2 were shoemakers, structural metal preparers, construction painters and other construction workers, bookkeepers, machine fitters and welders. The OR for regular occupational use of organic solvents for at least half a year was 2.0. Exposure to rust-preventive paint containing lead is another potential risk factor (OR, 9.1). (100603)

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CIS 02-1656 A new direction in low-back pain research. Byrns G.E., Bierma T.J., Agnew J., Curbow B., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.55-61. 70 ref. (In English)

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This article provides a framework for understanding the causes of reported low-back pain (LBP). Fundamental to understanding LBP is the recognition that it is a symptom, not an underlying condition. Identifying its root causes is essential to improving prevention programs. Yet, many of the methods used to study LBP and its causes have serious shortcomings, adding to the confusion over appropriate preventive strategies. An important gap in LBP research has been the factors influencing preventive behaviours for both workers and managers. If workers or managers attribute the causes of LBP to the wrong factors, preventive behaviours will be misdirected and ineffective. Attribution theory, a recent approach in the occupational health field, offers promise for ensuring the correct attributions so that the appropriate protective actions are taken. (100685)

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CIS 02-1657 Implementation of a comprehensive cancer control program at the worksite: Year one summary report. Cornfeld M.J., Schnoll R.A., Tofani S.H., Babb J.S., Miller S.M., Henigan-Peel T., Balshem A., Slater E., Ross E., Siemers S., Montgomery S., Malstrom M., Hunt P., Boyd S., Engstrom P.F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.398-406. Illus. 42 ref. (In English)

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This article describes a cohort study involving participants in a cancer prevention programme. Participants completed a questionnaire survey that assessed a variety of risk and behavioural factors. A total of 4395 questionnaires were received. Overall cancer prevalence among the respondents was 6.5% (range, 4.3% to 11.2%). The most common risk factors were lack of exercise (41%; 32% to 68%), obesity (28%; 24% to 39%) and smoking (14%; 13% to 32%). Cardiovascular risk was also common (25%; 15% to 48%). Screening was found to be performed regularly for all cancers except colon cancer. The perceived risk for cancer was less than that for cardiovascular disease. In the majority of workers, cancer risk factors that could be modified by better personal hygiene could be identified. Inaccurate risk perception is an important target for future interventions. (100733)

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CIS 02-1658 Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic work-related musculoskeletal pain disability. Dersh J., Gatchel R.J., Polatin P., Mayer T., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.459-468. 64 ref. (In English)

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Psychiatric disorders are believed to interfere with the successful rehabilitation of patients suffering from chronic work-related musculoskeletal pain disability. To investigate this issue, 1595 patients who started a prescribed rehabilitation course were evaluated. Psychiatric disorders were diagnosed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Results revealed that overall prevalence of psychiatric disorders was significantly higher in these patients than would be expected from base rates in the general population. 64% of patients were diagnosed with at least one current disorder, compared with only 15% of the general population. However, the prevalence of psychiatric disorders was higher in patients only after the appearance of work-related disability. Such findings suggest that clinicians treating these patients must be aware of the high prevalence of psychiatric disorders and be prepared to use mental health professionals to assist in identifying and stabilizing these patients. (100735)

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CIS 02-1659 Neuro-ototoxicity in Andean adults with chronic lead and noise exposure. Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.30- 38. Illus. 41 ref. (In English)

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Brainstem auditory evoked responses and audiological thresholds were used as biomarkers for neuro-ototoxicity in adults in Ecuador with chronic lead intoxication from long-term exposure in ceramic glazing work. Venous blood samples collected from 30 adults (15 men and 15 women) indicated a mean blood lead level of 45.1µg/dL, above the WHO health-based biological limits. Mean auditory thresholds at frequencies susceptible to ototoxicity (2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0kHz) revealed sensory-neural hearing loss in men, which may be attributable to occupational noise exposure in combination with lead intoxication. Brainstem auditory evoked response tests on participants with elevated blood lead levels (mean, 47.0 µg/dL) showed delayed wave latencies consistent with sensory-neural hearing impairment. The results suggest that environmental noise exposure must be considered an important factor in determining sensory-neural hearing status in occupationally lead-exposed adults. (100743)

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CIS 02-1660 Reliability and validity of an occupational health history questionnaire. Lewis R.J., Friedlander B.R., Bhojani F.A., Schorr W.P., Salatich P.G., Lawhorn E.G., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.39-47. 14 ref. (In English)

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This study determined the reliability and validity of a self-administered occupational health history questionnaire. Reliability was evaluated by testing and retesting the questionnaire on 123 volunteers of a large enterprise at an interval of one month. Validity was assessed through in-depth interviews of 25 participants by enterprise occupational physician. The interviews assessed their understanding of questions and degree of adherence to initial responses after discussing questions with the occupational physician. All but one question related to repetitive motion exposures showed 84% or higher agreement. Interviews indicated that most questions were well understood, although some participants misinterpreted questions regarding pregnancy history, exposure to repetitive motion, and immunization history. Results suggest that the questionnaire is highly reliable, valid, and acceptable to both enterprise health care services and employees. (100744)

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CIS 02-1661 Effectiveness of occupational medicine center-based physical therapy. Linz D.H., Shepherd C.D., Ford L.F., Ringley L.L., Klekamp J., Duncan J.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.48-53. 6 ref. (In English)

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A one-year study was performed to evaluate discharge from therapy and return-to-work outcomes from rehabilitation services offered at four occupational medicine centres for work-related musculoskeletal injuries. The mean number of visits before discharge from therapy for 699 patients was 45% less than a national benchmark (mean visit number, 5.7±4.2 versus 10.5±9.1). Return-to-work outcomes at discharge from therapy showed that 94% had returned-to-work. A telephonic satisfaction survey failed to identify complaints associated with therapy. Assuming that reduced visit numbers would be reflected in a proportionate decrease in lost workdays, the programme saved employers approximately USD 1.4 million, or USD 2000 per patient. The authors attribute the improved outcomes to early therapy using active rather than passive techniques and an emphasis on patient education and home exercise programmes. (100745)

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CIS 02-1662 Functional evaluation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Pulmonary function tests versus cardiopulmonary exercise test. Fink G., Moshe S., Goshen J., Klainman E., Lebzelter J., Spitzer S., Kramer M.R., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.54-58. 29 ref. (In English)

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216 ambulatory patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were administered the pulmonary function test (PFT) and a cardiopulmonary exercise test, and the results were analysed by categorical statistical comparison, based on standard medical impairment classifications. 65 patients (30.1%) were similarly classified by the two methods. Of the remaining patients, 132 (61.1%) were found to be less impaired according to the cardiopulmonary exercise test than according to the PFT, and 19 (8.8%) were more impaired according to the PFT. The results favour the use of the cardiopulmonary exercise test for the routine evaluation of respiratory impairment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, particularly for patients with mild or moderate impairment revealed by the PFT. However, given the large discrepancy between the two methods, complementary tests are recommended for some groups of patients. (100746)

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CIS 02-1663 An alternate characterization of hazard in occupational epidemiology: Years of life lost per years worked. Park R.M., Bailer A.J., Stayner L.T., Halperin W., Gilbert S.J., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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This article describes an alternative approach to standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for describing occupational hazards based on years of potential life lost and lifetime risk, providing a more intuitive view of occupational mortality risk. The approach was evaluated for fatal lung diseases and injuries in a cohort of uranium miners with historical records of exposure to radon. Among miners hired after 1950 whose all-cause SMR was 1.5, 28% experienced premature death from lung diseases or injury. On average, each miner lost 1.5 years of potential life due to lung cancer, or almost three months for each year employed in uranium mining. As a consequence of lung disease and injury risks combined, a year of mining was associated with 5.9 months loss of potential life. For each year actually working underground, miners lost more than eight months of potential life. Fatal-injury dominated the potential years of life lost up to about age 40. (100761)

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CIS 02-1664 Association between asbestos exposure, cigarette smoking, myeloperoxidase (MPO) genotypes, and lung cancer risk. Schabath M.B., Spitz M.R., Delclos G.L., Gunn G.B., Whitehead L.W., Wu X., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.29-37. 37 ref. (In English)

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The objective of the study was to determine whether genetic factors such as polymorphic metabolic/oxidative enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) could modulate individual susceptibility to asbestos-associated carcinogenesis. Restricted fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction analysis identified the MPO genotypes in 375 lung cancer cases and 378 matched controls. Detailed information regarding smoking, occupational history and exposures were obtained through interviews. Asbestos exposure was associated with a significantly elevated risk (odds ratio (OR) 1.45). However, G/G carriers who were exposed to asbestos had an OR of 1.72 while that of A-allele carriers (G/A+A/A) was 0.89. All three risk factors (MPO genotypes, asbestos exposure and smoking) were analysed for combined effects. Heavy smokers with the G/G genotype and a history of asbestos exposure demonstrated a significant elevated risk estimate (OR 2.19, while the A-allele carriers with the same exposure profile were at a lower risk for lung cancer (OR 1.18). The A-allele genotypes demonstrated similar protective effects for all exposure profiles. (100762)

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CIS 02-1665 Fatal asthma from powdering shark cartilage and review of fatal occupational asthma literature. Ortega H.G., Kreiss K., Schill D.P., Weissman D.N., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.50-54. 31 ref. (In English)

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Work-related asthma is the most common occupational respiratory disease in developed countries. This article reports a case of fatal occupational asthma due to exposure to shark cartilage dust. A 38-year-old male operator worked for eight years in a facility which primarily granulated and powdered various plastics. Sixteen months prior to his death, the plant also began grinding shark cartilage. After ten months of exposure, he reported chest symptoms at work in association with exposure to shark cartilage dust and a physician diagnosed asthma. Six months later, he complained of shortness of breath at work and died from autopsy-confirmed asthma. The latency from onset of exposure to symptoms, and from the appearance of symptoms to death was shorter than for ten occupational asthma fatalities reported in literature. Recognition of occupational causes and triggers of asthma and removal of affected individuals from these exposures can prevent progression to irreversible or fatal asthma. (100763)

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CIS 02-1666 Multilevel nerve compression and muscle imbalance in work-related neuromuscular disorders. Novak C.B., Mackinnon S.E., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2002, Vol.41, No.5, p.343-352. Illus. 64 ref. (In English)

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This article discusses work-related upper limb disorders and proposes a unifying hypothesis to explain the multiplicity of symptoms with work-related neuromuscular disorders. It takes into account physical, individual and psychosocial factors. Abnormal postures and positions may compress nerves or alter muscle length resulting in secondary compressive forces on nerves or in muscle imbalances. Evaluation should identify all nerve compression levels and muscle imbalance in the arm and cervicoscapular region. Patient management must address all contributing factors and include patient education, postural correction and an exercise programme that takes into account the multiple nerve compression levels and the muscle imbalance. Surgery should be reserved for those few patients with evidence of a specific diagnosis who have failed conservative management. (100801)

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CIS 02-1667 Increased morbidity from nasopharyngeal carcinoma and chronic pharyngitis or sinusitis among workers at a newspaper printing company. Liu Y.H., Du C.L., Lin C.T., Chan C.C., Chen C.J., Wang J.D., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.59, No.1, p.18-22. 30 ref. (In English)

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To determine the association between printing work and nasopharyngeal carcinoma as well as other diseases, demographic and hospital admission data were obtained for all workers at a newspaper who had worked since its establishment in 1950. Of the 1564 workers identified, 579 were admitted to hospital at least once. Of these, five out of 144 printing workers were diagnosed with nasopharyngeal carcinoma compared with none of the 435 non-printing workers. The morbidity odds ratios (OR) among printing workers was 57.0 for nasopharyngeal carcinoma, 28.0 for benign skin tumours and 29.4 for chronic pharyngitis or sinusitis. In conclusion, printing work is associated with an increased risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, benign skin tumours, chronic pharyngitis or sinusitis, chronic liver diseases and mechanical injuries. (100809)

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CIS 02-1668 Liver angiosarcoma in humans: Epidemiological considerations. (Italian: Angiosarcoma del fegato nell'uomo: considerazioni epidemiologiche) Zocchetti C., Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.39-53. 85 ref. (In Italian)

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This literature review on angiosarcoma of the liver in man shows that this cancer is very rare. Many substances are frequently listed as risk factors, but, although high exposure to vinyl chloride monomer is often mentioned among them, after more than 25 years of research the aetiology of this type of cancer remains mostly unknown. (100824)

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CIS 02-1669 Lung cancer and indoor exposure to coal and biomass in rural China. Kleinerman R.A., Wang Z., Wang L., Metayer C., Zhang S.Z., Brenner A.V., Zhang S.R., Xia Y., Shang B., Lubin J.H., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.338-344. 28 ref. (In English)

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Incomplete combustion of coal in homes has been linked with lung cancer in China. This article reports on a lung cancer case-control study in a rural area of China, where many residents live in underground dwellings and burn coal and unprocessed biomass (crop residues, wood, sticks and twigs) for heating and cooking. 846 patients with lung cancer (626 men and 220 women, aged 30 to 75) diagnosed between 1994 and 1998, and 1740 population-based controls were interviewed. The odds ratio for lung cancer associated with coal use compared with that for biomass in the house of longest residence was 1.29, adjusted for smoking and socioeconomic status. The risk for lung cancer increased relative to the percentage of time that coal was used over the past 30 years. The findings suggest that coal may contribute to the risk of lung cancer in this rural area of China. (100894)

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CIS 02-1670 Acute traumatic occupational hand injuries: Type, location, and severity. Sorock G.S., Lombardi D.A., Hauser R.B., Eisen E.A., Herrick R.F., Mittleman M.A., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.345-351. 10 ref. (In English)

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The fingers and hand are the most frequent body parts injured at work and treated in hospital emergency departments. This study describes the type, location, and severity of occupational hand injuries among 1166 patients (75% men) recruited from 23 occupational health clinics. Subjects were employed in machine trades, service work, structural work, and less frequently, in professional, technical, managerial and clerical, and sales work. The majority of subjects (83.4 %) had a single type of injury: 62.6% were lacerations, 13.1% were crush injuries, 8.0% were avulsions and 6.1% were punctures. Metal items, such as nails, metal stock and burrs accounted for 38.4% of the injuries, followed by hand tools with blades and powered machinery (24.4% and 12.3%, respectively). Hand tools with blades were least likely to result in multiple types of injuries, whereas powered machines or non-powered hand tools were more likely to result in multiple types of injuries than other injury sources. The results of this study suggest possible prevention strategies for acute traumatic hand injuries. (100895)

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CIS 02-1671 The effects of a medical care utilization review program on back and neck injury claims. Battié M.C., Fulton-Kehoe D., Franklin G., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.365-371. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

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Little is known about the effectiveness of quality-based evaluation and treatment protocols in improving outcomes of patients suffering from musculoskeletal diseases. This study evaluated one such approach adopted by the Department of Labor and Industries, which insures approximately two-thirds of the non-federal workforce in Washington State. The outcomes of back and neck injury claims (primarily sprains and strains) filed in the two months after the programme was fully operational were compared with two comparable groups of claims from the same base population filed before the programme's availability. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the number of days of work loss, medical costs, and permanent partial disability awards granted during the two years after injury. The quality-based programme used as an adjunct to claims management failed to improve outcomes. (100897)

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CIS 02-1672 Genetic polymorphisms of MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1 and OGG1 in coal workers' pneumoconiosis. Zhai R., Liu G., Ge X., Yang C., Huang C., Wu C., Christiani D.C., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.372-377. 36 ref. (In English)

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This study investigated the association between genetic polymorphisms of various enzymes such as MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, or OGG1 and susceptibility to coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP). The study population was composed of 259 retired coal miners who had similar dust exposure histories. Of these, there were 99 cases with ILO chest radiological criteria for CWP and 160 controls. Individual dust exposure variables were estimated from work histories, and smoking information was obtained from interviews. Polymerase chain reaction-based techniques evaluated the genotypes of all study subjects. Logistic regression analysis revealed no differences in genotype frequency of MnSOD, GSTM1, GSTT1, and OGG1 between miners with and without CWP. Cumulative dust exposures, but not genetic polymorphisms, were associated significantly with the presence of CWP. This study illustrates the complexity of factors that may contribute to the development of CWP. (100898)

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CIS 02-1673 Collective prevention strategy against the risk of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD). (French: Stratégie de prévention collective des risques musculosquelettiques (TMS)) Malchaire J., Piette A., Cock N., Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.147-156. 24 ref. (In French)

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To develop a coherent approach for both small and large enterprises for the prevention and control of musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), existing methods were reviewed concerning their complexity, their implicit or explicit prerequisites and their cost. A feasibility study was also conducted on a sample of potential users to determine their expectations. The proposed approach consists of four phases: "screening", to recognize the problems, identify straightforward solutions and decide whether a more systematic observation is required; "observation", based on a detailed list of items to be discussed by the workers and their management; "analysis", where investigation techniques are used by occupational health specialists to identify more technical control measures; finally "expertise", involving sophisticated experimental observations and prevention measures. The approach enables the optimization of the process of solving the MSD problems in both large and small enterprises, by relying progressively and when needed on the complementary competencies of the workers, their management, occupational health specialists and experts. See also CIS 02-1888, where the same approach is used for the prevention of hazards due to workplace thermal environments. (100941)

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CIS 02-1674 Epilepsy and safety jobs. (Dutch: Epilepsie en veiligheidswerk) Verdonckt G., Carton C., Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.157-165. Illus. 19 ref. (In Dutch)

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Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological disease in the working population. There is a real risk that patients suffering from epilepsy may apply for a safety job during their career or be employed in a job which might endanger their own safety and that of their coworkers. However, the clinical picture of epilepsy is not uniform and there are differing opinions as to what constitutes a "safety job". There is little legislation or regulation concerning the combination of work and epilepsy apart from that which applies to use of a motor vehicle on public roads, which is the object of a Belgian Royal Decree. Occupational health physicians are best situated to give well-founded advice about job ability, taking into account on one hand the real job content and job circumstances, and the capabilities of the epileptic on the other. Based on a literature survey, this article offers examples of approaches for balanced appreciation. (100942)

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CIS 02-1675 New occupational diseases recognized by the Occupational Disease Fund. (Dutch: Nieuwe beroepsziekten erkend door het fonds de beroepsziekten (F.B.Z.); French: Nouvelles maladies professionnelles reconnues par le Fonds des maladies professionnelles (F.M.P.)) Libouton P., Caroyer J.M., Machtelinckx V., Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.179-186. 17 ref. (In Dutch, French)

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The list of compensated occupational diseases increases regularly. This article gives an overview of the latest occupational diseases recognized by the Belgian Occupational Disease Fund (Fonds des maladies professionnelles). They include lung cancer and cancer of the larynx caused by asbestos, the organo-psychotic syndrome caused by solvents, gonarthrosis, warts and asthma. (100944)

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CIS 02-1676 Occupations and breast cancer risk among Chinese women in urban Shanghai. Gardner K.M., Shu X.O., Jin F., Dai Q., Ruan Z., Thompson S.J., Hussey J.R., Gao Y.T., Zheng W., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.296-308. 54 ref. (In English)

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The relationship between occupational history and breast cancer was studied using data from a population-based case-control study of 1,458 cases and 1,556 age-matched controls in Shanghai, China. The following occupations were found to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer: laboratory technicians (OR 9.94), telephone and telegraph operators (OR 4.63), leather and fur processors (OR 3.25) and glass-manufacturing workers (OR 2.08). A dose-response pattern for years of employment was observed for leather and fur processors and glass-manufacturing workers. Stratified analyses also revealed dose-response relationships between the risk of breast cancer and years of employment as inspectors and product analysts among pre-menopausal women, and as farmers among post-menopausal women. (100974)

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CIS 02-1677 Self-reported hand and wrist arthritis and occupation: Data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey - Occupational Health Supplement. Dillon C., Petersen M., Tanaka S., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.318-327. Illus. 59 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between hand-wrist arthritis, occupation and biomechanical exposure in the United States. A randomized, multi-stage and cross-sectional national prevalence survey was carried out. Self-reported, medically attended hand-wrist arthritis among employed persons was 1.58% during the survey, with a lifetime prevalence of 3.58%. The highest prevalence occurred among technicians, machine operators, assemblers and farmers, and in the mining, agriculture and construction industries. Work requiring repetitive hand bending and twisting was associated with hand-wrist arthritis (odds ratio 1.43). Among workers with hand arthritis, 7.4% had made major changes in their work, 7.6% missed work, and 4.5% stopped working or changed jobs because of the problem. (100976)

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CIS 02-1678 Working hours spent on repeated activities and prevalence of back pain. Guo H.R., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.59, No.10, p.680-688. 45 ref. (In English)

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To evaluate the association between working hours spent on repeated activities and back pain, data gathered through the 1988 National Health Interview Survey in the United States were analysed. 30,074 workers had participated in the survey. They were asked to provide information on their job, including the time spent on repeated strenuous physical activities (RSPA) and the time spent on repeated bending, twisting or reaching (RBTR) on a typical job, and where applicable to report the cause of their back pain. The prevalence of back pain increased as the number of working hours spent on RSPA or RBTR increased. The prevalence of back pain due to repeated activities was 8.9% among male workers and 5.9% among female workers. Carpenters had the highest prevalence (19.2%) among men, and health care personnel had the highest prevalence (15.2%) among women. (100978)

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CIS 02-1679 Occupational relevance of positive standard patch-test results in employed persons with an initial report of an occupational skin disease. Dickel H., Kuss O., Schmidt A., Diepgen T.L., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.423-434. Illus. 128 ref. (In English)

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Standard patch-test results of employed persons with an initial report of an occupational skin disease were analysed within 24 occupational groups. An evaluation was made of employed persons recorded in the Register of Occupational Skin Diseases in Northern Bavaria between 1990 and 1999, catering for those standard screening tray allergens tested over the 10-year period. Nickel sulfate was the most common sensitizer (29.5%), showing occupational relevance in only 11% of the cases. Other common sensitizers were cobalt chloride (13.5%), p-phenylenediamine free base (10.7%), potassium dichromate (9.8%), fragrance mix (5.4%) and thiuram mix (4.2%). The most occupationally relevant sensitizers were thiuram mix (71%), epoxy resin (67%) and p-phenylenediamine free base (59%). Occupational groups at risk of acquiring delayed-type sensitization were, in particular, electroplaters, tile setters, construction and cement workers, solderers and workers in the wood, leather and fur industries. (100985)

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CIS 02-1680 Occurrence of farmer's lung disease is relevant to meteorological conditions: A 20-year follow-up field survey analysis. Takahashi T., Ohtsuka Y., Munakata M., Nasuhara Y., Kamachi-Satoh A., Homma Y., Kawakami Y., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.506-513. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

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A survey on farmer's lung disease (FLD) in a dairy farming community in the northernmost district of Japan has been in progress since 1978. This article investigates possible correlations between the number of FLD occurrences each year, dairy farming conditions and meteorological data. 34 FLD cases had occurred during the 20-year period. The average number of days below freezing point during the harvest season the year prior to FLD occurrence were significantly smaller than other years (2.1±0.7 days and 4.6±0.7 days, respectively). The average annual sunlight hours in the years preceding FLD occurrence was significantly smaller than those of other years (1457.1±114.0h and 1811.3±97.7h, respectively) and was also significantly smaller for the sunlight hours during a harvest season (821.9± 60.2h and 1023.2±52.7h, respectively). It is concluded that temperature and hours of sunlight are closely associated with FLD occurrence. (100769)

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CIS 02-1681 Occupational allergic asthma in greenhouse cultivation: Description of a clinical case. (Italian: Asma occupazionale allergica in colture protette. Descrizione di un caso clinico) Farruggia E., Bellia M., Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.203-205. 11 ref. (In Italian)

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Case of occupational allergic asthma observed in a greenhouse worker. Colonies of Aspergillus niger were identified on the plants cultivated in the greenhouse, and the mould proved to be the aetiologic agent responsible of the asthma. Allergy tests were conducted for the diagnostic procedure. (100838)

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CIS 02-1682 Heart rate strain in cable hauler choker setters in New Zealand logging operations. Kirk P.M., Sullman M.J.M., Applied Ergonomics, Aug. 2001, Vol.32, No.4, p.389-398. Illus. 35 ref. (In English)

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This study examined the physical strain experienced by cable hauler choker setters, and the applicability of heart rate indices for measuring physical strain in commercial forest harvesting operations in New Zealand. The heart rate of four choker setters were recorded continuously throughout the working day and applied to heart rate indices. Based on the relative heart rate at work, ratio of working heart rate to resting heart rate and 50% level indices, the mean working heart rate of 106bt/min±6.9 (mean±SD) placed choker setting in the moderate workload category. The specific tasks of line shifts (120.3±4.8bt/min), hooking up drags (118.8±6.6bt/min) and uphill travel (126.1±12.9bt/min) imposed the most severe workloads on the choker setters. This research also demonstrated that heart rate indices could be used as an effective means of determining the physiological strain of subjects working in New Zealand's commercial forest harvesting operations. (100932)

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CIS 02-1683 A case-control study of lung cancer and non-malignant respiratory disease among employees in asphalt roofing manufacturing and asphalt production. Watkins D.K., Chiazze L., Fryar C.D., Fayerweather W., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.551-558. 25 ref. (In English)

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Two case control studies involving workers engaged in asphalt roofing manufacturing and asphalt production were carried out, one for lung cancer and one for nonmalignant respiratory disease excluding influenza and pneumonia, in order to determine whether there was an increased risk associated with exposure to asphalt fumes or respirable crystalline silica in these industries. Historical exposure scenarios were constructed to estimate historic exposures to asphalt fumes and respirable crystalline silica. It was found that the only statistically significant odds ratios were for cigarette smoking in both the lung cancer and the non-malignant disease analyses. (100605)

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CIS 02-1684 Occupational diseases - Trends in the construction industry in 1999. (French: Maladies professionnelles - évolution dans le BTP en 1999) Boulat J.F., Prévention BTP, Jan. 2002, No.37, p.36-38. Illus. (In French)

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In 1999 in France, there were 2096 cases of compensable occupational disease in the construction industry, accounting for 12.6% of all compensable occupational diseases. Although the number of compensated cases keeps on increasing, this number still underestimates the true situation of occupational diseases for several reasons: unawareness among workers of the practical aspects of compensation; worries about job loss; limited number of compensable diseases. Periarticular disorders accounted for 67% of the cases, followed by diseases caused by cement (6%), asbestos (5%), the lifting of heavy loads (5%), noise (4%) and hand-arm vibration (3%). Other cases consisted mainly of meniscal disorders and diseases caused by whole-body vibration, epoxy resins and wood dust. (100901)

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CIS 02-1685 Histopathological changes in the skin of workers employed in the handling of petroleum products. (Italian: Modificazioni istopatologiche cutanee in lavoratori addetti alla movimentazione di prodotti petroliferi) Fenga C., Loreto C., Spatari G., Guarneri F., Barbaro M., Caltabiano C., Germanò D., Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.25-31. Illus. 36 ref. (In Italian)

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Cutaneous histomorphological alterations in a group of 10 healthy workers, repeatedly exposed to low amounts of petroleum products over a prolonged period, were monitored. The overall histomorphological and immunological features were not specific, but resembled skin reactions due to various irritants. Such skin alterations can lead to contact dermatitis. (100822)

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CIS 02-1686 Specific immune response to occupational antigens in asymptomatic egg processing workers. Zanoni G., Martini S., Zedde A., Pagani M., Guarnieri A., Tridente G., Romeo L., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.490-497. 24 ref. (In English)

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Hen's egg proteins are known sensitizers and may cause occupational respiratory diseases in exposed workers. This study was conducted in order to determine the prevalence of sensitization to work-related antigens in asymptomatic egg processing factory workers. Clinical history, respiratory function, atopy and the presence of specific antibodies to environmental and occupational antigens were evaluated in 77 workers. A total of 116 unexposed controls were also studied. The antigen concentration of the factory environment was measured. Specific IgE and precipitin positivity to egg components was more frequently present in workers than among controls. The egg white protein concentration was higher in the egg breaking area. The avian proteins inhaled induced immune responses to occupational antigens in asymptomatic, professionally exposed subjects. Measures to decrease environmental antigen concentrations and thorough monitoring of sensitized workers are advocated. (100767)

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CIS 02-1687 Allergy to pumpkin seeds in the form of food intolerance and occupational contact urticaria. (German: Kürbiskernallergie in Form einer Nahrungsmittelunverträglichkeit und einer berufsbedingten Kontakturtikaria) Baur X., Gahnz G., Dermatologie in Beruf und Umwelt, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.50, No.5, p.178-179. 7 ref. (In German)

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Case study of a 21-year-old baker regularly suffering from skin urticaria when handling pumpkin seeds. Three years earlier, this patient developed an allergy that caused the swelling of the pharynx and swallowing difficulties after he had eaten bread containing pumpkin seeds. Prick tests revealed an immediate sensitization to raw and roasted pumpkin seeds. There are no literature reports of similar cases of allergy to pumpkin seed in the form of food intolerance and occupational allergic contact urticaria. (100776)

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CIS 02-1688 Prevention of occupational respiratory allergies in bakeries and confectionaries. (French: Prévention des allergies respiratoires professionnelles en boulangerie-pâtisserie) Breton C., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.111-129. Illus. 47 ref. (In French)

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Flour is the prime source of respiratory allergies in France. The average incidence rate of occupational asthma in bakery workers in approximately 25 times that of all workers. Contents of this review article on the prevention of occupational of allergic respiratory diseases in bakery workers: epidemiological data; recognition of baker's asthma as an occupational disease; collaboration between government, employers' and employees' representatives in defining a prevention approach; role of medical centres and physicians; risk factors for diseases due to exposure to flour; pluridisciplinary approach to prevention; preventive measures (choice of flour, choice of additives, length of the filling hose, use of a protective lid during kneading); role of the occupational physician. (100781)

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CIS 02-1689 Respiratory symptoms and lung function among Danish woodworkers. Schlünssen V., Schaumburg I., Taudorf E., Mikkelsen A.B., Sigsgaard T., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.82-98. 56 ref. (In English)

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A cross-sectional study including 54 furniture factories and three control factories was conducted in order to analyse lung function and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among woodworkers. Spirometry was performed on 2423 persons. Questionnaires regarding respiratory symptoms and wood dust exposure were completed by 2033 woodworkers and 474 controls. Personal passive dust measurements were performed on 1579 persons. It was found that inhalable dust levels were relatively low (1.19±0.86mg/m3). Woodworkers had increased frequency of coughing. A dose-response relationship was observed between dust exposure and asthma symptoms, and a positive interaction for asthma was seen between female gender and dust exposure. Increased frequency of wheezing and a cross-shift decrease in one-second forced expiratory volume among workers using pinewood was seen. In conclusion, wood dust exposure may cause respiratory symptoms, even at relatively low exposure levels. (100749)

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CIS 02-1690 Assessment of exposure in an international study on cancer risks among pulp, paper, and paper product workers. Kauppinen T., Teschke K., Astrakianakis G., Boffetta P., Colin D., Keefe A., Korhonen K., Liukkonen T., Nicol A.M., Pannett B., Westberg H., AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.254-261. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

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A data management system and a department-exposure matrix were designed to facilitate exposure assessment for a large multinational study on cancer risks among pulp and paper industry workers. Exposure routes to 25 major carcinogens were described, as well as exposure prevalence and level. For some agents, the assessment could only be made in qualitative terms. The assessment was specific to mill, work department, agent and time period. The results of industrial hygiene measurements, information from detailed company questionnaires, and the professional judgments of the assessment team were the cornerstones of the assessment. Exposure to chemical agents turned out to be widespread and complex with frequent multiple exposures. However, the computer-assisted exposure assessment system greatly facilitated assessment, and such systems are well suited to large epidemiological studies requiring complicated exposure assessment procedures. (100517)

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CIS 02-1691 Prevalence and risk factors of occupational asthma among hairdressers in Turkey. Akpinar-Elci M., Cimrin A.H., Elci O.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.585-590. 35 ref. (In English)

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This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence and possible risk factors of occupational asthma among hairdressers in Turkey. Occupational history and respiratory, ocular, dermal, and nasal symptoms were investigated using a standardized questionnaire, worksite pulmonary function tests were conducted and allergen skin tests were performed. Asthma risk factors were then determined using age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression models. The prevalence of occupational asthma in hairdressers was 14.6%. The odds ratio for hairdressers in a high work intensity group was 3.6 with a significant dose-response trend. The odds ratio for occupational asthma among workers with atopy was 4.5. An excess risk of occupational asthma with allergic rhinitis and conjunctivitis was also observed. (100609)

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CIS 02-1692 Occupational irritant and allergic contact dermatitis among healthcare workers. Nettis E., Colanardi M.C., Soccio A.L., Ferrannini A., Tursi A., Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.101-107. Illus. 32 ref. (In English)

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Occupational irritant contact dermatitis among health-care workers is due to exposure to a wide range of irritants such as soap, solvents, cleaning agents and protective gloves which remove the surface lipid layer and produce cellular damage. Data on 360 patients working in health-care environments and experiencing contact dermatitis at their hands, wrists and forearms were selected from the database of an allergy department of a university hospital. Allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis were considered to be work-related in 16.5% and 44.4% of diagnoses, respectively. The major aetiological agents were nickel sulfate, components of disinfectants and rubber chemicals. The best treatment is to avoid these allergens or to reduce their contact by using properly-selected protective gloves. Subjects with atopic dermatitis should avoid wet work and contact with irritants, since atopic dermatitis is significantly associated with irritant contact dermatitis. (100806)

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CIS 02-1693 The Quality System and training of the occupational physician: A reference framework. (Italian: Sistema qualità e formazione del medico del lavoro: un macromodello di riferimento) Del Carlo B., Franco G., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.91, No.6, p.531-546. Illus. 43 ref. (In Italian)

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The need for the continuous renewal of the curricula of university programmes in occupational medicine requires a new approach for the delivery of a successful learning programme, i.e. a quality control system for training. This system is based on innovative teaching methods (planning, delivery and evaluation) and on the rationalization of training tools, professional capabilities and managerial documentation. Therefore, every school of occupational medicine should adopt a quality system policy in accordance with the strategic choices made by the school. (100816)

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CIS 02-1694 Quality control of spirometric tests used in health surveillance for occupational exposure risk in the province of Viterbo (Italy). (Italian: Controllo di qualità delle prove spirometriche eseguite nell'ambito della sorveglianza sanitaria per esposizione a rischio lavorativo, in provincia di Viterbo) Valenti E., Manzari G., De Angelis V., Ercolani S., Liberati A., Capitta C., Mancini G., Scrocchia I., Quercia A., Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.5-11. 15 ref. (In Italian)

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Report of a quality control survey of spirometric tests carried out in 29 factories in the province of Viterbo (Italy). The survey included 734 measurements. The functional parameters considered were: maximal expiratory flow and one second forced expiratory volume. The obtained values were compared with those which had been obtained more than one year before. Further criteria concerned the comparison of the height of the individuals and the comparison of the overall spirometry rating, expressed as the number of tests rated normal or abnormal during the first assessment as compared to the second. The results show poor agreement for said parameters when compared with the values obtained more than one year previously. There was a 32.9% agreement on height. There were 12.3% "false abnormal" and 2.6% "false normal" results in the overall rating of the spirometry as carried out by the enterprises, when compared with this quality control assessment. In conclusion, the survey revealed a trend in the measurements carried out by the factories underestimating spirometric volume, overestimating spirometric flow, improperly selecting theoretical reference values, and (because of mistakes in measuring the height) overestimating restrictive abnormalities and underestimating obstructive ones. (100820)

