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ILO-CIS Bulletin 2002/03

CIS 02-1001 --- CIS 02-1500

Laws, regulations, directives
Chemical data sheets and criteria documents
Training materials and practical information
Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals
   001 General safety, health and conditions of work
   002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology
   003 Industries and occupations
   004 New technologies
   005 Chemical safety
   006 Fires, explosions and major hazards
   007 Electrical safety
   008 Physical hazards
   009 Mechanical hazards, transport
   010 Biological hazards
   011 Physiology, ergonomics
   012 Stress, psychosocial factors


Laws, regulations, directives

CIS 02-1001 Act No.738 on Labour Protection [Finland]. (Finnish: Työturvallisuuslaki; Swedish: Arbetarskyddslag) Finlands författningssamling - Suomen säädöskokoelma, 30 Aug. 2002, No.109, p.3695-3711. (In Finnish, Swedish)

Internet:


Framework law on occupational safety and health, incorporating into Finnish law the provisions of Directives 89/391/EEC (CIS 89-1401) and 93/104/EC (CIS 94-1807). Effective: 1 Jan. 2003. Contents: objectives (improvement of the working environment, prevention of occupational accidents and diseases); employers' obligations; risk evaluation in the workplace; work involving special hazards; planification of the working environment; guidance for workers; personal protective equipment; cooperation between employers and workers; workers' obligations and right to refuse work; work clothes and equipment; special provisions (ergonomics, risk of violence and harassment, solitary work, night work, ventilation, lighting, dangerous substances, machine safety, risk of injury, rescue work); specific situations (information, obligations of employers and self-employed at shared workplaces); obligations of persons from the outside (manufacturers, persons installing equipment and machinery, persons involved in the transport of dangerous goods). Act No.299 of 1958 on labour protection (see CIS 88-1053), with all its modifications, is repealed (100059)

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CIS 02-1002 Order of 27 June 1997 concerning the conditions of accreditation of specialized entities that operate as OSH services functioning outside the enterprise [Spain]. (Spanish: Orden de 27 de junio de 1997 - Condiciones de acreditación de las entidades especializadas como servicios de prevención ajenos a las empresas) Boletín Oficial del Estado, 4 July 1997, No.159, p.33-47. (In Spanish)

Internet:

This Order establishes the conditions for the accreditation of independent entities that may function as safety and health services within enterprises (for the general regulation of OSH services, see CIS 01-608). Contents: general accreditation conditions for entities that wish to operate OSH services; authorization procedures for persons and organizations that wish to perform OSH audits and/or OSH training activities. (100051)

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CIS 02-1003 Regulation of 9 September 2002 to amend and supplement the Regulation on danger evaluation (Text No. 1839) [Croatia]. (Croatian: Pravilnik o izmjenama i dopunama Pravilnika o izradi procjene opasnosti) Narodne Novine, 1 Oct. 2002, Vol.164, No.114, p.4299-4300. (In Croatian)

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This Regulation modifies the 1998 Regulation on the same topic. It provides for the obligation of the employer to evaluate hazards in the workplace in areas with a particular risk of occupational accident or disease. (100231)

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CIS 02-1004 Regulation of 9 September 2002 on the specialized examination of occupational safety and health experts (Text No. 1840) [Croatia]. (Croatian: Pravilnik o polaganju stručnog ispita stručnjaka zaštite na radu) Narodne Novine, 1 Oct. 2002, Vol.164, No.114, p.4300-4305. (In Croatian)

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This Regulation prescribes the training requirements for professional OSH personnel, and for the contents of examinations used for their qualification. (100232)

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CIS 02-1005 Regulation of 9 September 2002 on the programme and control measures related to the capacity of the employer or of an authorized person to perform OSH-related tasks (Text No. 1841) [Croatia]. (Croatian: Pravilnik o programu i načinu provjere osposobljenosti poslodavca ili njegovog ovlaštenika za obavljanje poslova zaštite na radu) Narodne Novine, 1 Oct. 2002, Vol.164, No.114, p.4305. (In Croatian)

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This Regulation provides for measures to evaluate the effectiveness of employers or their chosen representatives to perform OSH-related tasks. (100233)

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CIS 02-1006 Regulation of 9 September 2002 on conditions for the training of workers for safe work (Text No. 1842) [Croatia]. (Croatian: Pravilnik o uvjetima za osposobljavanje radnika za rad na siguran način) Narodne Novine, 1 Oct. 2002, Vol.164, No.114, p.4305-4307. (In Croatian)

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This Regulations prescribes the conditions to be fulfilled by employers in order to be able to provide OSH training to their workers. Procedures for the obtaining of authorization for such training, as well as for revoking such authorizations, are described. (100234)

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CIS 02-1007 Regulation of 9 September 2002 on the conditions under which individuals or enterprises can carry out occupational safety activities (Text No. 1843) [Croatia]. (Croatian: Pravilnik o uvjetima pod kojima pravne osobe mogu obavljati poslove zaštite na radu) Narodne Novine, 1 Oct. 2002, Vol.164, No.114, p.4307-4309. (In Croatian)

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This Regulation prescribes the conditions that an individual or an enterprise must fulfill before it can be authorized to carry out OSH activities. (100235)

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CIS 02-1008 Regulation of 9 September 2002 concerning the risk evaluation of the working environment, machinery and structures presenting a high level of danger (Text No. 1844) [Croatia]. (Croatian: Pravilnik o ispitivanju radnog okoliša te strojeva i uređaja s povećanim opasnostima) Narodne Novine, 1 Oct. 2002, Vol.164, No.114, p.4309-4312. (In Croatian)

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This Regulation specifies the requirements for risk evaluation in workplaces with high levels of danger in the working environment, machinery or structures. Procedures for authorization to work when the employer proceeds to do the evaluation alone are described, as are procedures to withdraw such authorizations. (100236)

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CIS 02-1009 Ministerial Resolution concerning technical organizational rules of OSH in enterprises [Nicaragua]. (Spanish: Resolución Ministerial relativo a los reglamentos técnicos organizativos de higiene y seguridad del trabajo en las empresas) La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Costa Rica), 17 Sep. 2001, Year CV, No.175, p.5085-5086. (In Spanish)

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This Ministerial Resolution provides the organizational principles for employers and Joint OSH Committees in setting up and running occupational safety and health activities in all workplaces in Nicaragua. (100237)

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CIS 02-1010 Ministerial standard on basic health and safety measures on workplaces [Nicaragua]. (Spanish: Norma Ministerial sobre las disposiciones básicas de higiene y seguridad en los lugares de trabajo) La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Costa Rica), 3 Aug. 2001, Year CV, No.146, p.4261-4271. (In Spanish)

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This standard (valid from its publication date) establishes the basic OSH standards to be applied in all workplaces in Nicaragua (except: transport vehicles, fishing boats, agricultural and forestry operations, mines and underground workplaces). Contents: definitions; obligations of employers and workers; general conditions; installations; lighting; environmental conditions; sleeping accommodations, canteens and kitchens; first-aid facilities; order, cleanliness and maintenance; warning signs. In annexes: general safety standards (structural solidity; minimum working surfaces and volumes; floors, roofs and walls; passageways, staircases and ladders; working platforms; floor and wall openings; doors and exits); technical standards for lighting; technical standards for the working environment (ventilation, temperature and humidity; noise and vibration); technical standards for welfare facilities. (100238)

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CIS 02-1011 Ministerial Resolution No.4229 concerning joint health and safety committees in enterprises [Nicaragua]. (Spanish: Resolución ministerial sobre las comisiones mixtas de higiene y seguridad del trabajo (C.M.H.S.T.) en las empresas) La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Costa Rica), 3 Aug. 2001, Year CV, No.146, p.4258-4260 (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ops.org.ni/opsnic/tematicas/salud-trabaj/downloads/resolucion-ministe
   …rial-comisiones-mixtas.pdf

This regulation establishes the legal framework for the setting up and operation of joint OSH committees in workplaces. (100239)

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CIS 02-1012 Ministerial resolution No.4235 on industrial hygiene in workplaces [Nicaragua]. (Spanish: Resolución ministerial sobre higiene industrial en los lugares de trabajo) La Gaceta - Diario Oficial (Costa Rica), 12 Sep. 2001, Year CV, No.173, p.5031-5045. (In Spanish)

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Contents on this regulation (valid from its publication date) intended to cover all workplaces in Nicaragua: definitions; responsibilities of employers and employees; evaluation of industrial hygiene risks; training of workers; hygiene measures; health surveillance; information registries of evaluation data; medical examinations in the workplace; notification of the authorities; special working environments (disagreeable odours); the thermal environment; noise (including a list of maximum acceptable noise levels); procedures for evaluating the thermal environment; non-ionizing and ionizing radiation; chemical contaminants in the working environment (the US TLVs to be used until national exposure limits are published). (100240)

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CIS 02-1013 Ordinance No.207 of 9 May 2002 concerning the designation of difficult and dangerous work [Albania]. (Albanian: Vendim Nr.207, datë 9.5.2002, për përcaktimin e punëve të vështira ose të rrezikshme) Fletorja Zyrtare e Republikës së Shqipërisë, 2 June 2002, No.21, p.681-683. (In Albanian)

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This Ordinance contains a list of jobs considered as particularly difficult or dangerous, requiring special safety and health measures to be taken by employers. (100269)

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CIS 02-1014 Exposure threshold limits at the workplace 2001 [Switzerland]. (French: Valeurs limites d'exposition aux postes de travail 2001 [Suisse]; German: Grenzwerte am Arbeitsplatz 2001) Suva, Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Feb. 2001. 148p. Illus. (In French, German)

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List of exposure limits at the workplace for 2001. Definitions of TLVs for the concentration of harmful substances; list of MAC values; carcinogens, carcinogenic nitrosamines, passive smoking at the workplace, artificial mineral fibres, organic peroxides, inert substances, dust and gases. Definition of the biological exposure indices (BEI), biological monitoring of harmful substances, list of BEIs, BEI of carcinogens. Admissible threshold values for physical agents at the workplace: ionizing radiation, non-ionizing radiation, noise and vibration, compressed air, infrared radiation. (Replaces CIS 01-303). (100281)

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CIS 02-1015 Ordinance 11/2002 (28 Nov.) of the Minister of Employment and Labour concerning the modification of Ordinance 5/1993 (26 Dec.) of the Minister of Labour on the implementation of certain provisions of Act No.93 of 1993 concerning occupational safety and health [Hungary]. (Hungarian: A foglalkoztatáspolitikai és munkaügyi miniszter 11/2002. (XI. 28.) FMM rendelete a munkavédelemről szóló 1993. évi XCIII. törvény egyes rendelkezéseinek végrehajtásáról szóló 5/1993. (XII. 26.) MüM rendelet módosításáról) Magyar Közlöny, 28 Dec. 2002, No.165, p.10245-10259. (In Hungarian)

Internet:
http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=99300005.MUM

Modification of the 1993 Ordinance (see CIS 94-408) implementing certain provisions of the 1993 Act concerning occupational safety and health (see CIS 94-1). The most important modifications involve: conditions required for qualifying as an occupational safety expert; list of dangerous work equipment; occupational accident report form and guidance to filling it out. (100424)

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CIS 02-1016 Workers Compensation Act - Occupational Health and Safety Regulation [Canada - British Columbia]. Internet copy. Only the table of contents is archived by CIS. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.qp.gov.bc.ca/statreg/reg/W/WorkersComp/WorkComp296_97/296_97-00.htm

Regulations issued under the Workers Compensation Act (see CIS 95-1553). They apply to all workplaces in or under the jurisdiction of the province of British Columbia, with the exception of mines and railways to which the Mines Act and the Railway Act apply, respectively. The Regulations apply to workplaces under the jurisdiction of the federal government to the extent that it submits to its application. Contents: core requirements (definitions, application, rights and responsibilities, general conditions); general hazard requirements (classified by type of hazard); industry- and activity-specific requirements (including in addition requirements for evacuation and rescue and occupational first aid). In schedules: first aid and emergency vehicle requirements in detail; explanation of certification levels and training programmes; hazard classification. (100430)

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CIS 02-1017 Executive Decree No.02-427 of 7 Dec. 2002 concerning the conditions for the organization of instruction, information and training of workers in the area of occupational safety and health [Algeria]. (French: Décret exécutif n°02-427 du 3 Chaoual 1423 correspondant au 7 déc. 2002 relatif aux conditions d'organisation de l'instruction, de l'information et de la formation des travailleurs dans le domaine de la prévention des risques professionnels [Algérie]) Journal officiel de la République algérienne démocratique et populaire, 11 Dec. 2002, No.92, p.15-16. (In French)

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This decree implements the training and information provisions of Law 88-07 of 26 Jan. 1988 concerning occupational health, safety and medicine (see CIS 89-5). It obliges employers to organize, in collaboration with Occupational Health, Safety and Medicine Committees, instruction, information and training activities for workers in connection with the risks they face in the workplace. Representatives of workers must also be consulted. (100471)

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CIS 02-1018 Occupational Health and Safety Regulation [Australia - New South Wales]. In : 2001 - Rules, Regulations, By-laws, Ordinances etc. of New South Wales, Vol.2, 280p. Illus. Also in: New South Wales Government Gazette, 24 Aug. 2001, No.129, p.6197-6476. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_reg/ohasr2001364/

This Regulation was introduced under the Occupational Health and Safety Act 2000 (see CIS 00-1501). Its purpose is to replace all existing regulations on OSH with a single consolidated regulation. Contents: definitions; scope (all workplaces, except for mines - some provisions apply even there); places of work and risk management; workplace consultation; work premises and the working environment; plant; hazardous substances; hazardous processes; construction work; certification of workers; licensing of certain businesses (mostly related to asbestos use); permits for certain work; miscellaneous (notification, penalty notices, etc.). Regulations replaced include those referenced under CIS 77-1821, 80-657, 92-710, 92-711, 92-716 and 93-1762. (100475)

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CIS 02-1019 Regulation No.125/2002 on requirements for labour protection in workplaces [Latvia]. (Latvian: Darba aizsardzības prasības darba vietās) Latvijas Republikas Saeimas un Ministru Kabineta Ziņotājs, 23 May 2002, No.10, p.123-129. English translation from: Tulkošanas un Terminoloģijas centrs, Kr. Valdemāra ielā 37, Rīga, 1010 Latvia (8p.) (In English, Latvian)

Internet:
http://www.ttc.lv/New/lv/tulkojumi/E0373.doc

http://www.lm.gov.lv/saturs_norm_akti/na_darbs/mk125_darba_aizsardz_prasibas_dar
   …ba_vietas.htm

Basic OSH regulations for all workplaces in Latvia, with the exception of those involved in transportation, mineral extraction, fishing, agriculture and forestry (outside buildings) and on construction sites. They cover the safety and health principles of the following: electrical appliances; emergency routes and exits; fire protection; worksite planning; ventilation; storage of hazardous waste; microclimate; lighting; windows and skylights; floors, walls, ceilings and roofs; doors and gates; traffic routes; loading ramps and platforms; design of work premises; welfare facilities; first aid facilities; outdoor workplaces; reconstruction and modernization of workplaces; obligations of employers (maintenance, inspection, supervision, training, information of workers etc.). (100479)

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CIS 02-1020 Social directives [Portugal]. (Portuguese: Directivas sociais) Calado Correia M., Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, May 2001. 32p., ISBN 972-8321-44-9 (In Portuguese)

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Collection of decree-laws and regulations transposing European directives in the following areas of occupational safety and health: workers' safety and health; work premises; work equipment; personal protective equipment; manual handling of loads; work stations with VDT screens; carcinogens; biological agents; safety signalling; pregnant women; underground and surface mines; work on board fishing vessels; temporary work or work under short-term contracts; young workers; lead and its inorganic compounds; vinyl chloride monomer; asbestos; threshold limit values; noise; chemicals. (100448)

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CIS 02-1021 Regulations of 12 Sep. 2002 concerning the preventive medical examination of workers [Slovenia]. (Slovenian: Pravilnik o preventivnih zdravstvenih pregledih delavcev) Uradni list Republike Slovenije, 17 Oct. 2002, Year XII, No.87, Text No.4367, p.9586-9620. (In Slovenian)

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These regulations prescribe the different kinds of medical examinations for workers in function of the hazards encountered in the workplace and the type of employment. (100056)

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CIS 02-1022 Ordinance No.1485 of 27 Dec. 2001of the Council of State regarding occupational health monitoring of workers exposed to special health risks [Finland]. (Finnish: Valtioneuvoston asetus terveystarkastuksista erityistä sairastumisen vaaraa aiheuttavissa töissä; Swedish: Statsrådets förordning om hälsoundersökningar i arbete som medför särskild fara för ohälsa) Finlands författningssamling - Suomen säädöskokoelma, 31 Dec. 2001, No.204, p.4091-4093. (In Finnish, Swedish)

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Contents of this Ordinance (effective 1 Jan. 2002): scope; special health risks; monitoring of special health risks and of the need for medical examinations; health examinations and their objectives; distribution of relevant information; monitoring. Decision 1672/1992 on the same subject is revoked. (100057)

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CIS 02-1023 Ordinance No.1484 of 27 Dec. 2001 of the Council of State regarding the principles, content and practitioners of good occupational health practice, and the training required for its personnel [Finland]. (Finnish: Valtioneuvoston asetus hyvän työterveyshuoltokäytännön periaatteista, työterveyshuollon sisällöstä sekä ammattihenkilöiden ja asiantuntijoiden koulutuksesta; Swedish: Statsrådets förordning om principerna för god företagshälsovårdspraxis samt om företagshälsovårdens innehåll, yrkesutbildade personer och sakkunniga och den utbildning som krävs av inom företagshälsovården) Finlands författningssamling - Suomen säädöskokoelma, 31 Dec. 2001, No.204, p.4085-4090. (In Finnish, Swedish)

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Contents of this Ordinance (effective 1 Jan. 2002): principles of good occupational health practice; contents of such practice (methods, workplace inspection, health monitoring, counselling and guidance, protection of working capacity, evaluation and follow-up activities); training needed for occupational health personnel. Decisions 950/1994 and 1348/1994 on the same subject are revoked. (100058)

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CIS 02-1024 Act No.680 of 30 Oct. on construction [Bosnia and Herzegovina]. (Bosnian: Zakon o građenju; Croatian: Zakon o gradnji) Službene Novine Federacije Bosne i Hercegovine, 6 Nov. 2002, Year IX, No.55, p.2513-2526 (Croatian version: 27p.) (In Bosnian, Croatian)

Internet:
http://www.fbihvlada.gov.ba/bosanski/zakoni/2002/zakoni/56_bos.htm

http://www.fbihvlada.gov.ba/bosanski/zakoni/2002/zakoni/56_hrv.htm

This law on construction safety contains provisions on general safety, protection from fire and explosion, health protection, protection from accidents, noise and vibration. (100426)

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CIS 02-1025 Decree No.2003-68 of 24 Jan. 2003 concerning the coordination of safety and health activities in the construction and civil engineering sector and modifying the Labour Code [France]. (French: Décret n°2003-68 du 24 janvier 2003 relatif à la coordination en matière de sécurité et de protection de la santé lors des opérations de bâtiment ou de génie civil et modifiant le code du travail (2me partie: Décrets en Conseil d'Etat) [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 26 Jan. 2003, 135th Year, No.22, p.1589-1591. (In French)

Internet:
http://admi.net/jo/20030126/SOCT0211666D.html

This Decree prescribes the designation of a safety and health coordinator during the planning of a construction or civil engineering project. (100472)

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CIS 02-1026 Occupational Health and Safety (Clothing Factory Registration) Regulation 2001 [Australia - New South Wales]. New South Wales Government Gazette, 21 Dec. 2001, No.196, p.10587-10595. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/nsw/consol_reg/ohasfrr2001668/

The Shops and Industries Act 1962 (formerly the Factories, Shops and Industries Act 1962, see CIS 90-1406) used to require occupiers of factories to register their establishment with the authorities for purposes of inspection. The Occupational Health and Safety Amendment Act 1997 (CIS 99-1401) repealed the 1962 Act, but made no provision for such registration, which is still deemed necessary for clothing factories. This Regulation makes up for this lack, and requires occupiers of clothing factories (including those making footwear, buttons and hats) to ensure that the premises are registered as a clothing factory for purposes of inspection and for the enforcement of OSH requirements. (100476)

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CIS 02-1027 Notification No.559 of 2002 concerning the special obligations of producers, suppliers, importers etc. of substances and materials under the Working Environment Act [Denmark]. (Danish: Bekendtgørelsen om særlige pligter for fremstillere, leverandører og importører mv. af stoffer og materialer efter lov om arbejdsmiljø) Lovtidende A, 4 July 2002, Vol.95, No.559, p.3896-3909. (In Danish)

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This notification implements in Denmark the provisions of Directive 91/155/EEC (see CIS 93-1425), as modified by 93/112/EC (CIS 94-768) and 2001/58/EC (CIS 01-961), as well as those of Art.45 in Directive 1999/45/EC (CIS 00-1517). Contents: scope and definitions; packaging and labelling; notifications; methods of analysis; rules related to material safety data sheets; exemptions and appeals; penalties. Entry into force of most of the Directive: 30 July 2002. In annex: labelling of chromates in concrete; rules for the notification of substances and materials; directives for the preparation of safety data sheets. (100053)

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CIS 02-1028 Royal Order of 11 Oct. 2002 modifying the Royal Order of 11 March 2002 concerning the protection of the health and safety of workers against the risks related to chemical agents at work [Belgium]. (Dutch: Koninklijk besluit tot wijziging van het koninklijk besluit van 11 maart 2002 betreffende de bescherming van de gezondheid en de veiligheid van de werknemers tegen de risico's van chemische agentia op het werk; French: Arrêté royal modifiant l'arrêté royal du 11.3.2002 relatif à la protection de la santé et de la sécurité des travailleurs contre les risques liés aux agents chimiques sur le lieu de travail [Belgique]) Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 25 Oct. 2002, Year 172, No.341, p.49062-49097. (In Dutch, French)

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Modification of the Royal Order of 11 March 2002 (see CIS 01-1586). It provides a revised list of occupational exposure limits for approx. 700 substances, in line with the list of indicative occupational exposure limits introduced by European Directive 2000/39/EC (see CIS 01-966). (100054)

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CIS 02-1029 Regulations of the Berufsgenossenschaften of 1 April 1999 on the use of dangerous substances and implementation directive of 1 April 1999 [Germany]. (German: BG-Vorschrift Umgang mit Gefahrstoffen vom 1. April 1999 und Durchführungsanweisungen vom 1. April 1999) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 1999. 7p. + 6p. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.nmbg.de/download/informationen/inf_vorschr_nmbg/pdf/bgv_b_01.pdf

Safety regulations BGV B1 of the German Occupational Accident Insurance Federation (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften) that came into effect on 1 April 1999, and guidelines on their application. They concern primarily the obligation for employers to provide all information concerning the use of dangerous substances and the responsibilities of prime contractors who subcontract work involving the handling of carcinogenic or mutagenic substances. (100321)

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CIS 02-1030 Hazardous Substances and New Organisms (Personnel Qualifications) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.985-993. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R122.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe the knowledge and practical skills that approved handlers, enforcement officers and test certifiers must have. (100421)

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CIS 02-1031 Hazardous Substances (Identification) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.1023-1055. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R124.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). Summary: interpretation; exclusions (substances used for motive power or control of means of transportation; fuel gases); identification of hazardous substances (duties, priority and secondary identifiers for various categories of substances, alternative or additional information, presentation requirements); documentation for hazardous substances in places of work; signage and advertising. In schedules: distances for previewing and hearing information, documentation and signage; quantities requiring documentation; quantities of particular hazardous classifications requiring signage. (100423)

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CIS 02-1032 Occupational hazards - Operation of the Registry of Carcinogenic Substances and Agents [Argentina]. (Spanish: Riesgos del Trabajo - Funcionamiento del Registro de Sustancias y Agentes Cancerígenos) Superintendencia de Riesgos del Trabajo, Boletín Oficial de la República Argentina, 28 Oct. 2002, Year CX, No.30,013, p.19-22 (Internet copy: 13p.) (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://infoleg.mecon.gov.ar/txtnorma/79053.htm

This Resolution establishes the modalities for the operation of the national registry of carcinogenic substances and agents, following up on Disposición D.N.H.S.T. N° 31/89 of 7 Sep. 1989 creating this registry and in line with the measures contained in ILO Convention 139/74 (see CIS 75-896). It contains an updated list of carcinogenic substances and agents (previous list: in Regulation 1/95 of DNHST, see CIS 95-1182). It enumerates the obligations of employers that produce, import, use, obtain through intermediate processes, sell and/or transfer free of charge carcinogenic substances or agents. In annex: the updated list of carcinogens; sample form for entering information into the registry and guidance to filling it out. (100427)