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CIS 02-1695 Opinions of occupational physicians on workers' aptitude. (French: Les avis sur l'aptitude du salarié délivrés par le médecin du travail) Bourgeot S., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.2, p.181-192. 40 ref. (In French)

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This article describes the current situation in France with respect to the legal aspects relating to opinions of occupational physicians regarding the aptitude of workers. Contents: nature of opinions delivered by occupational physicians (temporary or permanent disability, full disability); situations where these opinions are delivered (pre-employment screening, resumption of work following an interruption of over 21 days); procedure for recording the disability; impact of the occupational physician's opinion; consequences on employment; transfer to other work of workers declared to be incapacitated; challenging the opinion of the occupation physician. (100501)

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CIS 02-1696 27th National Congress of Occupational Medicine and Health - Grenoble, 4-7 June 2002. (French: 27e Congrès national de médecine et santé au travail - Grenoble, 4-7 juin 2002) Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, June 2002, Vol.63, No.3-4, p.133-354 (whole issue). Bibl.ref. (In French)

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Proceedings of the 27th National Congress of Occupational Medicine and Health held in Grenoble, France, 4-7 June 2002. Main topics covered: microbiological and toxicological risks of water-based paint; household waste treatment and health hazards; PAH; violence in the workplace; new strategies for preventing musculoskeletal disorders; prevention by routine medical examination; pluridisciplinarity; occupational medicine and quality; influence of the Internet on practices in occupational medicine; ethics and occupational health; perception of hazards and risk-taking; ionizing radiation; sleep and work (diagnosis of hyper-somnolence); nutrition; occupational asthma and options for prevention; occupationally-related cardiovascular risk; effects of company restructuring on health; working after the age of 50; socio-occupational health inequalities. (100531)

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CIS 02-1697 Telemedicine and spaceflight. Grigoriev A.I., Orlov O.I., Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.73, No.7, p.688-693. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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In the coming decades, the building of the International Space Station (ISS) will be the most important near-Earth space exploration project. Remote monitoring and distance support of the crewmembers by the Earth-based clinical medicine specialists will become increasingly important. In Russia, the construction of the telemedicine network for the Russian node of the ISS has been completed. It is evident that during interplanetary flight biomedical problems will be much more difficult than during orbital flights of the same duration. Such a long-duration flight will require development of a special telemedical support system, as well as onboard facilities, which will present many new challenges. This new system will involve the integration of information technologies with biology, as well as physics and chemistry, representing a new interdisciplinary technological breakthrough. (100563)

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CIS 02-1698 The long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health and wellness program on employee health risks. Goetzel R.Z., Ozminkowski R.J., Bruno J.A., Rutter K.R., Isaac F., Wang S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.44, No.5, p.417-424. 14 ref. (In English)

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This study reports the effectiveness of Johnson & Johnson's "Health & Wellness" programme in reducing the health risks of 4586 employees who participated in two serial health screening programmes, with a minimum of one year between screenings. The study also examines the impact of participation in a high-risk intervention programme called "Pathways to Change®" on health risk factors. Results indicate significant risk reduction in 8 of 13 risk categories examined for all employees who participated in two health risk assessments. When comparing "Pathways to Change" participants with non-participants, participants outperformed their non-participant counterparts in six categories but performed worse in five other categories that were not specifically targeted by the high-risk programme. The study underscores the ability of large-scale and well-attended corporate health and productivity management programmes to have a positive effect on the health and well-being of workers. (100734)

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CIS 02-1699 Health promotion trials at worksites and risk factors for cancer. Janer G., Sala M., Kogevinas M., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2002, Vol.28, No.3, p.141-157. Illus. 76 ref. (In English)

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45 worksite health promotion programmes following specific quality criteria were selected and estimated for behavioural changes in cancer risk factors and the effectiveness of different intervention components. Tobacco control programmes found quit rates of about 5% with relapse rates of 40% to 80% at 6 months after the intervention. Effectiveness increased with the duration of the intervention for at least 6 months, repeated contacts with the participants, continuous support and tailored messages. There was less evidence for the long-term effectiveness of incentives. Programmes on diet, alcohol, physical activity, overweight and solar radiation showed the same positive trends. The overall evidence indicates a modest but positive effect of health promotion programmes at worksites. (100737)

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CIS 02-1700 Evidence-based medicine for occupational health. Verbeek J.H., van Dijk F.J., Malmivaara A., Hulshof C.T., Räsänen K., Kankaanpää E.E., Mukala K., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2002, Vol.28, No.3, p.197-204. 36 ref. (In English)

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Evidence-based medicine consists of applying the results of database searches of published medical research literature to the practice of medicine. This study attempted to determine the feasibility and utility of evidence-based medicine for common questions in the practice of occupational medicine. Answers were generated by formulating an answerable question, searching the literature, critically appraising the results and applying the results to the clinical question. Answers were found to all the questions in a reasonable amount of time. Using only abstracts instead of the full-text article, most clinical questions could be answered satisfactorily. There is more evidence available in databases such as Medline than is generally assumed by occupational health physicians. Using this evidence can lead to better clinical decisions. Pitfalls during the literature search were typing mistakes, difficulties in interpreting subject headings and unreliable search strategies. (100739)

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CIS 02-1701 Long-term impact of Johnson & Johnson's health care and wellness program on health care utilization and expenditures. Ozminkowski R.J., Ling D., Goetzel R.Z., Bruno J.A., Rutter K.R., Isaac F., Wang S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.21-29. 20 ref. (In English)

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The aim of this project was to estimate the longer-term impact of the health and wellness programme of a large enterprise on medical care utilization and expenditures. Employees were followed for up to five years before and four years after the programme implementation. Regression models were used to identify quantifiable and non-quantifiable factors that influence utilization and expenditures. Results indicated a large reduction in medical care expenditures (approximately USD 225 per employee per year) over the four-year programme period. Benefits came from reduced inpatient use, fewer mental health visits and fewer outpatient visits compared with the baseline period. Most benefits occurred in the third and fourth years of the programme. It is that concluded that programmes designed to better-integrate occupational health, disability, wellness, and medical support may have substantial health and economic benefits in later years. (100742)

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CIS 02-1702 Automated external defibrillation in the occupational setting. Starr L.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.2-7.54 ref. (In English)

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It is estimated that 15% of workplace fatalities in the United States are due to sudden cardiac arrest. The Cardiac Arrest Survival Act requires the United States Department of Health and Human Services to establish guidelines for the placement of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in buildings owned or leased by the federal government. This article presents the position of the American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine (ACOEM), arguing in favour of AEDs in selected workplaces beyond the scope of federal buildings. This position statement is based on an analysis of published information in the following areas: epidemiology, morbidity and mortality; sudden cardiac arrest and the chain of survival; history and descriptions of AEDs; use of defibrillation equipment by lay personnel; guidelines for the use of AEDs in workplace settings. (100750)

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CIS 02-1703 Job fitness assessment: The final step in health surveillance. (Italian: Il giudizio di idoneità lavorativa specifica: atto conclusivo della sorveglianza sanitaria) Alessio L., Farina G., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.92, No.4, p.227-238. 25 ref. (In Italian)

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Several aspects of job fitness evaluation must be considered by industrial physicians. Possible patterns of assessment of working capacity are: no job limitations, some specific temporary or permanent limitations, temporary or permanent unfitness. Similar evaluations are required when transferring the worker to a more suitable job and in selecting adequate personal protective equipment. The industrial physician should not show bias towards either the employer or the worker. (100840)

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CIS 02-1704 Proposal and preliminary validation of a check list for the assessment of occupational exposure to repetitive movements of the upper limbs. (Italian: Proposta e validazione preliminare di una check-list per la stima dell'esposizione lavorativa a movimenti e sforzi ripetuti degli arti superiori) Colombini D., Occhipinti E., Cairoli S., Baracco A., Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2000, Vol.91, No.5, p.470-485. 26 ref. (In Italian)

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A specific check list questionnaire is discussed for the rapid assessment of occupational exposure to repetitive movements and exertion of the upper limbs. The check list was administered to trained factory technicians engaged in 46 different working tasks, where an index (called OCRA) was also previously proposed by the authors. A significant statistical correlation between the answers to the questionnaire and the index was verified. The possible usefulness of the new check list for the exposure evaluation in repetitive work of upper extremities is analysed. (100812)

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CIS 02-1705 Association of low job control with a decrease in memory (CD4+CD45RO+) T lymphocytes in Japanese middle-aged male workers in an electric power plant. Nakata A., Tanigawa T., Fujioka Y., Kitamura F., Iso H., Shimamoto T., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.142-148. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

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To clarify the relationship between perceived job stress and lymphocyte sub-populations, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 231 male electric power plant workers (aged 40 to 60, mean 46 years). Job stress was assessed by means of the Japanese version of the Job Content Questionnaire. Blood samples were taken from all the workers, and numbers of CD4+T lymphocyte sub-populations, total CD4+T, T(CD3+1) lymphocytes, CD16CD56+ natural killer cells, total lymphocytes and white blood cells were determined. After controlling for age, number of cigarettes smoked per day, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, job demands, and social support at work, numbers of memory (CD4+CD45RO+)T, total CD4+T, and total T(CD3+) lymphocytes were positively correlated with job control. Neither job demands nor social support at work showed significant correlation with lymphocyte subpopulations. (100726)

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CIS 02-1706 Supervisors' attitudes toward return to work after myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass graft. Kushnir T., Luria O., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.331-337.13 ref. (In English)

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Although workplace supervisors may play a significant role in the return-to-work process, there are very few scientific references to this effect. This study surveyed supervisors' reactions, attitudes and worries concerning the return-to-work of employees after myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass graft. A total of 58 supervisors of employees who had returned to work responded to a self-report questionnaire based on interviews with occupational physicians and nurses, heart patients and experienced supervisors. The supervisors believed they contributed significantly to the successful occupational rehabilitation of heart patients and emphasized the importance of ongoing consultations with occupational physicians. Yet many of the respondents considered such employees to present problems because their occupational functioning was often impaired initially and they required special attention and support. (100893)

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CIS 02-1707 Delphi study of the identification of research needs in occupational medicine in Italy. (Italian: Studio Delphi per l'identificazione delle priorità di ricerca in medicina del lavoro in Italia) Iavicoli S., Signorini S., Petyx M., Ursini C.L., Marinaccio A., Capozza G., Grandi C., Palmi S., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.91-107. 15 ref. (In Italian)

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This study identifies the research priorities in Italy in OSH. According to the Delphi technique, a two-phase questionnaire was sent to experts, who were requested to indicate three research topics in the OSH sector. In the second phase the experts were requested to assign a score from one to five to each identified topic. This study allowed a high degree of consensus to be reached regarding the research priorities. (100827)

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CIS 02-1708 Health promotion in an occupational setting: What are the prospects in the Italian context?. (Italian: La promozione della salute in ambiente di lavoro: quali prospettive nella situazione italiana?) Abbritti G., Muzi G, Latini L., Abbritti E.P., Dell'Omo M., Vinci F., Castellino N., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.91, No.6, p.515-530. 45 ref. (In Italian)

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Following an examination of the literature, safety and health promotion programmes are recognized as needed in workplaces in Italy. This is particularly so where the working population is relatively stable, because workers can be monitored over a long period of time. The most successful programmes are aimed at modifying high-risk life-style behaviour patterns (smoking, alcohol abuse, eating disorders, etc.) through information, active participation, screening, follow-up, changes in the working environment and physical exercise activities. These health promotion programmes are however extremely hard to develop for Italian workers, since most firms are small and much still remains to be done in order to eliminate occupational risk factors. The current flexibility of modern work patterns could constitute a further obstacle. (100815)

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CIS 02-1709 Transferring scientific evidence into practice: Towards a model of evidence-based occupational health. (Italian: Dall'evidenza scientifica alla pratica operativa: verso un modello di medicina del lavoro basata su prove di efficacia) Franco G., Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.159-165. Illus. 20 ref. (In Italian)

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The evidence-based paradigm already applied in other branches of medicine is only now starting to be applied in occupational health practice. There are international agreements, such as ILO Convention No. 161 (see CIS 86-859), that require the provision of customers with quality-oriented and evidence-based services. The practice of evidence-based medicine means integrating individual expertise with the best current evidence from systematic research. Occupational health should implement this approach in order to improve the efficiency of prevention services. (100833)

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CIS 02-1710 Have health will work. Tudor O., Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2002, Vol.20, No.8, p.24-26. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

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In the United Kingdom, more than 27,000 persons permanently lose their capacity for employment each year, following disabling illness or injury. Many would no doubt be able to return to work if effective rehabilitation systems were in place. This article discusses various possibilities for improving the employability of disabled persons and facilitating their return to work, based on responses to a questionnaire addressed to trade union safety representatives in the United Kingdom. (100989)

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CIS 02-1711 The effect of a health care management initiative on reducing workers' compensation costs. Green-McKenzie J., Rainer S., Behrman A., Emmett E., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1100-1105.17 ref. (In English)

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The effects of a cost control and a health care management initiative on workers' compensation costs were assessed in seven cohorts of workers at a university hospital. Cost control measures started in 1993 included early return to work and injury prevention programs, internal administration of legal cases, and utilization of modified duty assignments. The health care management initiative fully in place in 1997 included aggressive case management and the setting up of an occupational medicine panel. Workers' Compensation costs and lost workdays incurred by each cohort were compared. A reduction of 41-59% in indemnity payments and a reduction of 46-67% in lost time cases were realized after the health care management initiative was fully in place. Accepted claims were reduced by 10-15%. (100992)

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CIS 02-1712 Association of health risks with the cost of time away from work. Wright D.W., Beard M.J., Edington D.W., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1126-1134. Illus. 38 ref. (In English)

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This study compared the cost of time away from work (TAW) with health risk status and individual health risks of 6220 hourly workers at an office equipment manufacturer. The study used three years (1998 to 2000) of TAW and health risk appraisal data. Higher TAW costs were associated with illness days, drug/medication use, the individual's lower perception of physical health, job dissatisfaction, high stress, life dissatisfaction and physical inactivity. More high-risk individuals (80.6%) had a TAW occurrence than medium- (72.8%) and low-risk (61.1%) individuals. High-risk individuals also had higher TAW costs than medium- and low-risk individuals. Of the total TAW costs, 36.2% was attributed to the excess risks of the medium- and high-risk individuals. If TAW costs follow risk reduction, annual savings of USD 1.7 million would be achievable within the enterprise. (100993)

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CIS 02-1713 Proceedings of the Symposium on 30 years of epidemiology for the benefit of occupational health. Nurminen M., ed., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. 85p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-488-X (In English)

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Proceedings of a conference held on 8 February 2002 in Helsinki, Finland, to commemorate the 30 years since the creation of the department of epidemiology and biostatistics at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health. Topics presented: historical overviews of occupational health research in Finland, theoretical developments in epidemiology, surveillance of working conditions and health; cooperation in epidemiological research; current and future research priorities. (100553)

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CIS 02-1714 Occupational lung disease in ferrous foundry workers. Hoyle J., Cherry N., Pickering C.A.C., Burgess G., Smedley J., Dippnall M., Niven R.M., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 26p. 4 ref. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-7176-2560-5 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr022.pdf

In a study of workers in ten ferrous foundries, it was found that the 509 men exposed to chemical binders were more likely (16.1%) to complain of chest tightness than the 402 non-exposed men (7.7%), an odds ratio of 2.32 after allowing for confounders. Of the 170 exposed men complaining of at least one chest symptom, 144 underwent histamine challenge testing. 20 were positive in the exposed group, while in the non-exposed group, only eight were positive. No difference was seen between exposure groups in the small number of cases diagnosed as occupational asthma. No evidence of major differences in health were found between exposed and non-exposed ex-employees. The most notable finding was the low reactivity in the histamine challenge test of workers with symptoms from both the exposed and non-exposed cohorts. Although there was only weak evidence of respiratory ill health associated with foundry work in this study, the potential exists where exposures to chemicals binders are high. (100879)

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CIS 02-1715 Occupational diseases - Procedure manual aimed at health services. (Portuguese: Doenças relacionadas ao trabalho - Manual de procedimentos para os serviços de saúde) Ministério do Trabalho e Emprego, Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Políticas e Saúde, Departamento de Ações Programáticas Estratégicas, Esplanada dos Ministérios, Bloco G, Sala 647, CEP 70058-900 Brasília, Brazil, 2001. 580p. Bibl.ref. Index., ISBN 85-334-0353-4 (In Portuguese)

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Aimed at health services, this manual contains all the information necessary for the differentiated diagnosis and treatment of occupational diseases in Brazil. The first chapters are devoted to a review of the role of health service professionals in the field of occupational health, the main instruments enabling the identification of the relationship between work and the disease, basic methods for limiting risk factors, health monitoring and diagnosis procedures for occupational diseases. The following chapters describe the various diseases classified by group (infectious and parasitic diseases, neoplasia, blood and haematopoietic diseases, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases, mental diseases and behavioural disorders, diseases of the nervous system, eye injuries, ear injuries, diseases of the circulatory system, diseases of the respiratory system, diseases of the digestive system, skin and subcutaneous tissue diseases, diseases of the musculoskeletal system and conjunctive tissues, diseases of the genital and urinary system). A brief definition followed by a description of risk factors, clinical symptoms, treatment and preventive measures is provided for each disease. (100654)

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CIS 02-1716 Maintenance of work ability research and assessment: Summaries. Peltomäki P., Hussi T., Julin H., Launis K., Liira J., Räsänen K., eds., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. 75p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-502-9 (In English)

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This report on the maintenance of work ability (MWA) presents the summaries of the reports of six working groups that studied specific aspects of the issue: prerequisites of a successful MWA programme in Finnish enterprises; effectiveness of workplace health promotion programmes on work ability; economic effectiveness of MWA programmes; MWA as a public policy instrument; blind spots in current knowledge in the field of MWA and research needs; using research information as a tool for public administration. (100541)

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CIS 02-1717 The health of your business - A management guide to employees' health. Koh D., Muah L.S., Society of Occupational Medicine, eds., SNP Publishing Pte Ltd, Raffle Editions, 162 Bukit Merah Central 304-3545, Singapore 150162, Republic of Singapore,1998. 232p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index., ISBN 9971-0-0834-3 (In English)

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There is a link between the physical and mental health of employees and productivity, and a poor management of health problems has a financial impact on the enterprise. Aimed at managers of enterprises in Singapore, this guide addresses the most frequent problems they have to face in health management. It consists of four parts: health of the company, health at work, sickness at work and legal and safety aspects of health and work. Contents: health-care costs in Singapore; choosing a company doctor; management of health care; sickness absenteeism; promoting health at work; stress; business travel and expatriation; jet lag and problems related to air travel; routine health screening; occupational diseases; sick building syndrome; fitness to work; shift work; legal aspects; workmen's compensation; medical leave; safety planning and cost of safety. (100867)

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CIS 02-1718 European project for the improvement of security and health in the workplace due to reproduction pregnancy reasons. (Spanish: Proyecto europeo para la mejora de la seguridad y la salud laboral por razones de reproducción y maternidad) Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Dirección General de la Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Spain, 2002. 32p. (In English, Spanish)

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This booklet presents a general overview as well as the conclusions of a European project aimed at improving the protection of workers in the area of risks to reproductive health and pregnancy. Based on the results of a study of the systems adopted in various European Union countries, it singles out the best European practices applicable to Spain for the purpose of preparing guides on good practices aimed at employers, persons involved in collective bargaining and labour inspectors. Proposed improvements to European directives and the national provisions in this area are also included. (100623)

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CIS 02-1719 Guide to good practices for improving occupational safety and health in the area of risks to reproductive health and maternity. (Spanish: Guía de buenas prácticas para la mejora de la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo por razones de reproducción y maternidad) Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Dirección General de la Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, Spain, 2002. 126p. Illus. 27 ref. (In Spanish)

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This guide was developed as part of a European Union project for improving the protection of workers against risks to reproductive health and pregnancy (see CIS 02-1718) and is aimed at employers and employees, legal advisors, persons involved in collective bargaining and government services. It consists of three parts. The first part explains the basic biological aspects of human reproduction, the objectives of labour protection provisions, the responsibilities of employers, general hazards (mental and physical fatigue, work postures, stress, infection hazards) and specific hazards (physical, chemical and biological hazards, conditions of work). The second part presents the rights of workers during pregnancy, the different types of parental leave and the benefits offered by social security services. The final part explains the guaranteed rights (job protection against dismissal, other guarantees with respect to contractual relations, right to occupational safety and health protection). Appendices include: tables of substances with risk phrases R60, R61, R63 and R64; biological agents hazardous to female reproductive health; classification of substances having reproductive toxicity. (100624)

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[ Top of page ]

003 Industries and occupations

CIS 02-1720 Physical leisure-time activities and long-term sick leave: A 15-month prospective study of nurses' aides. Eriksen W., Bruusgaard D., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.530-538. 33 ref. (In English)

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The objective of the study was to determine the relationship between physical leisure-time activities and the occurrence of long-term sick leave among nurses' aides. Of 5563 Norwegian nurses' aides who were not on sick leave when they completed a questionnaire in 1999, 4744 (85.3%) completed a second questionnaire 15 months later. Brisk walks (odds ratio (OR), 0.78), aerobics or gymnastics (OR, 0.71), and other physical leisure activities (OR, 0.81) for 20 minutes or more at least once a week predicted fewer cases of long-term sick leave (>14 days), after adjustments for baseline health complaints, demographic and family characteristics, former and current smoking status and work factors. In conclusion, regular physical leisure-time activity may be associated with a reduced risk of long-term sickness absence in nurses' aides. (100604)

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CIS 02-1721 Work-related reproductive, musculoskeletal and mental disorders among working women - History, current issues and future research directions. Kishi R., Kitahara T., Masuchi A., Kasai S., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.101-112. Illus. 63 ref. (In English)

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This literature review examines current issues and future research directions in occupational health of Japanese working women, with an emphasis on reproductive health, work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) and mental disorders. In earlier studies on reproductive health, the main concern was pregnancy outcomes. Subsequently, interest focused on fecundity studies, such as time to pregnancy. Future research will examine outcomes not only during pregnancy but also disorders of hormonal balance and post-menopausal health conditions. WMSDs are reviewed mainly with respect to sex differences and their causative factors. Historically, mental health research about working women in Japan focused on job stress of nurses. In this survey, Japanese studies are compared with recent research in Europe and USA which examine the interaction between occupational stress and family roles. (100723)

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CIS 02-1722 Associations of length of employment and working conditions with neck, shoulder and arm pain among nursery school teachers. Ono Y., Imaeda T., Shimaoka M., Hiruta S., Hattori Y., Ando S., Hori S., Tatsumi A., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.149-158. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

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In a cross-sectional survey on neck, shoulder and arm pain among nursery school (NS) teachers in a Japanese city, questionnaire responses of 959 subjects were analysed. Subjects were classified into groups according to the age of children under their care. The prevalence of neck/shoulder pain tended to increase with the length of employment in all groups. Prevalence of neck and/or shoulder pain was 33.6%-35.4% in NS teachers in charge of children aged under one or between four and five in contrast to 25.0-29.8% in those in charge of children aged between one and four. Length of employment and care for newborn children were found significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain. Pain in the neck-shoulders and arms had associations with some specific variables: care for newborn children, holding and lifting a child or materials, overwork and poorly supported job situations. The odds ratios for those variables varied from 1.37 to 2.41. (100727)

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CIS 02-1723 Occupational health and safety in household hazardous waste management facilities. Betsinger G., Brosseau L.M., Golden J., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.575-583. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate chemical and physical hazards at a representative group of hazardous waste management facilities. Sampling results suggest that chemical exposures are generally not a problem when chemical bulking is performed outside the facility. For facilities operating year-round, however, proper ventilation is necessary to ensure adequate control of chemical exposures when bulking is done inside the building. The most significant chemical exposures occurred when handling paint (benzene) and broken fluorescent light bulbs (mercury). Guidelines for appropriate personal protective equipment and handling of broken fluorescent light bulbs were developed as a result of this study. Materials handling was the most significant physical hazard, resulting in wrist, elbow, and back injuries. The suspected reasons for these injuries are awkward postures and repetitive motions, and should be further investigated. (100798)

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CIS 02-1724 Procedure for evaluating occupational hazards in the fishing fleet. (Spanish: Protocolo de evaluación de riesgos laborales en la flota pesquera) Capilla Márquez E., Prevención, July-Sep. 2002, No.161, p.24-44. Illus. 31 ref. (In Spanish)

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Fishing is considered a hazardous sector where both the frequency of accidents and their severity are high. Aimed at inspectors of fishing vessels, this article proposes an approach for the evaluation of occupational safety and health on board fishing vessels based on a comprehensive questionnaire as well as an evaluation form tailored to each job. (100675)

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CIS 02-1725 Cancer risk among male farmers: A multi-site case-control study. Settimi L., Comba P., Bosia S., Ciapini C., Desideri E., Fedi A., Perazzo P.L., Axelson O., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.339-347. 50 ref. (In English)

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In order to examine the association between cancer and farming among male agricultural workers, a hospital-based case-control study was conducted in five Italian rural areas. The cancer sites selected for the study were: lip, oral cavity and oropharynx, oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, lung, skin melanoma, skin non-melanoma, prostate, bladder, kidney and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. In all, 1525 newly diagnosed cases, aged 20-75 years, were ascertained in hospital records, covering the period between March 1990 and September 1992. For 1279 cases, detailed exposure information was collected by a standard questionnaire. Data analyses were performed comparing each cancer site to a control group, including a subset of the other cancer sites in the study. Increased risks of cancer associated with agricultural work were found for stomach (OR=1.4), rectum (OR=1.5), larynx (OR=1.4) and prostate (OR=1.4). The excess of prostate cancer was specifically related to application of pesticides (OR=1.7). (100688)

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CIS 02-1726 Feasibility of epidemiologic research on migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Zahm S.H., Blair A., eds., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.40, No.5, p.487-618 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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This special issue contains 15 reports of pilot projects from the Farmworker Epidemiology Research Group, designed to assess the feasibility of conducting epidemiological studies on migrant and seasonal farmworkers. Funded by the National Cancer Institute and the Migrant Health Program, this work began after a review in 1993 found that despite concerns about exposure to potentially carcinogenic pesticides, there were few studies on cancer among farmworkers. It was believed that reasons for this lack of data included the difficulties of conducting epidemiological studies on a highly-mobile population, often with little education or understanding of English and with lengthy, complex job histories. The projects reported address issues of questionnaire design, assessment of pesticide exposures, tracing, evaluating cancer incidence and mortality, and establishing a cohort of farmworkers for future follow-up. (100770)

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CIS 02-1727 Commercial fishing - A hazardous occupation. (French: "Pêcheur" - un métier à risques) Gout D., Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2000, No.599, p.22-37. Illus. 3 ref. (In French)

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In France and in Europe, one fisherman in seven is the victim of an occupational accident each year. Mortality rates are four times higher than in the building industry. This collection of articles addresses the issue of safety in commercial fishing. Contents: description of the main tasks carried out on trawlers; commercial fishing statistics in France (production, business volume, employment, vessel fleet); occupational accident statistics (by age, type of navigation, position of the vessel when the accident occurred, vessel length, activities being carried out when the accident occurred, type of accident, location of injury, sea conditions); trends in trawler design; efforts undertaken by a shipbuilder in the area of safety and workshop sound attenuation; French legislation. (100960)

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CIS 02-1728 In-season physiological and biochemical status of reforestation workers. Roberts D., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.559-567. Illus. 38 ref. (In English)

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Tree planting demands sustained high levels of work output and is associated with high injury rates but has not been characterized previously. Data were collected from 10 male planters after 19±5 (T1) and 37±5 days (T2) of planting. One severe infection and one knee strain injury were noted. Loads carried were 32±5% body mass and heart rates were between 60% to 75% of maximum for 57±26 % of the planting shift. A loss of 1.7±1.5% body mass occurred, although intake exceeded 5000kcal/day. From 8% (T1) to 27% (T2) of postprandial blood glucose samples were found to be <3.3mmol/L. Further evidence of the cumulative stress was seen in increased levels of cortisol (428±163 to 741±103mmol/L), norepinephrine (2.09±1.34 to 3.09±1.05mmol/L), and creatine kinase (184±82 to 397±174U/L) at T2. The post-activity neutrophilia and lymphophilia (absolute count, CD4+ and CD8+) observed at T1 were blunted at T2. The implications of mild hypoglycaemia, including possible effects on cognitive and motor function, warrant further study. (100606)

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CIS 02-1729 Can radiofrequency equipment improve the safety of forestry work?. (German: Kann Funktechnik die Arbeitssicherheit bei der Waldarbeit verbessern?) Happold M., Hoffmann U., Ulrich K., AFZ - Der Wald, 2000, Vol.55, No.6. p.283-285. Illus. (In German)

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Acoustic distress signalling units and radiofrequency communication units with distress buttons used by forestry workers were compared in a field study. Most workers preferred the radiofrequency communications units, which allowed them to communicate over a distance of 2km and better coordinate their work, while acoustic distress signalling units did not allow verbal communication. Furthermore, the operation of radiofrequency communication units with distress buttons was found to be easier. The cost of the two units is the same, amounting to DEM 1,500.00 (= EUR 750.00) per worker. For further development of radiofrequency communication units with distress buttons, it is recommended to integrate some of the features of the distress signalling unit such as locating an unconscious worker and blocking the chain saw when there is no radio contact to a co-worker. (100780)

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CIS 02-1730 Evaluation of hygiene risks in quarries and cement plants: General aspects (I). (Spanish: Evaluación del riesgo higiénico en canteras y cementeras: aspectos generales (I)) Velasco Ortega J., Martín Egurza M., Prevención, July-Sep. 2002, No.161, p.8-22. Illus. 8 ref. (In Spanish)

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This article in two parts (see also CIS 02-1731) reviews the current industrial hygiene methods used to identify, evaluate and control the main hazards resulting from exposure to chemical and physical agents during the various operations of open-air quarries and cement manufacturing plants. Contents: description of quarrying and cement manufacturing operations; types of cement (natural, artificial); chemical contaminants (silica, hexavalent chromium, nickel, cobalt) and physical agents (noise, lighting, thermal stress, ionizing radiation); effects of dust exposure on health (deposition in the lungs, silicosis); skin hazards; limiting the exposure to chemicals (monitoring inhalable and breathable dust fractions, hexavalent chromium, other metals); practical example of the evaluation of exposure to dust in two quarries. (100674)

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CIS 02-1731 Evaluation of hygiene risks in quarries and cement plants: General aspects (II). (Spanish: Evaluación del riesgo higiénico en canteras y cementeras: aspectos generales (II)) Velasco Ortega J., Martín Egurza M., Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2002, No.162, p.8-21. Illus. 7 ref. (In Spanish)

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This sequel to the article analysed under CIS 02-1730, covers methods used in industrial hygiene to identify, evaluate and control the main health hazards resulting from exposure to chemical and physical agents during the various operations of open-air quarrying and cement manufacture. Contents: limiting the exposure to physical agents (noise, lighting, heat, ionizing radiation); legislation; medical supervision. (100677)

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CIS 02-1732 Accident risks during the handling of lead acid batteries. (Spanish: Riesgos de accidente en la manipulación de baterías de plomo-ácido) Calvo Sáez J.A., Prevención, Apr.-June 2002, No.160, p.60-68. Illus. (In Spanish)

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This article reviews the risks of accidents during the handling of automobile lead acid batteries as well as the appropriate safety measures. Contents: description of lead batteries; chemical reactions during charging and discharging; explosion hazards; recommendations for the safe handling of batteries (storage and transport, installation and removal, charging of batteries using bridging cables, unusable batteries, anti-spark tools, personal protective equipment, first aid). (100673)

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CIS 02-1733 The efficacy of construction site safety inspections. Auld M.C., Emery J.C.H., Gordon D.V., McClintock D., Journal of Labor Economics, 2001, Vol.19, No.4, p.900-921. 11 ref. (In English)

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In this article, the impact of on-site safety inspections on the frequency of work-related injury and death in the Alberta (Canada) construction sector between 1987 and 1992 was measured. Data are broken down by industry sub-segment, allowing different risk levels to be associated with different work activities. There was a significant decrease in inspection activity during the study period. It was found that on-site safety inspections had no effect on the risk of accident and injury but did have a positive effect in reducing the number of work-related fatalities. (100937)

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CIS 02-1734 Integration on temporary workers - Partnerships between construction enterprises and temporary work agencies. (French: Intégration des intérimaires - BTP: agences et chantiers partenaires) Richez J.P., Travail et sécurité, May 2000, No.596, p.14-26. Illus. (In French)

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In the construction industry, half of all occupational accidents involve temporary workers who often lack qualifications and are assigned to hazardous work. This collection of articles describes the efforts that have been undertaken in this sector to reduce the number of accidents involving temporary workers. Contents: interview of a safety consultant from the health insurance institution of the French region of Midi-Pyrénées; description of the contents of a guide published by the INRS on the integration of temporary workers in the construction sector; efforts undertaken by all parties concerned for reducing the number of accidents at the construction sites of a new motorway, in particular by implementing ways and means of ensuring the safety of temporary workers; "safety charter" signed by enterprises using temporary workers and by agencies offering temporary workers; experience of a bricklaying enterprise in employing temporary workers. (100958)

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CIS 02-1735 Disabling occupational injury in the US construction industry, 1996. Courtney T.K., Matz S., Webster B.S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1161-1168. Illus. 37 ref. (In English)

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The 35,790 construction industry claims in 1996 of a large workers' compensation insurer were examined and the leading types and sources of disabling occupational morbidity were identified. The average disability duration for an injured construction worker was 46 days. The most frequently occurring conditions were low back pain (14.8%), foreign body eye injuries (8.5%) and finger lacerations (4.8%). Back pain accounted for the greatest percentage of construction claim costs (21.3%) and disability days (25.5%). However, the conditions with the longest disability durations were sudden-onset injuries, including fractures of the ankle (55 days), foot (42 days) and wrist (38 days). Same-level and elevated falls were the principal causes of fractures of the wrist and ankle, whereas elevated falls and strikes against objects accounted for the majority of foot fractures. Manual handling activities were most often associated with low back pain disability. (100996)

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CIS 02-1736 Evaluation of conditions of work in the printing and publishing industries. (French: Evaluation des conditions de travail dans le secteur du livre et des industries graphiques) Chouanière D., Delaquèze C., Fontana J.M., Boisnard C., De Dreuzy C., Outin C., Pangaud B., Preux M.C., Wild P., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.147-155. Illus. 9 ref. (In French)

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent of stress-related problems among workers in the printing and publishing industries in order to propose remedial actions. The study population consisted of workers supervised at two medical centres affiliated to this industry, subject to certain eligibility criteria based on the type of employment contract and years of service. The objective of the study was presented by the occupational physician to the workers during their annual check-up. Workers who volunteered to participate were asked to respond to a questionnaire on their conditions of work and symptoms. 652 persons participated in the study, which enabled the highlighting of two priority areas of focus for preventive actions: reducing the quantitative requirements of the job and improving social support at work. (100784)

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CIS 02-1737 Respiratory allergies in bakers. (French: Allergie respiratoire du boulanger) Rosenberg N., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.189-196. 71 ref. (In French)

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Wheat flour contains numerous allergens, and bakers' asthma remains the most common occupational asthma in France. In this occupation, one also encounters cases of allergic rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis. Contents of this article on bakers' allergic respiratory diseases: physiopathology; incidence and frequency; diagnosis in occupational settings; confirmation of diagnosis in specialized establishments; evolution; prevention; compensation. (100787)