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CIS 02-1033 Ordinance No.12/2002 (16 Nov.) of the Minister of Health and Social and Family Affairs concerning the modification of Ordinance No.26/2000 (30 Sep.) of the Minister of Health on protection against carcinogenic substances and the prevention of health damage caused by them [Hungary]. (Hungarian: Az egészségügyi, szociális és családügyi miniszter 12/2002. (XI.16.) ESZCSM rendelete a foglalkozási eredetű rákkeltő anyagok elleni védekezésről és az általuk okozott egészségkárosodások megelőzéséről szóló 26/2000. (IX.30.) EüM rendelet módosításáról) Magyar Közlöny, 16 Nov. 2002, No.142, p.7942-7947. (In Hungarian)

Internet:
http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0000026.EUM

Modification of the 2000 Ordinance on the same topic, applied in accordance with European Directive 76/769/EEC (see CIS 01-965), as modified subsequently. Among other provisions, it introduces additional substances into the list of carcinogenic substances. In annex: sample form for the notification of carcinogenic substances. (100428)

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CIS 02-1034 Commission Directive 2001/91/EC of 29 October 2001 adapting to technical progress for the eighth time Annex I to Council Directive 76/769/EEC on the approximation of the laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations (hexachloroethane) [European Union]. (French: Directive 2001/91/CE de la Commission du 29 octobre 2001 portant huitième adaptation au progrès technique de l'annexe I de la directive 76/769/CEE du Conseil concernant le rapprochement des dispositions législatives, réglementaires et administratives des Etats membres relatives à la limitation de la mise sur le marché et de l'emploi de certaines substances et préparations dangereuses (hexachloroéthane) [Union européenne]; Spanish: Directiva 2001/91/CE de la Comisión, de 29 de octubre de 2001, por la que se adapta al progreso técnico por octava vez el anexo I de la Directiva 76/769/CEE del Consejo relativa a la aproximación de las disposiciones legales, reglamentarias y administrativas de los Estados miembros que limitan la comercialización y el uso de determinadas sustancias y preparados peligrosos (hexacloroetano)) Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 30 Oct. 2001, Vol.44, No.L 286, p.27-28. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2001/l_286/l_28620011030en00270028.pdf

http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2001/l_286/l_28620011030es00270028.pdf

http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2001/l_286/l_28620011030fr00270028.pdf

This Directive modifies Directive 76/769/EEC (see CIS 01-965). It extends the prohibition of the use of hexachloroethane to the manufacturing and processing of non-ferrous metals, for which a derogation had been in effect until this Directive, in order to allow for its use in non-integrated aluminium foundries and in the production of certain magnesium alloys. (100429)

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CIS 02-1035 Hazardous Substances (Minimum Degrees of Hazard) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.675-699. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R112.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe, for each intrinsic property of hazardous substances, the minimum degrees of hazard that must be met before a substance is considered hazardous for purposes of the Act. Contents: definitions; substances not considered hazardous (medicines, food); minimum degrees of hazard for different properties. In schedules: minimum degrees of hazard classified by criteria - explosive properties; flammable properties; oxidizing properties; toxic properties; corrosive properties; ecotoxic properties. (100451)

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CIS 02-1036 Hazardous Substances (Classification) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.700-762. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R113.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe classification criteria for each intrinsic property of hazardous substances, as set out in the schedules: explosive substances; flammable substances; oxidizing substances and organic peroxides; toxic substances; corrosive substances; ecotoxic substances. (100452)

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CIS 02-1037 Hazardous Substances (Forms and Information) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.763-768. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R114.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe the information to be included in applications for approval relating to hazardous substances. In schedule: form of search warrant relating to the suspected presence of prohibited substances in a place of work. (100453)

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CIS 02-1038 Hazardous Substances (Exempt Laboratories) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.769-778. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R115.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe the requirements to be met by a laboratory used for research and/or teaching in order to be exempted from certain rules related to the small-scale use of hazardous substances. (100454)

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CIS 02-1039 Hazardous Substances (Classes 1 to 5 Controls) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.779-904. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R116.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). It prescribes detailed control measures for the following classes of dangerous substances: 1 - Explosives; 2 - Flammable gases; 3 - Flammable liquids; 4 - Flammable solids; 5 - Oxidizing substances. (100455)

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CIS 02-1040 Hazardous Substances (Classes 6,8 and 9) Controls) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.905-932. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R117.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). It prescribes detailed control measures for the following classes of dangerous substances: 6 - Toxic substances; 8 - Corrosive substances; 9 - Ecotoxic substances. (100456)

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CIS 02-1041 Hazardous Substances (Packaging) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.933-955. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R118.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe packaging requirements for various hazardous substances, depending on their hazard category. (100457)

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CIS 02-1042 Hazardous Substances (Disposal) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.956-969. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R119.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). They prescribe the requirements for the safe disposal of particular dangerous substances and for the provision of information in connection with such disposal. (100458)

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CIS 02-1043 Hazardous Substances (Tracking) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.970-976. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R120.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). It prescribes the hazardous substances for which tracking is required and the information that is to be recorded relating to these substances. (100459)

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CIS 02-1044 Decree No.2002-1528 of 24 Dec. 2002 modifying Decree No.96-1133 of 24 Dec. 1996 on the prohibition of asbestos and Decree No.96-98 of 7 Feb. 1996 on the protection of workers against the risks of inhalation of asbestos dust [France]. (French: Décret n°2002-1528 du 24 décembre 2002 modifiant le décret n°96-1133 du 24 décembre 1996 relatif à l'interdiction de l'amiante et le décret n°96-98 du 7 février 1996 relatif à la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à l'inhalation de poussières d'amiante [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 28 Dec. 2002, 134th Year, No.302, p.21860-21861. (In French)

Internet:
http://admi.net/jo/20021228/SOCT0211801D.html

This decree modifies French legislation concerning asbestos (see CIS 96-404 and CIS 99-380). The main modification involves the contents and the comprehensibility of training provided to workers concerning the hazards of asbestos. In addition, the ownership of used cars and used agricultural or forestry equipment is exempted from the rules prohibiting asbestos if the vehicle or equipment had been put into circulation before the entry into force of the Decree, unless the asbestos is in the disk brakes. (100473)

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CIS 02-1045 Regulation (EC) No.304/2003 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 Jan. 2003 concerning the export and import of dangerous chemicals [European Union]. (French: Règlement (CE) no304/2003 du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 28 janv. 2003 concernant les exportations et importations de produits chimiques dangereux [Union européenne]) Official Journal of the European Union - Journal officiel de l'Union européenne, 6 Mar. 2003, Vol.46, No.L 63, p.1-26. (In English, French)

Internet:
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/dat/2003/l_063/l_06320030306en00010026.pdf

http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/fr/dat/2003/l_063/l_06320030306fr00010026.pdf

This Regulation repeals and replaces Regulation 2455/92/EEC (see CIS 93-1426) on the same topic. It concerns hazardous chemicals subject to the prior informed consent (PIC) procedure of the Rotterdam Convention, certain other hazardous chemicals banned or restricted within the EU or a Member State, and all chemicals when exported insofar as their classification, packaging and labelling is concerned (however, narcotics, radioactive substances, wastes, chemical weapons, foods and food additives, feeding stuffs, genetically modified organisms and medicinal products are on the whole excluded). Contents: definitions; designated national authorities; participation of the EU in the Convention; chemicals subject to export notification, PIC notification and PIC procedure; information and other requirements associated with the export and import of dangerous chemicals; technical assistance; monitoring and reporting. In annexes: lists of chemicals subject to the export notification procedure, qualifying for PIC notification and subject to the PIC procedure; notification requirements of banned or severely restricted chemicals; export notifications; list of chemicals subject to export ban (cosmetic soaps containing mercury, and the following persistent organic pollutants: aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, DDT, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene, PCBs). (100474)

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CIS 02-1046 Regulation No.373/2002 on labour protection requirements in work with asbestos [Latvia]. (Latvian: Darba aizsardzības prasības darbā ar azbestu) Internet documents. Latvian original from the Ministry of Labour (9p.). English translation from: Tulkošanas un Terminoloģijas centrs, Kr. Valdemāra ielā 37, Rīga, 1010 Latvia (9p.) (In English, Latvian)

Internet:
http://www.ttc.lv/New/lv/tulkojumi/E0428.doc

http://www.lm.gov.lv/saturs_norm_akti/na_darbs/20020820_mk373_azbests.htm

This Regulation (adopted 20 Aug. 2002) provides for the protection of workers potentially exposed to asbestos. On the whole, asbestos is to be removed from workplaces through the process of substitution. Contents: risk assessment (exposure limits: 0.6 fibres/cm3 [chrysotile], 0.3 fibres/cm3 [other types of asbestos]); obligations of employers; registration of employees subject to exposure to asbestos; notification of the State Labour Inspection concerning work with asbestos; cooperation of employers with employees; health surveillance of workers who come into contact with asbestos. In annex: method for determining asbestos fibre concentration in the air. (100480)

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CIS 02-1047 European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by inland waterways (ADN) [United Nations]. (French: Accord européen relatif au transport international des marchandises dangereuses par voies de navigation intérieures (ADN) [Nations Unies]; Russian: Evropejskoe soglašenie o meždunarodnoj perevozke opasnyh gruzov po vnutrennim vodnym putjam (VOPOG)) United Nations Publications, 1221 Genève 10, Switzerland, 2001. xxvii, 392p. Illus., ISBN 92-1-139075-3 (En), ISBN 92-1-239071-4 (fr) (In English, French, Russian)

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The European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Inland Waterways (ADN) was adopted in 25 May 2000. It was elaborated jointly by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) and the Central Commission for the Navigation on the Rhine (CCNR). This publication includes the text of the Final Act of the Conference, the Resolution adopted by the Conference, the Agreement itself and the annexed Regulations. Annexes cover the provisions concerning dangerous substances and articles, the carriage of dangerous goods in packages in bulk and in tank vessels, the requirements and procedures concerning inspections and certification, general transitional provisions and transitional provisions applicable to specific inland waterways. (100100)

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CIS 02-1048 Hazardous Substances (Emergency Management) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.995-1021. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R123.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). It prescribes appropriate actions in the case of Level 1, 2 and 3 emergencies. It also provides for the preparation of Emergency Response Plans and for provisions for secondary containment. In annex: quantities requiring Level 1, 2 or 3 information, depending on hazard classification; threshold quantities for Level 3 emergencies. (100422)

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CIS 02-1049 Hazardous Substances (Fireworks) Regulations 2001 [New Zealand]. Statutory Regulations (New Zealand), 2001, Vol.2, p.977-983. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.status.co.nz/Regs/2001/2001R121.PDF

These Regulations, coming into force on 2 July 2001, were adopted under the Hazardous Substances and New Organisms Act 1996 (see CIS 96-1931). It regulates the conditions of sale and the safe use of fireworks. In principle the sale of fireworks to the public in New Zealand is permitted only during the period 27 Oct -5 Nov., i.e. just before Guy Fawkes Night, but derogations can be made for cultural and religious activities. (100460)

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CIS 02-1050 Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods - Model regulations [United Nations]. (French: Recommandations relatives au transport des marchandises dangereuses - Règlement type [Nations Unies]) United Nations Publications, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 12th Rev. ed., Mar. 2001. v, 750p. Illus. Index., ISBN 92-1-239070-6 (In French)

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Latest update of the "Orange Book" (see CIS 94-774 for 8th edition). It contains a list of dangerous goods most commonly carried to which a UN identification number has been allocated. It addresses principles of classification and definition of classes, general packing requirements, testing procedures; marking, labelling or placarding; and shipping documents. Special recommendations apply to certain classes of goods. The recommendations do not apply to dangerous goods in bulk. (100467)

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CIS 02-1051 Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods - Model regulations [United Nations]. (Russian: Rekomendacii po Perevozke opasnyh gruzov: Tipovye pravila) United Nations Publications, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 12th Rev. ed., 2001. vi, p.1-452. Illus. (vol. I); p.453-743. Illus. Index (vol. II). (In Russian)

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Russian version of the latest update of the "Orange Book" in two volumes. It contains a list of dangerous goods most commonly carried to which a UN identification number has been allocated. It addresses principles of classification and definition of classes, general packing requirements, testing procedures; marking, labelling or placarding; and shipping documents. Special recommendations apply to certain classes of goods. The recommendations do not apply to dangerous goods in bulk. (100468)

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CIS 02-1052 Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods - Model regulations [United Nations]. (Arabic: Tausiyāt bi-ša'ni naql al-badā'i( al-khatira) United Nations Publications, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 11th Rev. ed., May 2002. v, p.1-490. Illus. (vol. I); p.491-777. Illus. Index (vol. II). (In Arabic)