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CIS 02-1738 Evaluation of physiological work demands and low back neuromuscular fatigue on nurses working in geriatric wards. Hui L., Ng G.Y.F., Yeung S.S.M., Hui-Chan C.W.Y., Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2001, Vol.32, No.5, p.479-483. Illus. 32 ref. (In English)

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This study evaluated the physiological demands and low back neuromuscular fatigue patterns following a daytime work shift of 21 female nurses working in geriatric wards. Subjects' heart rate at work was monitored for 8h and surface electromyogram (EMG) of their back muscle was recorded during a one-minute horizontal trunk holding test before and after work. Results showed that the nurses had heart rates exceeding 90 beats/min in 57% and 110 beats/min in 19% of their working hours. Muscular fatigue after work was highlighted by EMG data. The nurses rated the lifting, transfer and turning of patients as most physically demanding, and these corresponded to the highest heart rates recorded. The physiological and neuromuscular strain on the nurses indicated that extreme care should be exercised at work, particularly towards the end of a work shift when the muscles have become fatigued. (100935)

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CIS 02-1739 Occupational accidents among temporary workers. (Italian: Il fenomeno infortunistico nel lavoro interinale) Nola A., Cattaneo G., Maiocchi A., Gariboldi C., Rocchi R., Cavallaro S., Loreto B., Lanfredini L., Bassino P., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.92, No.4, p.281-285. 5 ref. (In Italian)

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Sixteen temporary work agencies in Italy that employed more than 250,000 manual workers in 2000 supplied data regarding 5259 accidents. The average accident age was 27.8 years and the main causes were work tools (51.5%); 76% of the accidents affected unskilled workers. Evidence is thus provided that temporary work is associated with an increased risk of occupational accidents. (100845)

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CIS 02-1740 Health and safety organizing: OCAW's worker-to-worker health and safety training program. Slatin C., New Solutions, 2001, Vol.11, No.4, p.349-374. 32 ref. (In English)

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The Oil, Chemical, and Atomic Workers International Union (OCAW) developed a hazardous waste worker and hazardous materials emergency responder health and safety training programme that was specific to its members in the represented industries. The objective of the programme is to develop worker-trainers to conduct the training using the Small-Group Activity Method, to participate in curriculum development, and ultimately to use health and safety training as a vehicle for identifying, developing, and mobilizing health and safety activists among the membership. (100557)

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CIS 02-1741 Role of work permits in teen workers' experiences. Delp L., Runyan C.W., Brown M., Bowling J.M., Jahan S.A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.477-482. 10 ref. (In English)

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Although work permits are required when employing teenagers under the age of 18 in 41 US states, compliance is not total. Little is known about the work experience of young workers with work permits compared with those without such permits. This study examines job hazards, training and knowledge of child labour laws reported by students in a predominantly Hispanic high school in Los Angeles and compares the responses of those who obtained work permits with those who did not. Data from responses to a questionnaire were supplemented with information from focus groups and a survey of work permits carried out by the school. It was found that students without work permits were more likely to perform hazardous tasks and to use certain types of dangerous equipment and less likely to receive health and safety training. Possible explanations for the findings and suggested areas in need of policy change or research are considered. (100766)

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CIS 02-1742 Manual handling in the food/drink industries - Injury rate v weight of unit loads lifted. Durham S., Heasman T., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 30p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2537-0 (In English)

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Statistics indicate that some food sector industries where heavy loads are handled (such as brewing) have a higher manual handling injury rate than others (such as the dairy and soft drink industries). The aim of this study was to verify this finding and to determine a statistical correlation between loads lifted (light and heavy sacks) and manual handling injuries or absences due to injury. The study consisted of a review of the literature and the conducting of phone interviews of selected workers at food and drink company sites. It was found that most injuries involved weights of 1-10kg, classed as sprains, and the lifting, pushing or pulling of sacks. However, due to numerous confounding factors, further conclusions were not possible. (100582)

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CIS 02-1743 Municipal facilities for the treatment of urban waste water. (Portuguese: Sistemas públicos de saneamento de águas residuais urbanas) Correia M.S.B.C., Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, June 2002. 232p. Illus. 83 ref. Price: EUR 9.98., ISBN 972-8321-50-3 (In Portuguese)

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This study identifies and highlights the various hazards to which urban waste water treatment workers in Portugal are exposed during the different treatment steps, and describes the appropriate prevention and protection measures. Main topics covered: characteristics of waste water; general hazards and prevention measures; hazards due to liquid phases; hazards due to solid phases; hazards due to work in confined spaces; laboratory work; electrical hazards; dangerous or harmful substances (chemicals, pathogenic micro-organisms); smells; noise; road work; personal protective equipment; occupational accident statistics by sub-sector; Portuguese legislative framework; results of survey conducted at various water treatment services or water treatment plants. Appendices include: waste water regulations; applicable standards; questionnaires used for the surveys. (100621)

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CIS 02-1744 The evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry. (French: L'évolution de l'emploi, du temps de travail et de la formation dans les industries extractives) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. vi, 83p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: CHF 17.50., ISBN 92-2-113223-4 (En), ISBN 92-2-213223-8 (fr) (In English, French)

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The aim of this report was to provide background information and a basis for discussions for delegates attending a tripartite meeting on the evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry held at the ILO in Geneva, Switzerland, 7-11 October 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to exchange views on the evolution of employment, working time and training in the mining industry, the social and labour implications of these developments for the parties concerned and the role of social dialogue in addressing them, and to adopt conclusions that include proposals for action by governments, by employers' and workers' organizations at the national level and by the ILO. Contents of this report: evolution of employment in the mining industry; evolution of working time; evolution of training; the AIDS/HIV issue; mining and sustainable development; summary and suggested points for discussion. (100550)

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CIS 02-1745 Proceedings of the European Conference on Health and Safety in the Automobile Industry. Albracht G., Baumert P., eds., Hessisches Sozialministerium, Dostojewskistr. 4, 65187 Wiesbaden, Germany, 2002. 71p. Illus., ISBN 3-89277-247-9 (In English)

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Proceedings of a conference on occupational safety and health in the automobile industry held in Kassel, Germany, 7-8 March 2002. Participants included representatives from the automobile industry, trade unions, government and occupational safety and health institutions. Main topics covered during the workshop sessions: integration of safety and health in modern occupational safety and health management systems; participation of enterprise councils in corporate health and safety activity; hazards in end-of-life vehicle processing. (100868)

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CIS 02-1746 The promotion of good industrial relations in oil and gas production and oil refining. (French: La promotion de bonnes méthodes de relations professionnelles dans le secteur du raffinage du pétrole et de la production de pétrole et de gaz; Spanish: El fomento de buenas relaciones laborales en la producción de petróleo y gas y en las refinerías de petróleo) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 64p. Illus. Price: CHF 15.00., ISBN 92-2-112812-1 (En), ISBN 92-2-212812-5 (fr), ISBN 92-2-312812-9 (es) (In English, French, Spanish)

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The aim of this report was to provide background information and a basis for discussions for delegates attending a tripartite meeting on the promotion of good industrial relations in oil and gas production and oil refining held at the ILO in Geneva, Switzerland, 25 February - 1 March 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to review different approaches to promoting good industrial relations in a variety of geographical, cultural, political, economic and technical circumstances, and to adopt conclusions that include proposals for action by governments, by employers' and workers' organizations at the national level and by the ILO. Contents of the report: recent trends in oil and gas production and oil refining industries; freedom and restrictions of association; ILO approach to industrial relations; collective bargaining; social dialogue. As appendices: structure and goals of works councils of selected oil and gas companies; comparison of codes of conduct of four oil and gas companies. (100549)

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CIS 02-1747 Low-back pain and musculoskeletal injuries among fire fighters - Identification and analysis of hazardous situations during vehicle access and the handling of tools. (French: Lombalgies et accidents musculosquelettiques chez les pompiers - Identification et analyse des situations à risque lors de l'accès aux véhicules et de la manutention d'outils) Giguère D., Marchand D., Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2002. [1 vol. ] Illus. 61 ref. An electronic version of the report in PDF format is also included on a CD-ROM., ISBN 2-551-21636-2 (In French)

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http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-313.pdf

Due to the nature of their work, fire fighters are vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders. Statistics show that sprains are among the most frequent lesions. The back is the main location of injury, followed by the feet and the ankles. Body movements, layouts of workplaces and vehicles are among the causes that are mentioned the most often. The purpose of this study was to identify hazardous tasks or situations in relation to fire fighting vehicles, to analyse the tasks and biomechanical constraints and to recommend ergonomic improvements. Various methods of acceding to vehicles were studied at two fire fighting stations. Practices with respect to the handling and use of tools and equipment were studied among 32 experienced fire fighters (28 men and four women) working at nine fire fighting stations. Several recommendations are made in the areas of vehicle access and the handling and storage of tools. (100752)

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CIS 02-1748 Study of biological agents and ergonomic constraints when using trucks with side-lift arms for collecting household waste. (French: Etude des agents biologiques et des contraintes ergonomiques lors de l'utilisation des camions avec bras assisté pour la collecte des ordures domestiques) Lavoie J., Guertin S., Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. 52p. Illus. 27 ref., ISBN 2-551-21649-4 (In French)

Internet:
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-317.pdf

One of the ways of limiting the exposure of garbage collectors to bioaerosols consists of using trucks with side-lift arms. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the exposure to bioaerosols with this form of garbage collection and to identify the potential ergonomic constraints when using this type of equipment. Personal exposure of garbage collectors to bioaerosols was measured for five different types of collection and under the most extreme conditions, those prevailing in summer. The exposure of workers to airborne bacteria and endotoxins was significantly reduced by using trucks with side-lift arms. The recommended 8h exposure limit of 104CFU/m3 was reached only in the case of mixed wastes. However, even when using trucks with side-lift arms, strict personal hygiene remains one of the most effective means of prevention. In the ergonomic study, the following parameters were taken into consideration: quantities collected; distances driven; number of collection points; incident records and the density of the wastes. It is concluded that certain changes are necessary in the way garbage is collected in order to benefit fully from the advantages offered by trucks with side-lift arms. (100756)

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CIS 02-1749 2nd national convention - Conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. (Portuguese: II Encontro nacional - A conservação e o restauro do património) Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Nov. 2000. 94p. Illus. (In Portuguese)

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Proceedings of the 2nd national convention of the Portuguese conservation and restoration association held in November 2000. Workshops were conducted on the hazards of the profession, hazard prevention, safety, ethics and legislation. Main topics covered: risks caused by resins, solvents and adhesives; spraying of products for treating wood structures; skin diseases; risks to reproductive health from chemicals; pigment and resin toxicity; substitution of toxic substances; biological and mineral dust; prevention of hazards; labelling and data sheets of products used for the restoration of cultural heritage objects; personal protective equipment; waste management; ethics and legislation in the area of the protection of cultural heritage objects. Two of the contributions are not in Portuguese (one each in English and French). (100655)

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CIS 02-1750 ILO-DGFASLI workshop on safety, health and environment - Priority concern for workers representatives in port sector. International Labour Office (ILO), Directorate General Factory Advice and Labour Institutes, Government of India, Ministry of Labour, N.S. Mankiker Marg, Sion, Mumbai, India, 2002. 36p. Illus. (In English)

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Proceedings of a conference on occupational safety and health for representatives of workers' organizations in the port sector held at Mumbai, India, 24-27 September 2001. Topics addressed include: ILO conventions on safety, health and the environment; accident prevention principles; Indian legislation on dock workers' safety, health and welfare; role of workers' representatives; rules concerning the safe handling of chemicals; safety in container handling; safety in the use of cranes; hazard identification techniques; role of safety and health committees; health hazards in port operations and their control; safety audits; road safety; emergency planning; creating a positive safety culture. (100619)

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CIS 02-1751 Prevention of occupational hazards in temporary work, temporary work agencies and in contracts and subcontracts. (Spanish: La prevención de riesgos laborales en la contratación temporal, empresas de trabajo temporal y contratas y subcontratas) Miñarro Yanini M., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 699p. Approx. 800 ref. Price: EUR: 36.06., ISBN 84-7425-627-5 (In Spanish)

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This publication contains a detailed analysis of the specific hazards to which the following three categories of workers are exposed: temporary workers in general; temporary workers placed by temporary work agencies and workers employed by contractors or subcontractors. It also includes the legal framework for occupational safety and health applicable to these categories of workers. It analyses the current legal situation in Spain with respect to this type of work, identifying gaps in legislation. The European legal framework and relevant ILO conventions and recommendations are also reviewed. (100627)

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CIS 02-1752 Code of practice for safety management systems for construction sites. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1999. 25p., ISBN 9971-67-724-5 (In English)

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Singapore regulations require that the prime contractor at a worksite where the contract sum of work to be carried out is SGD 10 million or more adopts a safety management system for ensuring the safety and health of all workers at the worksite. This standard has been prepared to help construction contractors comply with these regulations. Contents: safety policy; safe work practices; safety training; group meetings; incident investigation and analysis; in-house safety rules and regulations; safety promotion; evaluation, selection and control of subcontractors; safety inspections; maintenance schedules for machinery and equipment; hazard evaluation; control of the movement of hazardous substances; emergency preparedness; occupational health programmes. (100616)

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CIS 02-1753 Law on the prevention of occupational hazards - 1st safety day in the construction industry. (Spanish: Ley de prevención de riesgos laborales - 1a jornada de seguridad en la construcción) Fundación laboral de la construcción del principiado de Asturias, Alto El Caleyu 2, 33172 Ribera de Arriba, Spain, 1996. 139p. (In Spanish)

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This publication contains the full text of the Spanish law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see also CIS 95-1921) and presents summaries of the main provisions of the various chapters of the law in the form of tables. (100691)

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CIS 02-1754 Priorities for health and safety in the dairy industry. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 4p. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fis08.pdf

This information sheet identifies the main causes of accidents in the dairy industry, compares accident incidence rates with other industries, and provides guidance on safety measures. Preventive measures relate to falls, slips and trips, exposure to cleaning fluids or fumes, machinery guards, manual handling and transport. (100927)

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CIS 02-1755 Reducing noise exposure in the food and drink industries. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2002. 4p. 9 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fis08.pdf

This information sheet provides advice on the legal requirements and hierarchy of control measures to prevent noise exposure in the food and drink industries. It also gives typical noise levels in particularly noisy food and drink operations and describes some of the corresponding noise-reduction processes adopted by enterprises. (100928)

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CIS 02-1756 Priorities for health and safety in the ceramics industry. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 4p. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ceis1.pdf

This information sheet identifies the main causes of accidents and ill health in the ceramics industry and sets priorities for action. Contents: main causes of injury; statistics of causes of major and over-3-day accidents by sector (ceramics, bricks and heavy clay, refractories); major causes of accidents (falls from heights, workplace transport, musculoskeletal and upper limb disorders, housekeeping, accidents due to machinery), contributing factors and priorities for action; priorities for action to reduce health problems in the industry. (100921)

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CIS 02-1757 Layout of chemical laboratories. (French: La conception des laboratoires de chimie) Triolet J., Capois J., Gautret de la Moricière G., Lê Quang X., Petit J.M., Protois J.C., Rocher M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.7-26. Illus. 37 ref. (In French)

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This article on the prevention of occupational hazards applies to chemical laboratories, with the exception of laboratories designed specifically for practical teaching work. It is aimed at owners of premises, main contractors, architects, safety engineers, laboratory managers, members of occupational safety and hygiene committees and more generally to all persons involved in projects of setting up, extending or modifying laboratories. Contents: scope, objectives (analysis of the activity, the needs and the hazards, prevention objectives); practical example applying these principles. (100641)

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CIS 02-1758 Dental prosthetists. (French: Les prothésistes dentaires) Crestois M., Muqa M.F., Lambert S., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.517-524. (In French)

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Dental prosthetists are exposed to dusts and a variety of pollutants. Contents of this information note on the job of dental prosthetist: organization of the workplace layout; accidents (burns, cuts, injuries); products and materials (plaster, coating materials, abrasive tools and materials, resins, waxes, ceramics, alloys and metals); health hazards (respiratory and skin allergies, pneumoconiosis, silicosis, hard metal pulmonary fibrosis, berylliosis, risks caused by cadmium); general preventive measures (work premises, choosing products, choosing techniques, personal protection, recommended vaccinations, prevention of infection hazards). (100910)

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CIS 02-1759 Women organise for basic security. ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. 23-minute videotape in VHS PAL format., ISBN 92-2-113087-8 (In English)

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By organizing women in the informal economy, the Self Employed Women's Association (SEWA) in India has campaigned to improve their working conditions and provides them with credit and medical insurance. This videotape describes the daily lives of several low-income women who work long hours under difficult conditions characterized by chronic insecurity, and how they have been helped by SEWA. (100788)

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[ Top of page ]

004 New technologies

CIS 02-1760 Multisorbent tubes for collecting volatile organic compounds in spacecraft air. Matney M.L., Beck S.W., Limero T.F., James J.T., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.69-75. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to improve the capability of Tenax-TA tubes to trap and concentrate volatile contaminants from air aboard spacecraft by incorporating additional sorbents within the tubes. Two carbon molecular sieve-type sorbents were tested. Breakthrough volumes were determined by flowing low levels of methanol or trichlorofluoromethane in nitrogen through the sorbent tubes at 30mL/min. Breakthrough volumes for methanol on the two sorbents were about 9L/g and 11L/g, while those for trichlorofluoromethane were 7L/g and >26L/g. Tubes containing either Tenax-TA alone or in combination with each sorbent were next exposed to a 10-component gas mixture and percentage recoveries of each constituent were determined. The Tenax-TA and Carboxen 569 combination gave the best overall recoveries (75-114% for the 10 compounds). Acetaldehyde had the lowest recovery (75%), but this value was an improvement over either the other sorbent combinations or the original single-sorbent tubes. (100595)

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CIS 02-1761 Avoiding falls from heights - Ballet of robots of the glazing of Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle. (French: Prévention des chutes de hauteur - La danse des robots sur les vitrages de Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle) Richez J.P., Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2000, No.599, p.2-6. Illus. (In French)

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In order to limit work at heights, the Roissy Charles-de-Gaulle airport in Paris opted for a remotely-controlled system for the cleaning of glazing in the new passenger terminal. This allows human interventions on the roof to be limited to equipment repair and maintenance. The robotic cleaning system is described in this article. (100959)

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CIS 02-1762 Work on screens and dryness of the eyes. (French: Travail sur écran et sécheresse oculaire) Cail F., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.131-135. Illus. 31 ref. (In French)

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The risk factors of visual fatigue during work on screens and the corresponding preventive measures are well understood. However, the preventive measures are not always implemented, no doubt because of the diversity of risk factors. Visual fatigue can appear in the form of physiological changes such as lengthening of the near point of accommodation at the end of the working day, or as complaints of ocular dryness. The objective of this review article is to highlight current understanding of the topic, based on a literature survey. Contents: description of the lachrymal system; methods for evaluating lachrymal secretion; work on screens and ocular dryness; causes of ocular dryness; preventive measures. (100782)

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CIS 02-1763 The effects of monotonous tasks on ultradian and circadian changes in alertness and mood and EEG levels of drowsiness for VDT work activities. (Italian: Effetti della monotonia del compito sulle variazioni ultradiane e circadiane della vigilanza e dell'umore e sui livelli di sonnolenza EEG nelle attività lavorative ai videoterminali) Bertini M., Fattorini E., Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.25-34. Illus. 20 ref. (In Italian)

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The vigilance and wakefulness of six male workers on computer terminals were evaluated by examining electroencephalographic changes in their sleep patterns. The changes can be attributed to relaxed vigilance subsequent to the performance of monotonous work. This kind of work may result in unforeseeable periods of sleep during the performance of the task. (100848)

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CIS 02-1764 Preliminary assessment of Linux for safety related systems. Pierce R.H., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 86p. Illus. 34 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2538-9 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr011.pdf

There is increasing interest in using the Linux operating system (OS) for safety-related systems. This report considers the availability and quality of evidence for the safety integrity of Linux. Three criteria were defined for the suitability of an OS for use in safety-related applications, namely that it must be sufficiently well understood, suitable for the technical characteristics of the safety-related application, and sufficiently reliable. Linux was assessed against these criteria, and a framework for the analysis of hazards from the interaction between applications and operating system was developed. The overall conclusions of the study are that Linux would be suitable for use in safety-related applications with SIL1 and SIL2 integrity requirements, and that certification to SIL3 would be possible. However, it is not likely to be either suitable or certifiable for SIL4 applications. A programme for the work that would be necessary to certify Linux to SIL 3 is described. (100585)

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CIS 02-1765 Proposal for the requirements for low complexity safety related systems. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 100p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2576-1 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr029.pdf

This report proposes a framework for the application of the standard IEC 61508 to "low complexity" systems such as simple relay-based interlock arrangements commonly found in machinery safeguarding applications. It presents a methodology for the design, integration and validation of electrical and electronic programmable safety-related systems. A scheme for architectural constraints is proposed which limits the Safety Integrity Levels (SILS) that can be claimed for low complexity systems of various degrees of hardware fault tolerance. The scheme is consistent with the principles of IEC 61508 while simplifying the requirements. The examples in this report are taken from the machinery sector but the principles described are applicable to other sectors as well. (100876)

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CIS 02-1766 Ergonomics of using a mouse or other non-keyboard input device. Woods V., Hastings S., Buckle P., Haslam R., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. xviii, 160p. Illus. 76 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2162-6 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr045.pdf

This report presents the findings from a two-year study investigating health problems associated with the use of non-keyboard input devices (NKID). A combination of methods was used to determine the extent to which different NKID are currently in use, how they are used and the problems that result. Work involved a literature review, questionnaire surveys, job studies and laboratory work, the latter including an expert assessment of different devices, a laboratory trial comparing traditional and L-shaped desks with different arm support conditions, and a case study investigating touch screen use. The importance of an ergonomic approach is emphasized and a systematic risk assessment for NKID is recommended, based on the following factors: nature of the task, including software design; NKID design and operation; workstation configuration; working environment; work organization; training; cleaning and maintenance; procedures for musculoskeletal health monitoring; specific needs of individual users, for example those with existing health problems. (100634)

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[ Top of page ]

005 Chemical safety

CIS 02-1767 Design of efficient exhaust devices for radial saws and numerically-controlled routers. (French: Conception de dispositifs de captage performants sur scie radiale et défonceuse à commande numérique) Muller J.P., L'Huillier J.C., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.53-69. Illus. 10 ref. (In French)

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This article describes a novel approach for the design of wood dust collection devices applied to two machines, a radial saw with manual feed and a numerically-controlled router. The original exhaust device of each machine was assessed, and the functions, machining configurations and constraints that the new devices had to satisfy were evaluated. Exhaust solutions of reasonable cost when compared to the cost of the machines were developed and tested, for both a simple and a complex machine. Several exhaust device prototypes for radial saws were built with a view of testing them on other existing models of machines. The pivoting device developed for the router will however require case-by-case assessments on its suitability for existing machines. This approach could be applied by manufacturers of new machines. (100645)

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CIS 02-1768 Method of work in confined spaces. (Spanish: Procedimiento de trabajo para la intervención en espacios confinados) Rojas Labiano J.M., Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.86, p.3-17. Illus. 6 ref. (In Spanish)

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When required to work in confined spaces, operators need specific procedures that define the preventive measures to be adopted against the hazards that are inherent to this kind of work. This article proposes an approach for developing and implementing these work procedures that comprises the following steps: preliminary information on the confined area; identification of the general hazards related to the area layout and to hazardous atmospheres; evaluation of the identified hazards; planning the preventive measures (alternatives to work in confined spaces, methods enabling a reduction in the time spent in the confined space, basic prevention standards to be applied for work in confined spaces, collective and personal protection, control of the hazards related to dangerous atmospheres, emergency planning); writing-up of the working procedure document; control and follow-up. (100711)

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CIS 02-1769 Performance of filter media used in industrial dust filtration - Test method. (French: Performance des médias filtrants utilisés en dépoussiérage industriel - Méthode de test) Bémer D., Callé S., Vaxelaire S., Thomas D., Contal P., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.71-77. Illus. 12 ref. (In French)

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This article presents a new method for testing filter media used in industrial dust control. It enables the monitoring changes in the characteristics of the media, such as the pressure drop and fractional filtration efficiency during use characterized by a succession of clogging and unclogging cycles. The test aerosol is composed of alumina particles with a volume median diameter of 3.2µm. Unclogging is ensured by injecting a back flow of compressed air. Results of tests carried out on three types of media used in industrial dust control are presented. Their performance was determined at the initial state (new filter) and after 40 clogging-unclogging cycles. The selected performance criteria enable comparisons to be made among the various media and provide guidelines for selecting a medium as a function of the industrial application. (100646)

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CIS 02-1770 Long-term trends in exposures to nickel aerosols. Symanski E., Chang C.C., Chan W., AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.324-333. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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A evaluation of the long-term changes in exposure levels to nickel aerosols was conducted using data from 10 nickel-producing and nickel-using industries. Significantly negative linear trends were found for exposures in the mining (-7%/yr), smelting (-9%/yr) and refining (-7%/yr) sectors, while exposures in milling showed a positive trend (+4%/yr). Effects of the work environment, process and nature of the job on exposure trends were evaluated. The decline in exposures was greater in workplaces with no ventilation compared with ventilated workplaces, in workers who performed similar rather than diverse tasks, and in North American workplaces compared with workplaces in Europe and Western Australia. These results could be used in the design of prospective sampling protocols and in future retrospective health-effect studies of workers in the nickel industries. (100791)

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CIS 02-1771 A technically attainable reference value for exposure to wood dust in the light of Law 66/2000. (Italian: Un "tecnicamente ottenibile" livello di riferimento per esposizione a polvere di legno dopo il D.L.GS. 66/2000) Innocenti A., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.91, No.6, p.565-574. 38 ref. (In Italian)

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A review of several key papers on wood dust job-exposure suggests that a standard of 1.5-2mg/m3 of total suspended wood dust could reasonably protect against the major harmful health effects observed. Data from the literature show that reducing personal wood dust exposures to below 2mg/m3 can be easily accomplished, whereas reducing exposures to below 1mg/m3 is considerably more difficult. The threshold exposure values of 5mg/m3 for wood dust proposed to start from 1/1/2003 by Italian Law 66/2000 is deemed to be too high as a health-based exposure limit. (100818)

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CIS 02-1772 Analysis of occupational exposure to asbestos in cases of mesothelioma registered in Romagna (1986-1998). (Italian: Analisi dell'esposizione professionale ad asbesto dei casi di mesotelioma registrati in Romagna - 1986-1998) Gruppo di lavoro per la sorveglianza del mesotelioma in Romagna, Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.91, No.6, p.575-586. 44 ref. (In Italian)

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Among 125 cases of mesothelioma of the pleura, peritoneum and pericardium registered in the Romagna region (Italy) between 1986 and 1998, adequate information was obtained for 122 subjects with past occupational exposure to asbestos. The male/female ratio was 81/41. The median age was 68 years and pleural location accounted for 96 cases. Time period, residence, kind of diagnosis, information about family relations and smoking habits exerted no independent effect. Occupational exposure occurred in a total of 22 different kind of workplaces. (100819)

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CIS 02-1773 Exposure to artificial mineral fibres in public buildings. (Italian: Esposizione a fibre minerali artificiali in edifici pubblici) Camilucci L., Campopiano A., Casciardi S., Fioravanti F., Ramires D., Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.32-38. Illus. 23 ref. (In Italian)

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Man-made mineral fibres used as insulating materials instead of asbestos may be dispersed in office buildings. In several surveys, samples were analysed by phase contrast optical and scanning electron microscopy. The measured airborne fibre concentrations did not show significant man-made mineral fibre dispersion in the environment. (100823)

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CIS 02-1774 Importance of broncho-alveolar lavage in demonstrating previous exposure to asbestos. (Italian: Importanza del lavaggio broncoalveolare nella dimostrazione di pregressa esposizione ad amianto) Rivolta G., Prandi E., Sogliani M., Picchi O., Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.166-172. 15 ref. (In Italian)

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This study regarded a population of 126 employees in a metalworking plant, who had worked with asbestos as an insulating material and who had not been subject to any previous specific health controls. Pleural thickening was confirmed by tomography in a number of workers. Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was performed for diagnostic purposes by means of bronchoscopy. In the tested employees, the concentration of asbestos bodies in the BAL liquid was on the average 2.38/mL (range 0.15-9/mL), whereas in the control group the average was 0.03/mL (range 0-0.25/mL). The study demonstrates the importance of asbestos bodies count in the BAL liquid as an objective indicator of past exposure to asbestos. (100834)

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CIS 02-1775 Characterization of the thoracic fraction of airborne particulate matter (PM10) in an urban area and in an adjacent office building. (Italian: Caratterizzazione della frazione toracica (PM10) del particolato aerodisperso in un sito urbano ed in un ambiente indoor limitrofo) De Berardis B., Paoletti L., Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.206-214. Illus. 19 ref. (In Italian)

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Airborne particulate matter (PM10) was collected in an urban area (in Rome, Italy) and in an adjacent office building. Samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy. A statistical analysis method allowed to identify seven groups of similar particles in the particulate matter and a seasonal trend was demonstrated with an increase in the aluminium-silicate particles and a minor increment in sulfate particles during summer. The results suggest that the characteristics of indoor PM10 depend mostly on the nature of outdoor particulates in the vicinity. (100839)

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CIS 02-1776 Assessment of exposure to ceramic fibres during insulation operations in a thermoelectric power plant. (Italian: Valutazione dell'esposizione a fibre ceramiche durante la coibentazione degli impianti di una centrale termoelettrica in costruzione) Marconi A., Cavariani F., Carai A., Cacchioli G., Papandrea F., Cacchioli E., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.92, No.4, p.263-271. 25 ref. (In Italian)

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Personal and workplace sampling was performed during maintenance work on electrical equipment in a large thermal generating plant involving the handling of insulating blankets. In personal samples, levels of exposure to ceramic fibres of up to 1000 fibres/L were measured. Average concentration levels from area samples were consistently lower. Because of the carcinogenic potential of ceramic fibres, it is recommended that adequate working practices and control measures be introduced, including the adoption of pre-coated and pre-shaped fibrous materials whenever possible, isolation of the working area, use of local air extraction ventilation, use of garments for personal protection and respirators, use of wetting or binding liquids prior to removal and fast elimination of debris from the working area. (100843)

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CIS 02-1777 Baseline indoor air quality measurements collected from 136 metropolitan New York region commercial office buildings between 1997-1999. Springston J.P., Esposito W.A., Cleversey K.W., AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.354-360. Illus. 41 ref. (In English)

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Between January 1997 and December 1999, 648 surveys were performed in 136 commercial office buildings in the greater New York area as part of an indoor environmental quality programme. Sampling was performed on a spot basis in non-problem buildings, during normal business hours, either quarterly or semiannually. Carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were among the various physical and chemical parameters which were sampled. More than 15,000 data points were collected, and the results were analyzed to determine the mean, median and standard deviation for each of those parameters. The results were then compared to various standards and guidelines applicable to the indoor environment. It was found that 98% of the CO2 readings were below 1000ppm, and 99.9% of the CO readings were below 10ppm. However for TVOCs, nearly 88% of the readings exceeded the proposed European guideline value of 0.3mg/m3. (100520)

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CIS 02-1778 Improving the use of mixing factors for dilution ventilation design. Feigley C.E., Bennett J.S., Lee E., Khan J., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.333-343. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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A safety factor is often used when specifying the dilution ventilation flow rate to compensate for uncertainties and health impact severity. The component of the safety factor accounting for imperfect mixing, Km, was studied for the purpose of developing more effective design procedures. Air flow and contaminant distribution were simulated for steady, isothermal conditions using computational fluid dynamics. A series of ten simulations explored factorial combinations of air exchange rate and inlet types. This work suggests that air quality data can be used to calculate dilution flow rate requirements. Also, dilution flow rate requirements may be reduced by enhancing room mixing with fans or altering air inlet configuration. However, mixing should not be increased if the altered room air currents could transport contaminants to an occupant's breathing zone or interfere with other control methods that depend on segregation of incoming air and contaminant. (100579)

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CIS 02-1779 Quality of indoor air... Something to be closely watched!. (French: La qualité de l'air intérieur... à surveiller!) Convergence - Revue de gestion de la santé-sécurité, Aug. 2002, Vol.18, No.3, p.1-19 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In French)

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This full issue is devoted to indoor air quality in workplaces in Quebec (Canada). Main topics covered: nature of indoor air contaminants; sources of indoor air pollutants; proactive prevention management; disorders due to poor indoor air quality; non-environmental variables associated with complaints concerning the quality of indoor air (stress, job dissatisfaction, psychogenic effects); evaluation of fungal contamination and preventive measures; advice for avoiding the degeneration of an indoor air quality problem into a crisis situation; information communication within the enterprise during interventions following a problem or a crisis; ventilation of premises and air renewal; compensation of disorders due to indoor air quality; right of refusal to work because of poor indoor air quality. (100507)

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CIS 02-1780 Diisocyanate emission from a paint product: A preliminary analysis. Jarand C.W., Akapo S.O., Swenson L.J., Kelman B.J., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.491-494. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate emission of 2,4-toluene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI), 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (2,6-TDI), and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) from a commercially available two-stage concrete coating. A laboratory model of an outdoor deck coating process was developed and isocyanate concentrations determined by reaction with 1-(2-methoxyphenol)- piperazine and subsequent high performance liquid chromatographic analysis with UV detection. The detection limit for 2,4-TDI and 2,6-TDI urea derivatives was 0.6µg TDI/g wet product, and 0.54µg IPDI/g wet product for the IPDI urea derivative. No 2,4-TDI or IPDI was detected in the mixed product. The 2,6-TDI emission rates per gram of wet product applied per hour after one hour, five hours and 15-hours were 0.32µg, 0.38µg and 0.02µg respectively. These emission rates should allow industrial hygienists to calculate exposures to isocyanates emitted from coating products. (100566)

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CIS 02-1781 A spectrophotometric method for the determination of organic soluble matter in bitumen fumes. Vu-Duc T., Huynh C.K., Lafontaine M., Bonnet P., Binet S., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.495-500. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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A UV spectrophotometric procedure was validated for the determination of organic soluble matter in bitumen fumes collected by filtration. Ultrasonic extraction was carried out with toluene, followed by UV absorbance measurements at 320nm. A calibration curve was plotted from the same set of samples determined by classical weighing method. Further determinations can also be made using the slope factor of the calibration curve. The procedure is simple and fast, and is less prone to losses than weight measurements. Inter-method comparisons of samples collected from experimental laboratory-generated bitumen fumes commonly used in road paving showed that the three available procedures for the determination of organic soluble matter, namely weighing, infrared and UV yield equivalent results. (100567)

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CIS 02-1782 Exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace: Serum cotinine by occupation. Wortley P.M., Caraballo R.S., Pederson L.L., Pechacek T.F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.503-509. 30 ref. (In English)

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To examine workplace exposure in the United States to second-hand smoke by occupation, data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988 to 1994), a nationally representative sample of the non-institutionalized population was analysed. The analysis was restricted to 4952 employed nonsmoking adults who reported no home exposure to cigarette smoke. Occupations were assigned to 40 groups and seven categories. Among the categories, geometric mean serum cotinine (ng/mL) ranged from 0.09 for farming/forestry/fishing occupations to 0.22 for operators/fabricators/labourers (median, 0.16). The lowest values were observed among farmers and nursery workers (0.06) and the highest among waiters (0.47). Between 1988 to 1991 and 1991 to 1994, the overall geometric mean cotinine and the proportion reporting that they could smell smoke at work decreased significantly. (100601)

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CIS 02-1783 Benzene exposure among mechanics - Atmospheric and biological monitoring. (French: Exposition au benzène chez les mécaniciens - Evaluation atmosphérique et surveillance biologique) Gaudin R., Ducos P., Francin J.M., Marsan P., Robert A., Nicot T., Lefèvre C., Lefebvre M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.27-36. Illus. 26 ref. (In French)

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This study on the evaluation of benzene exposure was carried out among 114 vehicle mechanics working in 37 garages. On each evening during a week of work, workers were questioned on the tasks they performed during the day. Daily samples of personal workplace air and urine were collected, the latter for the purposes of determining muconic acid excretion, which is an indicator of all modes of benzene exposure. Results indicate that the exposure to atmospheric benzene is moderate, but more pronounced among mechanics working in garages for motorcycles or agricultural equipment (0.14 and 0.16ppm respectively) than among those working in automobile garages (0.03ppm). Atmospheric concentrations were in agreement with urinary concentrations of muconic acid, which were 0.21, 0.27 and 0.09mg/L among mechanics at garages for motorcycles, agricultural equipment and automobiles, respectively. It is concluded that preventive measures should focus mainly on mechanics in motorcycle and agricultural equipment garages. (100642)

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CIS 02-1784 Potential hazards resulting from occupational exposure to acrolein. (Spanish: Posibles riesgos derivados de la exposición laboral a la acroleína) Vela Martínez M.M., Laborda Grima R., Prevención, July-Sep. 2002, No.161, p.56-62. Illus. 12 ref. (In Spanish)

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This article describes the characteristics, properties and health effects of acrolein together with sources of exposure, methods for determining environmental concentrations and means of limiting exposures. Contents: physical and chemical properties; reactivity; exposure limits (TLV = 0.1ppm); potential effects (acute effects, neurological effects, flammability); sources of exposure; method for the determination of acrolein in collected air samples; limitation of exposure (substitution, local ventilation, medical supervision). (100676)

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CIS 02-1785 Exposures and their determinants in radiographic film processing. Teschke K., Chow Y., Brauer M., Chessor E., Hirtle B., Kennedy S.M., Yeung M.C., Ward H.D., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.11-21. 25 ref. (In English)

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Radiographers process X-ray films using solutions that contain chemicals known to cause asthma. In this study, it was found that radiographers' average full-shift personal exposures to glutaraldehyde, acetic acid and sulfur dioxide were 0.0009mg/m3, 0.09mg/m3 and 0.08mg/m3, respectively, all more than one order of magnitude lower than current occupational exposure limits. Local exhaust ventilation of the processing machines and use of silver recovery units further lowered exposures, whereas the number of films processed per machine and the time spent near the machines increased exposures. Developments in digital imaging technology are making available options that do not involve wet-processing of photographic film and therefore could eliminate the use of developer and fixer chemicals altogether. (100681)

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CIS 02-1786 Selected mechanisms of genotoxic effects of inorganic arsenic compounds. Gradecka D., Palus J., Wąsowicz W., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.317-328. Illus. 71 ref. (In English)

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Chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic compounds is known to cause various tumours and diseases. In many regions of Asia and Latin America, the concentration of inorganic arsenic in drinking water considerably exceeds the standard of 50µg/L recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency. The genotoxicity of inorganic arsenic has been confirmed in vitro and in vivo, as well as in examinations of exposed populations. Inorganic arsenic increases the frequency of micronuclei, chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges both in humans and in animals. Various studies suggest that inorganic arsenic may intensify the toxic effects of other physical and chemical agents, especially by DNA repair inhibition. Besides, it is believed that inorganic arsenic compounds may cause changes in the cell redox potential and alter DNA methylation and phosphorylation of cell-cycle control proteins. Some data also suggest that inorganic arsenic increases cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Possible cytotoxic mechanisms of inorganic arsenic compounds are discussed. (100686)

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CIS 02-1787 Neurological and neurophysiological examinations of workers occupationally exposed to manganese. Sińczuk-Walczak, Jakubowski M., Matczak W., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.329-337. 16 ref. (In English)

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To assess the effects of manganese on the functions of the nervous system in exposed workers in the shipbuilding and electrical industries, 75 male workers, 62 welders and fitters and 13 workers involved in battery production, were studied. The control group consisted of 62 non-exposed men matched by age and work shift distribution. Of the 62 welding workers, 30 worked in the area with Mn concentrations exceeding the MAC value of 0.3mg/m3. In battery production, six subjects were subject to concentrations exceeding MAC values. Clinically, the increased emotional irritability, dysmnesia, concentration difficulties, sleepiness and limb paresthesia predominated among the disorders of the nervous system functions in exposed workers. Generalized and paroxysmal changes were the most common recordings in the abnormal electroencephalography. Visual evoked potentials examinations showed abnormalities which could be a signal of the optic neuron disorders. The results show that manganese exposures within the range of <0.01-2.67mg/m3 can induce sub-clinical effects on the nervous system. (100687)

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CIS 02-1788 Gene expression assay for hazard assessment of chemicals. Otsuka F., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.113-120. Illus. 49 ref. (In English)

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Recent progress in the understanding of gene expression systems provides evidence that many industrial chemicals affect the transcriptional machineries directly or indirectly, and gene expression is now recognized as one of the main targets of many chemicals. In view of the increasing number of man-made chemicals, it is therefore necessary to establish a reliable gene expression assay with rapidity and high sensitivity. Among various gene expression assays, the so-called reporter assay is now accepted as a suitable tool to assess hazardous effects of chemicals on gene expression. This article focuses on the principle and applications of the reporter assay in research on endocrine disrupters. (100724)

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CIS 02-1789 DNA microarray analysis of human gene expression induced by a non-lethal dose of cadmium. Yamada H., Koizumi S., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.159-166. 57 ref. (In English)

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Cadmium (Cd) is a hazardous heavy metal affecting many cellular functions, but little is known on cellular defense mechanisms. This article describes a study of a Cd-induced gene expression profile. Messenger RNA was prepared from HeLa cells exposed to a non-lethal dose of CdSO4, and analysed by the use of an array consisting of 7075 human cDNAs. Many stress response genes including those coding for metallothioneins and heat shock proteins were observed to be induced by Cd. The cellular metabolism inclined toward the synthesis of cysteine and glutathione after Cd exposure. Anti-oxidant genes also appeared to be induced to protect cell components and to quench reactive oxygen species. Ubiquitin pathway was activated as well probably to degrade proteins which might not be renatured. These data suggest that human cells mobilize every genomic resource to overcome cytotoxicity caused by Cd. (100728)

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CIS 02-1790 Adjustment of occupational exposure limits for unusual work schedules. Verma D.K., AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.367-374. Illus. 25 ref. (In English)

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During the past two decades, unusual work schedules have become widespread in many industries, particularly in the mining and petrochemical sectors, and to a lesser extent in other industries. Workers in such situations no longer work the traditional 8h shifts five days per week that are the basic assumptions of the occupational exposure limit setting process. This article consists of a review of literature relating to the issue of adjustments of exposure limits during unusual work schedules. Various adjustment models are presented and discussed, and a number of conclusions are drawn. Tables of adjustment factors for 34 specific contaminants for two unusual schedules are given, and a simple approach for use by industrial hygienists is proposed. (100793)

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CIS 02-1791 Development of a versatile method for the detection of nicotine in air. Pendergrass S.M., Krake A.M., Jaycox L.B., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.469-472. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

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Nicotine is present in environmental tobacco smoke and is used as a greenhouse insecticide. Exposure to nicotine can result in adverse health effects as nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, tachycardia, hypertension, convulsions and cardiac arrhythmia. This paper describes the development of an improved sampling and analytical methodology for nicotine, capable of accommodating the wide spread of nicotine levels and sampling requirements necessary to evaluate exposures among diverse occupational groups such as casino workers, airline flight attendants or greenhouse employees. A XAD-4 sorbent tube was selected for the collection of airborne nicotine. Analytical methodology for the separation, identification and quantification of nicotine by gas chromatography followed by either flame ionization detection or by nitrogen and phosphorous detection is described. This new method was published in the NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods. (100795)

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CIS 02-1792 Latex protein allergy and preventive measures. (Italian: Allergia alle proteine del lattice e percorsi di prevenzione) Previdi M., Marraccini P., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.108-119. 60 ref. (In Italian)

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A clinical and epidemiological outline of latex allergy and its management is presented. A feasibility analysis and a literature survey were made in a hospital of a latex-free stream. There is equipment available now, in particular non-powdered gloves with low levels of protein residue, which can minimize the occurrence of latex sensitization, especially in operating theatres. (100828)

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CIS 02-1793 Summary of recommendations for a rational implementation of the Ministry of Health guidelines for the prevention of occupational risks in the handling of antineoplastic drugs. (Italian: Sintesi delle indicazioni per una razionale applicazione delle Linee Guida Ministeriali sulla prevenzione dei rischi occupazionali nella manipolazione dei chemioterapici antiblastici) Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.137-148. 23 ref. (In Italian)

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With reference to the guidelines published by the Italian Ministry of Health for the safe handling of antineoplastic drugs, a working group of the Italian Society of Preventive Medicine for Health-Care Workers made recommendations for risk assessment, environmental and biological monitoring, and workplace and individual protection measures aimed at the reduction of exposure. In addition, there are proposals for education and training of health-care and technical personnel. (100832)

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CIS 02-1794 Biological monitoring of occupational exposure to sevoflurane. (Italian: Monitoraggio biologico dell'esposizione professionale a sevoflurane) Imbriani M., Zadra P., Negri S., Alessio A., Maestri L., Ghittori S., Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.173-180. Illus. 16 ref. (In Italian)

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In 18 operating theatres of Italian hospitals a workplace monitoring programme was undertaken of the inhalation anaesthetic sevoflurane and the determination of its urinary metabolite hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in 145 members of the staff. Tentatively, biological limit values of 160µg/L and 488µg/L of HFIP in urine correspond to the recommended exposure limits (NIOSH) for sevoflurane of 2ppm (when it is the only anaesthetic used) and 0.5ppm (when nitrous oxide is also used), respectively. Urinary concentration of HFIP could probably be used therefore as an adequate biological exposure index for sevoflurane. (100835)

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CIS 02-1795 Incidence of malignant mesothelioma (1980-1999) and asbestos exposure in 190 cases diagnosed in the population of Brescia province. (Italian: Incidenza del mesotelioma maligno (1980-1999) ed esposizione ad amianto in 190 casi diagnosticati in residenti nella provincia di Brescia) Barbieri P.G., Lombardi S., Candela A., Pezzotti C., Binda I., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.92, No.4, p.249-262. 60 ref. (In Italian)

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Annual frequency rates of mesothelioma were calculated for the 1980-1999 period in the Italian province of Brescia. They showed an increasing trend for the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in both sexes. This trend was not observed for peritoneal location. Only 7 cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in the same mesothelioma cases. Occupational asbestos exposure was evaluated as certain, probable or possible in 45% of total cases. Exposure occurred in sectors where asbestos was not used as raw material, such as construction, iron, steel and other metal working. No association between peritoneal mesotheliomas and heavy exposure to asbestos was observed. (100842)

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CIS 02-1796 Toluene, xylenes and xylene isomers in urine as biological indicators of low-level exposure to each solvent: A comparative study. Takeuchi A., Kawai T., Zhang Z.W., Miyama Y., Sakamoto K., Higashikawa K., Ikeda M., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.387-393. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to determine if xylenes and xylene isomers in end-of-shift urine are good biological indicators of low-level exposure to each solvent, similarly to toluene in urine. 86 furniture makers (76 men and ten women), participated in the study together with 11 non-exposed controls. Time-weighted average (8h TWA) exposures to mixtures of toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene and acetone were monitored with diffusive samplers for lipophilic and hydrophilic solvents, respectively. Urine samples were collected at the end of the shift and subjected to head-space gas chromatography analysis for each solvent. The exposure-excretion relationship was examined by simple as well as multiple regression analysis. Good correlations were found, indicating that biological monitoring of exposure by means of analysis of end-of-shift urine is possible, not only in the case of toluene as previously reported, but also in cases of xylenes, either for three isomers in combination or separately. (100983)

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CIS 02-1797 Exposure to asbestos and lung and pleural cancer mortality among pulp and paper industry workers. Carel R., Boffetta P., Kauppinen T., Teschke K., Andersen A., Jäppinen P., Pearce N., Andreassen Rix B., Bergeret A., Coggon D., Persson B., Szadkowska-Stanczyk I., Kielkowski D., Henneberger P., Kishi R., Facchini L.A., Sala M., Colin D., Kogevinas M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.579-584. 33 ref. (In English)

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The mortality from lung and pleural cancers in a cohort of 62,937 male workers employed for at least one year in the pulp and paper industry was studied in 13 countries from 1945 to 1996. Departments were classified according to probability and level of exposure to asbestos on the basis of available dust measurements and company-specific information on exposure circumstances. 36% of workers were classified as ever exposed to asbestos. Standardized mortality ratios of lung cancer were 0.99 among unexposed and 1.00 among ever exposed workers. The number of pleural cancer deaths among unexposed workers was 10; that among exposed workers was 14, most of which occurred among maintenance workers. In internal analyses, a trend in mortality from either neoplasm was suggested for cumulative exposure to asbestos. This study suggests that the carcinogenic effect of asbestos can be detected among workers employed in industries such as the pulp and paper industry, in which it is not considered to be a major hazard. (100608)

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CIS 02-1798 Assessment of the mutations of p53 suppressor gene and Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes in malignant mesothelioma in relation to asbestos exposure: A study of 12 American patients. Kitamura F., Araki S., Suzuki Y., Yokoyama K., Tanigawa Y., Iwasaki R., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.175-181. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

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To examine whether malignant mesothelioma due to asbestos have genetic alterations in the p53 suppressor gene and in Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes, point mutations of these genes in paraffin-embedded operative open biopsied samples of the primary tumor of malignant mesothelioma of twelve patients were analysed. The genetic analysis was conducted by the polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism method in all patients and by sequencing analysis of DNA bases in the two patients with suspected gene mutation. The analysis of the p53 suppressor gene showed an amino acid converting mutation of exon 7 in one patient and a polymorphism of exon 6 in another patient. No genetic alteration was found in exons 1 and 2 of Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes in any of the patients. The results suggest that the effects of asbestos exposure on the p53 suppressor gene and Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes in malignant mesothelioma are negligible. (100730)

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CIS 02-1799 Inhalation of decomposed chlorodifluoromethane (freon-22) and myocardial infarction. Sjögren S.B., Gunnare S., Sandler H., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2002, Vol.28, No.3, p.205-207.13 ref. (In English)

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After exposure to decomposed chlorodifluoromethane, a 65-year-old man developed respiratory symptoms such as cough, blood-stained sputum and increasing dyspnoea. Three weeks later, his family doctor diagnosed infectious bronchitis. Another week later he died due to myocardial infarction. The discussion focuses on an inflammatory process caused by the inhalation of decomposed chlorodifluoromethane and its possible association with myocardial infarction. (100740)

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CIS 02-1800 Racial differences in prevalence of a supratypic HLA-genetic marker immaterial to pre-employment testing for susceptibility to chronic beryllium disease. Weston A., Ensey J., Kreiss K., Keshava C., McCanlies E., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.457-465. Illus. 41 ref. (In English)

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A genetic polymorphism in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA), the DPβ1 gene, is known to be associated with berylliosis. The specific disease marker is called HLA-DPβ1E69. This article examines the predictive value of a pre-employment screening programme of a beryllium materials manufacturer in which applicants are tested for HLA-DPβ1E69. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses were used to determine HLA-DPβ1E69 population frequencies in various ethnic groups. Allelic/carrier frequencies were found to be 0.21/0.33, 0.24/0.40, 0.27/0.47 and 0.38/0.59 for Caucasians, African-Americans, Hispanics and Chinese, respectively. Ranges of positive predictive values for a genetic test based on HLA-DPβ1E69 in these populations were calculated to be 8.3-14.3% for carriers with an assumed disease frequency of 5%. For high risk subgroups with assumed disease frequencies of 15%, the range of positive predictive values was found to span between 24.9-43.0%. These estimates suggest that using HLA-DPβ1E69 genotyping for pre-employment screening has a low positive predictive value, which varies little among racial groups where carrier frequencies differ significantly. (100765)

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CIS 02-1801 Influence of solvent exposure and aging on cognitive functioning: An 18-year follow-up of formerly exposed floor layers and their controls. Nordling Nilson L., Sällsten G., Hagberg S., Bäckman L., Barregård L., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.59, No.1, p.49-57. Illus. 35 ref. (In English)

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To study the effects of long-term occupational exposure to organic solvents on cognitive impairment, a follow-up was conducted in 41 floor layers exposed to solvents and 40 carpenters as unexposed referents 18 years after the baseline assessment. The pattern of cognitive changes in the two groups was compared with neuropsychological tests investigating functional disorders. Additional exposure during the follow-up period was minor, as explored in interviews at follow-up. The performance of floor layers did not deteriorate significantly more over time than that of the carpenters. However, among the oldest subjects (>60 years), only floor layers showed decline in visual memory. Moreover, the most highly-exposed floor layers deteriorated significantly more than their referents in visual memory and perceptual speed, and they tended to display larger decrements in motor speed. Significant dose effect relations were found; higher cumulative exposure was associated with decrements in visual episodic memory, perceptual speed and attention, and visuospatial skill. (100810)

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CIS 02-1802 Smoking in the workplace: Study at a hospital in central Italy. (Italian: L'abitudine al fumo di tabacco nei luoghi di lavoro. Studio in un'Azienda Ospedaliera dell'Italia centrale) Muzi G., Dell'Omo M., Crespi E., Madeo G., Monaco A., Curradi F., Diodati R., Abbritti G., Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.54-60. Illus. 19 ref. (In Italian)

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Report of a survey in a general hospital in Central Italy on the smoking habits of 2743 employees. The prevalence of smokers was quite high in both men (36.0%) and women (36.7%). The highest prevalence was found among ward orderlies (45.2%) and nurses (38.9%), the lowest among doctors (26.3%). The role of industrial physicians in combating smoking is emphasized. (100825)

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CIS 02-1803 Effects of occupational exposure to organophosphate pesticides on nerve and muscular function. Peiris-John R.J., Ruberu D.K., Wickremasinghe A.R., Smit L.A.M., van der Hoek W., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.352-357. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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This study aimed to investigate whether occupational exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides caused neurophysiological abnormalities. 30 farmers who regularly spray OP pesticides and 30 fishermen (controls), living close by, were evaluated during and between cultivation seasons. The farmers had higher erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase levels than the controls during and between cultivation seasons. During the cultivation season, there was a significant reduction in erythrocyte acetylcholinesterase activity in both groups. Significant differences between the farmers and controls were found in sensory conduction velocity and motor conduction velocity between cultivation seasons. Sensory conduction velocity was reduced significantly in farmers and in controls during the cultivation season. Effects of OP poisoning were seen both in farmers and in controls who had no history of spray activities. Evidence of sensory dysfunction after acute exposure and sensory and motor impairment after long-term low-level exposure to OP was observed. (100896)

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CIS 02-1804 Asbestos-related diseases compensated by Electricité-de-France et Gaz-de-France: A retrospective 23-year study. (French: Les maladies professionnelles liés à l'amiante indemnisées à Electricité-de-France et Gaz-de-France: résultats d'une enquête rétrospective sur 23 ans) Saragoussi D., Chevalier A., de Chazal T., Hazard B., Lahon G., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2002, Vol.63, No.8, p.609-621. Illus. 25 ref. (In French)

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The purpose of this study was to characterize the trends in compensated asbestos-related diseases among employees of the French national electrical and gas utility (Electricité-de-France and Gaz-de-France, EDF-GDF), with respect to their nature and frequency, the age and sex of the victims, clinical peculiarities, exposure locations and duration, latency and lag times, levels and delays of compensation. A retrospective study was carried out involving the 704 cases compensated between 1977 and 2000 based on information obtained from the medical archives of the health insurance fund covering these industries. It was found that non-malignant pleural pathologies were the most frequent (68%), followed by pulmonary fibrosis (11.4%) and mesothelioma (11.2%). Lung cancer represented 9.3% of these diseases. There was a dramatic increase in overall frequency from 1996. Most persons who declare these occupational diseases are retired; their mean age is 61.6 years old and is significantly rising. The population is essentially male. Average exposure and latency times are 23.5 and 36.8 years, respectively. The mean compensation delay is 29.5 months but getting progressively shorter. (100905)

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CIS 02-1805 Benzene exposure and hematopoietic mortality: A long-term epidemiologic risk assessment. Rinsky R.A., Hornung R.W., Silver S.R., Tseng C.Y., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec 2002, Vol.42, No.6, p.474-480. 23 ref. (In English)

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Previous studies of a cohort of rubber industry workers indicated an association between benzene exposure and excess mortality from leukaemia and multiple myeloma. To determine whether risks remain elevated since plant shutdown, follow-up was extended from 1981 through 1996. Risks were evaluated using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and generalized Cox proportional hazards regression models. Five new leukaemia cases were observed in benzene-exposed white males, but the summary SMR for this group declined from 3.37 to 2.56. In regression models, cumulative exposure was significantly associated with elevated relative risks for leukaemia mortality. Four new multiple myeloma deaths occurred, three of which were in workers judged to be unexposed. These findings reaffirm the leukaemogenic effects of benzene exposure and suggest that excess risk diminishes with time. (100971)

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CIS 02-1806 Evaluation of self-reported skin problems among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) at a foam manufacturing facility. Daftarian H.S., Lushniak B.D., Reh C.M., Lewis D.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1197-1202. 30 ref. (In English)

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To investigate the dermal effects of toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a cross-sectional study was carried out at a polyurethane foam manufacturing plant. A totla of 114 workers completed a medical questionnaire and provided blood for antibody testing to TDI and other allergens. A subset of participants reporting skin symptoms underwent skin patch testing to a standard diisocyanate panel. Production line workers were more likely to report skin problems than those working in non-production areas (OR 2.66). Age, sex and duration of employment at the plant were comparable among participants working in production and non-production areas. Specific IgG antibody to TDI was detected in two individuals, while none of the samples demonstrated specific IgE antibody to TDI. Of the 26 workers who underwent skin patch testing, none developed reactions to the diisocyanate allergens. These results suggest that skin symptoms represent an irritant rather than an immunological reaction to TDI, or to an unidentified allergen present in the foam. (100998)

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CIS 02-1807 Personal respiratory equipment - Respiratory. Alam Khan M.M., INDOSHNEWS, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.6, No.4, p.5-11. 6 ref. (In English)

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This article provides an overview of respiratory protective equipment. Contents: classification of hazards for respiratory protection (oxygen-deficient work environment, toxic gases, airborne particulate matter, mixtures); types of respirators (air supplying respirators, air purifying respirators), respirator selection; maintenance and effective use of respirators. (100981)

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CIS 02-1808 Assessment of the ability of health care providers to treat and prevent adverse health effects of pesticides in agricultural areas of Tanzania. Ngowi A.V.F., Maeda D.N., Partanen T.J., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.14, No.4, p.349-356. 21 ref. (In English)

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A survey of Tanzanian health care providers in agricultural areas was undertaken in 1991-1994 to assess their knowledge of toxic effects of pesticides in order to develop effective strategies for reducing pesticide poisoning. Interviews were conducted with 104 physicians, clinical officers and nurses at health care facilities in the coffee and cotton growing areas. 80% of respondents reported to have seen one and 9% two or more cases of pesticide poisoning in the preceding three months. The respiratory tract was the major route for pesticide to enter the human body; this was followed by gastrointestinal tract, skin, and eyes. Only one of the respondents could identify the groups of pesticides mostly used in the study areas. The survey indicated that training of hospital staff in toxicity of pesticide exposure is an important task and a prerequisite for efficient recognition, diagnosis and treatment of pesticide poisoning cases in Tanzania. (100689)

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CIS 02-1809 Effects of safety behaviours with pesticide use on occurrence of acute symptoms in male and female tobacco-growing Malaysian farmers. Nordin R.B., Araki S., Sato H., Yokoyama K., Wan Muda W.A.M.B., Win Kyi D., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.182-190. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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The effects of safety behaviours associated with pesticide use on the occurrence of acute symptoms in 395 male and 101 female tobacco-growing farmers in Malaysia were studied. A 15-question checklist on safe pesticide-use behaviours and a 25-question checklist on acute symptoms reported shortly after spraying pesticides were used. Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analysis indicated that no smoking while spraying, good sprayer condition and changing clothes immediately after spraying significantly prevented occurrence of acute symptoms just after pesticide spray in male farmers; in female farmers, only wearing a hat while spraying significantly prevented the symptoms. Safety behaviours in pesticide use in male and female tobacco-growing farmers are discussed in the light of these findings. (100731)

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CIS 02-1810 Airborne allergic contact dermatitis from olaquindox in a rabbit breeder. Sánchez-Pérez J., Pascual López M., García-Díez A., Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.3, p.185. 6 ref. (In English)

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A 47-year-old rabbit breeder with no history of atopic dermatitis, psoriasis or drug intake reported that, eight months before, erythematous, scaly and pruritic patches had appeared symmetrically on the backs of his hands and fingers, and on the extensor aspects of his arms. Lesions had temporarily improved after treatment with oral and topical corticosteroids, with recurrence in the same areas on discontinuing therapy. The patient had worked on a rabbit farm for many years in contact with various types of dry food and, more recently; olaquindox powders at 10% in calcium carbonate. He used to powder several grams of olaquindox into the rabbits' water, by hand, to treat enteritis. He used this product irregularly and without wearing protective clothing or gloves. Positive patch tests were obtained to olaquindox 1%, which was negative in 20 control patients. The patient improved after avoidance of olaquindox and no new lesions have been observed at subsequent follow-ups. (100900)

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CIS 02-1811 Exposure of farmers to dust on private farms of various production profiles. Mołocznik A., Zagórski J., AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.2, p.151-161. Illus. 35 ref. (In English)

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http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/aaem0123.pdf

The objective of this study was to analyse exposure to dust on 10 Polish farms. It was found that mean weighted monthly concentrations of total dust ranged within 1.2-33.9mg/m3, and those of respirable dust from 0.3-4.0mg/m3, the highest values being observed in August and September. Farmers' exposure to total dust (7.7-21.9mg/m3) remained above the occupational exposure limit (4.0mg/m3). In the case of respirable dust, the results obtained showed allowable conditions. The highest level of exposure was noted on potato farms, followed by traditional farms carrying out mixed production, while the lowest level of exposure was observed on farms engaged in dairy cattle breeding. (100938)

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CIS 02-1812 Predictors of herbicide exposure in farm applicators. Arbuckle T.E., Burnett R., Cole D., Teschke K., Dosemeci M., Bancej C., Zhang J., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.406-414. 28 ref. (In English)

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The purpose of this study was to identify factors likely to affect exposure to herbicides under actual field conditions and to measure the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported indications of exposure against urinary measures of herbicide exposure. Immediately prior, and subsequent to, the handling of the phenoxy-herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) or 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) for the first time during the season, 126 pesticide applicators provided pre-exposure spot urine samples and a subsequent consecutive 24h urine sample. At the same time, they completed a questionnaire on handling practices for the first day of pesticide application. It was found that pesticide formulation, use of protective equipment, the type of application equipment, handling practices, and personal hygiene practices were significant as predictors of urinary herbicide levels in the first 24h after application had been initiated. (100984)

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CIS 02-1813 Exposure to dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in softwood lumber mills. Demers P.A., Teschke K., Davies H.W., Kennedy S.M., Leung V., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.521-528. Illus. 40 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to assess exposure to potential respiratory hazards in a large lumber mill processing spruce, pine and fir. Personal samples of inhalable particulate were collected to measure exposure to dust and resin acids (abietic acid and pimaric acid). Passive dosimeters were used to measure exposure to α-pinene, β-pinene, Δ3-carene and other unidentified wood volatiles believed to be monoterpenes. The mean concentration of inhalable particulates was 1.0mg/m3 whereas the mean abietic acid, pimaric acid and estimated wood dust levels were 7.2µg/m3, 0.6µg/m3 and 0.5mg/m3, respectively. The mean values of the monoterpene samples were 0.1mg/m3 for α-pinene, 0.3mg/m3 for β-pinene, 0.1mg/m3 for Δ3-carene and 0.5mg/m3 for the unidentified wood volatiles. Monoterpene exposures were much lower than those observed in other studies conducted in Sweden and Finland. The results highlight the importance of considering the content of airborne particulates in lumber mills as well as potential exposure to wood chemicals. (100797)

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CIS 02-1814 FREMAP FTIR method/direct reading for the analysis of the respirable fraction of crystalline silica. (Spanish: Método FREMAP FTIR/lectura directa para el análisis de sílice cristalina, en fracción respirable) Serrador Ramo J., Sempere Fenoll L., Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.86, p.19-25. Illus. 11 ref. (In Spanish)

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This analytical method for measuring the respirable fraction of crystalline silica makes it easy to determine the fraction of dust capable of rapidly reaching the lung alveoli. It involves the direct reading of a sample using a FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectrometer. Samples are deposited on a membrane using a cyclone. The IR spectrum of each membrane is recorded before and after the deposit of the sample. The difference between the two recordings corresponds to the contaminants. The results given by this method are comparable to those given by the traditional method involving the analysis of KBr pellets, while at the same time requiring less handling and eliminating the variations due to multiple handling. (100712)

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CIS 02-1815 Dust exposure, pneumoconiosis and lung cancer: An epidemiological study in the Saarland hard coal mining industry. (German: Staubexposition, Pneumokoniose und Lungenkrebs: Eine epidemiologische Studie aus dem Saarländischen Steinkohlenbergbau) Morfeld P., Lampert K., Emmerich M., Reischig H.L., Klinkner H.G., Bauer H.D., Stegmaier C., Ziegler H., Dhom G., Piekarski C., Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2002, Vol.52, No.10, p.382-397. Illus. 36 ref. (In German)

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This study examines the relationship between exposure to dust and lung cancer mortality among coal miners in the German State (Land) of Saarland. The follow-up of the mortality of a cohort of 4581 miners was carried out between 1980 and 1998. The standardized mortality ratio was 0.80 overall, 0.80 for cancer and 0.79 for lung cancer. Exposures to coal and quartz dusts were evaluated by various techniques. Average concentrations of 2.79mg/m3 and 0.23mg/m3 were found for coal and quartz dusts, respectively. 95,455 chest radiographs were re-evaluated according to ILO classification criteria. There was a 23.5% risk of coal miners' pneumoconiosis after 40 years of working underground. It was not possible to prove a direct causal relationship between pulmonary fibrosis and the risk of lung cancer. However, coal miners' pneumoconiosis could represent a biological marker of lung susceptibility to lung cancer. Interactions between dust exposures, pneumoconiosis and cancer risk need to be studied further. (100771)

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CIS 02-1816 Some health hazards of manganese exposure among Egyptian workers. Ibrahim K.S., El-Attar M.S., El-Din El-Anwar Amin H., El-Mishad A.M., Abd-Alla H.M., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.3-4, p.228-236. 35 ref. (In English)

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Health hazards due to manganese exposure were examined in 69 male workers employed in the iron and steel industry (mean duration of exposure 18.42±6.6 yr) and in 31 healthy workers as a control group. Both groups underwent full clinical examination. Blood analyses comprising haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, red and white blood cell counts, differential leukocyte cell count, determination of manganese and the determination of IgG and IgM, as well as pulmonary ventilatory function tests were performed. In the exposed group, blood cell counts and Hb levels showed a statistically significant reduction as compared to the control group, while serum immunoglobulin levels showed a statistically significant elevation. There was no correlation between the blood manganese concentration and any of the other parameters mentioned above. The values of the pulmonary ventilatory function tests (FEV1, FVC/VC%, FEV1/FVC%) were significantly reduced in the exposed workers. (100512)

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CIS 02-1817 Mist generation at a machining center. Heitbrink W.A., D'Arcy J.B., Yacher J.M., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.22-30. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

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In this study on metalworking fluid aerosols, particle size and concentration were measured at an enclosed machining centre. The air from this enclosure was exhausted into a duct where aerosol concentration and size distribution were measured using a aerosol spectrometer and a cascade impactor. Aerosol generation during the face milling of a piece of aluminum was studied. Different machining parameters were studied, including coolant flow rate, tool rpm and degree of metal removal. It was found that aerosol concentration increased with increasing tool speed and fluid application velocity. Metal removal did not affect aerosol generation. During a second experiment, the effect of tool speed and diameter on aerosol generation was studied. Concentrations measured were proportional to the square of the tool speed. Size distribution was largely unaffected by the experimental variables. (100592)

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CIS 02-1818 Mist control at a machining center, Part 1: Mist characterization; Part 2: Mist control following installation of air cleaners. Heitbrink W.A., Yacher J.M., Deye G.J., Spencer A.B., Burroughs G.E., AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.275-289. Illus. 43 ref. (In English)

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The mists generated by a synthetic metalworking fluid (MWF), consisting primarily of water and triethanolamine (TEA), used at a machining centre producing transmission parts were analysed for concentration, particle size and distribution. This information was used to select an air cleaner for controlling the mist, which was installed in more than 25 machining centres. The facility also implemented a maintenance program for the air cleaners that involved regularly scheduled filter changes. Air sampling evaluation showed that area TEA concentrations were reduced from 0.25 to 0.03 mg/m3, and personal air particulate concentrations were reduced from 0.22 to 0.06 mg/m3. These results show the effectiveness of this combination of enclosure, ventilation and filtration in significantly reducing exposure to MWF mist generated in modern machining centres. (100600)

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CIS 02-1819 Lead levels in body fluids of workers of an automobile factory with clinically diagnosed arterial hypertension. Wójcik A., Brzeski Z., Sieklucka-Dziuba M., AAEM - Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.2, p.285-287. 12 ref. (In English)

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http://www.aaem.pl/pdf/aaem0140.pdf

The aim of the study was to evaluate lead levels in body fluids of workers diagnosed with various stages of arterial hypertension who had been subjected to long-term lead exposure at different workplaces. The examination of the patients included medical history, physical examination and biochemical tests of blood and urine in order to assess medical condition in terms of sub-clinical symptoms of lead exposure. No significant differences in mean values of lead in the blood and urine of the studied population compared to the control group. The results do not allow to conclude the existence of an effect of occupational exposure to lead in sub-threshold doses on the development of arterial hypertension, and were within recommended hygiene standards. (100939)

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CIS 02-1820 Workers' understanding of chemical risks: Electroplating case study. Sadhra S., Petts J., McAlpine S., Pattison H., MacRae S., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.59, No.10, p.689-695. 23 ref. (In English)

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The understand individuals' knowledge and beliefs about chemical risks in small companies, this study focused on the chrome plating sector. It involved face to face interviews with workers, structured questionnaires to test the prevalence of beliefs identified in the interviews, an expert questionnaire, and a workshop to discuss findings. Workers' responses were compared with those of occupational health and safety experts. Although chromium platers appeared to understand the short-term adverse effects of the chemicals to which they are exposed based primarily on experience, their understanding of chronic effects was incomplete. They were aware of the hazardous nature of the chemicals with which they work, but had difficulties articulating the effects of these chemicals and how exposure might occur. A significant minority of workers displayed deficiencies in understanding key technical terms used in safety data sheets. New risk information needs to be designed which addresses the information needs of workers while being written in terms they understand. (100979)

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CIS 02-1821 Residential and commercial painters' exposure to lead during surface preparation. Scholz P.F., Materna B.L., Harrington D., Uratsu C., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.22-28. Illus. 25 ref. (In English)