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Arabic version of the 11th edition "Orange Book" in two volumes. It contains a list of dangerous goods most commonly carried to which a UN identification number has been allocated. It addresses principles of classification and definition of classes, general packing requirements, testing procedures; marking, labelling or placarding; and shipping documents. Special recommendations apply to certain classes of goods. The recommendations do not apply to dangerous goods in bulk. (100469)

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CIS 02-1053 Act of 11 July 2002 on protection against ionizing radiation and on nuclear safety [Slovenia]. (Slovenian: Zakon o varstvu pred ionizirajočimi sevanji in jedrski varnosti (ZVISJV)) Uradni list Republike Slovenije, 26 July 2002, Year XII, No.67, Text No.3234, p.7602-7635. (In Slovenian)

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This is the main law on radiation protection, including provisions for dose limits, protection of exposed workers, and medical examinations. Special sections deal with the radiation protection of workers in the extractive industries and in construction, as well as with the disposal of radioactive waste. (100052)

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CIS 02-1054 Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements - Final Rule [USA]. Department of Labor - Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Federal Register, 1 July 2002, Vol.67, No.126, p.44037-44048. (In English)

Internet:

This final rule (effective 1 Jan. 2003) revises the hearing loss recording provisions of the Occupational Injury and Illness Recording and Reporting Requirements rule published on 19 Jan. 2001 (see CIS 01-1277). The criteria for recording hearing loss cases are modified in several ways. The principal change is that Standard Threshold Shifts (10dB shifts in hearing acuity) that have resulted in a total 25dB level of hearing above audiometric zero (averaged over 1000, 2000 and 4000Hz) are to be recorded. (100060)

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CIS 02-1055 Regulation No.1263 of 20 Sep. 2001 of the Minister of Economy concerning occupational safety and health while operating machinery and other equipment used for earth-moving, construction and road building [Poland]. (Polish: Rozporządzenie Ministra gospodarki z dnia 20 września 2001 r. w sprawie bezpieczeństwa i higieny pracy podczas eksploatacji maszyn i innych urządzeń technicznych do robót ziemnych, budowlanych i drogowych) Dziennik Ustaw, 15 Oct. 2001, No.118, p.9279-9287. (In Polish)

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Contents of these Regulations: general provisions; special provisions for particular operations and machinery. In annex: training level required from operators, depending on machine type and capacity. (100055)

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CIS 02-1056 Safety rules of 1 April 1999 on vehicle maintenance [Germany]. (German: BG-Regeln Fahrzeug-Instandhaltung vom April 1999) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 1999. 85p. Illus. Index. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.bgfe.de/pages/gesetze/bgr/BGR_157.pdf

Safety regulations of the German Occupational Accident Insurance Federation (Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften) concerning vehicle maintenance that came into effect in April 1999. They replace safety regulations ZH 1/454 (see CIS 82-256) and apply to the maintenance, modification and disassembly of vehicles or vehicle parts, as well as to installations used for these purposes. Contents: definitions; general requirements; requirements applicable to premises and equipment; general provisions concerning the various tasks, protective equipment and personal hygiene; provisions concerning specific hazards (dangerous substances, fire or explosions, electrical hazards, work on vehicles or on rails); testing of equipment. Appendices include: check lists for electrical safety of installations and equipment; other controls to be made; legislation, regulations and related standards. (100325)

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CIS 02-1057 Safety Standards for Signs, Signals, and Barricades: Final Rule [USA]. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Federal Register, 12 Sep. 2002, Vol.67, No.177, p.57722-57736. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=STANDARDS&p_id=106
   …81&p_text_version=FALSE

This is a modification of the construction industry safety standards (for last compilation of all of 29 CFR Part 1926, see CIS 89-21) with the intention of requiring that traffic control signs, signals, barricades and devices protecting workers conform to relevant Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) standards rather than American National Standards Institute standards. (100425)

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CIS 02-1058 Order No.10/2002 (23 Dec.) of the Minister for Employment Policy and Labour Affairs concerning the modification of Order No.8/1998 (31 March) of the Minister of Labour on the minimal safety and health requirements of work equipment and its utilization [Hungary]. (Hungarian: A foglalkozáspolitikai és munkaügyi miniszter 10/2002 (XII.23.) FMM rendelete a munkaeszközök és használatuk biztonsági és egészségügyi követelményeinek minimális szintjéről szóló 8/1998. (III.31) MüM rendelet módosításáról) Magyar Közlöny, 23 Dec. 2002, No.161, p.9430-9432. (In Hungarian)

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This Order modifies the 1998 Order on the minimal safety and health requirements of work equipment and its utilization (see CIS 00-310). It contains provisions on the safety of work conducted at heights, in particular when it involves temporary workplaces. Special provisions are made for ladders, scaffolding and the use of ropes. (100477)

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[ Top of page ]

Chemical data sheets and criteria documents

CIS 02-1059 4-Methyl-2-pentanone. (French: 4-Méthyl-2-pentanone) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 3p. Illus. 12 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: hexone. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 88-752. Acute toxicity: eye, nose and throat irritation. Chronic toxicity: neurological, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms; skin dryness. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 205mg/m3 (50ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No. 606-004-00-4; F, R11, S9, S16, S23, S33, 293-550-1. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100031)

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CIS 02-1060 Acrolein. (French: Acroléine) Brondeau M.T., Jargot D., Pillière F., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 6p. Illus. 23 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. CD-ROM version of the document already analysed as CIS 01-34. Acute toxicity: severe skin, exe, respiratory tract and mucous membrane irritation which may induce corrosive lesions; dyspnoea, cough and sputum, submucous oedema of the larynx, trachea and bronchi and haemorrhagic alveolar oedema. Chronic toxicity: there are no data available for humans. Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 0.25mg/m3 (0.1ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.605-008-00-3; T+, F, R11, R25, R26, R34, S3/9/14, S26, S36/37/39, S38, S45, 203-453-4. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100032)

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CIS 02-1061 2-Ethoxyethanol. (French: 2-Ethoxyéthanol) Brondeau M.T., Miraval S., Pillière F., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 6p. Illus. 20 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. CD-ROM version of the document already analysed as CIS 99-1782. Acute toxicity: severe skin and eye burns; irritation and ulceration of mucous membranes. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders, neurological signs; skin dryness and hyperhaemia with cyanosis metabolic acidosis; liver and kidney damage; lymphopenia and pancreatitis. Chronic toxicity: reversible haematological effects. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 19mg/m3 (5ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-012-00-X; T, R60, R61, R10, R20/21/22, S53, S45, 203-804-1. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100033)

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CIS 02-1062 Lead and its inorganic compounds. (French: Plomb et ses composés minéraux) Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 8p. Illus. 38 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. CD-ROM version of the document already analysed as CIS 99-1783. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; haemolytic anaemia; cytologic hepatic damage; neurological effects (intracraneal hypertension and convulsive coma) which may leave sequelae. Chronic toxicity: haematological effects (anaemia); effects on the digestive tract (deposits of lead); neurological effects (convulsive coma, sensitive-motor neuropathy, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis); renal damage; high blood pressure; bone damage; effects on reproduction; carcinogenic effects (lung and stomach cancer). Exposure limits (France): 150µg/m3 (mean value over 40 hours expressed as lead). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.231-100-4 (lead), No.082-001-00-6 (lead monoxide); T, R61, R62, R20/22, R33, S53, S45, 215-267-0 (lead monoxide). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100034)

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CIS 02-1063 Cadmium and its inorganic compounds. (French: Cadmium et ses composés minéraux) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 36 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 91-1435. Acute toxicity: strong emetic; renal damage; irritation of the respiratory tract; delayed symptoms; pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: nephrotoxic effects; respiratory diseases (emphysema); bone diseases; lung and bronchial; staining of the teeth; effects on reproduction. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.05mg/m3; ceiling value = 0.05mg/m3 (cadmium oxide). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.048-010-00-5 (cadmium compounds), No.048-001-00-4 (cadmium sulfide), No.048-002-00-0 (cadmium oxide); T, R22, R40, R48/23/25, S22, S36/37, S45, 215-147-8 (cadmium sulfide); T, R49, R22, R48/23/25, S53, S45, 215-146-2 (cadmium oxide). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100035)

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CIS 02-1064 4-Hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone. (French: 4-Hydroxy-4-méthyl-2-pentanone) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. Illus. 13 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: diacetone alcohol. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 89-1127. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Chronic toxicity: dermatosis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 240mg/m3 (50ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-016-00-1; Xi, R36, S24/25, 204-626-7. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100036)

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CIS 02-1065 Methyl methacrylate. (French: Méthacrylate de méthyle) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 42 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 93-1460. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; moderate irritant of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Chronic toxicity: weak irritant of the skin; moderate sensitizer (allergic asthma); neurological effects (symptoms and peripheral disorders); cardiomyopathy; digestive disorders; changes in blood counts; carcinogenic effects; effects on reproduction. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 410mg/m3 (100ppm); ceiling value = 820mg/m3 (200ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.607-035-00-6; Xi, F, R36/37/38, R43, S9, S16, S29, S33, 201-297-1.The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100037)

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CIS 02-1066 1,2-Dichloropropane. (French: 1,2-Dichloropropane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 3p. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: propylene dichloride. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-407. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; gastric pain and vomiting, neuropsychological and liver disorders (ingestion). Chronic toxicity: there are no published data. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 350mg/m3 (75ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.602-020-00-0, Xn, F, R11, R20/22, S16, S24, 201-152-2. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100038)

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CIS 02-1067 Chloromethane. (French: Chlorométhane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. Illus. 25 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-401. Acute toxicity: severe skin and eye burns; irritation and ulceration of mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: signs of poisoning appear after a few hours; gastric disorders; disorders; headaches; neurological disorders; cardiac arrhythmia; renal damage. Acute toxicity: cirrhosis, mental disorders. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 105mg/m3 (50ppm); ceiling value = 210mg/m3 (100ppm). EC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.602-001-00-7; Xn, F+, R12, R40, R48/20, S9, S16, S33, 200-817-4. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100039)

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CIS 02-1068 1,1,2-Trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane. (French: 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroéthane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. 20 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 89-1147. Acute toxicity: irritation of the respiratory tract; cardiac arrhythmia and hypoxia; vomiting and transient cyanosis (ingestion). Chronic toxicity: skin dryness. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 7600mg/m3 (1000ppm); ceiling value = 9500mg/m3 (1250ppm). EC number: No.200-936-1. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100040)

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CIS 02-1069 2-Propanol. (French: 2-Propanol) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 5p. Illus. 25 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: isopropyl alcohol. Acute toxicity: eye irritation; digestive disorders, symptoms similar to alcohol intake which may lead to coma, hypothermia, respiratory depression, hypotension (ingestion). Chronic toxicity: carcinogen (paranasal and laryngeal cancer); skin irritation and sensitization. Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 980mg/m3 (400ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-003-00-0; F, R11, S7, S16. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100041)

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CIS 02-1070 Bromomethane. (French: Bromométhane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 28 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: methyl bromide. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-398. Acute toxicity: neurotoxic effects after a few hours' delay which may lead to coma with myoclonia and/or convulsions; irritation of the eye and respiratory tract mucous membranes; haemodynamic disorders; rhabdomyolysis; renal and liver damage. Chronic toxicity: peripheral neuropathy; liver damage. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 20mg/m3 (5ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.602-002-00-3; T, R23, R36/37/38, S15, S27, S36/37/39, S38, S44. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100042)

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CIS 02-1071 Nickel and its inorganic compounds. (French: Nickel et ses composés minéraux) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 22 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 89-1136. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; bradycardia; hypothermia. Chronic toxicity: sensitization; contact dermatitis; allergic asthma; rhinitis; respiratory tract cancers; chromosome changes. Exposure limits: TWA (France) = 1mg/m3 (metallic dusts); 1mg/m3 Ni (fumes and dusts of matte roasting); TWA (USA, ACGIH 1991) = 1mg/m3 Ni (metal and insoluble compounds); 0.1mg/m3 Ni (soluble compounds). EEC numbers and mandatory labelling codes: No.028-002-00-7; Xn, R40, R43, S22, S36/37 (nickel); No.028-003-00-2; T, R49, R43, S55, S44 (nickel monoxide). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100043)

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CIS 02-1072 Ethylene oxide. (French: Oxyde d'éthylène) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 21 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 89-1121. Acute and subacute toxicity: eye and respiratory tract irritation; cyanosis; dyspnoea; pulmonary oedema; digestive disorders; neurological disorders; chemical burns; sensitive motor polyneuritis; cataract; genotoxic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects. Exposure limits: TWA (France) = 10mg/m3 (5ppm); ceiling value = 20mg/m3 (10ppm); TWA (USA) = 1ppm (ACGIH 1991). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-023-00-X; F+, T, R45, R46, R13, R23, R36/37/38, S53, S3/7/9, S16, S33, S44. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100044)

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CIS 02-1073 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate. (French: Acétate de 2-éthoxyéthyle) Brondeau M.T., Miraval S., Pillière F., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 4p. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: no cases have been reported. Chronic toxicity: tendency to anaemia and granulopenia, and increase of spontaneous abortion; however, these effects were observed after simultaneous exposure to various solvents. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 27mg/m3 (5ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.607-037-00-7; T, R60, R61, R10, R20/21/22, S53, S45, 203-839-2. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100045)

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CIS 02-1074 Carbonyl dichloride. (French: Dichlorure de carbonyle) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 4p. 15 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: phosgene. Acute toxicity: eye and rhinolaryngeal irritation, cough and vomiting, followed by a recovery which may last a few hours, possibly followed by pulmonary oedema; pulmonary damage which can give rise to sequelae (asthma, bronchial dilatation, emphysema); chemical burns. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the pulmonary tract which may induce respiratory insufficiency. Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 0.4mg/m3 (0.1ppm). EEC number: No.006-002-00-8. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100046)

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CIS 02-1075 Zinc and its compounds. (French: Zinc et ses composés) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 3p. 17 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: irritation and ulceration of mucous membranes; dermatosis and skin ulcerations; metal fume fever (inhalation); possible carcinogenic effects. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.05mg/m3 Cr for zinc chromate; 1mg/m3 for fumes; 5mg/m3 for zinc oxide fumes; 10mg/m3 for zinc oxide and zinc stearate dusts. EEC numbers: No.030-001-00-1 (zinc powder, phyrophosphoric zinc dusts); No.030-002-00-7 (zinc powder, stabilized zinc dusts). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100047)

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CIS 02-1076 Xylenes. (French: Xylènes) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 40 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 91-408. Acute toxicity: eye and respiratory tract irritation; chemical pneumopathy; digestive disorders, depression of the central nervous system, symptoms similar to alcohol intake. Chronic toxicity: neurotoxic effects; dermatosis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 435mg/m3 (100ppm); ceiling value = 650mg/m3 (150ppm). EEC numbers and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-022-00-9 (xylene, mixed isomers); No.601-038-00-6 (o-xylene); No.601-039-00-1 (m-xylene); No.601-040-00-7 (p-xylene); Xn, R10, R20/21, R38, S25 (xylene, mixed isomers). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100048)

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CIS 02-1077 1,2-Dichloroethylene. (French: 1,2-Dichloroéthylène) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. Illus. 20 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-811. Toxicity: based on the few known cases of human poisoning and animal data, this solvent is considered to have a toxic potential equivalent to that of trichloroethylene; it is the most toxic of the chlorinated derivatives of ethylene. Exposure limits (USA, ACGIH 1987): TWA = 790mg/m3 (200ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.602-026-00-3; Xn, F, R11, R20, S7, S16, S29. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100049)

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CIS 02-1078 Lindane. (French: Lindane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 25 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 89-1129. Acute toxicity: irritation of the skin and mucous membranes; effects on nervous central system; myocardial hyperexcitability; cardiac shock; respiratory insufficiency; renal insufficiency; digestive disorders (ingestion). Chronic toxicity: haematotoxic effects; neurological symptoms. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.5mg/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.602-043-00-6; T, R23/24/25, R36/38, S2, S13, S44. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (100050)

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CIS 02-1079 Palladium. World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002, xxi, 201p. Illus. 369 ref. Price: CHF 36.00, USD 32.40., ISBN 92-4-157226-4 (In English)

Internet:

Palladium is recovered mostly as a by-product of nickel and platinum metal refining. It is used in catalysts for automobiles and in the chemical industry, and in dentistry and jewellery. There is no information on the possible effects of palladium emitted from automotive catalytic converters on the general population. Human patch tests have shown that palladium (II) chloride to have sensitizing effects. Animal tests show skin and eye irritating effects of palladium (II) chloride. Several palladium compounds were found to be potent sensitizers. There are insufficient data on the reproductive and developmental effects of palladium and its compounds. In vitro testing and in vivo testing on mice show some indications of genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. Detailed summaries in French and Spanish. (100080)

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CIS 02-1080 Furan. (French: Furanne; Spanish: Furano) English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_
   …icsc12/icsc1257.pdf

http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1257.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1257.html

International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and skin absorption. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the respiratory tract; delayed pulmonary oedema. (100121)

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CIS 02-1081 Hafnium powder. (French: Poudre d'hafnium; Spanish: Hafnio) English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_
   …icsc08/icsc0847.pdf

http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn0847.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0847.html

International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated exposure may affect the lungs; hepatotoxic effects. Threshold limit value: 0.5mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1998). (100122)

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CIS 02-1082 Hexaflumuron. (French: Hexaflumuron; Spanish: Hexaflumuron) English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_
   …icsc12/icsc1266.pdf

http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1266.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1266.html

International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Long-term exposure effects: haematological effects (methaemoglobinaemia). (100123)

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CIS 02-1083 Potassium hexafluorosilicate. (French: Hexafluorosilicate de potassium; Spanish: Hexafluorosilicato de dipotasio) English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_
   …icsc12/icsc1242.pdf

http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1242.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1242.html

International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; effects on the calcium metabolism, resulting in cardiac disorders and impaired function. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the bone, resulting in fluorosis. Threshold limit value: 2.5mg/m3 (TWA) as fluorine (ACGIH 1997-1998). (100124)

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CIS 02-1084 Sodium hexafluorosilicate. (French: Hexafluorosilicate de sodium; Spanish: Hexafluorosilicato de disodio) English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_
   …icsc12/icsc1243.pdf

http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1243.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1243.html

International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; effects on the calcium metabolism, resulting in cardiac disorders and impaired function. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the bone, resulting in fluorosis. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization. Threshold limit value: 2.5mg/m3 (TWA) as fluorine (ACGIH 1998). (100125)

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CIS 02-1085 Uranium hexafluoride. (French: Hexafluorure d'uranium; Spanish: Hexafluoruro de uranio) English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_
   …icsc12/icsc1250.pdf

http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1250.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1250.html

International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: corrosive to the eyes, the skin and the respiratory tract; nephrotoxic effects (kidney impairment and tissue lesions); exposure at low levels may result in death. Threshold limit value: 0.2mg/m3 (TWA) A1 (as uranium (soluble and insoluble compounds)) (ACGIH 1998); 0.6mg/m3 (STEL) (ACGIH 1998). (100126)

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CIS 02-1086 Hexamethylphosphoric triamide. (French: Triamide hexaméthylphosphorique; Spanish: Hexametiltriamida fosfórica) French version: Internet document, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn0162.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0162.html

French and Spanish versions of IPCS ICSC 0162 (for the English version, see CIS 92-749). International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and skin absorption. Short term exposure effects: effects on the lungs, kidneys and central nervous system, resulting in impaired functions and depression. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the respiratory tract, kidneys and bone marrow; possibly carcinogenic. Threshold limit value: (TWA) A3 (skin) (ACGIH 1998). (100127)

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CIS 02-1087 2,5-Hexanediol. (French: Hexane-2,5 diol; Spanish: Hexano-2,5-diol) French version: Internet document, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn0280.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0280.html

French and Spanish versions of IPCS ICSC 0280 (for the English version, see CIS 92-1802). International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: ingestion. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes; effects on the immune system, resulting in aberrations of the thymus, spleen and adrenal glands. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the central and peripheral nervous system, resulting in degeneration of the nerves. (100128)

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CIS 02-1088 1,2-Diphenylhydrazine. (French: 1,2-Diphénylhydrazine; Spanish: Hidrazobenceno) French version: Internet document, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn0263.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn0263.html

French and Spanish versions of IPCS ICSC 0263 (for English version, see CIS 92-1482). International Chemical Safety Card. Synonym: hydrazobenzene. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: possibly carcinogenic. (100129)

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CIS 02-1089 Ammonium bisulfite. (French: Bisulfite d'ammonium; Spanish: Hidrogenosulfito de amonio) English/French versions: Internet documents, 1999. Spanish version: Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/_
   …icsc12/icsc1254.pdf

http://www.mtas.es/insht/ipcsnspn/nspn1254.htm

http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/ipcsnfrn/nfrn1254.html

International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Toxicity: decomposes on heating or on contact with acids producing toxic fumes including sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides and ammonia. (100130)

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CIS 02-1090 Iodine. (French: Iode) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. 16 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 85-1638. Acute toxicity: skin, eye and oesophagus burns; irritation of the mucous membranes; pulmonary oedema; renal damage which may be delayed; collapse; cyanosis; coma; functional renal insufficiency. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the skin and mucous membranes; skin rashes. Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 1mg/m3 (0.1ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100191)

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CIS 02-1091 2,4-D, its salts and esters. (French: 2,4-D, ses sels et esters) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 5p. 20 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; myocardial effects; renal and/or hepatic damage; brain or pulmonary oedema which leads to death. Chronic toxicity: peripheral neurological disorders; irritation of the skin, eyes, respiratory and digestive tract; contact eczema; tonsillitis; sinusitis; renal damage; glycaemia disorders; mutagenic effects (sister chromatide exchanges, chromosomal abnormalities in lymphocytes). Exposure limits (France): TWA = 10mg/m3. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100192)

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CIS 02-1092 Sulfamic acid. (French: Acide sulfamique) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 3p. 12 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 85-1642. Synonyms: amidosulfuric acid; sulfamidic acid. Acute toxicity: irritation of the digestive mucus membranes and digestive disorders (ingestion); irritation of the skin and eyes of degree varying with the concentration, which can give rise to burns. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the skin; lesions of the hands (from handling of the product in bags). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100193)

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CIS 02-1093 Nitromethane. (French: Nitrométhane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 3p. Illus. 19 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 85-1643. Acute toxicity: methaemoglobinaemia and haemolysis (one single case reported). Chronic toxicity: skin irritation. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 250mg/m3 (100ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.609-036-00-7; Xn, R5, R10, R22, S41, 200-876-6. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100194)

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CIS 02-1094 1-Propanol. (French: 1-Propanol) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 23 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: n-propanol; n-propyl alcohol; propyl alcohol. Acute toxicity: irritation of the digestive tract and digestive disorders (ingestion); irritation of the skin and eyes; splashes may induce conjunctivitis and corneal ulcerations. Chronic toxicity: contact dermatitis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 500mg/m3 (200ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-003-00-0; F, R11, S7, S16. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100195)

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CIS 02-1095 Acetylene. (French: Acétylène) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 15 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 86-675. Synonym: ethyne. Acute toxicity: anaesthetic effect; central nervous system depression; coordination disturbances; unconsciousness or severe coma; increased blood pressure. Chronic toxicity: asthenia; headache, sleepiness, gastric pain, bronchitis. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-015-00, 200-816-9; F+, R5, R6, R12, S6, S16, S33, 200-819-9. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100196)

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CIS 02-1096 N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone. (French: N-Méthyl-2-pyrrolidone) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 15 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 86-1033. Synonyms: 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone; NMP. Toxicity: no known case of acute or chronic toxicity; moderate erythema when repeatedly applied on skin; increases skin permeation of other substances. Exposure limits (Germany, MAK): TWA = 80mg/m3 (19ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.606-021-00-7; Xi, R36/38, S41, 212-828-1. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100197)

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CIS 02-1097 Carbendazime. (French: Carbendazime) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 3p. Illus. 20 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 86-1034. Synonyms: methyl 2-benzimidazolylcarbamate. Toxicity: there are no published data on acute or chronic poisoning; irritation of the skin, eyes and upper respiratory tract. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.613-048-00-8; Xn, R40, S36/37. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100198)

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CIS 02-1098 o-Chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile. (French: o-Chlorobenzylidènemalononitrile) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 3p. 20 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 86-1029. Synonym: CS. Acute toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; digestive disorders; headache; allergenic potential; skin burns. Chronic toxicity: carcinogen; skin and nasal septum ulcers; renal damage (ingestion). Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 0.4mg/m3 (0.05ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100199)

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CIS 02-1099 Mercury and its compounds - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification. Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction, Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 55p. 70 ref., ISBN 90-5549-314-7 (In English)