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This article describes a project aimed at preventing lead poisoning among residential and commercial painters. Full-shift personal samples were collected from 25 participants, with 8-hr TWA results ranging from 0.8 to 550µg/m3 (arithmetic mean: 57µg/m3). Six of the 25 samples (24%) were above the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit of 500µg/m3, all involving dry manual sanding or uncontrolled power sanding. 30-minute task-specific samples also were collected. The value for uncontrolled power sanding as 580µg/m3 respectively, while that of power sanding using high-efficiency particulate-arresting (HEPA) respirators was 33µg/m3. These results are cause for concern because these surface preparation methods are widely performed wearing only half-mask respirators, while the use of HEPA respirators would reduce paint dust exposure levels by approximately 80 to 90%. These tools should be more widely promoted as a safer alternative work method. (100682)

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CIS 02-1822 Different measures of asbestos exposure in estimating risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among construction workers. Koskinen K., Pukkala E., Martikainen R., Reijula K., Karjalainen A., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1190-1196. 20 ref. (In English)

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To analyse occupation, expert-evaluated cumulative exposure and radiographic abnormalities as indicators of asbestos-related cancer risk, a cohort of 16,696 construction workers was followed in 1990-2000. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) in comparison to the Finnish population and relative risks (RR) in a multivariate analysis in comparison to the internal low-exposure category of each indicator were calculated. Overall, the risk was increased for mesothelioma (SIR 2.0) but not for lung cancer (SIR 1.1). Radiographic lung fibrosis indicated a two-fold and a high value of the exposure index, and a three-fold RR of lung cancer, while there was no risk among those with pleural plaques. The risk of lung cancer was the highest in insulators (RR 3.7). (100997)

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CIS 02-1823 Causal relationship between a case of severe hepatic dysfunction and low exposure concentrations of N,N-dimethylformamide in the synthetics industry. Nomiyama T., Uehara M., Miyauchi H., Imamiya S., Tanaka S., Seki Y., Industrial Health, Jan. 2001, Vol.39, No.1, p.33-36. 12 ref. (In English)

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A 19-year-old man suffered hepatic dysfunction after five months of exposure to dimethylformamide (DMF) at his job in the synthetic resins industry. Medical examinations and laboratory data revealed elevated levels of AST (578IU/L), ALT (1193IU/L), and γ-GTP (107IU/L), no viral infection with HAV, HBV, or HCV, and no history or evidence of hepatic injury, although he did have a slight abdominal abnormality and swelling which was detected by palpation. His urinary methylformamide level, as a biological exposure index of DMF, was 42.8mg/L, indicating 10-30ppm of DMF exposure. After two months, the worker was reinstated in a workplace where environmental DMF concentrations were less than those in the former workplace. On the 18th day after his reinstatement, there was again evidence of hepatic dysfunction. After the second period of medication and one month of rest from work, he had fully recovered and was reinstated, but to a workshop without DMF exposure. (100516)

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CIS 02-1824 A study of the substitution of trichloroethylene as a spot remover in the textile industry. Mirza T., Gérin M., Bégin D., Drolet D., AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.431-438. 46 ref. (In English)

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Since the ban on 1,1,1-trichloroethane, the textile industry is using trichloroethylene (TCE) as a spot remover to clean oil and grease stains from fabrics at inspection stations. TCE is a toxic substance recently classified as a probable human carcinogen. The purpose of this study was to use a systematic substitution procedure to replace TCE with a less hazardous substance for spot removing in a textile company. Four options were considered: 1-bromopropane, a petroleum-based solvent, a hydrochlorofluorocarbon-based solvent and an appliance that dispenses hot steam. After being tested in the workplace and evaluated on their technical effectiveness and impact on health, safety and the environment, the four options were not considered as suitable replacements for TCE. Local ventilation with the implementation of further measures for the reduction and elimination of stains at the source were recommended to lower TCE exposure for workers. (100794)

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CIS 02-1825 Possible adverse effects of chromium in occupational exposure of tannery workers. Kornhauser C., Wróbel Kat., Wróbel Kaz., Malacara J.M., Nava L.E., Gómez L., González R., Industrial Health, Apr. 2002, Vol.40, No.2, p.207-213. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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To investigate the adverse effects of occupational exposure to trivalent chromium, three groups of healthy male non-smoking tannery workers were studied: 15 with high levels of exposure, 14 moderately-exposed and 11 unexposed. Chromium and iron levels in serum and urine and haemoglobin levels were determined. Higher serum chromium levels were observed in the highly- and moderately-exposed groups compared to the unexposed group (mean values respectively: 0.43, 0.25 and 0.13µg/L). Urinary chromium levels in the highly-exposed group were higher than those in controls (mean values 1.78 and 1.35µg/L). In the highly-exposed group, an inverse association was found between serum chromium and urinary iron, urinary chromium and haemoglobin and between the urinary chromium to iron ratio and haemoglobin. The results suggest a chromium adverse effect on iron metabolism, possibly associated with excessive body chromium accumulation. In conclusion, chromium urine tests could be recommended for diagnosis of the adverse effects of chromium on iron metabolism. (100732)

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CIS 02-1826 Occupational protein contact dermatitis from spices in a butcher: A new presentation of the mugwort-spice syndrome. Anliker M.D., Borelli S., Wüthrich B., Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.72-74. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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In addition to well-known contact dermatitis due to exposure to meat, spices are also a source of potential contact allergy among butchers. A case of contact dermatitis due to spice mix in a 39-year-old butcher is presented. The patient underwent skin prick testing (SPT) with standard allergens and different meat and spice extracts, and scratch-patch testing with spice mix containing glutamate, paprika and other spices. Specific serum-IgE was measured. SPT only showed an immediate-type sensitization to mugwort, as well as different spices and camomile. Scratch-patch tests were negative for different meats, but strongly positive for spice mix after 30min (wheal and flare) and after 48h (infiltration and vesiculation). The tests demonstrate an IgE-mediated contact allergy to spices but also a delayed type allergy to spice mix as a manifestation of the mugwort-spice syndrome in this individual. When testing for occupational dermatitis in butchers, protein contact allergy to spices must also be taken into consideration. (100804)

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CIS 02-1827 Skin protection in bakers' apprentices. Bauer A., Kelterer D., Bartsch R., Pearson J., Stadeler M., Kleesz P., Elsner P., Williams H., Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2002, Vol.46, No.2, p.81-85. 26 ref. (In English)

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To study skin protection and skin care measures among first year bakers' apprentices, apprentices were assigned either to a skin protection group trained in skin protection measures trained (n=39) or to a control group (n=55) and followed-up during four months. Barrier cream use in the skin protection group reached 100% by the end of the examination period. At that time, only 3.2% of the controls used barrier creams. The level of acceptance of protective gloves (skin protection group 43.3%; controls 32.3%) was considerably lower than that of barrier creams. The initial level of regular skin care was high in both groups (skin protection group 67.6%, controls 61.7%). After the intervention, the acceptance of skin care rose to 88.9% in the skin protection group compared to 68.1% in the controls. It is concluded that high rates in the compliance of skin protection measures can be achieved through intervention. (100805)

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CIS 02-1828 Engineering controls for furniture strippers to meet the OSHA methylene chloride PEL. Estill C.F., Watkins D.F., Shulman S.A., Kurimo R.W., Kovein R.J., AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.326-333. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

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This case study demonstrates how methylene chloride exposures during furniture stripping can be reduced to below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 25ppm (as an eight-hour time-weighted average). Five surveys were conducted at one facility; the first four resulted in employee exposure geometric means from 39 to 332ppm. For the fifth survey, local exhaust ventilation was used at the stripping tank and the rinsing area, which together exhausted 138m3/min. Additional control measures were taken, including the provision of adequate make-up air, addition of paraffin wax to the stripping solution, raising the level of the stripping solution in the tank and discussion of good work practices with the employees. The employees' methylene chloride exposures during the fifth survey resulted in a geometric mean of 5.6ppm with a 95% upper confidence limit of 8.3ppm, which was found to be significantly lower than the OSHA PEL and the OSHA action level of 12.5ppm. The cost of the ventilation system was USD 8900. (100519)

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CIS 02-1829 Biological versus ambient exposure monitoring of creosote facility workers. Borak J., Sirianni G., Cohen H., Chemerynski S., Jongeneelen F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.310-319. Illus. 37 ref. (In English)

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Traditional methods for monitoring occupational creosote exposure have focused on inhalation. However, there is evidence that dermal exposure makes a major contribution to total systemic dose, as measured by biological monitoring methods. This study was conducted to further characterize the relationship between inhalation and dermal exposures to creosote, and to compare traditional ambient exposure monitoring versus biological monitoring in 36 creosote-exposed wood treatment workers. Full-shift personal air samples were obtained, along with post-shift and next-day urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene. There was little or no correlation between airborne measures and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. More than 90% of 1-hydroxypyrene could be attributed to dermal exposure. These data indicate that traditional monitoring methods may be inappropriate for creosote workers, raising concerns about the adequacy of methods currently mandated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. (100891)

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CIS 02-1830 Respiratory symptoms and dust exposure among male workers in small-scale wood industries in Tanzania. Rongo L.M.B., Besselink A., Douwes J., Barten F., Msamanga G.I., Dolmans W.M.V., Demers P.A., Heederik D., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1153-1160. 25 ref. (In English)

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Few studies have assessed respiratory symptoms and dust exposure levels in small-scale wood industry workers in Africa. In this study, 546 Tanzanian workers exposed to wood dust and 565 unexposed controls were interviewed using a respiratory health questionnaire. Inhalable dust measurements were collected in the breathing air of 106 workers. The dust exposure was high, and job title-based geometric mean exposure levels ranged from 2.9 to 22.8mg/m3. Prevalence of respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months was significantly higher in the exposed group compared with the controls. Allergy and sensitivity symptoms were reported regularly in the exposed group with odds ratios varying from 2.4 for low- and 2.7 for high-exposure groups compared with controls. It is concluded that working in the small-scale wood industry in Tanzania is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms. (100995)

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CIS 02-1831 Determination of firefighter exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and benzene during fire fighting using measurement of biological indicators. Caux C., O'Brien C., Viau C., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, May 2002, Vol.17, No.5. p.379-386. Illus. 32 ref. (In English)

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Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene among firefighters was assessed by means of urinary measurements of 1-hydroxypyrene and trans,trans-muconic acid (TTMA), respectively. All urine samples were collected from 43 firefighters during a period extending for 20h following the end of exposure during a fire. A control sample was also obtained from each participant after at least four days without involvement in fire fighting activities. Following exposure to fire, the level of 1-hydroxypyrene exceeded 0.32µmol/mol creatinine value in 38% of the cases. 17 firefighters had measurable TTMA in the urine samples, among which only 6 had concentrations exceeding 1.1mmol/mol creatinine considered to correspond to a benzene concentration of approximately 1ppm. The low exposure evaluations could be due to either low concentrations of the contaminants during fire fighting or to the efficiency of protective equipment worn. (100580)

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CIS 02-1832 Recycling of electrical and electronic scrap - Problems due to heavy metals and brominated dioxins. (German: Recycling von Elektro- und Elektronikschrott - Schwermetalle und bromierte Dioxine bereiten Probleme) Tischer M., Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, 2001, No.2, p.3-5. (In German)

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This article is a summary of a study on the exposure to dust and harmful substances in Germany during the disassembly and shredding of discarded electrical and electronic equipment. Dust samples were taken in 16 plants at critical workplaces which had been identified in an earlier study of work procedures. Heavy-metal concentrations were determined in the dust samples. Dust samples taken in the vicinity of the shredder were also analysed for polychlorinated biphenyls, chlorinated dioxins and furans, and brominated dioxins. The concentrations of fine dust that penetrates into the alveoles were below the limit of 6mg/m3 in all plants studied. The 10mg/m3 recommended limit for total respirable dust was exceeded by 5% of the measurements. The exposure to heavy metals was low when old refrigerators or washing machines were dismantled, but it was extremely high during processing of television tubes. While the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls and chlorinated dioxins complied with exposure limits, those of brominated dioxins were above the limit in one third of the samples. (100777)

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CIS 02-1833 The evolution of occupational health and prevention in Italy. Primary trends: Adverse effects related to exposure to low levels of toxics. Castellino N., Iavicoli I., Zentralblatt für Arbeitsmedizin, Arbeitsschutz und Ergonomie, Oct. 2002, Vol.52, No.10, p.398-403. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

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This article describes the organization of occupational medicine in Italy and presents the priority areas for further research in the field of occupational medicine and occupational safety and health (biological effects of exposure to low concentrations of toxic substances, environmental and biological hazard monitoring systems, posture analysis, enterprise first aid centres, prevention of accidents). Several research findings in the area of lead metabolism and of exposure to low concentrations of lead are discussed in more detail. (100772)

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CIS 02-1834 IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Man-made vitreous fibres. World Health Organization (WHO), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2002. vii, 418p. Illus. Approx. 500 ref. Index., ISBN 92-832-1281-9 (In English)

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This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 9-16 October 2001 on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans of man-made vitreous fibres. Special-purpose glass fibres such as E-glass and 475-glass, as well as refractory ceramic fibres were rated 2B (possibly carcinogenic in humans); insulation glass wool, continuous glass filaments, rock wool and slag wool were rated 3 (not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans). (100611)

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CIS 02-1835 The National Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) - First Report. (Italian: Registro nazionale dei mesoteliomi (ReNaM). Primo rapporto) Nesti M., Marinaccio A., Silvestri S., eds., Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza del Lavoro (ISPESL), via Urbana 167, 00184 Roma, Italy, 2001. 127p. + 119p. Bibl. ref. (In English, Italian)

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This is the first report of the Italian Register of mesothelioma cases, covering the incidence of the disease for the period 1993-1996. The Register was established following the provisions of Directive 83/477/EEC (see CIS 84-327) and of Italian Law No. 277/91 (see CIS 93-1404). For this first report, the Register covers only five Italian regions (Emilia-Romagna, Liguria, Piedmont, Puglia and Tuscany), representing 31% of the country's population. It includes 991 cases of the disease, of which 747 were malignant pleural mesothelioma. The mean age of victims was 64 years, with a male-female ratio of 2.57:1. Beside work-related exposures to asbestos, numerous cases of non-occupational exposure were identified. (100846)

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CIS 02-1836 Recent development of exposure to gasoline in the distribution chain. Saarinen L., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. 68p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-491-X (In English)

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Gasoline is a complex mixture of aliphatic and cyclo-aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons (primarily benzene) and methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the exposure to these substances among tank truck drivers delivering gasoline to service stations as well as harbour and storage depot workers. Samples were collected in the workers' breathing zone. Tank truck drivers typically are involved in three loading or unloading operations per day, lasting an average of half an hour. During these tasks, the concentration of C3-C11 hydrocarbons, MTBE and benzene varied between 5-500, 1-20mg/m3 and 0.25-17.5mg/m3 respectively. The exposure of harbour and depot workers was significantly lower. Exposure levels have decreased considerably in recent years with the introduction of vapour recovery systems. (100552)

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CIS 02-1837 EH64 summary criteria for occupational exposure limits - EH64 supplement 2002. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. Loose -leaf collection, 249p. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2372-6 (In English)

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This loose-leaf document represents the latest annual update to the summaries of toxicological data considered in setting occupational exposure limits for substances hazardous to health (for the original publication, see CIS 96-1434). Updates are provided for 90 substances. Data include: chemical identity and properties; occurrence, production and use; exposure and control; measurement; toxicokinetics; health effects; basis for setting exposure limits. (100586)

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CIS 02-1838 QSARs in the assessment of the environmental fate and effects of chemicals. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 1998. 136p. Approx 300 ref. (In English)

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Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) are based on a comparison of the structure or a specific physical or chemical property of a substance with a measured endpoint, which may be another property or a biological effect. This report discusses some of the issues that arise in the development, selection and use of QSARs. It concludes that QSARs need to be developed in the following areas: metabolism in fish; bio-concentration including metabolism in organisms other than fish; microbial breakdown of chemicals; soil-water partitioning, including kinetics; aquatic photolysis; effects on terrestrial organisms, sediment-dwelling organisms and marine organisms. (100669)

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CIS 02-1839 Monitoring and modelling of industrial organic chemicals, with particular reference to aquatic risk assessment. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Jan. 1999. 103p. Illus. 129 ref. (In English)

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Alongside fate and exposure models, monitoring and laboratory data each have their specific roles to play in comprehensive risk assessments. The general principle concerning risk assessment data is that measured data should take precedence over model results but only after they are judged to be of adequate reliability. In practice, laboratory and field result data are used to provide parameters for the models, while monitoring data are used to validate the models' predictions. Comprehensive risk assessments therefore require the integration of laboratory and monitoring data with the model predictions. This report provides guidance on the general principles that should be adopted when planning a monitoring project, with particular reference to aquatic pollution risk assessment. (100670)

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CIS 02-1840 Dermal exposure resulting from liquid contamination. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 63p. Illus. 31 ref. Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-2530-3 (In English)

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To estimate dermal exposure to pesticides during spraying applications, it is critical to know the fraction of the amount deposited on a worker's clothing that actually reaches the skin. The objective of this project was to evaluate dermal exposure to pesticides by using an articulated mannequin to replicate realistic spraying conditions. Patches were affixed to different locations on the mannequin, and a simulated pesticide formulation was sprayed with the mannequin unclothed and wearing different types of protective clothing. Data from this study can be used for evaluating the protection factor of work clothing. (100581)

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CIS 02-1841 Pesticides in greenhouses - Characterization of the exposure of workers and evaluation of re-entry times. (French: Pesticides en milieu serricole - Caractérisation de l'exposition des travailleurs et évaluation des délais de réentrée) Samuel O., St-Laurent L., Dumas P., Langlois E., Gingras G., Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Oct. 2002. [1 vol. ] Illus. 116 ref., ISBN 2-551-21640-0 (In French)

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http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-315.pdf

Botanical garden workers are subject to health hazards resulting from their exposure to pesticides in confined spaces such as greenhouses. In this study, the behaviour of foliar residues was evaluated for several representative pesticides between the time of application and of the re-entry of workers in the greenhouses. Skin exposure risks were evaluated by a hand washing method as well as through the use of a fluorescent marker. Workers' total exposure was determined by measuring urinary metabolites excreted over a post-exposure period of 24 hours. Cholinesterase activity variations were measured in cases where organophosphorus insecticides were applied. Results show that workers remain exposed when returning to greenhouses the day after applying pesticides. However, the levels of exposure measured are generally low. Use of gloves would allow to further decrease the level of exposure. Several other preventive measures are proposed. (100754)

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CIS 02-1842 Evaluation of carbon monoxide produced during work with explosives. (French: Evaluation de la production de monoxyde de carbone associée aux travaux aux explosifs) Martel R., Sanfaçon G., Schnebelen M., Trépanier L., Lévesque B., Lavigne M.A., Boutin L.C., Gauvin D., Galarneau L., Auger P., Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2002. iv, 41p. Illus. 10 ref. An electronic version of the report in PDF format is also included on a CD-ROM., ISBN 2-551-21639-7 (In French)

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http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-314.pdf.

Carbon monoxide (CO) generated by explosives can migrate underground and accumulate in confined spaces. Over a five-year period in Quebec, there were a number of incidents where residents were strongly indisposed, and seven persons were sufficiently intoxicated to require hyperbaric treatment. This hazard is probably more widespread than is generally recognized, considering the lack of understanding of the problem, the insidious nature of CO poisoning and the large number of explosions (between 1000 and 1500) carried out each year in the course of civil engineering work in Quebec. This report includes the results of several studies: a retrospective study of CO poisonings based on data from various sources, a study on CO measurements carried out at construction sites using explosives and a study of various methods for limiting the propagation of CO in fractured rock in the vicinity of work with explosives. The main recommendations are aimed at civil engineering contractors and concern the implementation of procedures for limiting CO propagation. Certain appendices are available only in electronic version. (100753)

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CIS 02-1843 Fighting smoking in the enterprise: A guide. (French: La lutte contre le tabac en entreprise: le guide) Dautzenberg B, Editions Margaux Orange, 20 rue du Mail, 75002 Paris, France, 2000. xviii, 194p. Illus. Index., ISBN 2-914206-00-3 (In French)

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This guide is aimed at all persons involved in fighting smoking in the workplace. It provides useful information and describes practical projects in the area of smoking prevention and helping workers quit smoking, information on legislation and information on managing conflicts. It comprises four parts: reasons for fighting tobacco consumption in the workplace (health hazards, passive smoking, tobacco-free enterprises, nicotine-based substitution products); how to help smokers quit (information, weaning, anxiety and depressive disorders), legal context (legislation and regulations against smoking in France, consensus conference on the means of helping to quit smoking). Appendices include texts of various laws on fighting tobacco consumption. (100540)

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CIS 02-1844 The compilation of safety data sheets (Third Edition) - CHIP3 approved code of practice. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 2002. vi, 28p. 33 ref. Price: GBP 7.95., ISBN 0-7176-2371-8 (In English)

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This approved code of practice provides practical guidance on regulations 5 and 6 of the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging) Regulations 2002 (CHIP3) concerning legal responsibilities of suppliers of hazardous substances with respect to the obligation of compiling chemical safety data sheets. Contents: introduction and scope; supply of safety data sheets (suppliers, recipients, substances requiring a safety data sheet, information to be included on the safety data sheet, headings, information under the headings); provision of the safety data sheet; provisions applicable to substances and preparations sold through shops or other retail outlets. (100588)

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CIS 02-1845 Approved classification and labelling guide (Fifth edition) - CHIP 3 guidance on regulations. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 5th ed., 2002. vi, 62p.18 ref. Price: GBP 10.50., ISBN 0-7176-2369-6 (In English)

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This approved guide presents the general principles of classification and labelling as required by the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging) Regulations 2002 (CHIP3). It closely follows the European Commission's "Labelling Guide", namely Annex VI to Directive 67/548/EEC and its adaptations to technical progress (see CIS 01-962 for the most recent adaptation). It is addressed at manufacturers, importers and other suppliers who have responsibilities for the classification and labelling of dangerous substances and preparations. Contents: introduction and scope; classification on the basis of physical and chemical properties; classification on the basis of health effects. (100589)

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CIS 02-1846 Code of practice for the distribution of hazardous chemicals. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 1999. 20p., ISBN 9971-67-756-3 (In English)

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This standard consists of guidelines to help enterprises integrate their quality, safety, health and environmental systems for the handling and distribution of hazardous chemicals. Contents: scope; definitions; management system; applicable statutory requirements and codes of practice. (100613)

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CIS 02-1847 Code of practice for entry into and safe working in confined spaces. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 2000. 19p. Illus. 4 ref., ISBN 9971-67-778-4 (In English)

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This standard consists of guidelines for entering confined spaces and working safely in them. It is based on a four-stage approach: identification of confined spaces; evaluation of hazards; development and implementation of control measures; development of an effective emergency plan. Contents: scope; definitions; identification of confined spaces (warning signs, openings, lighting); procedures for entering into a confined space (written procedures, hazard identification, entry permits, testing of confined atmospheres, authorization to work, name tags, retrieval systems, confined spaces unused for a significant period of time); ventilation; training; attendants (duties, appointment); rescue operations. (100614)

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CIS 02-1848 Approved supply list (Seventh edition) - Information approved for the classification and labelling of substances and preparations dangerous for supply. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 7th ed., 2002. xiii, 445p. Price: GBP 29.95., ISBN 0-7176-2368-8 (In English)

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This edition of the Approved Supply List (ASL) is for use with the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 2002 (CHIP 3). It is based on Annex I to the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC, see CIS 92-23) as adapted to technical progress. It incorporates all adaptations up to the 28th and supersedes all previous editions. Inclusion of a substance in the ASL normally indicates that the substance is hazardous. Information is provided on the hazard classification of each substance, labelling requirements (symbols, risk phrases, safety precautions, EC number), concentration limits, and changes since the previous edition of the list. Alphabetical listings of substances, mixtures and isomers are included along with their index number. Additional information is provided on the classification of pesticides. Replaces CIS 97-1645. (100662)

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CIS 02-1849 Occupational exposure limits for chemicals in Spain in 2003. (Spanish: Límites de exposición profesional para agentes químicos en España - 2003) Ministerio de trabajo y asuntos sociales, Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. 160p. 9 ref., ISBN 84-7425-629-1 (In Spanish)

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Following an introduction consisting of a review of current Spanish and European regulations, this booklet contains the following sections: objectives and scope; definitions; different types of exposure limits; list of substances and their exposure limits; carcinogenic or mutagenic chemicals; exposure limits being currently revised; biological threshold limits; biological threshold limits being currently revised. Appendices include: mixtures of chemicals; defining daily or weekly exposure limits; chemicals classified by CAS number. Replaces CIS 02-343. (100861)

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CIS 02-1850 Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). Evaluations through 2002. International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 7th ed., 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2003. 65p. 97 ref. (In English)

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This inventory consists of summaries of evaluations of pesticides performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), as well as other assessments of pesticides by IPCS and by other WHO programmes. The introduction briefly describes the pesticide activities that are summarized in the inventory, and the inventory itself lists relevant documents that have been published and highlights the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) and provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDI) established by the JMPR. (100863)

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CIS 02-1851 Surface cleaning: Solvent update including the reclassification of trichloroethylene. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 4p. 9 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/eis34.pdf

Trichloroethylene has been reclassified to a category 2 carcinogen (may cause cancer) by the European Union in June 2001. This information sheet addresses the implications of the reclassification of trichloroethylene for surface cleaning in the metal industry. Content: background information; substitution (use of alternative solvents and alternative processes); regulations applicable to flammable substances; Existing Substances Regulation (ESR) review of trichloroethylene; current requirements for surface cleaning and activities which will be affected by the Solvent Emission Directive (SED); compliance with the SED; compliance with Groundwater Directive. (100930)

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CIS 02-1852 Peroxides and their use. (French: Les peroxydes et leur utilisation) Lemarquand J., Triolet J., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.186, p.5-14. Illus. 26 ref. (In French)

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Peroxides consist of organic or inorganic compounds characterized by their oxidizing properties as well as their highly unstable nature. It is therefore essential to be aware of the potential hazards and the precautions to be taken during the storage and handling of these products. The aim of this information note is to provide company managers, operators, safety specialists, storage area managers, laboratory staff and all other persons involved with these products with general information on the hazards of peroxides and precautions to be taken when using them. It supplements the specific data sheet provided by suppliers of these substances. Since each peroxide has its own properties, users are advised to consult the safety data sheet of the product they intend to use prior to any handling operation. (100945)

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CIS 02-1853 Identification and handling of peroxidizable compounds. (French: Identification et manipulation des composés peroxydables) Lemarquand J., Triolet J., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.186, p.17-27. 15 ref. (In French)

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Organic and inorganic peroxides consist of oxidizing chemicals that are often unstable and dangerous. They can also appear in products from which they were initially absent, as a consequence of a specific self-oxidation process known as peroxidization. There have been many accidents in industry, particularly in laboratories, as a result of the formation of peroxides in solvents and chemicals. Users of peroxidizable compounds should therefore be aware of the nature of compounds liable to peroxidize, the risks from their handling and the precautions to be taken to minimize these risks (labelling, detection tests, methods to treat peroxidized reagents, etc.). Contents: peroxidizable structures; self-oxidation mechanisms; inventory, labelling and storage of peroxidizable compounds; detection and disposal of peroxides; preventive measures for handling peroxidizable compounds. (100946)

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CIS 02-1854 Chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry. (French: Chloramines dans les piscines et l'agroalimentaire) Héry M., Dornier G., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Sep. 2000. 4p. Illus. 7 ref. Can also be found on the site: http://www.inrs.fr/produits/ (In French)

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Thanks to its outstanding bactericidal properties, its low cost and the ease of use of some if its compounds, chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant. In recent years, a large number of questions were addressed to the French National research and safety institute for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases (INRS) by workers engaged in activities using chlorine, in particular in swimming pools and in the food industry. This information sheet was prepared in order to provide answers to the concerns of workers exposed to chlorine and who are often subject to eye or respiratory irritation. Contents: chlorine chemistry and the formation of chloramines, substances which the primary irritants; determination of chloramines in swimming pools and in the food industry; current activities of INRS and its collaborating organizations; protective measures that need to be implemented in swimming pools and in the food industry. (100954)

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CIS 02-1855 Hazards linked to the use of cutting fluids. (French: Risques liés à l'utilisation des fluides de coupe) Lafontaine M., Delsaut P., Morele Y., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.186, p.29-37. 21 ref. (In French)

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This article summarizes the information collected in the course of a study on hazards due to the use of cutting fluids. It is estimated that 136,000 persons are potentially exposed to these products in France. No relationship between metalworking fluids and bronchopulmonary cancer has been observed. However, despite limited data, aqueous fluids may be responsible for cancers of the oesophagus and the stomach. As far as other pathologies are concerned, very few cases of asthma and chronic bronchitis have been observed; however, there are probably many more skin disorders than those currently recognized as occupational diseases. Most collective or personal preventive measures are already known. They are not always followed, unfortunately, particularly in small enterprises. Indeed, 22% of the enterprises do not monitor the properties of their fluids (concentration, pH, bacteriological content). It is concluded that there is a need for a widely-distributed guide aimed at users of these fluids. (100947)

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CIS 02-1856 Asbestos substitution. (French: Substitution de l'amiante) Huré P., Kauffer E., Roos F., Dornier G., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2000. 4p. Illus. 6 ref. Can also be found on the site: http://www.inrs.fr/produits/ (In French)

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According to the provisions of Commission Directive 1999/77/EC of 26 July 1999 (see CIS 99-1767), there will be a total ban effective 1 January 2005 on the placing of all forms of asbestos on the European market. This information sheet presents the current situation of asbestos substitutes with respect to occupational safety and health regulations. Contents: possible substitute processes and materials by use; evaluation of hazards of substitute materials to human health; regulations; eight-hour time-weighted average exposure limits (TWA); classification and labelling of substitute materials; limitation of exposure (technical measures, use of personal protective equipment), current activities of INRS and its collaborating organizations. (100953)

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CIS 02-1857 LEV: Dust capture at fixed belt sanding machines. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/wis25.htm

This information sheet aimed at designers, installers and users of woodworking machines provides guidance on the design of local exhaust ventilation systems (LEV) fitted to various types of fixed belt sanding machines (large horizontal belt (pad) sanders, small horizontal belt sanders (linishers) and vertical belt sanders). (100925)

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CIS 02-1858 Control of exposure to silica dust in small potteries. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 6p. 6 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/ceis2.pdf

This information sheet contains advice for small and medium-sized potteries on the risks from dust containing respirable crystalline silica and the precautions to minimize exposure. Contents: activities involving silica dust exposure and risks; silica dust control; control measures for reducing exposure; legal requirements; free silica percentages of various clay materials; poor working practices and precautions to reduce exposure. (100922)

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[ Top of page ]

006 Fires, explosions and major hazards

CIS 02-1859 The emulsifier standard EN 1568. (French: Norme émulseurs EN 1568) Bluteau T., André C., Face au risque, June-July 2002, No.384, p.31; 33. Illus. (In French)

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These two articles discuss the contents of EN 1568, a new European standard on emulsifiers having come into effect in March 2001. The first article highlights progress that this standard represents, in particular the fact that fire testing takes place under conditions close to those of real interventions, and the more stringent requirements with respect to heat stability, viscosity measurements and the propensity to form a film. The second article highlights the weaknesses of the NF EN 1568 standards and discusses issues not addressed by these standards (miscibility, compatibility with other emulsifiers and extinguishing agents, ecotoxicity, biodegradability and corrosiveness. (100537)

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CIS 02-1860 Fire in the tunnel of the A 86 motorway under construction. (French: Incendie dans le tunnel en chantier de l'autoroute A 86) Dosne R., Face au risque, June-July 2002, No.384, p.38-41. Illus. (In French)

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This article describes the fire that occurred on 5 March 2002 during drilling work in a tunnel of the future Paris bypass motorway. 19 construction workers at the site were trapped for more than five hours, but were able to escape unharmed thanks to their discipline, training, familiarity with the site (which enabled an efficient rescue effort) and the high level of coordination between the persons responsible for the site and rescue workers. Four fire scenarios had been prepared. Even if none corresponded exactly to this incident, they no doubt helped manage the intervention efforts. (100538)

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CIS 02-1861 RF number as a new index for assessing combustion hazard of flammable gases. Kondo S., Takahashi A., Tokuhashi K., Sekiya A., Journal of Hazardous Materials, Aug. 2002, Vol.93, No.3, p.259-267.11 ref. (In English)

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A new index called "RF number" has been proposed for assessing the combustion hazard of several flammable gases and their mixtures. The RF number represents the total expectancy of combustion hazards in terms of flammability limits and heat of combustion for each known and unknown constituents. The advantages of the RF number over other indices such as R-index and F-number for classification of the combustion hazard of hydrofluorocarbon refrigerants are discussed. (100577)

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CIS 02-1862 Occupational burns from oxygen resuscitator fires: The hazard of aluminum regulators. Hodous T.K., Washenitz F., Newton B., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.63-69. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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There were more than 30 incidents of oxygen resuscitator fires in the United States during the period 1996-2002, causing severe burns to fire fighters, ambulance workers, emergency medical service personnel, health care workers and patients. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) was requested to investigate three such incidents. NIOSH conducted site investigations of the incidents, and the oxygen resuscitators were sent to a testing laboratory for analysis of the fire causes. The three investigated fires were associated with aluminium regulators from the same manufacturer, mounted on oxygen cylinders. It was found that the cause of the fires was an initial small ignition in the high-pressure area of the aluminum regulator, which then resulted in a massive burnout. Aluminium regulators used with compressed oxygen cylinders are subject to potentially catastrophic combustion during normal use. Replacement of such regulators as well as education and improved safety practices are needed to reduce this hazard. (100764)

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CIS 02-1863 "Small" BLEVEs can pose problems too!. (German: Auch "kleine" BLEVEs können Probleme bereiten!) Gressmann H.J., Brandschutz, June 2001, Vol.55, No.6, p.549-553. Illus. 19 ref. (In German)

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The training and instruction manuals for fire fighters in Germany specify the safe distances that are to be observed during interventions involving boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions (BLEVEs) as a function of the type of container. In the aftermath of a fire in the course of which 15 liquefied gas cylinders exploded, safe distances were compared with the spreading of the effects of past BLEVEs. These distances were compared with those to which parts were projected as well as with the distances over which the thermal effects of the produced fireballs and the overpressure could be felt. Using this approach resulted in much larger distances than the distances considered as safe for the four types of pressure vessels containing liquefied gas. The accepted safe distances should be reevaluated in the light of these findings. Revised safe distances for these types of interventions are proposed. (100778)

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CIS 02-1864 2001 firefighter fatalities report. Fahy R.F., Leblanc P.R., NFPA Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.96, No.4, p.68-80. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

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The worst loss of firefighters in the history of the United States occurred on 11 September 2001, when the Fire Department of New York City lost 340 workers in the collapse of the towers of the World Trade Center. This article focuses, however, on the 99 other firefighters who died on duty in 2001, as a reminder that such fatalities take place every year. Statistics cover the following aspects: long-term trends in fatalities, the number of fires and the death rate per fire; fatalities as a function of age; fatalities as a function of the nature of injury; major causes of fatal accidents (burns, smoke inhalation, crushing injuries). Twelve short descriptions of fatal accidents having occurred in 2001 are included. (100987)

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CIS 02-1865 After the Toulouse explosion, let's look at communications during crises. (French: Après l'explosion de Toulouse, regardons la communication de crise) Guerin Talpin G., Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2002, No.63, p.46-52. Illus. (In French)