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Recommendations for the classification and labelling of mercury and its compounds based on the evaluation of studies on their effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: no classification of mercury, methylmercury, phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate due to lack of data. Teratogenic effects: category 2 (substances which should be regarded as if they impair fertility in humans) and R61 labelling for metallic mercury; category 1 (substances known to cause developmental toxicity in humans) and R61 labelling for methylmercury; no classification for phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate due to lack of data. Effects during lactation: lack of appropriate data for mercury, phenylmercury acetate, mercuric chloride and mercuric nitrate; R64 labelling (may cause harm to babies) for methylmercury. Summary in Dutch. (100207)

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CIS 02-1100 Nitrous oxide - Evaluation of the effects on reproduction, recommendation for classification. Committee for Compounds Toxic to Reproduction, Gezondheidsraad, Postbus 16052, 2500 BB Den Haag, Netherlands, 2000. 51p. 84 ref., ISBN 90-5549-316-3 (In English)

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Recommendations for the classification and labelling of nitrous oxide based on the evaluation of studies on its effects on reproduction. Effects on fertility: category 3 (substances which cause concern for human fertility) and R62 (possible risk for impaired fertility). Teratogenic effects: category 3 (substances which cause concern for humans owing to possible developmental toxic effects) and R63 (possible risk of harm to the unborn child). Effects during lactation: nitrous oxide should not be labelled with R64 due to lack of appropriate data. Summary in Dutch. (100208)

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CIS 02-1101 o-Toluidine. (French: o-Toluidine) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (1992), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. Illus. 15 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-1596. Synonyms: 2-toluidine, 2-methylbenzeneamine. Acute toxicity: methaemoglobinaemia; haemolysis; fall in pressure; jaundice and liver damage; splashes may induce ocular lesions. Chronic toxicity: carcinogenic effects (bladder tumor); cyanosis; vertigo; headache; asthenia; haematuria; cystitis; irritation dermatitis. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 9mg/m3 (2ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.612-091-00-X; T, R45, R23/25, R36, S53, S44. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100221)

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CIS 02-1102 Diantimony trioxide. (French: Trioxyde de diantimoine) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (2000), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. Illus. 21 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-1597. Synonyms: antimony (III) oxide, antimonius oxide, antimony sesquioxide. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders which may lead to fatal collapsus (ingestion); arrhythmia; hepatic damage; muscular cramps and aches; irritation of the upper respiratory tract and ocular and digestive mucous membranes; pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: carcinogenic effects (lung cancer); effects on reproduction (menstrual disorders, spontaneous abortion and premature birth); mucous membrane damage (bronchitis, emphysema, ulceration or perforation of the nasal septum); dermatitis or stibious eczema; stibiosis. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 0.5mg/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.051-005-00-X; Xn, R49, S22, S38. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100222)

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CIS 02-1103 2-Nitropropane. (French: 2-Nitropropane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (2000), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 28 ref. (In French)

Internet:

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-1598. Synonyms: dimethylnitromethane, nitroisopropane. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; neurological effects; liver damage. Chronic toxicity: headache; disturbances of coordination; digestive disorders; irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Exposure limits (USA, ACGIH 1987): TWA = 35mg/m3 (10ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100223)

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CIS 02-1104 Aminotriazole. (French: Aminotriazole) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (2000), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 23 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-1599. Synonyms: amitrole, 3-amino-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; erythema in the case of cutaneous contact; cough and sputum which may be bloodstained. Chronic toxicity: no significant effect has been described. Exposure limit (USA, ACGIH 1987): TWA = 0.2mg/m3. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100224)

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CIS 02-1105 Chloralose. (French: Chloralose) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (2000), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 3p. 13 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-1900. Synonyms: α-chloralose, glucochloral, glucochloralose. Acute toxicity: depression of the central nervous system; peripheral hyperexcitability; state similar to that under the influence of alcohol; light or deep coma (ingestion). Chronic toxicity: there are no published data. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100225)

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CIS 02-1106 Antimony trihydride. (French: Trihydrure d'antimoine) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (1992), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 3p. 22 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-1901. Synonyms: antimony hydride; stibine. Acute toxicity: methaemoglobinaemia; heamoglobinuria; jaundice; renal insufficiency. Chronic toxicity: has not been described in humans. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.5mg/m3 (0.1ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100226)

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CIS 02-1107 Fluorine. (French: Fluor) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (1992), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. Illus. 13 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 85-428. Acute toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes and lungs; risk of pulmonary oedema; skin burns. Chronic toxicity: respiratory and digestive disorders; fluorosis. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 2mg/m3 (1ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.009-001-00-0; T+, R7, R26, R35, S7/9, S36, S45. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100227)

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CIS 02-1108 Naphthalene. (French: Naphtalène) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (1992), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 25 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 85-429. Synonyms: mothballs, camphor tar. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; unconsciousness which can lead to convulsive coma; haemolysis; skin and eye irritation; conjunctivitis or superficial keratitis. Chronic toxicity: irritative skin diseases; headache; vomiting; cataract. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 50mg/m3 (10ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100228)

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CIS 02-1109 Maleic anhydride. (French: Anhydride maléique) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (1992), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. Illus. 16 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 85-1017. Synonyms: 2,5-furanedione, cis-butenedioic anhydride. Acute toxicity: intense irritation of the ocular and respiratory tract mucous membranes; caustic skin lesions; keratoconjunctivitis, photophobia and diplopia may occur in the case of solid projections; headache; vomiting. Chronic toxicity: laryngitis; pharyngitis; chronic bronchitis; ulceration of the nasal mucous membrane; chronic eye irritations; allergic and irritation dermatitis. Exposure limit (France): ceiling value = 1mg/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.607-096-00-9; Xn, R22, R35/37/38, R42, S22, S28, S39. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100229)

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CIS 02-1110 Pentanols. (French: Pentanols) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed. (1992), CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 14 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 85-1018. Toxicity: irritation of the respiratory and digestive mucous membranes; neurological effects (headache, vertigo, asthenia, sleepiness, coma); visual function disorders; neuropsychic disorders; irritation dermatitis. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 360mg/m3 (100ppm) for 3-methyl-1-butanol. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (100230)

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CIS 02-1111 Soluble thallium compounds. (Spanish: Compuestos solubles de talio) Noticias de seguridad, Aug. 2001, Vol.63, No.8, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 0.1mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: effects on the nervous system; hepatic and renal damage; alopecia; pain in the mouth; loss of weight; psychological effects; effects may be delayed. (100271)

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CIS 02-1112 Tellurium hexafluoride. (Spanish: Hexafluoruro de telurio) Noticias de seguridad, Aug. 2001, Vol.63, No.8, 3p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 0.2mg/m3 or 0.02ppm (OSHA). Exposure route: inhalation. Toxicity: irritation of the respiratory tract and respiratory impairment; headache; dyspnoea; garlic odour of the breath; effects may be delayed. (100272)

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CIS 02-1113 5-Methyl-3-heptanone. (Spanish: 5-Metil-3-heptano) Noticias de seguridad, Sep. 2001, Vol.63, No.9, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 130mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of skin, the eyes, nose and throat; effects on the central nervous system. (100273)

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CIS 02-1114 Methyl isobutyl carbinol. (Spanish: Carbinol isobutílico de metilo) Noticias de seguridad, Sep. 2001, Vol.63, No.9, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonym: 4-methyl-2-pentanol. Exposure limit: 100mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin and eyes; headache; vertigo; narcotic effects. (100274)

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CIS 02-1115 Methyl acrylate. (Spanish: Acrilato de metilo) Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 2001, Vol.63, No.10, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 35mg/m3 or 10ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eye and respiratory tract; prolonged contact with eyes and skin may cause serious injuries. (100275)

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CIS 02-1116 Mixture of methyl acetylene and propadiene. (Spanish: Mixtura de acetileno de metilo y propadieno) Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 2001, Vol.63, No.10, 3p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 1800mg/m3 or 1000ppm (OSHA). Exposure route: inhalation. Toxicity: anaesthetic effect (drowsiness and unconsciousness); frostbite. (100276)

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CIS 02-1117 Isophorone. (Spanish: Isoforona) Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 2001, Vol.63, No.11, 5p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 140mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA); 23mg/m3 or 4ppm (NIOSH); 25/m3 or 5ppm (ACGIH). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; loss of appetite; headache; vertigo; fatigue; nausea; diarrhoea; medical supervision and biological monitoring are recommended. (100277)

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CIS 02-1118 1,1,2-Trichloroethane. (Spanish: 1,1,2-Tricloroetano) Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 2001, Vol.63, No.11, 3p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 45mg/m3 or 10ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: irritation of the eyes and nose; narcotic effects (drowsiness, loss of coordination, unconsciousness); hepatic and renal damage. (100278)

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CIS 02-1119 Toluene diisocyanate. (Spanish: Diisocianato de tolueno) Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 2001, Vol.63, No.12, 5p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 0.14mg/m3 or 0.02ppm (OSHA); TWA 0.135mg/m3 or 0.005ppm and 10min ceiling value 0.02ppm (NIOSH); 0.04mg/m3 or 0.005ppm (ACGIH). Exposure routes: chest pain; headache; insomnia; irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; sensitization and asthma; respiratory impairment; pulmonary oedema. (100279)

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CIS 02-1120 Tetramethylsuccinonitrile. (Spanish: Succinonitrilo de tetrametilo) Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 2001, Vol.63, No.12, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 3mg/m3 or 0.5ppm (OSHA, skin); ceiling value 6mg/m3 or 1ppm for 15min (NIOSH); 3mg/m3 or 0.5ppm (ACGIH, skin). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: headache; vertigo; nausea; vomiting; respiratory anxiety; fatigue; convulsions; unconsciousness. (100280)

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CIS 02-1121 Dinitro-ortho-cresol. Pelfrène A.F., International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. xvii, 87p. 150 ref. Price: CHF 26.00 (CHF 18.20 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-157220-5 (In English)

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Dinitro-ortho-cresol (DNOC) is used agriculturally as a larvicide, ovicide and insecticide as well as a potato haulm desiccant. It is also used as a polymerization inhibitor and as an intermediate in the chemical industry. Signs and symptoms of acute poisoning include restlessness, sensation of heat, flushed skin, sweating, thirst, deep and rapid respiration, tachycardia, severe increase of body temperature and cyanosis leading to collapse, coma and death. Effects are enhanced at high environmental temperature. Data from animal studies indicate that DNOC causes skin and eye irritation and skin sensitization. (100282)

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CIS 02-1122 2,2-Dichloro-1,1,1-trifluoroethane (HCFC-123). Kristensen S., Batt S., Willcocks D., Lee-Steere C., International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 31p. Illus. 100 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153023-5 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad23.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: Limited information is available on HFCF-123 on humans. The most relevant critical effects for a single, brief exposure are CNS depression and increased likelihood of adrenaline-induced cardiac arrhythmia. The most relevant critical effect from repeated exposure is liver damage, which has been reported in workers exposed to atmospheric concentrations above 5ppm for 1-4 months. Summaries in French and in Spanish. (100283)

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CIS 02-1123 Crystalline silica, quartz. Rice F., International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 50p. Illus. 316 ref. Price: CHF 17.00 (CHF 11.90 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153024-3 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad24.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: Respirable quartz particles can be inhaled and deposited in the lungs. Occupational exposure to quartz dust is associated with silicosis, lung cancer and pulmonary tuberculosis. However, since workers are often exposed to dust mixtures that contain not only quartz but also other mineral varieties, and because of confounding factors such as cigarette smoking, epidemiological studies are difficult to evaluate. Long-term inhalations studies in rats and mice have shown quartz particles to produce cellular proliferation, nodule formation, and suppressed immune functions. Adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas have also been observed. Summaries in French and in Spanish. (100284)

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CIS 02-1124 Chloral hydrate. Benson R., International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 34p. Illus. 100 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153025-1 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad25.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: Chloral hydrate is irritating to the skin and mucous membranes and often causes gastric distress, nausea and vomiting at the recommended clinical dose (as a sedative and a hypnotic drug). Acute overdose produces (in order of progression): ataxia, lethargy, deep coma, respiratory depression, hypotension and cardiac arrhythmia. Acute overdoses may cause hepatic injury. Data from animals provide suggestive evidence of carcinogenicity; genotoxic effects of chloral hydrate are well documented. Summaries in French and in Spanish. (100285)

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CIS 02-1125 Toxicological profile for polychlorinated biphenyls (update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Nov. 2000. xxiii, 765p. Illus. Approx. 2000 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp17.html

This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of polychlorinated biphenyls is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; relevance to public health; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: liver, thyroid, dermal and ocular changes, immunological alterations, neurodevelopment changes, reduced birth weight, reproductive toxicity and cancer. (Update of CIS 99-1626). (100371)

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CIS 02-1126 Zinc. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. xxiii, 360p. Illus. Approx. 1150 ref., ISBN 92-4-157221-3 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc221.htm