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The role of communication in crisis situations is describeed, highlighting the possibilities, limits and dangers (information manipulation, excessive media coverage). It proceeds to analyse the communication strategy adopted following the explosion at the AZF plant in Toulouse, which occurred shortly after 11 September 2001, and where the management was able to draw from the experience of a previous disaster (the shipwreck of the oil tanker Erika): prompt reaction in the form of press releases and on-site presence of senior company executives; visible empathy for the victims; acceptance of moral and social responsibility; desire for objectivity to prevail over emotion (internal inquiry commission, sound arguments supported by precise technical elements, close collaboration with investigators). (100535)

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CIS 02-1866 A series of experiments to study the spreading of liquid pools with different bund arrangements. Cronin P.S., Evans J.A., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. v, 49p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2255-X (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02405.htm

Assessment of the hazards posed by the storage of flammable or toxic liquids in large tanks can be assisted by the use of mathematical models to calculate the consequences of leakages. These consequences may include fires or explosions from dispersion of flammable vapours, or harm from inhalation of toxic vapours. One component of such models is a mathematical representation of the spreading of a liquid pool, and in recent years a number of such models have been proposed and implemented. However, there are a number of issues in these models that have yet to be resolved, in particular due to the lack of reliable experimental data at a large scale. This report describes a series of 58 experiments carried out at a test site, studying the flow of liquid across a bund and measuring the amount of liquid that escaped the bund for a wide range of bund geometries. At a scale of 1:20, the test rig simulated storage tanks of 70 metres in diameter, with capacities of 150,000 cubic metres. (100661)

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CIS 02-1867 Controlling risks around explosives stores: Review of the requirements on separation distances. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. 75p. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/content/misc/qdwgrep.pdf

Storage of more than 30kg of explosives in the United Kingdom requires a licence and the respect of minimum distances between the point of storage and neighbouring buildings. Recent trials carried out by the Ministry of Defence suggest that the quantity of debris generated by an explosion and the distance to which they would be projected could be considerably higher than what was previously thought. This report makes recommendations with respect to revised minimum distances that take the latest experimental data into account. Contents: risk models; estimating the number of fatalities; case studies; approach used for developing recommendations for new requirements on separation distances; other risk reduction measures; tables providing proposed distances as a function of the quantity of explosives stored and the density of the surrounding population. (100663)

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CIS 02-1868 Analysis of the impact of proposed changes to separation distances for Mode A registered premises holding HT4 fireworks. Walker G., Fairburn J., Fay H., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 7p. Illus. 2 ref. Price: GBP 5.00., ISBN 0-7176-2158-8 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr041.pdf

Under proposed new legislation, it is intended that premises holding between 200-250kg of fireworks will have to maintain a 5m separation distance to third party buildings and 2.5m to footpaths and roads. In order to investigate the extent of any problems for existing premises in complying with this requirement, a sample of premises storing fireworks was selected from across 39 local authorities. The premise owners were contacted by telephone in order to obtain information on fireworks storage and separation distances. For the 102 premises for which information could be obtained, 23 were found to hold below 200kg of fireworks and therefore did not need a separation distance. Of the remaining 79 premises, 76% had existing separation greater than required; 10% could comply with the separation distance after moving their existing store or reducing inventories; and 14% (11 sites) declared having a problem with compliance that the owners felt could not be satisfactorily resolved. (100874)

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CIS 02-1869 Fire risk assessment for workplaces containing flammable substances. Munns P.A., Luong Y., Rew P.J., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 59p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2157-X (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr040.pdf

This study was undertaken with the purpose of assessing the effectiveness of current United Kingdom guidance relating to the control of fire hazards in workplaces containing flammable substances. Data relating to fires involving flammable substances (excluding offshore, mining, waste and transport accidents) were gathered and assessed with respect to the effectiveness of guidance in reducing fire risk. A method for a risk-based assessment of the fire safety within workplaces containing flammable substances was developed, its purpose being to enable high-risk buildings or processes to be identified and to rank the workplace with respect to risk. (100877)

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CIS 02-1870 Appraisal of pipeline surveillance by high resolution satellite. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. iv, 24p. Illus. 6 ref. (Vol.I); iv, 74p. Illus. 6 ref. (Vol.II); iv, 12p. Illus. 6 ref. (Vol. III). Price: GBP 35.00., ISBN 0-7176-2165-0 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr056.pdf

This report in three volumes evaluates the potential of high-resolution satellites for the monitoring of on-land pipelines. The available technology and possible applications were reviewed. A system was developed to evaluate the benefits of applying satellite imaging techniques to the routing and surveillance of on-land transmission pipelines, and to test an available satellite for estimating the technical effectiveness and cost. Volume I presents the cost-benefit study and considers the sensitivity of several key parameters on costs. Volume II presents an appraisal of the data gathered by the IKONOS satellite for pipeline surveillance. Volume III presents a functional specification of requirements for satellite surveillance. (100639)

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CIS 02-1871 Principles for proof testing of safety instrumented systems in the chemical industry. Nunns S., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 67p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2346-7 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02428.pdf

The purpose of proof testing safety instrumented systems (SIS) in the chemical industry is to confirm the continued operation of the required safety function and to contribute to the maintenance of its safety integrity level. These guiding principles were developed through research into the practices of proof testing, through direct contact with industrial users and suppliers of SIS components, and through literature surveys. It was found that proof testing was commonly practiced, but that some enterprises took a more structured and focused approach than others. There was a conflict between the need for realistic proof testing and the need to minimize downtime, particularly within high throughput continuous processes such as petroleum refining and bulk chemical manufacture. This report includes examples of practices, together with a proposed check list to be used by field inspectors. (100632)

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CIS 02-1872 Major technological accidents. (French: Grands accidents technologiques) Andurand R., Coste L., Falot M., Seillan H., Simon P., Editions Préventique, 37-38 cours de la Martinique, 33000 Bordeaux, France, 2002. 112p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 15.00., ISBN 2-911221-15-X (In French)

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Proper understanding of large technological accidents enables us to take full advantage of the analysis of current situations and to evaluate future hazards more effectively. Descriptions are provided of the most notable major accidents since 1945, grouped according to the industrial sector or product category involved: chemicals in general; ammonia; phosgene; products of the food industry; transport; nuclear accidents. Several studies on major accidents are also included. (100532)

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CIS 02-1873 Report on a second study of pipeline accidents using the Health and Safety Executive's risk assessment programs MISHAP and PIPERS. Kinsman P., Lewis J., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. ii, 429p. Illus. Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-2586-9 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr036.pdf

HSE uses mathematical models to estimate risks when examining proposals to develop land in the vicinity of high-pressure pipelines. PIPERS and MISHAP are computer programs based on these models. An earlier version of MISHAP, called MISHAP98, was not sufficiently conservative in some respects, and it was recommended that improvements be made. These have now been implemented and the present work examines the performance of the new version, called MISHAP01 that is now the routine tool for studying natural gas pipelines. PIPERS is an extension and development version of MISHAP, embodying alternative ways of modelling releases from natural gas pipelines and having additional models for use in the study of risks in the vicinity of pipelines carrying flashing and non-flashing liquids. Over 100 reports of pipeline accidents were studied using these programmes, and recommendations are made concerning their applicability and areas for further improvement. (100872)

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CIS 02-1874 Application of QRA in operational safety issues. Franks A., Whitehead R., Crossthwaite P., Smail L., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 88p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2570-2 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr025.pdf

The Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations 1999, or COMAH (see CIS 00-24) came into force in Great Britain in April 1999. Under these regulations, every operator is to take all measures necessary to prevent major accidents and limit their consequences to persons and the environment. This general duty is consistent with the principle of reducing risks to a level that is "as low as reasonably practicable" (ALARP). This study has performed research into the use of risk in Health and Safety Executive's (HSE) operational decisions in the context of the COMAH regulations. The research focussed on the use of regulatory guidance, risk matrices and quantitative analysis (QRA) to demonstrate compliance with the ALARP principle. Each approach has its strengths and weaknesses, for any particular situation. Cost benefit analysis (CBA) when used in conjunction with QRA is able to provide an economic justification as to whether risk reduction measures should be implemented. (100880)

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CIS 02-1875 Main changes between the 2001 and 2003 editions of the regulations concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Rail (RID). Bale A., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 23p. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-7176-2587-7 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr050.pdf

This report identifies the main changes made to the 2001 edition of the UN regulations concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by rail (RID) that will be reflected in the 2003 edition of RID and provides the background to these changes. It discusses the likely effects on industry, and examines the changes in the light of requirements in Railway Group Standards and derogations permitted under the RID framework directive where applicable. (100636)

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CIS 02-1876 Selection and use of explosion effects and consequence models for explosives. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 148p. lllus. 44 ref. Price: GBP 30.00., ISBN 0-7176-1791-2 (In English)

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This document provides guidance on the selection and use of models to study the effects of explosions, for purposes of risk studies, emergency planning or specifying conditions which provide appropriate protection to people at work and the general public. Contents: definition of terms in the area of explosives and the effects of explosions; effects on buildings and other structures; modelling, prediction and practical considerations; list of close to 100 available tools and methodologies for modelling the effects of explosions. (100664)

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CIS 02-1877 Code of practice for cylinders in bundles for permanent and liquefiable gases (excluding acetylene) - Inspection at time of filling. Singapore Productivity and Standards Board, 1 Science Park Drive, Singapore 118221, Republic of Singapore, 2000. 14p., ISBN 9971-67-800-4 (In English)

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This standard consists of a modified version of ISO 11755:1996 "Cylinders in bundles for permanent and liquefiable gases (excluding acetylene) - Inspection at time of filling", adapted to suit local requirements, practices and climatic conditions. Contents: scope; definitions; inspections prior to filling, during and after filling; bundle identification data; deviations between this standard and ISO 11755:1996. (100615)

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CIS 02-1878 Construction fire safety. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 2002. 2p. 3 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/cis51.pdf

This information sheet aimed at persons managing or working on smaller sites where risks are relatively low sets out basic measures for construction fire safety. It lists the precautions for preventing fire occurring and to be prepared for fire if it occurs (alarm, means of escape, fire-fighting equipment, emergency plans, information of personnel). Reprinted with updated references (replaces CIS 98-271). (100923)

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CIS 02-1879 ILO generic crisis response modules. ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. xxi, 132p., ISBN 92-2-112690-0 (In English)

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The InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction of the International Labour Organization (ILO) addresses employment-related issues following crisis situations. These include the promotion of employment- intensive reconstruction and rehabilitation works, socio-economic reintegration of crisis-affected groups, skills training, local economic development initiatives and the promotion of small enterprises and cooperatives. This publication is aimed at ILO staff, consultants and other persons who participate in needs assessment and programme development. It is designed to promote consistency in ILO responses to crisis-related situations. The four modules focus on substantive aspects of response to natural disasters, armed conflict, financial and economic downturns and social and political transitions. (See also CIS 02-1880). (100789)

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CIS 02-1880 Crisis response - Rapid needs assessment manual. ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. xx, 138p., ISBN 92-2-112639-0 (In English)

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The InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction of the International Labour Organization (ILO) addresses employment-related issues following crisis situations. These include the promotion of employment- intensive reconstruction and rehabilitation works, socio-economic reintegration of crisis-affected groups, skills training, local economic development initiatives and the promotion of small enterprises and cooperatives. This manual is aimed at ILO staff, consultants and other persons who participate in needs assessment and programme development. It provides a framework to help rapid needs assessments in the context of crisis and post-crisis situations. It outlines the ILO approach, spells out the assessment methodology, topics and questions to be addressed, assessment reporting and programme options for selected types of crisis responses. (See also CIS 02-1879). (100790)

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[ Top of page ]

007 Electrical safety

CIS 02-1881 On earth current in building structures in the event of earth fault in TT systems. (Italian: Sul potenziale verso terra assunto dalle strutture edili in caso di guasto a terra nei sistemi TT) Cantarella G., Carrescia V., Tommasini R., Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.35-78. Illus. 15 ref. (In Italian)

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This study looks at how electric currents behave in buildings, in particular highlighting the potential dangers due to indirect contact in the event of an earth fault. A number of factors, such as environmental conditions, ground resistivity, type of buildings, shape and size of dispersing electrodes buried in the ground are listed and have to be taken into consideration to prevent electrical accidents. (100849)

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CIS 02-1882 Safety in electrical testing: Servicing and repair of audio, TV and computer equipment. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2002. 4p. 10 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/eis36.pdf

This information sheet offers advice on how to avoid injury during servicing and repair of audio, TV and computer equipment. Contents: how injuries can happen during testing (electrical burns, electric shock); risk assessment for electrical testing; precautions to be taken for safe work in test areas and when accessing to live parts; safe test equipment; power supply earthing; legal requirements. (100924)

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[ Top of page ]

008 Physical hazards

CIS 02-1883 Time trends analysis of hearing loss: An alternative approach to evaluating hearing loss prevention programs. Adera T., Amir C., Anderson L., AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.161-165. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

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Time trends analysis is an alternative method for evaluating the performance of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs), involving assessing patterns in hearing loss over time. To demonstrate this method, it was applied to a cohort of 44,547 industrial workers enrolled in HLPPs between 1980 and 1990 and followed retrospectively for three years to determine the incidence of hearing loss. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by sex and adjusted for age, race and hearing threshold at enrolment. For women, adjusted HRs against enrolment years produced a statistically significant trend of an initial increase in hearing loss, followed by decreasing incidence over time. For men, there was a statistically significant linear trend of decreasing hearing loss over time. The downward trends indicate improved HLPP performance during the latter portion of the decade. (100596)

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CIS 02-1884 Technical specifications for determining exposure to noise of a railway engine crew. (Italian: Specifica tecnica per la determinazione della esposizione al rumore del personale di macchina) Carnieri E., Catasta P.F., De Martino S., Lenzuni P., Munafò E., Nataletti P., Pietrosanti A., Pugi G., Tiberi F., Tosi Cambini M., Verduchi P., Violi A.G., Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.3-24. Illus. 44 ref. (In Italian)

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The preparation of this technical specification to be considered as a draft standard for measuring the noise level of railway engines in Italy was needed because of a lack of legislation and specifications in this sector for evaluating and preventing noise-related risks. The criteria for hearing damage will contribute towards the establishment of better protection levels for the whole country. (100847)

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CIS 02-1885 Polarized task lighting to reduce reflective glare in open-plan office cubicles. Japuntich D.A., Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2001, Vol.32, No.5, p.485-499. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

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Reflective glare causes eye discomfort, makes it difficult to read a document and has been thought to contribute to eyestrain. This paper analyzes the application of polarized lighting for this specific situation. The use of a linear polarized light source helps to minimize glare by darkening the reflected image of the light source on the document. The performance and predictive optimization of the use of polarized lighting in this situation is investigated according to female and male viewer heights. Theoretical predictions and light measurement analysis of glare reduction are compared with empirical results from testing on a panel of humans on semi-gloss finish and matte finish papers. This study shows that with the correct positioning of a polarized light source, glare may be significantly reduced, and correlations exist between the theory, empirical measurements and the human response to glare reduction. (100936)

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CIS 02-1886 Heat strain reduction by ice-based and vapor compression liquid cooling systems with a toxic agent protective uniform. Cadarette B.S., Levine L., Kolka M.A., Proulx G.N., Correa M.M., Sawka M.N., Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.73, No.7, p.665-672. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

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The purpose of this study was to compare a vapour compression microclimate cooling system (MCC) and a personal ice cooling system (PIC) for their effectiveness in reducing physiological strain when used with cooling garments worn under the impermeable self-contained toxic environment protective outfit (STEPO). A second comparison was done between the use of total body and hooded shirt-only cooling garments with both the MCC and PIC systems. Eight subjects (six men, two women) attempted four experiments at 38°C, 30% rh, 0.9m/sec wind, while wearing the STEPO. Subjects attempted four hours of treadmill walking (rest/exercise cycles of 10/20min) at a time-weighted metabolic rate of 303±50W. It was found that the total body circulating liquid cooling was more effective than shirt-only cooling under the impermeable STEPO uniform. The MCC and PIC systems were equally effective during heat exposure, but neither system could allow reaching the four-hour targeted time. (100562)

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CIS 02-1887 Occupant perception of indoor air and comfort in four hospitality environments. Moschandreas D.J., Chu P., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.63, No.1, p.47-54. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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This article reports on a survey of customer and staff perceptions of indoor air quality at two restaurants, a billiard hall and a casino. The survey was conducted at each environment for eight days: two weekend days on two consecutive weekends and four weekdays. Occupant perception of environmental, comfort and physical variables was measured using a questionnaire. Significant differences of occupant environment perception were identified among customers and staff. The acceptability of the environment was found to be affected by temperature, occupant density, occupant smoking status, odour perception, health conditions, sensitivity to chemicals and enjoyment of activities. (100684)

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CIS 02-1888 General strategy for the management of occupational hazards - Example of workplace thermal environments. (French: Stratégie générale de gestion des risques professionnels - Illustration dans le cas des ambiances thermiques au travail) Malchaire J., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.186, p.39-46. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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This article describes a four-level prevention approach adapted to workplace situations in both small and large enterprises that enables the coordination of collaboration among employees, managers, occupational physicians and safety specialists, resulting in more effective preventive action that is quicker and cheaper to implement. After an overview of the terminology, the article describes the four levels: "screening", where the risk factors are detected and straightforward solutions are applied; "observation", where the study of remaining problems is broadened in scope and where the causes and solutions are discussed in greater detail; "analysis", where the company calls in a prevention specialist whenever necessary to carry out measurements and develop particular solutions; finally, "appraisal", in the rare cases when an expert is essential for studying and solving specific problems. An example of the application of this approach to workplace thermal environments is presented in an appendix. See also CIS 02-1673, where the same approach has been applied to the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders. (100948)

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CIS 02-1889 How much protection against radon do we need?. Becker K., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.3-4, p.168-177. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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It has been long established that exposure to radon contributed to lung cancer risk among miners in the past. However, based on recent epidemiological data that the author considers controversial, regulators currently favour linear extrapolation from the very high exposures encountered in mining to low residential radon exposures. Direct and indirect evidence are reviewed and it is argued that this approach may be misleading due to various perturbing factors, in particular the retrospective determination of smoking habits. (100511)

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CIS 02-1890 The impact of work environment, utility, and sampling design on occupational magnetic field exposure summaries. Kelsh M.A., Kheifets L., Smith R., AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.174-182. Illus. 38 ref. (In English)

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Most recent epidemiological studies investigating the health effects of occupational magnetic field (MF) exposure have relied on MF data linked to job titles. However, job titles alone explain only a small proportion of exposure variability. An MF occupational exposure database was used to develop job-specific exposure estimates, evaluate the impact of incorporating work environment data to improve exposure assessment and evaluate the importance of random versus nonrandom sampling when estimating mean MF exposure levels by occupational categories. It was found that mean occupation-specific levels varied across different work environments, particularly for craft workers. Work environment (24%) accounted for more exposure variability than occupation (4.9%). It was concluded that MF exposure assessment should consider the work environment as well as the job title in order to reduce exposure misclassification. (100597)

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CIS 02-1891 Risk of cognitive impairment in relation to elevated exposure to electromagnetic fields. Li C.Y., Sung F.C., Wu S.C., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.66-72. 28 ref. (In English)

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A case-control study was performed to assess the relationship between exposure to power-frequency electromagnetic fields and the risk of cognitive impairment, an early indication of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and dementia. Among 2198 elderly individuals aged 65 years or older, 290 persons with score-based cognitive impairment were compared with 580 sex-matched controls. Participants who were former electrical workers or living within 100 meters of high-voltage transmission lines were considered to have higher exposure. Compared with controls having received normal background exposure, the risk was equal or close to unity for occupationally-exposed participants (odds ratio (OR) 1.3), for residentially-exposed participants (OR 0.9), or for participants with both occupational and residential exposure (OR 1.0). The findings provide little support for the link between occupational or residential exposure to power-frequency electromagnetic fields and cognitive impairment. (100748)

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CIS 02-1892 Exposure in the proximity zone of mobile phone stations: Simple check of compliance with exposure limits in the vicinity of station antennas. (German: Exposition im Nahfeld von Mobilfunkbasisstationen: Einfache Überprüfung von Basisgrenzwerten bei Stationsantennen) Menzel K., Strahlenschutz Praxis, 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.12-16. Illus. (In German)

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The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection has recommended to limit the specific absorption rate, which is a measure of the thermal effects of electromagnetic fields produced by equipment such as mobile phone antennas, to 4W/kg body weight for whole-body exposure, 10W/kg for partial exposure of the body and 20W/kg for exposure of the extremities. In order to comply with these limits, occupationally exposed persons such as roofers, chimney sweeps and engineers working for mobile phone operators need to maintain a safe distance from phone antennas. A new method to calculate safe distances as a function of antenna input power is presented. It is based on modelling a worst-case scenario in which an adult adopts the most unfavourable postures and distances from the antenna. This method for calculating safe distances is more precise. (100779)

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CIS 02-1893 Organization of radiation protection in health care establishments: Evaluation and observations in the Paris region. (French: Organisation de la radioprotection dans les établissements de soins: évaluation et constats en Ile-de-France) Boulay M.H., Soula M.C., Gauron C., Biau A., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.167-173. Illus. 27ref. (In French)

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The principles of radiation protection defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) have been adopted into the regulations of many countries. This study was undertaken at the request of the Ministry of labour in order to establish the current situation with respect to radiation protection in the medical environment following the introduction of more stringent regulations. A questionnaire on radiation protection measures was addressed to medical establishments in the French region of Ile-de-France (the region around Paris), of which 180 responded. The main findings with respect to radiation protection organization, occupational physicians, classification of work areas, medical supervision and dosimetry surveillance are presented. (100786)

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CIS 02-1894 Electromagnetic radiation, mobile telephones and health hazards. (Italian: Radiazioni elettromagnetiche, telefonia mobile e rischi per la salute) Gaetano R., Difesa sociale, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.80, No.2, p.59-72. 19 ref. (In Italian)

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Survey article of research concerning the potential harmful effects of exposure to non-ionizing radiation emitted by mobile telephones in the workplace and elsewhere. Three possible kinds of health effects are mentioned: (1) thermal effects in the eyes and the male reproductive system,(2) radiation effects in the central nervous system, and (3) leukaemia in children. In fact, no evidence has been found for any such effects, and provisionally there is no reason to avoid non-excessive use of mobile telephones. One possible case for concern exists, however, in the use of mobile telephones by people with cardiac pace-makers, because of possible interference with the functioning of heart pulse simulation devices by the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile telephones. (100811)

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CIS 02-1895 Assessment of exposure to laser radiation in research laboratories. (Italian: Valutazione dell'esposizione alla radiazione laser nei laboratori di ricerca) Falco M.D., Lepore M., Indovina P.L., Medicina del lavoro, May-June 2001, Vol.92, No.3, p.187-202. Illus. 8 ref. (In Italian)

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Overview of the methods for radiance measurement and other parameters for the laser sources most widely used in research establishments. These methods are compared with those recommended by safety standards. The use of safety spectacles is recommended for eye protection, as well as that of beam stops or attenuators. (100837)

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CIS 02-1896 Long-term follow-up study on patients with vibration-induced while finger (VWF). Kurozawa Y., Nasu Y., Hosoda T., Nose T., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1203-1206. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

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A total of 99 men with hand-arm vibration syndrome who were examined at a hospital from 1975 were followed up for up to a further 15 years or more and classified according to the Stockholm scale. Finger systolic blood pressure (FSBP) measurements were performed from 1989. The classification was compared with the results of FSBP measurements. It was found that stage 2 and 3 groups showed a significant decrease in percentage FSBP compared with the stage 0 group. Although vibration-induced white finger symptoms tended to decrease to some extent, 43.2% and 70.4% of patients with stage 2 and 3 at first examination, respectively, still suffered from finger blanching attacks after 15 years of observation. Blanching of fingers in advanced stages, especially stage 3, was found to be persistent many years after cessation of vibration exposure. (100999)

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CIS 02-1897 Quantitative exposure assessment for shipyard workers exposed to hand-transmitted vibration from a variety of vibration tools. Jang J.Y., Kim S., Park S.K., Roh J., Lee T.Y., Youn J.T., AIHA Journal, May-June 2002, Vol.63, No.3, p.305-310. 20 ref. (In English)

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The relationship between lifetime exposure to vibration from using vibrating tools and the hand-arm vibration syndrome was studied in 344 shipyard workers and 53 unexposed workers. Vibration levels and actual exposure times for the vibratory tools were measured. Participants responded to questionnaires on personal, occupational and health factors. A lifetime vibration dose was calculated for each worker using job categories, usage pattern of vibratory tools, and the measured vibration acceleration magnitude. Each worker was asked about vascular and neurological symptoms, and symptoms were classified according to the Stockholm scale. The prevalence of vascular and sensorineural symptoms for workers exposed to vibration was 22.7 and 78.2% respectively, compared to 0 and 34.0% for controls. The lifetime vibration dose also showed a significant association with both vascular and sensorineural symptoms. (100518)

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CIS 02-1898 Impact noise exposure from sheet-metal presses: Manual versus automated production. Brühl P., Grenner J., Acustica, 2000, Vol.86, p.378-380. Illus. 8 ref. (In English)

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Noise exposure was measured in a sheet-metal pressing plant in Sweden with large punch-presses, using individual dosimetry in ten workers during sixteen workdays. A comparison was made between noise doses for workers on a manual production line and on an automated line, with five workers on each line. Although automation increased noise emission, it was found that noise exposures by the workers were significantly reduced on the automated production line. The weighted equivalent noise level was 91.2dB for six hours in the manual production line and 90.0dB in the automated line. However, the most important factor in noise reduction was that the number of noise-exposed workers was reduced from thirteen to six as a consequence of automation. (100668)

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CIS 02-1899 Noise exposure and hearing conservation practices in an industry with high incidence of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Daniell W.E., Swan S.S., McDaniel M.M., Stebbins J.G., Seixas N.S., Morgan M.S., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.309-317. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

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This cross-sectional study examined noise exposures and hearing conservation practices in the foundry industry in the State of Washington, where a high rate of hearing loss claims had been recorded. Ten representative foundries were evaluated with personal noise dosimetry, management interviews, employee interviews and the analysis of previous audiometric test records. Noise levels routinely exceeded 85dBA. No company was in full compliance with hearing conservation regulations. Most employees for whom audiograms indicated hearing impairment or loss had not been informed of the findings. Companies where more effort is put into hearing conservation programmes can achieve a higher employee awareness. However, there were broad deficiencies even in the better programmes in this sample, suggesting that workers in this industry probably face a continuing risk of occupational hearing loss. (100975)

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CIS 02-1900 Infrared radiation exposure in traditional glass factories. Sisto R., Pinto I., Stacchini N., Giuliani F., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.5-10. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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A simple method for the evaluation of exposure to infrared radiation (IR-A, IR-B, IR-C) from high temperature (>1000°C) sources using a luxometric or a near-IR detector is presented. The method uses the universality of the Planck formula for the black body spectrum, which allows estimation of the radiated power in any wavelength range by measuring the power radiated in another range. This capability may be very useful when the range of interest is one in which radiometers are expensive and difficult to calibrate, as for the IR-B and IR-C ranges, because a more commonly available luxometer can be used instead. The method was applied to evaluate radiation in two traditional Italian glass factories. Intense exposures in the IR-B and IR-C ranges were found for some workers, exceeding the ACGIH limits by a large factor. This exposure must be reduced, as epidemiological studies confirm the existence of a correlation between cataractogenesis and work with fused glass and metals. (100591)

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CIS 02-1901 Hearing status and work-related accidents. (French: Audition et accidents du travail) Girard S.A., Picard M., Jean S., Turcotte F., Laroque R., Simpson A., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2002, Vol.63, No.8, p.622-633. Illus. 45 ref. (In French)

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This cohort study examined the relationship between the hearing status of noise-exposed workers and work-related accidents. Hearing at 3, 4 and 6kHz and the accident records of 88,247 workers between 1983 and 1998 were reviewed. It was found that age and hearing loss were associated with the risk of being the victim of work-related accidents. For every group starting at age 25, a significant increase in accident rate was observed when permanent hearing loss exceeded 16dB, becoming more prominent for those individuals with greater sensory impairment. This was confirmed by cross-sectional analyses limited to those individuals with a baseline of 10 years of noise exposure. Furthermore, for each category of hearing status, the relative risk (RR) is higher when noise in the workplace is excessively high (≥90BA). Results also show that same workers categorized in various age groups from 25 to 64 years are at higher risk of accident with the oldest most severely impaired group showing the greatest risk (RR = 1.66). (100906)

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CIS 02-1902 Noise-induced disorders. (French: Les affections provoquées par le bruit) Bastide J.C., Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2000, No.592, p.39-42. Illus. (In French)

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Despite advances in recent years, noise-induced disorders still count among the most frequent occupational diseases. In France, compensation was granted for more than 700 cases of noise-induced disease during 1997, with a total cost of compensation estimated at FRF 360 million (approx. EUR 55 million). This article summarizes the key statistics concerning noise-induced diseases in France. Contents: statistical trends in the number of cases of noise-induced diseases between 1985 and 1997; proportion of workers exposed to noise; proportion of exposed workers who use ear protection; responsibilities of employers under current French regulations. (100956)

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CIS 02-1903 The development of a practical heat stress assessment methodology for use in UK industry. Bethea D., Parsons K., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. xii, 200p. Illus. 114 ref. Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-2533-8 (In English)

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In this study on heat stress, experiments were conducted to compare ISO 7933 Required Sweat Rate (SWreq) and Predicted Heat Strain model (PHS) predictions with observed physiological data. Comparisons were made between the predicted and observed sweat rates and the time it took core temperature to reach 38°C (Duration Limit Exposures, DLE). The results showed that the SWreq was not a valid predictor of DLE, and did not predict sweat rate for persons wearing protective clothing in warm humid environments. The PHS DLE predictions were more representative of the ISO predictions that the observed DLEs, and also significantly underestimated the observed sweat rates. An evaluation of the usability of ISO 7933 was also performed. It is concluded that there is a real need for a more practical heat stress assessment method. (100583)

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CIS 02-1904 Behavioural studies of people's attitudes to wearing hearing protection and how these might be changed. Hughson G.W., Mulholland R.E., Cowie H.A., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 116p. 22 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2155-3 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr028.pdf

Workers exposed to noise do not always wear hearing protection when they should. This is due to a range of physical, ergonomic and behavioural factors. This report describes a study carried out to identify ways in which workers' behaviour could be modified so as to make them more likely to adopt hearing protection. In a first phase, a range of companies were visited to assess the degree of workers' use and acceptance of hearing protection and to determine what action management had taken to encourage its use. In a second phase, examples of good practice were identified from these surveys and from the literature, and implemented into workplace interventions that were carried out in four of the companies previously visited. The interventions included providing suitable training and information, offering alternative types of hearing protection, and coaching management in basic feedback and communication techniques for encouraging workers to modify their behaviour. (100875)

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CIS 02-1905 A guide to the Radiation (Emergency Preparedness and Public Information) Regulations 2001. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 150p. 44 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2240-1 (In English)

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The Radiation (Emergency Preparedness and Public Information) Regulations 2001(REPPIR) implement the articles on intervention in cases of radiation emergency of Council Directive 96/29/Euratom in the United Kingdom. They lay down the basic safety standards for the protection of the health of workers and the general public against the hazards from ionizing radiation. They apply to premises and to transport operations. This guidance aims to ensure the provision of information to the public in advance of situations where a radiation emergency might arise, and in the event of any such emergency. The full text of each regulation is reproduced, followed by guidance on their interpretation and implementation. (100666)

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CIS 02-1906 Controlling health risks from the use of UV tanning equipment. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 4p. 6 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/indg209.pdf

This leaflet provides advice for operators of ultraviolet (UV) tanning facilities and their customers on minimizing the health risks of exposure to UV radiation. Health hazards include sunburn, skin irritation, conjunctivitis, premature ageing of the skin, skin cancer and cataracts. Reprint of CIS 96-339 with updated references. (100926)

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CIS 02-1907 Reference neutron radiations - Part 2: Calibration fundamentals of radiation protection devices related to the basic quantities characterizing the radiation field. (French: Rayonnements neutroniques de référence - Partie 2: Concepts d'étalonnage des dispositifs de radioprotection avec les grandeurs fondamentales caractérisant le champ de rayonnement) International Organization for Standardization (ISO), Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 1st ed., 2000. v, 31p. Illus. 33 ref. (In English, French)

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This part of ISO 8529 takes as starting point the neutron sources described in ISO 8529-1. It specifies the procedures to be used for calibrating radiation protection devices in neutron fields produced by calibration sources, with particular emphasis on the corrections for extraneous effects. ISO 8529-2 places particular emphasis on calibrations using radionuclide sources due to their widespread application, with fewer details given on the use of accelerator and reactor sources. (100617)

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CIS 02-1908 Resistance welding - Magnetic field mapping and risk prevention. (French: Soudage par résistance - Cartographie du champ magnétique et prévention) Herrault J., Donati P., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.43-51. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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The magnetic field distribution around several resistance welding machines was determined with a view to applying prevention measures if found necessary. Measurement results confirmed that the emitted levels could exceed the standard reference values beyond which health hazards may exist. In addition to field mapping, this article describes the principle of resistance welding, reviews the health hazards related to exposures to this type of magnetic field, refers to the current regulations and offers some guidance with respect to prevention measures. (100644)

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CIS 02-1909 A purchasing policy for vibration-reduced tools in foundries. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 3p. 8 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fnis12.pdf

This information sheet guides the foundries industry in the selection and purchasing of fettling tools in order to minimize the risks of hand-arm vibration syndrome. Contents: employers' and suppliers' duties; criteria to make the right choice (vibration emission and length of exposure); considerations in tool selection; adequate maintenance; training and supervision for proper use of machines. (100929)

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CIS 02-1910 Injuries caused by work under hyperbaric conditions. (French: Lésions provoquées par des travaux en milieux hyperbares) Baud J.P., Pelé A., Letoublon M., Michel M.C., Prévention BTP, Feb. 2002, No.38, p.33-40. Illus. 7 ref. (In French)

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Contents of this information sheet on occupational diseases caused by work under hyperbaric conditions: definitions; occupations and tasks exposed to this hazard (divers, excavations in compressed air environments, welding under hyperbaric atmospheres, controlling for leaks in the containment envelopes of nuclear reactors, work in immersed chambers); mechanisms of health effects (ear barotrauma, neurotoxicity and pulmonary toxicity of oxygen, decompression symptoms); medical supervision at work; treatment of decompression accidents by emergency recompression; prevention measures; regulations; glossary. (100903)

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[ Top of page ]

009 Mechanical hazards, transport

CIS 02-1911 "Slip and fall" theory - Extreme order statistics. Barnett R.L., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2002, Vol.8, No.2, p.135-159. Illus. 34 ref. (In English)

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The classical "slip and fall" theory is reformulated to account for the stochastic nature of friction. The new theory arising from this analysis is a precise statement of the distribution function for the smallest value among independent observations. This makes it possible to invoke an important result from the asymptotic theory of extreme order statistics that reduces the theory to a simple and elegant relationship among the probability of slipping, the critical friction coefficient criterion, the distance travelled by the walker, and the average, spread and asymmetry of the distribution of friction coefficients. The new theory reveals that short walks lead to fewer falls, and that floors with low friction are sometimes preferable to floors with high friction. (100571)

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CIS 02-1912 Monitoring of the low-speed shaft of electric lifts and hoists through non-destructive monitoring by "acoustic emission". (Italian: Controllo dell'albero lento degli ascensori e montacarichi elettrici mediante il controllo non distruttivo delle "emissioni acustiche") Pinca S., Rosellini C., Scasso M., Amicucci G., Cortis L., Gori E., Pera F., Prevenzione oggi, Apr.-June 2000, Vol.12, No.2, p.79-119. Illus. 5 ref. (In Italian)