Conclusions of this criteria document: zinc poisoning can cause gastrointestinal distress, nausea and diarrhoea, occasionally leading to death. Occupational exposure to finely-dispersed particulate matter when zinc is volatilized can lead to metal fume fever characterized by fever, chills, dyspnoea, nausea and fatigue. Occupational asthma has been reported among persons working with soft solder fluxes, but the evidence was not sufficient to indicate a causal relationship. Primary targets of absorbed zinc are muscle, bone, liver, pancreas, kidney and other organs. (100372)

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CIS 02-1127 CEC criteria document for occupational exposure limit values - Inorganic mercury. Alessio L., Crippa M., Lucchini R., Roi R., Sabbioni E., eds., European Chemicals Bureau, Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra, Italy, 1993. 81p. Illus. 176 ref. (In English)

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In the event of acute exposure to mercury, the main target organ is the respiratory system and the effect is chemical pneumonitis. In the event of prolonged exposure, the critical organ is the central nervous system. The most important symptoms are tremors, erethism, stomatitis and gingivitis. For low exposures, a syndrome called micromercurialism has been described, characterized by anorexia, loss of weight, mild tremors, insomnia and shyness. The current threshold limit value of 50µg/m3 of mercury vapour adopted in most countries appears adequate, but further studies are recommended with respect to embryotoxic effects. (100373)

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CIS 02-1128 Tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (No.20); 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine (No.30); Hexachloroethane (No.34); 2-Chloro-4-nitroaniline (No.43); 1,2-Dibromoethane (No.66); Methallyl chloride (No.109); Ethyl acrylate (No.128); Tetramethyllead / Tetraethyllead (No.130); Acrolein (No.157); Thiourea (No.179). German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA), S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. 95p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-7776-1108-5 (In English)

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These short reports concern 11 substances suspected of having a hazardous potential, but for which available data are insufficient. The purpose of these reports is to establish a basis for assessment, identify gaps in knowledge and recommend areas for further investigation. (100374)

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CIS 02-1129 4-tert-Butylbenzaldehyde. German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA), S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. xiv, 35p. 56 ref., ISBN 3-7776-1137-9 (In English)

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Ingestion toxicity of 4-tert-butylbenzaldehyde is low, oral LD50 in rats being between 500 and 1000mg/kg. Animal tests showed little evidence of acute or toxicity, or of skin irritation or sensitization. There is very little data on humans. Five persons who handled 4-tert-butylbenzaldehyde at the workplace over a period of six months exhibited no adverse effects. No skin changes were observed in 51 volunteers who received 24-hour occlusive applications of 4-tert-butylbenzaldehyde over a period of three weeks. A treatment pause of 10-14 days was followed by a challenge: there were no indications of a sensitizing effect. (100375)

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CIS 02-1130 Marine risk assessment: Concept and criteria. German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA), S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. 34p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-7776-1021-6 (In English)

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This document is presented as a proposal to complement the European Union convention specified in the Technical Guidance Document for Risk Assessment of New and Existing Chemicals (see CIS 97-932), in particular for risk assessment in the marine environment. Two approaches are proposed, one for local assessment, the other for regional assessment. For local areas of increased exposure, risk is assessed by comparing environmental concentration and data on biological effects. For regional areas, a modified risk assessment method is proposed, based on the identification and evaluation of substances whose discharge can lead to short- or long-term marine pollution. (100376)

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CIS 02-1131 Decahydronaphthalene. German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA), S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. xiv, 59p. 74 ref., ISBN 3-7776-1020-8 (In English)

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There is little data on the effects of decahydronaphthalene on humans. Animal studies suggest that the substance is of low oral toxicity, has a corrosive effect on the skin and that its vapours irritate the respiratory organs. Currently, data on teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and impairment of fertility are lacking for a complete assessment of the substance. The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is presently conducting a two-year study in the United States on the possible carcinogenic potential of decahydronaphthalene. (100377)

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CIS 02-1132 DDT and its derivatives. German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA), S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. xviii, 151p. Illus. 209 ref., ISBN 3-7776-1032-1 (In English)

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At very high concentrations, DDT has been shown to mimic the effect of sexual hormones in vitro. This has been confirmed for very high dosages in animal studies. However, existing studies in humans show no correlation between DDT contamination and adverse effects subject to hormonal influences. The association between DDT contaminations and breast cancer has been studied in several epidemiological studies but cannot be confirmed on the whole. In most developed countries, DDT use has been discontinued. The study did not discuss the question of possible consequences from persistent use of DDT in certain developing regions of the world, for example for fighting malaria. (100378)

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CIS 02-1133 1,4-Naphthoquinone. German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA), S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. xiv, 53p.137 ref., ISBN 3-7776-1064-X (In English)

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In vitro studies indicate 1,4-naphthoquinone to be non mutagenic. Oral LD50 in mice and rats is in the range of 140-400mg/kg, so the substance is classified as toxic if swallowed. With a 4h LC50 in rats of 46mg/kg, the substance must be considered as being highly toxic through inhalation. Other animal tests indicate a sensitizing potential and possible mutagenicity. The limited studies on carcinogenicity are not conclusive. In humans, 1,4-naphthoquinone causes irritation to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Despite lack of data on carcinogenicity and reproductive toxicity, further studies do not appear warranted considering the low levels of exposure which occur during the production and processing of 1,4-naphthoquinone. (100379)

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CIS 02-1134 Diphenylamine (No.15); Bis(2-chloroethyl)ether (No.21); Naphthalene (No.39); Tetrachloromethane (No.45); Biphenyl (No.50); N,N-Dimethylaniline (No.91); Trichloroethene (No.95); Hexachlorobenzene (No.119); Bisphenol A (no.203). German Chemical Society - GDCh-Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals (BUA), S. Hirzel Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2000. 136p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-7776-1030-5 (In English)

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These short reports concern 9 substances suspected of having a hazardous potential, but for which available data are insufficient. The purpose of these reports is to establish a basis for assessment, identify gaps in knowledge and recommend areas for further investigation. (100380)

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CIS 02-1135 Coumafen. (French: Coumafène) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. 27 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 86-1030. Synonyms: warfarin; 4-hydroxy-3-(3-oxo-1-phenylbutyl)coumarin. Acute toxicity: haemorrhage which may be delayed. Chronic toxicity: haemorrhagic risk due to effect on the synthesis of coagulation factors; teratogenic effects. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.1mg/m3. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100481)

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CIS 02-1136 Potassium chlorate; Sodium chlorate. (French: Chlorate de potassium; chlorate de sodium) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 24 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-126. Acute toxicity: irritation of the gastro-intestinal tract; methaemoglobinaemia; cardiovascular shock; renal insufficiency; reversible hepatotoxic damage; skin and eye irritation. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the upper respiratory tract and ulceration of the nasal mucosa. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.017-004-00-3; O, Xn, R9, R20/22, S13, S16, S27, 223-269-7 (potassium chlorate); No.017-006-00-9; O, Xn, R9, R22, S13, S17, S46, 231-887-4 (sodium chlorate). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100482)

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CIS 02-1137 4,4'-Diaminodiphenylmethane. (French: 4,4'-Diaminodiphénylméthane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 24 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-108. Synonyms: 4,4'-methylenedianiline; p,p'-diaminophenylmethane; MDA; DDM; DADP; DADPM. Acute toxicity: liver damage; myocardiopathy. Chronic toxicity: allergic skin diseases; photosensitization; yellow staining of integuments. Exposure limits (USA ACGIH 2000): TWA = 0.8mg/m3 (0.1ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.612-051-00-1; T, N, R45, R39/23/24/25, R48/20/21/22, R43, R51/53, S53, S45, S61, 202-974-4. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100483)

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CIS 02-1138 Acetic anhydride. (French: Anhydride acétique) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 18 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-63. Acute toxicity: irritation of the respiratory tract; skin burns in the case of contact; eye splashes may cause lesions of the conjunctiva and the cornea. Chronic toxicity: no effects have been reported. Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 20mg/m3 (5ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.607-008-00-9; C, R10, R34, S26. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100484)

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CIS 02-1139 Sodium and potassium dichloroisocyanurate. (French: Dichloroisocyanurate de sodium; dichloroisocyanurate de potassium) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 8 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-128. Synonyms: sodium salt of 1,3-dichloro-s-2,4,6-trione triazinetrione; potassium salt of 1,3-dichloro-s-2,4,6-trione triazinetrione. Toxicity: irritation of the eyes, humid skin and upper respiratory tract; bronchospasm. Chronic toxicity: carcinogen; skin and nasal septum ulcers; renal damage (ingestion). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.613-030-00-X; Xn, O, R8, R22, R31, R36/37, S8, S26, S41. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100485)

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CIS 02-1140 Sodium dithionite. (French: Dithionite de sodium) Falcy M., Jargot D., Reynier M., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 3p. Illus. 10 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: sodium hydrosulfite. Acute toxicity: nausea; vomiting; diarrhoea; depression of the nervous central system; cyanosis, collapse. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the skin and ocular mucous membranes. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.016-028-00-1; Xn, R7, R22, R31, S7/8, S26, S28, S43, 231-820-0. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100486)

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CIS 02-1141 1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroethane. (French: 1,1-Dichloro-1-fluoroéthane) Brondeau M.T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: HFA-141b; HCFC-141b; R141b. Acute toxicity: coma with fatal cardio-respiratory arrest; anaesthetic effect; cardiological effects. Chronic toxicity: there is no available published data. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100487)

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CIS 02-1142 Ethidium bromide. (French: Bromure d'éthidium) Brondeau M.T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: 3,8-diamino-1-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide 3,8-diamino-5-ethyl-6-phenylphenanthridinium bromide; 2,7-diamino-10-ethyl-9-phenylphenanthridinium bromide; homidium bromide. Toxicity: no published data; eye irritant; possible carcinogenic effect. Chronic toxicity: carcinogen; skin and nasal septum ulcers; renal damage (ingestion). EEC number: No. 214-984-6. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100488)

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CIS 02-1143 Triglycidyl isocyanurate. (French: Isocyanurate de triglycidyle) Bonnard N., Brondeau M.T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 4p. Illus. 15 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: systemic effects (nausea, vomiting); neutropenia; irritation of the skin and ocular mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: skin and respiratory sensitizing effects; possible carcinogenic effects and effects on reproduction. Exposure limits (USA ACGIH): TWA = 0.05mg/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.615- 021-00-6; T, R46, R23/25, R41, R43, R48/22, R52/53, S53, S45, S61, 219-514-3. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100489)

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CIS 02-1144 Carbon dioxide. (French: Dioxyde de carbone) Bonnard N., Brondeau M.T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Miraval S., Protois J.C., Schneider O., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, 2002. 5p. 23 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonyms: carbonic anhydride; dry ice. Acute toxicity: asphyxiant gas which may cause death; increase in breathing rhythm, state as if under the influence of alcohol; headache; visual disorders; unconsciousness; skin burns in the case of contact with the substance at low temperature. Chronic toxicity: changes of the blood pH; increase of pulmonary ventilation; changes in colour vision. Exposure limits: TWA: USA ACGIH 2000 = 9000mg/m3 (5000ppm); Germany MAK = 9000mg/m3 (2000-5000ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1407. (100490)

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[ Top of page ]

Training materials and practical information

CIS 02-1145 Training course for the qualification of senior technician in occupational safety and health - Occupational safety. (Spanish: Curso de técnico superior en prevención de riesgos - Seguridad en el trabajo) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. CD-ROM for Pentium 133MHz (needs Windows 95, NT or higher, min. 24MB RAM, hard disk, SVGA monitor 800x600 or higher). (In Spanish)

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CD-ROM-based training course for obtaining the qualification of senior technician in occupational safety and health with specialization in occupational safety (see also CIS 02-1146, 1153 and 1178). It contains 19 lessons covering the following subjects: gas cylinders; boilers; machinery and tools; storage of materials, petroleum products and LPG; soldering; confined spaces; power tools; transportation and lifting equipment; toxic and dangerous residues; laboratory safety; equipment using combustible gases; equipment inspection and testing; preventive maintenance; electrical hazards; compressed air. (100495)

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CIS 02-1146 Training course for the qualification of senior technician in occupational safety and health - Industrial hygiene. (Spanish: Curso de técnico superior en prevención de riesgos - Higiene industrial) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. CD-ROM for Pentium 133MHz (needs Windows 95, NT or higher, min. 24MB RAM, hard disk, SVGA monitor 800x600 or higher). (In Spanish)