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This article describes a non-destructive acoustic test for locating dangerous flaws in the low-speed shafts of electric lifts and hoists. (100850)

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CIS 02-1913 Human presence detection in hazardous areas - Advantages and difficulties of industrial vision. (French: Détection de personnes en zone dangereuse - Apports et difficultés de la vision industrielle) Marsot J., Buchweiller J.P., Ciccotelli J., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2002, No.188, p.37-42. Illus. 23 ref. (In French)

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Since the early 1990s, digital vision has attracted a lot of interest in the field of hazardous-area safety, such as work in the vicinity of machinery or robots. However, the technique was never applied in practice because of numerous constraints and limitations with respect to the requirements of this type of application. As a result of recent advances made in this technique, some manufacturers are now considering using it for the first time for detecting the presence of persons in hazardous areas. Following a brief overview of the reasons why detection systems are particularly suited to detecting the presence of persons in the context of the prevention of occupational hazards, this article goes on to present both the potential benefits of industrial vision techniques in the area of human safety and the main difficulties inherent to the design of such presence detection systems. (100643)

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CIS 02-1914 Clutch-brake systems - Functional analysis and results of trials. (French: Dispositifs embrayages-freins - Analyse fonctionnelle et résultats d'essais) Marsot J., Jacqmin M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.186, p.67-72. Illus. 9 ref. (In French)

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This article presents the results of a study on friction clutch-brake systems, which represent one of the most important elements of the safety of mechanical press operators. After a brief overview of the various operating principles of these systems, the article describes the different causes of failures that can lead to dangerous situations, such as cycle condition or continuous operation. Based on this knowledge and on the standards that apply to this type of equipment, recommendations for their design and are proposed. (100950)

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CIS 02-1915 Safety belts may present a fatal risk. (German: Haltegurte sind lebensgefährlich) Grieger E., Die Industrie der Steine und Erden, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.112, No.5, p.18-19. Illus. (In German)

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Risks of falls from heights exist in many occupational situations. Persons at risk should therefore wear suitable protective equipment capable of arresting their fall while not constituting a health hazard. This article warns of serious injuries that can be caused by safety belts in the event of falls and recommends against the use of this type of equipment as fall arresters. It recommends the use of safety harnesses that maintain the body in a posture that results in less load on the lumbar column and internal organs. The importance of training of emergency teams is emphasized, in particular for avoiding orthostatic shock. (100775)

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CIS 02-1916 Construction workers' falls through roofs: Fatal versus serious injuries. Kines P., Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.195-208. 28 ref. (In English)

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This study examined risk factors for fatal versus serious injuries of construction workers' falls through roofs. Ten fatal injury falls were matched against an equal number of serious injury falls, and descriptive analyses were carried out retrospectively of investigation reports. It was found that fatal injuries occurred predominantly in agriculture, in the afternoon, and in the absence of personal protective equipment such as safety nets or lifelines. In contrast, serious injuries occurred mainly in the morning hours, and were likely due to decreased risk perceptions and less safe behaviour, possibly as the result of the greater use of passive personal protective equipment. (100575)

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CIS 02-1917 Highways - The most common cause of fatalities in the construction industry. (French: La route, premier risque mortel du BTP) Prévention BTP, Jan. 2002, No.37, p.51-58. Illus. (In French)

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Most fatal accidents in the construction industry do not occur on the construction site but during driving on highways, either while commuting or during work-related driving. In this sector in France, 1131 drivers, 121 passengers and 40 pedestrians were killed in highway traffic accidents during the year 2000. Contents of this special feature on highway traffic accidents in the construction industry: number of commuting accidents as a proportion of all construction industry accidents; accidents during work-related driving; pooled transport; awareness programme based on the ideas of children; experience of a construction enterprise in minimizing distances travelled by its employees; safety campaign of a temporary employment agency; safety programme of a construction enterprise; safety consultancy of an insurance company. (100902)

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CIS 02-1918 Characteristics of low speed road accidents with buses in public transport. af Wåhlberg A.E., Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2002, Vol.34, No.5, p.637-647. 39 ref. (In English)

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Low-speed accidents involving public transport buses in the city of Uppsala, Sweden, during the years 1986-2000 were coded according to 17 variables. It was found that more than a quarter of all accidents occurred at bus stops. It is argued that the validity of this database exceeds that of company self-reports and reports from state and police archives, due to more extensive reporting and corroborating experience. The practical usefulness of these results and accident classifications in general are discussed. (100570)

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CIS 02-1919 Occupational injuries among Boston bicycle messengers. Dannerlein J.T., Meeker J.D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec 2002, Vol.42, No.6, p.519-525. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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Most bicycle couriers work as independent contractors and their injuries are not well documented. In this study to quantify injury rates and severity among urban bicycle couriers, a sample of 113 couriers in the city of Boston completed a self-administered questionnaire survey. It was found that most couriers had suffered at least one injury resulting either in days lost from work (70%) or in visits to a health-care professional or hospital (55%). The annual incidence rate for injuries resulting in days away from work was 47/100-bike couriers. Bone fractures accounted for the most days lost from work, followed by dislocations, sprains, and strains. Collisions and avoiding collisions with motor vehicles, including during the opening of doors of vehicles parked on the side of the street into the path of the approaching cyclist, and collisions with pedestrians accounted for the majority (66%) of events leading to injury. Only 24% of messengers reported wearing a helmet on a regular basis, and only 32% have health insurance. (100972)

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CIS 02-1920 Food industry - Well designed safety for meat-cutting operations. (French: Industrie agroalimentaire - Sécurité à point pour la découpe de la viande) Larané A., Travail et sécurité, May 2000, No.596, p.2-7. Illus. (In French)

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Slaughterhouses are among the most hazardous workplaces. In France, approximately 90 accidents involving a loss of work time occur in this sector for every million hours worked, compared with an average of 25 for all occupations. This article describes the experience of an enterprise in the slaughterhouse and meat packaging industry which achieved significant improvements in safety performance without productivity loss by involving workers in the search for solutions in the areas of hand protection, machine ergonomics and workshop layout. Measures that were implemented include job rotation to avoid fatigue-induced accidents, the installing of adjustable-height workbenches and the use of pushrods to avoid hand contact with the band saw. (100957)

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CIS 02-1921 Slipping, tripping and falling accidents. David G.C., Ridd J.E., eds., Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 2001, Vol.32, No.2, p.117-196 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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This special issue on slipping, tripping and falling accidents contains articles on the following topics: perceptions towards accidents among accident victims and their immediate supervisors in service industries; risk factors and countermeasures for accidents during the delivery of mail; preventing injuries by improved stair design; analysis of accidents in an accident database; accidents in different work groups and as a function of age; relationship of accidents to building features and coroners' reports; development of a portable device for assessing floor slipperiness; effect of surface roughness and contamination on the dynamic friction of ceramic tiles; effect of roughness, floor polish, water, oil and ice on slip resistance of several shoe sole materials. (100800)

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CIS 02-1922 Drivers' response to the installation of road lighting: An economic interpretation. Jørgensen F., Pedersen P.A., Accident Analysis and Prevention, Sep. 2002, Vol.34, No.5, p.601-608. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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An economic model of drivers' behaviour is introduced in order to explain recently published empirical findings according to which road lighting increases speed, decreases concentration and reduces accidents. The model, combined with the empirical results, indicate that drivers perceive speed and concentration as complementary safety variables, while common sense suggests that speed and concentration influence real accident rate as substitutable safety means. If this holds, a positive but concave relationship between subjective and objective risks exists, which means that as the objective accident risk rises, it has less influence on perceived risk. (100569)

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CIS 02-1923 Safety of roll containers. Roebuck B., Norton G., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 59p. Illus. 8 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2535-4 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr009.pdf

Roll containers are half-pallet sized platforms, with four running castor wheels and a metallic cage used to contain goods during transport. They may be used to transport goods between a warehouse and a retail store, or within a supermarket to transport goods from the storeroom to the sales floor. Contents of this report on the safety of roll containers: causes of roll container accidents; advice on wheel and handle design to improve stability and to reduce the risk of accidents during handling; advice on loading limits for roll containers, including loading distribution; information on manual forces needed to move roll containers and how the loading affects these forces; recommendations on the use of tail lifts for use with roll containers. As part of this project, a video has also been produced as a training aid for both enforcement officers and industry, illustrating the factors involved in roll cage accidents and how these can be avoided. (100871)

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CIS 02-1924 PTO shaftguards - Development of strength tests for tractor/machine "interface" standards. Seward P.C., Semple D.A., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 53p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2588-5 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr051.pdf

This project was commissioned by HSE following concern about the safety of power take-off shafts for agricultural tractors and their guards. HSE was an important contributor to the work which lead to ISO draft international standard 5674 "Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry - Guards for power take-off (PTO) drive shafts - Wear and strength tests". Although this document has received a positive vote, several queries have been raised by various international delegations to ISO concerning certain aspects of testing required under this draft standard. This report aims to answer these queries and promote involvement by manufacturers and other parties involved in advocating its adoption. (100637)

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CIS 02-1925 Effect of damage on the stability of underground hard rock excavations. (French: Effet de l'endommagement sur la stabilité des excavations souterraines en roche dure) Aubertin M., Li L., Simon R., Institut de recherche en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Sep. 2002. [1 vol.] Illus. 80 ref. An electronic version of the report in PDF format is also included on a CD-ROM., ISBN 2-551-21632-X (In French)

Internet:
http://www.irsst.qc.ca/htmfr/pdf_txt/R-312.pdf

The mechanical behaviour of rocks and rock masses around underground openings depends on many factors. For hard rocks, the onset of crack propagation, which can eventually lead to stress-induced failure, is a fundamental property called the damage initiation threshold. This threshold and the short term failure strength of rocks are represented using a multiaxial criterion in stress space. This criterion, named MSDPu, which has been extended to rock mass, allows the introduction of key factors that influence opening stability, namely small scale intact rock strength. Once all the components are properly defined, the MSDPu criterion is applied to various situations corresponding to actual conditions. In the applications described in this report, the approach is first used to analyse the stability of boreholes under idealized (laboratory) conditions, followed by the stability of large underground openings (with well documented information). Finally, the method is applied to a mine to evaluate its applicability and its limitations. (100751)

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CIS 02-1926 Review of workplace control measures to reduce the risks arising from the movement of vehicles - Phase 1 and Phase 2. Fowler C., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 92p. Illus. 10 ref. (Phase 1); vi, 133p. Illus. 13 ref. (Phase 2) Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-2581-8 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr038.pdf

The objective of this project was to obtain information about workplace transport safety from organizations of varying size and from various industries. In a first phase, a questionnaire was devised, tested at the pilot scale, improved and addressed to more than 2000 companies. Questions included general information about the company, general workplace transport safety, awareness of legislation, the implementation of control measures and their perceived effectiveness. It was found that there was overall a reasonable level of awareness of health and safety legislation. However, a sizable minority of companies have little awareness, and did not record accident data. About 40% of companies who reported being aware of the Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 (see CIS 02-1507) had not conducted a risk assessment of workplace transport. In a second phase, face-to-face interviews were conducted at 20 selected companies. Findings suggest that there is considerable scope for improving the promulgation of regulations, guidance on good practice and legislation enforcement. (100873)

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CIS 02-1927 Vertical axis spindle moulders - Selection of anti-kickback holding devices. (French: Toupies à arbre vertical - Choix des outils "anti-rejet") Oberecht P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2000. 4p. Illus. 6 ref. Can also be found on the site: http://www.inrs.fr/produits/ (In French)

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When working at vertical axis spindle moulders, kickbacks of workpieces can cause serious accidents. Machines therefore need to be equipped with guards offering protection against kickbacks. It is of prime importance that these devices be properly selected and used under the best possible conditions. Aimed at company managers and workshop foremen of workplaces where vertical axis spindle moulders are used, this safety information sheet summarizes the main requirements of milling machines and workpiece holding devices for limiting the risk of kickback. (100952)

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[ Top of page ]

010 Biological hazards

CIS 02-1928 External and internal dose in subjects occupationally exposed to ochratoxin A. Iavicoli I., Brera C., Carelli G., Caputi R., Marinaccio A., Miraglia M., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.381-386. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

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Ochratoxin A (OA) is a mycotoxin that can contaminate food, drink and animal feed. Inhalation of airborne OA can represent an additional source of exposure. OA is known to exert toxic effects, particularly on the renal system, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified it as a "possible human carcinogen" (Group 2B). In this study, the levels of serum OA were determined in workers exposed to airborne dust in coffee, cocoa bean and the spice-processing industries. Airborne OA ranged from <0.003 to 8.15ng/m3, while the levels measured in the workers' breathing zone varied from 0.006 to 0.087ng/m3. OA serum levels ranged from 0.94 to 3.28ng/mL, the latter values rather largely exceeding those of the control group (0.03 to 0.95ng/mL). These findings suggest that environmental and biological monitoring should be undertaken in workplaces where OA-contaminated products are handled or processed. (100982)

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CIS 02-1929 An alternative to regulation in the control of occupational exposure to tuberculosis in homeless shelters. Colton R.D., Colton S.D., New Solutions, 2001, Vol.11, No.4, p.307-324. 1 ref. (In English)

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In the United States, five million workers are exposed to tuberculosis (TB) in the course of their work every year. The occupational risk of exposure to TB among social workers at homeless shelters is particularly acute. TB rates among the homeless are estimated to be 150 to 300 times the nationwide rate. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) responded to the risk to workers in homeless shelters by proposing a regulation mandating that shelters identify shelter residents who represent a potential risk and to remove those residents from the homeless shelter environment. This article concludes that the risk of TB exposure among workers in homeless shelters is best viewed as a public health problem rather than as exclusively a worker protection problem. Accordingly, in addition to seeking worker protection through regulatory controls, OSHA should seek to promote occupational health through a public health response as well. (100556)

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CIS 02-1930 Tetanus prophylaxis. Proposed rationalization of procedures in the occupational field. (Italian: Profilassi antitetanica. Proposta di razionalizzazione delle procedure in ambito occupazionale) Avanzi G., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.120-124. 15 ref. (In Italian)

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It is proposed to apply periodic tetanus antitoxin antibodies at the workplace as a cost-effective way to ensure workers' immunity. (100829)

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CIS 02-1931 Four-year follow-up of a group of workers with allergic sensitization employed in breeding of insects for biological pest control. (Italian: Follow-up di 4 anni in un gruppo di lavoratori con sensibilizzazione allergica addetti alla produzione di insetti per la lotta biologica) Belisario A., Cipolla C., Nucci C., Auletti G., Nobile M., Raffi G.B., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.125-129. Illus. 20 ref. (In Italian)

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As a follow-up to preventive measures (semi-closed cycles, gloves, masks, overalls and sunglasses) implemented after previous reports of sensitization, workers employed in insect breeding were monitored through allergy and respiratory function tests. A decrease in skin sensitization for insects and a decrease in allergic conditions (rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma) were found. The application of preventive measures is vindicated. (100830)

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CIS 02-1932 Primary and secondary allergies to laboratory animals. Goodno L.E., Stave G.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1143-1152. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

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Although laboratory animal allergy (LAA) is a significant occupational hazard among workers exposed to laboratory animals, few studies have evaluated long-term risks to workers. In this study, surveillance data from a ten-year LAA prevention programme were analysed to estimate incidence rates of primary and secondary LAA and to evaluate the effectiveness of the prevention programme in reducing the development of primary LAA. The ten-year incidence rates of primary and secondary LAA were 1.34 and 11 cases per 100 person-years, respectively. The annual incidence of primary LAA was reduced from 3.6% to 0% in the first five years and did not rise above 1.2% over the remaining years, whereas the incidence of secondary LAA was greater than 8% in most years. These findings suggest that programmes effective at preventing primary LAA may need to be evaluated for their effectiveness at protecting against further risk. (100994)

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CIS 02-1933 Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings. Duchaine C., Grimard Y., Cormier Y., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.56-63. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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Eight pigpens were visited twice during winter and once during summer to measure the concentrations of biological and chemical contaminants. For each of the premises, the cleanliness, number of ventilators, air temperature, number of animals and building size were noted. Air samples were taken to measure relative humidity, CO2, ammonia, total dust, microbiological counts and endotoxin levels. Significant decreases in bacterial levels, dust, ammonia and CO2 were observed during summer sampling when compared with winter levels. Mould counts were positively correlated with dirtiness scores, while bacterial counts were negatively correlated with this parameter. Bacteria and endotoxins were correlated with the number of animals. Ambient gases (CO2 and ammonia) correlated with each other. Bacteria were the most important contaminant in swine confinement buildings, and endotoxin levels found were also very high. (100594)

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CIS 02-1934 Rickettsiosis in Sicily and mass media: A not entirely groundless attention. (Italian: Rickettsiosi in Sicilia e mezzi di comunicazione di massa: attenzione non del tutto immotivata) Picciotto D., Provenzani A., Sorrentino S., Vitale F., Vesco G., Caracappa S., Verso M.G., Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2000, Vol.91, No.5, p.494-500. 7 ref. (In Italian)

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The prevalence of rickettsial diseases was assessed in Sicily (Italy) with special attention to possible occupational exposure, due to a high number of cases reported in the press. Epidemiological data showed that Sicily was indeed the Italian region where most cases of rickettsiosis occurred. Analysis of the clinical data showed that an occupational risk existed among small farmers, and that there was also a risk for other subjects active in rural areas, due to contact with infected dogs. (100814)

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CIS 02-1935 Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids: Involvement of a possible new taxon of rapidly growing mycobacteria. Moore J.S., Christensen M., Wilson R.W., Wallace R.J., Zhang Y., Nash D.R., Shelton B., AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.205-213. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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Contamination of air and metalworking fluid (MWF) systems by a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) was detected in a manufacturing plant with recent cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Environmental sampling was performed to determine the extent of the contamination and its variability over time. RGM were present in multiple indoor air samples, central MWF storage tanks, and cutting, drilling, and grinding machines. Contamination was essentially limited to a formulation of semi-synthetic MWF recently introduced in the plant. In general, the mycobacterial counts were stable over time, with the degree of contamination ranging from 102-107 colony forming units/mL. Using molecular techniques, it was found that the mycobacterial isolates consisted of a single strain and represented a previously undescribed taxon closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus. The relationship of this mycobacterium to the cases of HP remains unknown. (100598)

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CIS 02-1936 Effects of various treatments on the quantitative recovery of endotoxin from water-soluble metalworking fluids. Brown M.E., White E.M., Feng A., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.517-520. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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Three extraction methods were compared for their effectiveness in the removal of endotoxin from unused and used water-soluble synthetic and semi-synthetic metalworking fluids (MWF). The three modes of extraction consisted of pyrogen-free water alone; pyrogen-free water with polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate; pyrogen-free water with polyoxyethylene sorbitan monolaurate and sonication. Results suggest that vigorous recovery methods yield higher amounts of endotoxin from MWF samples than mild recovery methods involving pyrogen-free water alone. Additional studies are required for better understanding of the factors that significantly affect endotoxin extraction yields from these fluids. (100796)

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CIS 02-1937 Occupational protein contact dermatitis from shrimps - A new presentation of the crustacean-mite syndrome. Schärer L., Hafner J., Wüthrich B., Bucher C., Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2002, Vol.46, No.3, p.181-182. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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A 45-year-old Chinese cook, with no family or personal history of atopy, had had hand eczema of variable intensity since he had started working in Switzerland 10 years ago. The patient reported acute itching, burning and erythematous swelling about 20min after contact with shrimps. This was followed approximately 2 days later by the appearance of erythema and small vesicles, changing to the typical features of hand eczema after a few days with erythematous and hyperkeratotic skin lesions restricted to the palms. Additionally, when eating shrimps he felt itching of the fingertips. He denied any respiratory symptoms. The skin lesions fully cleared during holidays. Sensitization of the immediate type to crustaceans and house dust mite was demonstrated by skin tests as well as with specific IgE determination. Delayed- type sensitization to shrimps was demonstrable by patch testing. A biopsy taken from the positive patch test site showed an acute eczematous reaction. In CAP FEIA inhibition studies, complete cross-reactivity between D. pteronyssinus and shrimps was demonstrated. (100899)

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CIS 02-1938 Exposure to culturable microorganisms in paper mills and presence of symptoms associated with infections. Haug T., Søstrand P., Langård S., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2002, Vol.41, No.6, p.498-505. 32 ref. (In English)

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Based on an exposure assessment, workers exposed to culturable bio-aerosols in 11 paper mills were divided into three exposure groups. 781 exposed and 285 unexposed workers completed a questionnaire that provided data pertaining to infections and associated symptoms. Concentrations of culturable bacteria in process waters varied in the range 104-106 colony-forming units (CFU)/mL, and in bio-aerosol concentrations varied typically in the range 104-105 CFU/m3. Operators exposed to bio-aerosols reported higher incidence of symptoms associated with infections compared to the reference population (odds ratio 1.7-5.9), and the group of highest exposed workers reported higher incidence than the lowest exposed group. It is concluded that exposure to bio-aerosols containing culturable microorganisms may induce symptoms associated with infections among operators in paper mills. (100768)

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CIS 02-1939 Accidents involving exposure to blood among private sector workers in Ile-de-France. (French: Accidents avec exposition au sang chez les salariés du secteur privé d'Ile-de-France) Alcouffe J., Boyer-Raby H., Chaudron B., Devaux M.J., Fabin C., Fau-Prudhomot P., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.2, p.207-218. 9 ref. (In French)

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Three epidemiological surveys were carried out to study accidents involving exposure to blood (AEB) among private-sector employees in the region of Ile-de-France (Paris region, France): a survey conducted by occupational physicians through their practice, a survey in health care enterprises and a survey in enterprises considered to be risky (garbage collection, cleaning, housekeeping, security personnel, catering, etc.). Such accidents had a prevalence of 0.33% among all private-sector health care workers and of 0.075% for non-occupational factors. Victims of AEBs were predominately women (62%); the most affected age group was 35-44 (34%). Intervention in enterprises has created awareness for the AEB problem and has enabled the creation or reinforcement of procedures to be followed in the event of AEBs. (100502)

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CIS 02-1940 Effects of hospital staffing and organizational climate on needlestick injuries to nurses. Clarke S.P., Sloane D.M., Aiken L.H., American Journal of Public Health, July 2002, Vol.92, No.7. p.1115-1119. 18 ref. (In English)

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This study determined the effects of staffing and organization on the likelihood of needlestick injuries in hospital nurses. Staffing levels and survey data about working climate and risk factors for needlestick injuries were collected in 40 units in 20 hospitals. It was found that units with low staffing and poor organizational climates were generally twice as likely as well-staffed and better-organized units to report risk factors, needlestick injuries and near misses. Remedying problems with understaffing, inadequate administrative support and poor working climate could reduce needlestick injuries. (100578)

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CIS 02-1941 Hepatitis C in urban and rural public safety workers. Rischitelli G., McCauley L., Lambert W.E., Lasarev M., Mahoney E., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.568-573. 21 ref. (In English)

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A sample of 719 Oregon public safety personnel (police officers, firefighters and corrections officers) was tested for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody after completing a risk questionnaire. Seven of nine positive enzyme immunoassay tests (78%) were confirmed with recombinant immunoblot assay, yielding confirmed prevalence estimates of 1.2% among the 406 firefighters and emergency medical technicians, and 0.7% in 274 corrections personnel. No cases were observed in the 29 participating police officers. Self-reports of the number of workplace exposures to blood were not associated with HCV positivity, and the number of years of public safety employment seemed to be slightly less for HCV-positive subjects. Two of the seven (28.6%) HCV-positive individuals reported having at least one non-occupational risk factor (odds ratio, 4.3), suggesting the greater relative importance of non-occupational exposures. (100607)

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CIS 02-1942 Occupational exposures and risk of hepatitis B virus infection among public safety workers. Averhoff F.M., Moyer L.A., Woodruff B.A., Deladisma A.M., Nunnery J., Alter M.J., Margolis H.S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2002, Vol.44, No.6, p.591-596. 23 ref. (In English)

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A questionnaire and seroprevalence survey was conducted to determine the frequency and type of occupational exposures (OEs) and the risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection experienced by public safety workers (PSWs). Of the 2910 PSWs who completed the survey, 6.8% reported at least one OE in the previous 6 months, including needlestick (1.0%), being cut with a contaminated object (2.8%), mucous membrane exposure to blood (0.9%), and being bitten by a human (3.5%). The rate of OE varied by occupation with 2.7% of firefighters, 3.2% of sheriff officers, 6.6% of corrections officers, and 7.4% of police officers reporting ≥1 OE. The HBV infection prevalence was 8.6%, and after adjustment for age and race, it was comparable to the overall US prevalence and did not vary by occupation. Administration of hepatitis B vaccine to PSWs early in their careers will prevent HBV infection associated with occupational and non-OEs. (100610)

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CIS 02-1943 Occupational HIV and HCV seroconversions among health care workers in France - Situation as of 30 June 2001. (French: Séroconversions professionnelles par le VIH et le VHC chez le personnel de la santé en France - Le point au 30 juin 2001) Lot F., Migueres B., Yazdanpanah Y., Tarantola A., Abiteboul M., Domart M., Bouvet E., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.157-166. Illus. 5 ref. (In French)

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This article presents the results of an ongoing study on contaminations by the human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) among health care workers in France as of 30 June 2001. No new cases of HIV seroconversion were reported since 1997, the total number of cases since the start of the study remaining at 13. With respect to HCV, 43 seroconversions were reported, of which 32 were the result of contacts with patients known to be infected at the time of accidental exposure. The breakdown in the number of cases is given by occupation, by health care department and by geographical region, together with data concerning the circumstances of the accidental infection, clinical surveillance and biological monitoring, medical follow-up evolution. The study protocol and the questionnaires are included as appendices. (100785)

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CIS 02-1944 Regulating the risk of tuberculosis transmission among health care workers. Nicas M., AIHA Journal, May-June 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.334-339. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

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The relationship between tuberculosis (TB) infection and disease rates is discussed, and a probability framework is introduced for the apportioning of the infection risk between occupational and non-occupational exposure. It is argued that most TB infections among health care workers are work-related. A 0.2% overall annual risk of TB infection is proposed as acceptable, because in the context of an infection surveillance programme it limits the cumulative disease risk faced by health care workers close to the value for the general United States population. Based on the probability framework, an estimate of the background community infection rate and the traditional Wells-Riley risk model it is shown that a target workplace infection risk value can be derived and applied to risk management decision making. (100792)

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CIS 02-1945 Proposed procedure to be adopted in non-hospital environments following injuries by potentially-contaminated blood-stained objects. (French: Proposition de procédure à suivre, en dehors d'un milieu hospitalier, lors d'un accident du travail avec blessure causée par un objet souillé par du sang susceptible d'être contaminé) Brouwers J.F., Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol. XXXVIII, p.167-178. 12 ref. (In French)

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Outside of the hospital sector, many enterprises and public services are also confronted with the risk of occupational accident resulting in wounds acquired with objects possibly soiled by infected blood. Although the working procedure for such accidents is well known and regularly applied in hospitals, this is generally not the case in other sectors. This article proposes an approach derived from hospital recommendations. Appendices include information documents aimed at the enterprise-level occupational safety and health committee, at the medical practitioner treating the patient on the day of the accident and at the medical practitioner following this patient, as well as a list of hospitals in Belgium that are able to apply urgently a preventive AIDS tritherapy to injured workers who are not part of their personnel. (100943)

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CIS 02-1946 A simple method for tracer containment testing in hospital isolation rooms. Rydock J.P., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, July 2002, Vol.17, No.7, p.486-490. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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This article describes a simple method for tracer containment testing of hospital isolation rooms using a portable gas chromatograph system. Results from tracer testing of two isolation rooms in two different hospitals are presented. One isolation room had a significant negative pressure differential between room and corridor, and the other isolation room was not at negative pressure. A small quantity of sulfur hexafluoride gas was injected manually in an isolation room. Tracer concentrations were thereafter measured in the corridor adjacent to the room at 5-minute intervals for 20 minutes after the injection, yielding a quantitative measure of leakage of the tracer from the isolation room. Finally, measuring the tracer concentration in the isolation room 30 minutes after injection yielded an indication of how effectively the ventilation system removed a contaminant released at the position of the bed. The results show that the method is well-suited for studying containment in hospital isolation rooms. (100565)

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CIS 02-1947 HIV epidemic and other crisis response in sub-Saharan Africa. Cohen D., InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction, ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. vii, 42p. 68 ref., ISBN 92-2-113128-9 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/english/employment/recon/crisis/download/wp6.pdf

The overall objective of the ILO's InFocus Programme on Crisis Response and Reconstruction is to develop the ILO's coherent and rapid response to different crises, such as natural disasters, armed conflicts, financial or economic downturns and difficult political and social transitions, focusing on areas of ILO's comparative advantage. This report on the HIV epidemic and other crises in sub-Saharan Africa is one of the outputs of the programme's research work. It has three objectives: understanding HIV as a developmental issue; analysing interconnections between crises and the HIV epidemic; reviewing the activities of the ILO InFocus Programme with a view of identifying the processes whereby the HIV epidemic affects the work of the programme. Contents: understanding the structural conditions; HIV risk, prevention and mitigation in crisis-affected populations; integrating HIV/AIDS into the ILO's crisis response programme. (100618)

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CIS 02-1948 Guidance for controlling potential risks to workers exposed to class B biosolids. Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, July 2002. 7p. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2002-149/2002-149.html

Bio-solids are organic residues resulting from the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewater. Currently, more than 50% of the bio-solids generated in the United States are recycled to improve and maintain productive soils and stimulate plant growth. Class B bio-solids may contain some pathogens found in sewage (bacteria, viruses, protozoa, helminths). Aimed at employers (essentially, farmers), this booklet provides guidance for controlling risks to workers during storage and land application of class B bio-solids. Topics covered include basic hygiene recommendations, providing appropriate protective clothing and adopting good environmental practices to prevent and minimize exposure. (100988)

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[ Top of page ]

011 Physiology, ergonomics

CIS 02-1949 Tractor-driving hours and their relation to self-reported low-back and hip symptoms. Torén A., Öberg K., Lembke B., Enlund K., Rask-Andersen A., Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.139-146. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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The purpose of this study was to quantify the total and the annual time spent driving tractors among Swedish farmers and its distribution into different work operations, and to investigate the risk of low-back and hip symptoms in relation to tractor-driving within different work operations. The data were collected from a questionnaire sent to all farms of more than 10ha in a Swedish county. The annual tractor-driving time and the percentage distribution within different work operations were calculated for female and male farm workers, the total group and four sub-groups according to the type of activity (crop, dairy, swine or livestock production). The results showed that the mean annual tractor-driving time was 472h. Ploughing was the most time-consuming operation but it had no influence on the risk for low-back or hip pain. Some of the factors relating to tractor driving that influence the risk for low-back and hip symptoms are discussed. (100807)

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CIS 02-1950 New equipment to lighten the work load of construction workers. Kaukiainen A., Sillanpää J., Lappalainen J., Viljanen M., Nyberg M., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2002, Vol.8, No.2, p.209-224. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to determine whether the four ergonomically designed tools for the cutting of moulding, the cutting of reinforcement rods, the carrying of carpet rolls and the fitting of drainpipes can lighten the workload of construction work. The tool for cutting reinforcement rods proved to be useful, bent back postures being decreased by 11%. The carrying of carpet rolls became less loading on the lower and upper extremities. According to the men, the workload was lower in the fitting of drainpipes, especially on the lower extremities and in the neck and shoulder region. It was concluded that workload can be decreased with well-planned equipment; however, more attention should be given to personal work methods and habits. (100572)

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CIS 02-1951 The relationships between biomechanical and postural stresses, musculoskeletal injury rates, and perceived body discomfort experienced by industrial workers: A field study. Stuebbe P., Genaidy A., Karwowski W., Kwon Y.G., Alhemood A., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2002, Vol.8, No.2, p.259-280. Illus. 25 ref. (In English)

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A combination of archival, subjective and observational field data collection methods were used to investigate the relationship between biomechanical and postural stresses, and the resulting physical strain experienced by workers of a packaging plant. Assessment of physical strain was based on the number and incidence rate of Occupational Safety and Health Administration-reportable injuries that were recorded over a period of 27 months, and based on the self-reported ratings of perceived body discomfort. Both the biomechanical and postural stresses correlated with the musculoskeletal injury rate. The results illustrate the usefulness of postural and biomechanical analyses for assessing the risk of musculoskeletal injury in industry. (100573)

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CIS 02-1952 Computer-telephone interactive tasks: Predictors of musculoskeletal disorders according to work analysis and workers' perception. Ferreira M., Saldiva P.H.N., Applied Ergonomics, Mar. 2002, Vol.33, No.2, p.147-153. 20 ref. (In English)

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Sixty-two workers at a bank call centre were assessed by means of a work analysis and a self-administered questionnaire, aiming to determine the relationship between ergonomic, organizational and psychosocial characteristics of their jobs and the existence of musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs). Statistical analysis of the results showed that active telemarketing operations, length of service and the low level of satisfaction with the physical arrangement of the workstation were the factors most related to neck-shoulder and hand-wrist MSD and MSD-induced time away from work. This study emphasizes the role of psychosocial factors and length of service in MSD occurrence and induced absenteeism among workers engaged in computer-telephone interactive tasks. (100808)

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CIS 02-1953 Trends in self-declared musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among women cashiers before and after the redesign of the workplace layout (Phase I). (French: Evolution des plaintes de troubles musculosquelettiques (TMS) chez les hôtesses de caisse avant et après réorganisation des postes (Phase I)) Chaney C., Le Pache J., Aucour C., Alcouffe J., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.493-504. 26 ref. (In French)

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Three occupational physicians involved in the medical supervision of a supermarket chain studied trends in self-declared musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) among 385 women cashiers. This article reports on the results of a first phase of the study, consisting of characterizing the ergonomic aspects of cashiers' work as well as their personal work experience. Through job studies of four cashier workstations, it was possible to highlight an increased risk of MSD for the following tasks: taking goods off the conveyor; handling of goods at the counter; bagging. No differences were found in terms of risk of MSD among the stores that were studied. 226 responses to a questionnaire on occupational and psychological characteristics of the job were analysed. The findings indicate that the cashiers of the various supermarkets were comparable in all respects, including in particular the ratings for MSDs, psychosocial factors and stress levels. (100907)

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CIS 02-1954 Lifting an unexpectedly heavy object: The effects on low-back loading and balance. van der Burg J.C.E., van Dieën J.H., Toussaint H.M., Clinical Biomechanics, Aug. 2000, Vol.15, No.7, p.469-477. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of lifting an unexpectedly heavy object on low-back loading and loss of balance. Nine healthy male subjects were asked to pick up and lift a box as quickly as possible. The weight of the box was unexpectedly increased by five or ten kg. Kinematics and force data were recorded throughout the experiment. Lifting of an unexpectedly heavy box led to a decrease in maximum torque of the low back compared to lifting the same box mass with the expected weight. The maximum lumbar angle did not increase when compared to the light box condition. Only the threat to balance appeared to be somewhat increased. (100514)

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CIS 02-1955 The perceived urgency of speech warnings: Semantics versus acoustics. Hellier E., Edworthy J., Weedon B., Walters K., Adams A., Human Factors, Spring 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.1-17. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this project was to explore the relationship between the semantics of words and the acoustics of the way they are spoken. Warning signal words were pronounced in an urgent, nonurgent and monotone style, and participants were asked to rate the urgency of the words. Acoustic analysis showed that the urgent words were spoken at a higher frequency, with a broader pitch range and were louder than the nonurgent or monotone words. These acoustic differences were used to synthesize artificial versions of signal words in urgent and nonurgent formats. Words deigned to convey urgency were rated as more urgent than the nonurgent versions, a finding attributable to their differing acoustics. Within each speaking style, the words were acoustically the same, yet effects for signal word were found, suggesting that semantics is also important in urgency perception. (100558)

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CIS 02-1956 Field studies of comfort and discomfort in sitting. Helander M.G., Zhang L., Ergonomics, Sep. 1997, Vol.40, No.9, p.895-915. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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A checklist for evaluating chair comfort was validated in two field studies. In the first study, two groups of participants (ten secretaries and ten managers) evaluated two groups of ten chairs. Participants assessed each chair three times during a workday using three different types of scales. Analysis of variance demonstrated that discomfort was related to fatigue accumulated during the workday, but it was not related to chair design. The order of preference among a set of chairs was established during the first assessment and did not change during the day. In a second field study, 37 secretaries used three different formats of a chair evaluation checklist with 14 items. Analyses of variance demonstrated that subjects could evaluate comfort and discomfort simultaneously without any halo-effect. The results have methodological implications for measurement of comfort and discomfort. (100559)

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CIS 02-1957 A comprehensive lifting model: Beyond the NIOSH lifting equation. Hidalgo J., Genaidy A., Karwowski W., Christensen D., Huston R., Stambough J., Ergonomics, Sep. 1997, Vol.40, No.9, p.916-927. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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A comprehensive lifting model for the evaluation and design of manual tasks was developed in two stages using, personal, environmental and task variables. In the first stage, the model was built using the psychophysical data. In the second stage, discounting factors of various variables were tested and adjusted using the physiological and biomechanical data. Two lifting indices are proposed to evaluate lifting tasks, applicable to groups of workers (relative lifting safety index or RLSI) and to individual workers (personal lifting safety index or PLSI). (100560)

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CIS 02-1958 Controlled breaks as a fatigue countermeasure on the flight deck. Neri D.F., Oyung R.L., Colletti L.M., Mallis M.M., Tam P.Y., Dinges D.F., Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.73, No.7, p.654-664. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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A major challenge for flight crews is the need to maintain vigilance during long, highly automated nighttime flights. A six-hour uneventful nighttime flight in a flight simulator was flown by 14 two-man crews. The 14 subjects in the treatment group received five short breaks spaced hourly during cruise; the 14 subjects in the control group received one break in the middle of cruise. During the latter part of the night, the treatment group showed significant reductions for 15min post-break in slow eye movements, theta-band activity and unintended sleep episodes compared with the control group. The treatment group reported significantly greater subjective alertness for up to 25min post-break, with strongest effects near the time of the circadian trough. The findings show the potential usefulness of short-duration breaks as an in-flight fatigue countermeasure. (100561)

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CIS 02-1959 Effects of a training program to improve musculoskeletal health among industrial workers - Effects of supervisors' role in the intervention. Morken T., Moen B., Riise T., Vigeland Hauge S.H., Holien S., Langedrag A., Olson H.O., Pedersen S., Liahjell Saue I.L., Seljebø G.M., Thoppil V., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Aug. 2002, Vol.30, No.2, p.115-127. Illus. 44 ref. (In English)

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To evaluate the effects of a one-year training programme on musculoskeletal symptoms, psychosocial factors and coping, 549 workers from eight plants in the aluminum industry in Norway were divided into three groups: shift group with supervisor; shift group without supervisor and managers. The effects were measured using a questionnaire including items on musculoskeletal symptoms, coping, job demands, control and social support. Participants in the "operators without a supervisor" group used coping strategies more often and tended towards increased social support. No significant changes in musculoskeletal symptoms were found. The intervention groups implemented changes in the work environment such as redesigning the workplace, changing work tools and increasing job variation. (100576)

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CIS 02-1960 Ergonomics of shift work as seen through a statistical evaluation of several physiopathological tests. (Spanish: Ergonomía de los turnos de trabajo a través de un estudio estadístico sobre varios tests psicológicos) Sabaté Fort J., Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.86, p.27-37. Illus. 10 ref. (In Spanish)

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In this study involving 106 metalworkers in the automobile industry (93.4% men), different shift schedules (day, night and alternating day-night) were evaluated by using statistical methods based on responses to various physiopathological questionnaires (tests that evaluate depression, the anxiety-depression-vulnerability test, evaluation of the level of stress and social support). Results confirm the findings of earlier studies and indicate that levels of depression, anxiety and stress are higher among workers working night shifts or alternating shifts than day shifts. In the introduction, the author provides an overview of current understanding of the problems related to shift work. (100713)

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CIS 02-1961 Individually fitted sports shoes for overuse injuries among newspaper carriers. Torkki M., Malmivaara A., Reivonen N., Seitsalo S., Laippala P., Hoikka V., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2002, Vol.28, No.3, p.176-183. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of new, individually fitted sports shoes against lower limb overuse injuries among newspaper carriers. 176 patients were randomly assigned to use either the new, individually adjusted footwear with good shock absorbing properties (test group = 86) or the subjects' own, used footwear (control group = 90). At the 6-month follow-up, there was a difference in favour of the test group with respect to lower-limb pain intensity and number of painful days. After one year, 53% and 33% of the test and control groups, respectively, thought they were better than at the time of the baseline examination. The test subjects had less foot fatigue and fewer hyperkeratotic skin lesions. There was no difference in the number of diagnosed overuse injuries between the groups. During the year of follow-up, the all-inclusive mean costs of foot care were USD 70 and USD 158 in the test and control groups, respectively. (100738)

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CIS 02-1962 Ergonomics in Australia. Straker L., ed., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Sep. 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.335-442 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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This special issue on ergonomics in Australia contains a number of articles on computer use: use of laptop computers by schoolchildren; neck and upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders among computer mouse users; predictors of neck and shoulder pain among non-secretarial computer users; effect of an ergonomic intervention programme on discomfort in computer users with tension neck syndrome; using multiple case studies in ergonomics, example of a pointing device use; evaluation of visual display unit position. Other topics: workload level and shift length; thermal comfort assessment of army wet weather jackets; applying ergonomic information in a heavy engineering design process. (100799)

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CIS 02-1963 Sleepiness and road accidents in Italian traffic policemen on shift-work: A study on the national autostrada network during 1993-1997. (Italian: Sonnolenza ed incidenti stradali nei turnisti della polizia stradale italiana: uno studio sulla rete autostradale nazionale nel quinquennio 1993-1997) Garbarino S., Nobili L., Beelke M., Balestra V., Carrea P., Ferrillo F., Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2000, Vol.91, No.5, p.486-493. Illus. 13 ref. (In Italian)

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In order to evaluate the time distribution and the possible role of sleepiness in highway accident causation among highway patrol personnel, a study was conducted of 1218 traffic accidents involving traffic police that occurred on the Italian autostrada (expressway/motorway) network during 1993-1997. Accidents occurring during the day were significantly correlated with traffic density, while those occurring during the night were not. During the 7 p.m. - 1 a.m. shift the number of accidents showed a progressively increasing trend with two significant peaks around 11 p.m. and 1 a.m. Information about sleep habits before starting night shifts was obtained by means of telephone interviews. The factors considered included circadian rhythms, homeostasis and fatigue. Long naps seemed to reduce the risk of accidents, however policemen seem to underestimate the risk of sleepiness during the 7 p.m. - 1 a.m. shift. (100813)

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CIS 02-1964 Comparison of certain biochemical changes during exercise tests on treadmill and bicycle-ergometer with equal workload intensity. Vesovic D., Borjanovic S., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.92, No.2, p.130-136. 22 ref. (In English)

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Significant changes in metabolic parameters were measured by ergometric tests under conditions of equal workload intensity. The parameters (lactate, pyruvate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, lactate dehydrogenase and aldolase activity) were measured in 33 healthy male volunteers performing both treadmill and bicycle-ergometer tests. The results obtained indicate that a much higher production and/or lower elimination of acid metabolic products occurs during the test on bicycle ergometer. The use of treadmills is recommended as a preferred method for physical work capacity assessment in occupational medicine. (100831)

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CIS 02-1965 Workplace assessment: A tool for occupational health and safety management in small firms?. Jensen P.L., Alstrup L., Thoft E., Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2001, Vol.32, No.5, p.433-440. 23 ref. (In English)

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This paper discusses the capability of small firms in Denmark to comply with legislative demands for risk assessment. A national survey highlighted that only a minor fraction of small firms actually comply with this requirement. However, it is shown through two case studies that small firms would be perfectly able to meet the demands. An analysis of these cases leads to hypotheses on the preconditions favouring compliance, namely that many firms would need the help of an external person to mediate legislative demands and to act as an intermediary with company owners, their assistants or safety representatives. The necessary qualifications for this mediation role are discussed. It is concluded that to stimulate workplace assessment activities in small firms, support from occupational health or labour inspection services are required. (100934)

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CIS 02-1966 Back load evaluation system to analyse different manual tasks in industry. (Polish: Metoda szacowania obciążenia kręgosłupa przy pracy ręcznej) Swat K., Ergonomia, 2001, Vol.24, No.1-2, p.91-110. Illus.13 ref. (In Polish)

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Low-back pain (LBP) and injuries attributed to manual lifting activities are one of the main problems of occupational safety and health in all industrialized countries. Despite numerous efforts, there is still no dependable method of assessing back load with a view of preventing low-back musculoskeletal injuries. A simple and effective method of assessing low-back load during the manual handling of objects based on the ERGONOM work analysis method developed in the mid-90s is proposed. The evaluation method was applied at six jobs in printing industry. An additional comparative study was carried out at the same work places with the revised NIOSH equation for the design and evaluation of manual lifting tasks. Results of all preliminary tests indicate that the new method makes it possible to classify workplaces by intensity of back load. (100940)

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CIS 02-1967 Disturbed sleep-wake patterns during and after short-term international travel among academics attending conferences. Takahashi M., Nakata A., Arito H., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Aug. 2002, Vol.75, No.6, p.435-440. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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To examine variations in sleep and wakefulness associated with international travel, ten academics in Japan were studied while traveling abroad to participate in conferences. Destinations included the USA and Canada to the east (8 to 11h time difference; mean stay of 6.8 days) and Europe to the west (7 to 8h time difference; mean stay of 6.0 days). For eastward-travelling subjects, the total sleep time was shorter and the mean activity during sleep was greater at the destinations than before departure. These sleep disruptions persisted until the second day after the subjects had returned home. No significant disruptions in the main sleep were found in westward travellers, although these subjects took a longer nap immediately after their return. The beginning and end of sleep occurred earlier until the second day after the subjects had returned from eastward trips, but occurred later until the fifth day after return from westward trips. These findings suggest that strategies are needed to facilitate recovery from disturbed sleep wake patterns at home after travel. (100986)

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CIS 02-1968 Workplace risk factors and occupational musculoskeletal disorders, Part 1: A review of biomechanical and psychophysical research on risk factors associated with low-back pain. Keyserling W.M., AIHA Journal, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.39-50. Illus. 81 ref. (In English)

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In a review of over 600 epidemiological studies carried out in 1997, evidence was found of a causal relationship between low-back injuries and workplace exposures to physical workloads, awkward postures and vibration. This article consists of a literature review of recent laboratory research and biomechanical models of work factors believed to be associated with increased risk of low-back injuries. Biomechanical approaches provide important complementary information that is needed to understand the complex process of how exposures to physical risk factors result in strain that may ultimately lead to injury or disease. These studies also provide important insights as to how people respond to specific physical risk factors found in the workplace. Combined with epidemiological research, laboratory studies are an essential element in understanding the causes and means of prevention of work-related overexertion injuries. See also CIS 02-1969. (100593)

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CIS 02-1969 Workplace risk factors and occupational musculoskeletal disorders, Part 2: A review of biomechanical and psychophysical research on risk factors associated with upper extremity disorders. Keyserling W.M., AIHA Journal, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.61, No.2, p.231-243. Illus. 59 ref. (In English)

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In a review of over 600 epidemiological studies carried out in 1997, evidence was found of a causal relationship between workplace exposures to forceful exertions, repetition, awkward postures and vibration, and disorders of the neck, shoulders and upper extremities. This article presents a review of recent laboratory studies and biomechanical models of work factors believed to be associated with an increased risk of upper extremity injuries and disorders. Biomechanical approaches provide important complementary information that is needed to understand the complex process of how exposures to physical risk factors result in strain that may ultimately lead to injury or disease. These studies also provide important insights into how people react and respond to specific physical risk factors found in the workplace. Combined with epidemiological research, laboratory studies are an essential element in understanding the causes and prevention of work-related overexertion injuries. See also CIS 02-1968. (100599)

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CIS 02-1970 Work in sewers: Study of heart rate during accelerated searches for leaks. (French: Travail en égout: étude cardiofréquencemétrique des recherches accélérées de fuites (RAF)) Borel P., Giudicelli M.C., Klarsy D., Liégois J.M., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.505-511. Illus. 6 ref. (In French)

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There are few occupational health studies of the strenuous nature of work in sewers. Heart rate measurements during work are a good way of evaluating cardiac strain. Ten cardiofrequency plots were obtained from workers of a water utility. Nine were usable. These measurements confirmed the high cardiac strain associated with this type of work. It is advised that persons required to work in sewers undergo a cardiac check-up before they are assigned to the task. (100908)

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CIS 02-1971 Integrating vision-impaired workers in normal working environments. (French: Intégration des déficients visuels en milieu ordinaire de travail) Pagnoux J.M., Abdelmoumene R., Fremont C., Arif J., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.513-516. (In French)

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This article was written by vision-impaired employees who are integrated in normal working environments. They give their personal accounts of their experiences and hopes, as well as their expectations from occupational physicians. Contents: medical definition of impaired vision; vision impairment at birth and later in life; other persons' opinions of visually-impaired workers; visually-impaired workers within the enterprise; interactions of multiple factors caused by experiencing the impairment within the enterprise; what the impaired workers expect from occupational physicians. (100909)

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CIS 02-1972 Aerobic power and muscle strength among young and elderly workers with and without physically demanding work tasks. Schibye B., Hansen A.F., Søgaard K., Christensen H., Applied Ergonomics, Oct. 2001, Vol.32, No.5, p.425-431. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of waste collection on the physical capacity of the workers. A total of 19 young and 28 elderly waste collectors and two age-matched control groups participated. Aerobic power was lower among the elderly workers compared with the young workers of both groups. No differences were found between waste collectors and control groups. A general tendency to larger muscle strength was found for both young and elderly waste collectors compared with the control groups, which is an indication of an early selection of the young waste collectors. With respect to the elderly waste collectors, the job seems to have a training effect especially for the shoulder muscles. No training effect is found for the aerobic power, and a discrepancy between work demand and individual aerobic capacity may occur among elderly workers resulting in a negative health effect unless the work task is evaluated according to age-dependent criteria. (100933)

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CIS 02-1973 Work environment effects on labor productivity: An intervention study in a storage building. Niemelä R., Rautio S., Hannula M., Reijula K., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2002, Vol.42, No.4, p.328-335. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

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The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between productivity and the work environment before and after the renovation of a storage facility. The thermal environment, concentrations of dust and chemicals (organic solvents, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides), noise levels, lighting and labour productivity were determined before and after the renovation. As a result of the renovation, thermal conditions, air quality and lighting conditions improved notably. In addition, the employees' subjective evaluations showed a significant decrease in dissatisfaction ratings. Direct measures of labour productivity increased by about 9%. It is concluded that increased productivity is most likely related to the combined effect of the improved work environment, namely better thermal climate, reduced contaminant concentrations and better lighting conditions. (100977)

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CIS 02-1974 Risk estimation for musculoskeletal disorders in machinery design - Integrating a user perspective. Ringelberg J.A., Koukoulaki T., European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety (TUTB), Bd du Roi Albert II, 5 bte 5, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, 2002. 79p. Illus. 44 ref. Price: EUR 25.00., ISBN 2-930003-41-3 (In English)

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Aimed mainly at machine designers and occupational safety and hygiene professionals, this guide explains how to identify and evaluate musculoskeletal disease (MSD) risk factors during machinery design. Contents: main risk factors for MSDs and recent European statistics; required data concerning the machinery users and means of data collection; step-by-step evaluation of the risk of MSD; various methods for evaluating the different risks (static postures and movements, manual handling of loads, muscular effort, repetitive movements, hand-arm vibration, whole-body vibration, energy load); integrated hazard evaluation procedures. A questionnaire for the determination of physical strain is included in an appendix. (100869)

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CIS 02-1975 Handling home care - Achieving safe, efficient and positive outcomes for care workers and clients. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 80p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: GBP 9.50., ISBN 0-7176-2228-2 (In English)

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Workers in the social and health care sectors are at a high risk of musculoskeletal disorders as a result of manual handling tasks, in particular assisting patients having restricted mobility. With a better approach to work organization and ergonomic job design, most of these risks can be eliminated or reduced. Aimed primarily at social and health care workers and their managers and employers, this guidance includes practical advice on assisting patients in their mobility while minimizing musculoskeletal risks to workers. Contents: general advice (activities covered by this guidance, who this guidance is aimed at, legal position, the "no lifting" policy adopted by certain home care service providers as opposed to a policy of risk control, cooperative approach); case studies on improved mobility and risk control; legal aspects; glossary. (100665)

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CIS 02-1976 Seating at work. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 32p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: GBP 7.95., ISBN 0-7176-1231-7 (In English)

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This guidance gives advice on adopting ergonomic sitting postures at the workplace. It also gives examples of good practice, including information on seating design and selection. Topics covered: managing the safety and health risks from seating in the workplace; risk assessment; actions to be taken for safe and suitable seating; workers with special needs; good practice (design, planning the workstation, prevention, selection of seating, maintenance); examples of seating and workstation layout. In appendices: applicable legislation and standards. Replaces CIS 98-92. (100866)

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[ Top of page ]

012 Stress, psychosocial factors

CIS 02-1977 Psychophysiology of work: Stress, gender, endocrine response, and work-related upper extremity disorders. Lundberg U., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2002, Vol.41, No.5, p.383-392. Illus. 98 ref. (In English)

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Mental stress may induce muscle tension and has been proposed as a contributing cause of the development of work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs) by driving low-threshold motor units into degenerative processes through overload. Perceived stress, catecholamines, blood pressure and heart rate are associated with stress-induced elevation of trapezius electromyographic activity. In repetitive tasks, where WRUEDs are common, psychophysiological arousal is generally high both during and after work. A possible explanation of the high prevalence of WRUEDs among women could be that women often perform repetitive tasks and are exposed to additional stress from unpaid work. It is concluded that both physical and psychosocial work conditions may contribute to WRUEDs by inducing physiological stress and muscle tension. (100802)

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CIS 02-1978 A hyperventilation theory of job stress and musculoskeletal disorders. Schleifer L.M., Ley R., Spalding T.W., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2002, Vol.41, No.5, p.420-432. Illus. 59 ref. (In English)

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This article presents a hyperventilation theory of job stress and work-related musculoskeletal disorders based on established principles of breathing and job stress. Hyperventilation refers to a drop in arterial CO2 caused by ventilation that exceeds metabolic demands for O2. Excessive loss of CO2 that results from hyperventilation produces a rise in blood pH which triggers a chain of systemic physiological reactions that have adverse implications for musculoskeletal health, including increased muscle tension, muscle spasm, amplified response to catecholamines, and muscle ischaemia and hypoxia. Hyperventilation is also often characterized by a shift from a diaphragmatic to a thoracic breathing pattern, which imposes biomechanical stress on the neck and shoulder region. The theory provides an innovative framework for understanding how job stress contributes to increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, enabling effective work organization interventions and individual stress-management methods. (100803)

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CIS 02-1979 Preventing armed robberies. (French: Prévenir les vols à main armée) Menuet T., Claude P., Revue Technique Apave, Apr.-June 2002, No.298, p.24-25. Illus. (In French)

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This article presents the approach adopted by a bank to prevent armed robberies. The first step consisted of auditing and benchmarking the existing prevention system in comparison with those adopted by other banks. Next, the conclusions of this first step were presented to senior management, along with 50-odd proposals, including the designation of a safety coordinator, systematic automation of operations, subcontracting the handling of cash, and in particular the feeding of ATMs, ensuring a constant level of visible human activity in branch offices, training of personnel and developing their awareness. Prospects for the future safety of bank branch offices and technological developments in this field are also discussed. (100509)

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CIS 02-1980 Protection of mental health at work. (French: La protection de la santé mentale au travail) Morvan J., Préventique-Sécurité, May-June 2002, No.63, p.36-41. Illus. (In French)

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Employers will to have to take into account the protection of workers' mental health. Indeed, the provisions of French Law No. 2002-73 on the bringing up to date of social benefits introduce the concept of "mental health" into labour legislation, and provide for penalties against cases of repeated bullying. This article describes the current situation with respect to the issues that employers have to take into account: limitations of hazard evaluation applied to workers' mental health; awareness of the symptoms of mental health disorders; ensuring that information concerning workers with mental health disorders are properly communicated to management; organization of mental health protection (inventory of risk factors, integration of physical, psychological and psycho-social constraints). (100533)

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CIS 02-1981 Occupational stress - Understanding it to prevent it. (Spanish: El estrés laboral - Comprenderlo para prevenirlo) Mardarás Platas E., Prevención, Apr.-June 2002, No.160, p.8-18. Illus. 8 ref. (In Spanish)

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Following an introduction to the social and economic factors that can influence stress, this article goes on to explain stress and how it originates. Industrial hygiene is used as an example to illustrate how stress and its modes of action can be compared to physical or chemical agents: stress is transmitted by psychological pathways; it is a function of durations of exposure; stress factors are present in the working environment; limit values can be defined for stress factors. The different types of preventive measures (primary, secondary and tertiary) are reviewed and the need for enterprises to have access to instruments for the determination of stress factors and the evaluation of the degree and type of stress is emphasized. (100671)

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CIS 02-1982 Change in behaviour. Towards safety and quality at work. (Spanish: El cambio de la conducta. Hacia la seguridad y la calidad del trabajo) López-Mena L., Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 2002, No.162, p.22-41. Illus. 11 ref. (In Spanish)

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This article presents some of the experiences gained from programmes aimed at improving safety behaviour and the quality of work in several sectors. It describes the methodology used, based on workplace observations and analyses of risky behaviour leading to the definition of a programme aimed at changing these attitudes as well as on training the workers in identifying risky behaviour. (100678)

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CIS 02-1983 Causes of mood swings. (Spanish: Las causas del vaivén del temperamento) Bower B., Noticias de seguridad, Sep.-Oct. 2002, Vol.64, No.9/10, p.31-33; p.46. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Manic depression, or bipolar mood swings, is believed to have a biological component that can be stabilized by administering lithium chloride or other drugs. Some studies mention that this state is also influenced by emotional relationships, social tensions and individuals' thought processes. This article reviews several studies on the topic from which it emerges that sleep therapy (forced nocturnal rest) as well as regular habits and medical treatment allow a stabilization of mood patterns and the avoidance of further episodes. (100716)

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CIS 02-1984 Stanford presenteeism scale: Health status and employee productivity. Koopman C., Pelletier K.R., Murray J.F., Sharda C.E., Berger M.L., Turpin R.S., Hackleman P., Gibson P., Holmes D.M., Bendel T., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.44, No.1, p.14-20. 28 ref. (In English)

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Decreased productivity is a consequence of absenteeism, but can also exist when employees are physically present at their jobs, a concept known as presenteeism. This article describes the development and testing of a presenteeism scale for evaluating the impact of health problems on individual performance and productivity. A first 32-item scale (SPS-32) including various cognitive, emotional and behavioural aspects of accomplishing work was developed, and evaluated by 175 health care employees. Using these results, six key items based on the two major dimensions of presenteeism, work focus and psychological focus, were identified, enabling the development of a simplified scale, SPS-6. This scale has excellent psychometric characteristics, but requires further validation on actual presenteeism and health status data. (100741)

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CIS 02-1985 Pluridisciplinary approach to bullying. (French: Approche pluridisciplinaire du harcèlement moral) Grenier-Peze M., Soula M.C., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.90, p.137-145. 9 ref. (In French)

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Given the level of media attention given to bullying, the large increase in victim complaints and the creation of specialized support networks, this article attempts to position the bullying victim syndrome with respect to the clinical tables of general occupational psychopathology. It provides an overview of bullying and presents two examples of clinical cases. Contents: definitions of bullying; clinical tables and diagnosis; forms of bullying; legal aspects. (100783)

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CIS 02-1986 Mobbing in the workplace: New aspects of an old phenomenon. (Italian: Molestie morali nei luoghi di lavoro: nuovi aspetti di un vecchio fenomeno) Cassitto M.G., Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.12-24. 18 ref. (In Italian)

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Psychological violence or mobbing should not be confused with normal competition and conflicts encountered in the workplace. It can be due to traditional motives, such as part of an attempt to get rid of an undesired individual or to a definite corporate strategy aimed at reducing the workforce. Mobbing has been recognized as a significant source of individual discomfort and subsequent illness. Lacking specific diagnostic criteria, post-traumatic stress disorder and adjustment disorder have been adopted from the international classification of mental diseases (DSM). Mobbing control is recognized not only as a target of prevention but also as a moral obligation. (100821)

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CIS 02-1987 A new risk in occupational medicine: Mobbing. (Italian: Un nuovo rischio all'attenzione della medicina del lavoro: le molestie morali (mobbing)) Gilioli R., Adinolfi M., Bagaglio A., Boccaletti D., Cassitto M.G., Della Pietra B., Fanelli C., Fattorini E., Gilioli D., Grieco A., Guizzaro A., Labella A., Mattei O., Menegozzo M., Menegozzo S., Molinini R., Musto D., Paoletti A., Papalia F., Quagliuolo R., Vinci F., Medicina del lavoro, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.92, No.1, p.61-69. 12 ref. (In Italian)

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In this consensus document from several Italian universities criteria are proposed for establishing the risks of bullying and mobbing in the workplace. Some definitions of the phenomenon are proposed, while potential targets and consequences for health and social situations are identified. Diagnostic criteria are listed with indications for the role of industrial physicians and human resource departments. (100826)

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CIS 02-1988 The business case for quality mental health services: Why employers should care about the mental health and well-being of their employees. Goetzel R.Z., Ozminkowski R.J., Sederer L.I., Mark T.L., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2002, Vol.44, No.4, p.320-330. 67 ref. (In English)

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Employers want to know whether their health care spending is improving the health of workers, and whether there is a productivity payback from providing good mental health care. This article addresses the subject of employee depression and its impact on business. The literature suggests that depressed individuals exert a significant cost burden for employers. Evidence is mounting that worker depression may have its greatest impact on productivity losses, including increased absenteeism and short-term disability, higher turnover, and sub-optimal performance at work. Although there is no conclusive evidence that physical health care costs decrease when depression is effectively treated, there is growing evidence that productivity improvements occur as a consequence of effective treatment, and those improvements may offset the cost of the treatment. (100892)

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CIS 02-1989 Violence at work - Enterprises fight back. (French: Agressions professionnelles - Les entreprises ripostent) Richez J.P., Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2000, No.592, p.26-38. Illus. 10 ref. (In French)

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Between 1983 and 1998, there were 129 fatal occupational accidents in France resulting from violence. Contents of this collection of articles on violence at the workplace: three-phase approach to prevention (hazard evaluation, work organization and layout of premises, psychological help for victims); case of work incapacity of a violence victim requiring a change of employment; management of post-traumatic shock; measures implemented by the Paris public transport company (social work among young persons in underprivileged neighbourhoods, surveillance cameras, psychological help to victims of violence); measures implemented by the French National Railways (station opening hours, increased levels of staff presence, surveillance cameras); measures implemented in the banking sector (layout of branch offices, training of staff); violence in Europe (16% of the working population is potentially exposed to various forms of violence). (100955)

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CIS 02-1990 The impact of loss. Harrison R., Safety and Health Practitioner, Aug. 2002, Vol.20, No.8, p.32-34. Illus. (In English)

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In the United Kingdom 2001, 295 workers died in occupational accidents, sometimes in violent circumstances. This article reviews the most common reactions of the deceased workers' relatives, colleagues and friends, and discusses some of the ways of providing effective psychological support. (100990)

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CIS 02-1991 Potential association between male infertility and occupational psychological stress. Sheiner E.K., Sheiner E., Carel R., Potashnik G., Shoham-Vardi I., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2002, Vol.44, No.12, p.1093-1099. 51 ref. (In English)

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To investigate the influence of working conditions, occupational exposures to potential reproductive toxic agents and psychological stress on male fertility, male patients attending a fertility clinic were studied. 106 patients attended the clinic because of a male infertility problem (cases) while 66 attended because of a female infertility problem (controls). Male infertility was more associated with working in industry and construction as compared with other occupations (38.8% of cases, 23.0% of controls). Industry and construction workers were of lower educational level than the other workers, tended to smoke more (OR 2.53), worked more often in shifts (OR 3.12), reported physical exertion in work (OR 3.35) and were more exposed to noise and welding (OR 3.84 and 4.40 respectively). Male infertility was also found to be related to burnout indicators, the largest difference being obtained for cognitive weariness. Industry and construction jobs (OR 2.2) and cognitive weariness (OR 1.8) were found to be independent risk factors for male infertility problems. (100991)

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CIS 02-1992 Welfare, work and well-being. Lennon M.C., ed., The Hayworth Medical Press, 10 Alice Street, Binghampton, NY 13904-1580, USA, 2001. xxii, 299p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 74.95 (hard), USD 44.95 (soft)., ISBN 0-7890-1413-0 (hard/relié), ISBN 0-7890-1414-9 (soft/broché) (In English)

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Recent changes in welfare policies in the United States have generated extensive research and media attention on the well-being of women and children under welfare-to-work policies. Concern has focussed primarily on women who leave welfare for work, but the well-being of recipients who do not find or keep jobs or who remain on rolls is gaining attention. This collection of articles focuses on the mental health of low-income women and its relation to welfare, work and material or other hardships. (100931)

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CIS 02-1993 Risk perception leading to risk taking behaviour amongst farmers in England and Wales. Knowles D.J., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 149p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2251-7 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2002/crr02404.pdf

This report details research carried out to investigate risk perception among farmers and risk-taking behaviour admitted to by them, and to draw conclusions on possible initiatives in the future that may be considered by HSE to reduce farm accidents. The information was gathered by means of a postal questionnaire sent to a large sample of farms in England and Wales. Possible future initiatives and interventions are discussed and recommendations are made bearing in mind the likely success of the initiatives. The study concludes with a call for further answers to three questions: why farmers act and behave unsafely even though they know that it is dangerous to do so; how their perceptions can be misplaced so as to leave them exposed to higher risk; how attitudes can be modified and behaviour changed as the result of interventions in order to reduce farm accidents. (100865)

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CIS 02-1994 Evaluation report on OTO 1999/092 - Human factors assessment of safety critical tasks. Johnson R., Hughes G, Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 25p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-7176-2161-8 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr033.pdf

This report describes an assessment of safety critical tasks for the development of the Leadon field, which uses a purpose-built FPSO (Floating Production, Storage and Offloading) offshore platform. It constitutes the first step in a joint industry project to evaluate the methodology presented in offshore technology report OTO 1999/092, "Human factors assessment of safety critical tasks". Among the aspects considered: usability of the methodology; benefits of its use; typical costs to implement; modifications to the methodology; opportunities for further development. It concludes that this tool has many applications for both onshore and offshore installations, including maintenance activities, safety related critical roles and occupational health and safety. (100878)

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CIS 02-1995 Work in the global village. Rantanen J., Lehtinen S., Kurppa K., Lindström K., Saarela K.L., eds., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. viii, 173p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-487-1 (In English)

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Proceedings of a conference held on 15-17 October 2001 in Helsinki, Finland. The main topics of the papers included the impact of globalization on working conditions, social and economic issues of working life, occupational safety and health, and future trends in working conditions in an increasingly-global economy. (100554)

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CIS 02-1996 Organizational behaviour. Harris O.J., Hartman S.J., Best Business Books, The Haworth Press Inc., 10 Alice Street, Binghamton, NY 13904-1580, USA, 2002. xvii, 478p. Illus. 359 ref. Index. Price: USD 119.95 (hard); USD 49.95 (soft); GBP 82.80 and 34.50., ISBN 0-7890-1500-5 (In English)

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This manual uses case examples, self-tests, tables and figures to illustrate the principles of human workplace behaviour. Topics addressed include: ethical aspects; diversity and inequalities at the workplace; effects of globalization; planned and structured aspects of organizational culture; informal aspects of organizational structure; groups and teams; physical surroundings of the workplace; individual perception; psychological needs at the workplace; leadership in the organization; motivation; reinforcement of motivation; communicating concepts and information; planned and unplanned changes and organizational development; managing conflict; stress factors; impact of technology at the workplace. (100612)

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CIS 02-1997 Understanding the risks of stress: A cognitive approach. Daniels K., Harris C., Briner R.B., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 106p. Illus. 140 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2343-2 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02427.pdf

The systematic assessment of psychosocial hazards in the workplace is required under health and safety legislation. In this report, mental models of psychosocial hazards are explored. It is found that people have elaborate mental models of psychosocial hazards, that these mental models predict subsequent levels of important personal and organizational phenomena such as well-being and performance, and that variation in mental models of psychosocial hazards might be explained by a limited number of dimensions. An instrument to assess mental models of psychosocial hazards was developed and validated. Finally, the implications of a cognitive approach for psychosocial risk management are discussed, and the use of the instrument is explained. (100631)

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CIS 02-1998 Effects of prescribed medication on performance in the working population. Haslam C., Brown S., Hastings S., Haslam R., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2003. x, 103p. 34 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2595-8 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr057.pdf

This report presents the findings from an investigation of the effects of medication prescribed for anxiety and depression on working life. The approach was based on focus groups to collect data on the personal experiences of mental health problems and the impact of psychotropic drugs. Focus groups were also conducted with staff in human resources and occupational safety and health to explore the organizational perspectives on mental health in the workplace. Results were presented to an expert panel comprising trade union representatives, researchers and practitioners in occupational medicine, clinical psychology, health and safety and psychiatry. Participants described a variety of accidents and near misses that they attributed to their condition or to the side effects of medication. Workers with responsibilities for others, such as teachers, health care workers and managers, appeared to present a particular risk to safety in the workplace. (100640)

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CIS 02-1999 Advice and information for bereaved families. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. Folder containing six booklets and leaflets. (In English)

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Contents of this information pack aimed at families of victims of fatal occupational accidents: policy statement of the Health an Safety Commission whereby it commits to ensuring that laws are enforced; protocol of collaboration between police forces, public prosecutors and the Health and Safety Executive (HSE); general advice and information; guidance on what needs to be done on the death of a close relative; role of the coroner and coroners' inquests; coping with the death of a close relative. (100590)

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CIS 02-2000 Violence at work. (French: La violence au travail) Perriard J., Weissbrodt R., Département de l'économie, de l'emploi et des affaires extérieures, Office cantonal de l'inspection des relations du travail, 23, rue Ferdinand-Hodler, Case postale 3974, 1211 Genève 3, Switzerland, 2002. 45p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: CHF 16.00. (In French)

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Violence is an emerging topic of concern in the area of occupational safety and health. This booklet proposes several leads for exploring the issue of violence, analysing the situation and implementing appropriate actions involving the cooperation of management and employees. Contents: introduction; definitions of external violence; hazardous situations; sociological framework for analysing acts of violence; consequences of violence; prevention of violence at the workplace. (100759)

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Página generada a partir de la base de datos CISDOC. Fecha: 24.04.14.