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CD-ROM-based training course for obtaining the qualification of senior technician in occupational safety and health with specialization in occupational hygiene (see also CIS 02-1145, 1153 and 1178). It contains 11 lessons covering the following subjects: measurement systems; analytical methods; data processing; information on chemical hazards; control and ventilation systems; identification and prevention of hazards during specific activities; biological agents; noise; vibration; electromagnetic fields; visible radiation. (100496)

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CIS 02-1147 The Occupational Safety and Health Committee. (French: Le Comité de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail) Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 6p. Illus. (In French)

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This leaflet presents a simple overview of the Occupational Safety and Health Committee (Comité de santé et de sécurité au travail - CSST), mandatory in Tunisia for companies employing more than 40 workers. Contents include: legal framework; companies that are subject to the requirement; composition of the CSST; frequency of regular meetings; mission; resources; reports that the CSST is required to publish. (100390)

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CIS 02-1148 Hygiene, safety, health and occupational accident prevention - Indispensable practical guide for your daily activity. (Portuguese: Higiene, segurança, saúde e prevenção de acidentes de trabalho - Um guia prático imprescindível para a sua actividade diária) Cabral F., ed., Dashöfer Holding Ldt e Verlag Dahöfer, Edições Profissionais Lda, Rua das Amoreiras 107, 1250-022 Lisboa, Portugal, Jan. 2001. Loose-leaf sheets for updating the binder. 107p. Illus. Index., ISBN 972-98385-2-6 (In Portuguese)

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Loose-leaf sheets for updating the training manual analysed under CIS 01-705. Changes involve the following modules: OSH management systems; organizing safety and health services; hazard evaluation; ergonomics; first aid; practical examples of solutions. (100445)

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CIS 02-1149 Certification manual. (Portuguese: Manual de certificação) Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, Jan. 2001. Binder. 150p., ISBN 972-8321-39-2 (In Portuguese)

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This manual groups together all the relevant information concerning the training and certification of occupational safety and health specialists. A first part defines the certification objectives and requirements (in terms of professional experience, training and recognition of qualifications), the certification process from the application of candidates and the procedure for renewal of the certification. A second part deals with the approval and accreditation of training programmes. Appendices include relevant legislation, professional profiles, application and self-appraisal forms, examples of certificates. A large part of the contents of this manual can be consulted in the CD-ROM analysed under CIS 02-1219. (100449)

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CIS 02-1150 Occupational safety and health management system - Computer-based training course. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva de riesgos laborales - Curso de capacitación por computadora) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Dirección de Seguros Solidarios, San José, Costa Rica, 2000. CD-ROM for Pentium 200MHz (needs Windows 95, NT or higher, 32MB RAM, hard disk, CD-ROM drive 24x, 36x recommended, 16 bit sound card and loudspeakers, high resolution SVGA monitor 800x600). (In Spanish)

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CD-ROM-based course on the prevention of occupational hazards for training senior and middle management of public and private enterprises in the implementation of occupational safety and health management systems. The course consists of four modules: general considerations on the preventive management of occupational hazards; preparing the implementation; implementation of the preventive management programme; regular updating and monitoring. (100491)

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CIS 02-1151 Programme on the preventive management of cleanliness and housekeeping. (Spanish: GP/OL: Programa de gestión preventiva de orden y limpieza) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Dirección de Seguros Solidarios, San José, Costa Rica, 2001. CD-ROM for Pentium 200MHz (needs Windows 95, NT or higner, 32MB RAM, hard disk, CD-ROM drive 24x, 36x recommended, 16 bit sound card and loudspeakers, high resolution SVGA monitor 800x600). (In Spanish)

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CD-ROM-based training programme on cleanliness and housekeeping in the enterprise and occupational safety and health management. (100492)

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CIS 02-1152 Prevention of occupational hazards. Basic course for intermediate-level workers. (Spanish: Prevención de riesgos laborales. Curso de capacitación para el desempeño de funciones de nivel intermedio) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. CD-ROM for Pentium 133MHz (needs Windows 95, NT, or higher, 24MB RAM, hard disk, SVGA monitor 800x600 or higher). (In Spanish)

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CD-ROM-based training course on the prevention of occupational hazards aimed at workers, safety representatives and company owners and managers. It contains seven modules: basic concepts of occupational safety and health; hazards as a function to safety conditions; hazards as a function of the working environment; other hazards; specific methods for tracking and controlling hazards; creating a favourable corporate culture for occupational safety and health; organization of the occupational safety and health management system. (100493)

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CIS 02-1153 Training course for the qualification of senior technician in occupational safety and health - Common section. (Spanish: Curso de técnico superior en prevención de riesgos - Parte común o troncal) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. CD-ROM for Pentium 133MHz (needs Windows 95, NT or higher, min. 24MB RAM, hard disk, SVGA monitor 800x600 or higher). (In Spanish)

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CD-ROM containing the first part of the training course for obtaining the qualification of senior technician in occupational safety and health (see also CIS 02-1145, 1146 and 1178). This first part is common to all the training programmes and comprises 75 lessons grouped into nine modules: basic aspects of technologies aimed at improving conditions of work; safety; industrial hygiene; occupational medicine; ergonomics and applied psychology; training; negotiation techniques; information and negotiation; management of occupational hazards; legal framework applicable to occupational safety and health; related technologies. (100494)

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CIS 02-1154 Manual on conditions of work and the working environment. (Spanish: Manual de condiciones y medio ambiente de trabajo) Jiménez Rodríguez J., Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Dirección de Seguros Solidarios, San José, Costa Rica, [c2000]. 79p. Illus. 8 ref. (In Spanish)

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This manual specifies the instruments necessary for implementing an occupational safety and health management system within the enterprise specifically targeted at improving working conditions and the working environment. Main topics covered: new model of occupational safety and health management system; occupational safety; industrial hygiene; conditions of work; ergonomics; safety technologies; inspection; analysis of accident causes and the accident register; safety signalling; hazards; plant safety and health organization; steps for developing an occupational health programme. (100498)

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CIS 02-1155 Upper limb disorders in the workplace. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Feb. 2002. vi, 122p. Illus. 82 ref. Price: GBP 9.50., ISBN 0-7176-1978-8 (In English)

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Upper limb disorders (ULDs) are conditions which affect the muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves or other tissues and joints of the neck, shoulders, arms, wrists, hands and fingers. This manual provides guidance on minimizing the risks of workplace-related ULDs, in particular by implementing a cooperative programme involving managers and workers in seven-step process: understanding the issues and commitment to action; creating the right organizational environment; assessing the risks of ULDs at the workplace; educating and informing the workforce; managing occurrences of ULDs; carrying out regular checks to programme effectiveness. Appendices include case studies, worksheets for risk assessment, medical aspects of ULDs and legal aspects. (100097)

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CIS 02-1156 Occupational skin diseases. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 8p. Illus. (In English)

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Occupational skin diseases are notifiable under the Singapore Factories Act (CIS 91-703) and Workmen's Compensation Act (CIS 00-602). This information leaflet describes the common causes of occupational skin diseases (chemical, physical, mechanical, biological) and the corresponding preventive measures, including the responsibilities of management and of employees. (100251)

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CIS 02-1157 Occupational lung diseases. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 8p. Illus. (In English)

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Contents of this information leaflet on occupational lung diseases: occupational asthma; asbestos-related lung diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer; malignant mesothelioma); silicosis; chemical pneumonitis; hard metal lung disease; byssinosis; preventive measures (substitution of asbestos, engineering controls, personal protection); applicable legislation in Singapore. (100252)

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CIS 02-1158 Did you know the hazards of electroplating?. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 6p. Illus. (In English)

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Contents of this information leaflet on the hazards of electroplating: description of the electroplating process; hazardous chemicals to which electroplating workers are exposed (acids, alkalis, solvents, nickel solutions, chromic acid, arsine, cyanides); safe working methods; emergency treatment in cases of acute cyanide poisoning. (100254)

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CIS 02-1159 Handbook of accident case studies in metalworking industry. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road No.05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, no date. 32p. Illus. (In English)

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Booklet containing cases of accidents having occurred in the metalworking industry in Singapore, grouped by main cause: maintenance accidents, burns and hot and cold work accidents, material handling accidents and machinery accidents. Each case includes a description of the accident, causes and contributing factors, and recommendations for the prevention of similar accidents. (100093)

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CIS 02-1160 Wool industry: Manual on the prevention of occupational hazards. (Portuguese: Lanifícios: manual de prevenção dos riscos profissionais) Menaia N., Rosendo H., Coelho A., Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, May 2001. Binder. 152p. Illus. 32 ref. + 73 data sheets + CD-ROM., ISBN 972-8321-43-0 (In Portuguese)

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This manual consists of a comprehensive review of occupational hazards in the wool industry. A first part deals with general hazards and their prevention (noise, chemicals, thermal environment, lighting, risks of fire, risks from machinery, safety signalling). A second part analyses the hazards of each production phase (washing, carding, combing, spinning and yarn assembly, fixation, winding, dyeing and finishing). Furthermore, 73 technical sheets describe various operations, equipment, products used, hazards and preventive measures. Appendices: glossary, legislation, R and S phrases. The entire contents of the manual are also available on the attached CD-ROM. (100450)

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CIS 02-1161 The printer's guide to health and safety. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., Mar. 2002. viii, 192p. lllus. 169 ref. Index. Price: GBP 12.50., ISBN 0-7176-2267-3 (In English)

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This publication consists of a reference guide for all occupational safety and health issues in the printing industry. It replaces an earlier edition analysed under CIS 98-527. Contents: managing safety and health; training; in-plant transport safety; health hazards; process safety; electrical hazards; fire and explosion hazards; maintenance. Appendices include a glossary of safeguarding terms, a sample risk assessment form; plan showing of the layout of a typical printing shop, highlighting the hazards to be assessed in each area. (100094)

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CIS 02-1162 Do you know the right way of working with visual display units (VDU)?. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, 1998. 6p. Illus. (In English)

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Work at visual display units (VDUs) may give rise to eyestrain and muscular pain of the back, neck, arm, shoulders and wrists. This information leaflet provides guidance on ergonomic principles to be applied in VDU workstation design and work practices. Contents: checklist of workstation features (screen, keyboard, mouse, chair, table size); position of the VDU; glare prevention; lighting; work practices; work posture; medical examinations. (100257)

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CIS 02-1163 Work without risk at your screen. (French: Travaillez sans risque sur votre écran) Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 8p. Illus. (In French)

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Work at visual display screens under inappropriate conditions can give rise to health problems. This leaflet offers practical guidance for eliminating factors responsible for discomfort and fatigue. Contents include: characteristics of software applications; characteristics of the workplace for avoiding visual and postural fatigue; characteristics of the environmental conditions; work time schedules; medical supervision and visual aptitude. (100388)

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CIS 02-1164 Control of chemicals in printing: COSHH essentials for printers. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2000. iv, 16p. lllus. 6 ref. + 35 safety data sheets. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-1835-8 (In English)

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Aimed at employers in the printing industry, this document contains advice and guidance for the assessment of their activities under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (COSHH, see CIS 00-620). The regulations require employers to limit the exposure to hazardous substances to protect the health of their employees. The guidance proposes a step-by-step approach for each chemical used in the printing shop: allocating a hazard group; identifying the quantity being used; identifying the volatility; finding the appropriate control guidance sheet; implementing and reviewing preventive actions. 35 information sheets offering guidance on the implementation of engineering control measures are included, grouped under the headings of general ventilation, engineering control, containment, special situations and general advice. (100115)

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CIS 02-1165 Did you know about the health hazards of benzene?. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 8p. Illus. (In English)

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Contents of this information leaflet on the health hazards of benzene: properties; main uses; exposure hazards; acute effects (narcotic effect, drying effect on skin and mucous membranes); chronic effects (anaemia, leukaemia); technical control measures (substitution, engineering controls, personal protection); medical control measures (pre-employment examinations, periodic medical examinations). (100253)

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CIS 02-1166 Did you know the hazards of solvents?. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 6p. Illus. (In English)

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Contents of this information leaflet on the hazards of solvents: where solvents are found; why solvents are hazardous (volatility, flammability, explosibility, reactibility); acute health effects (irritation of eyes, nose and throat, headache, nausea, poor coordination, arrhythmia); chronic health effects (skin dryness, allergic reactions, neurobehavioural changes, liver damage, paralysis, leukaemia); data sheets; storage and handling; limitation of exposure; safe working methods; medical supervision; first-aid measures. (100255)

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CIS 02-1167 Did you know the health hazards of organophosphorus pesticides?. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 6p. Illus. (In English)

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Contents of this information leaflet on the health hazards of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs): common OP insecticides; persons exposed; modes of exposure; health effects (acute poisoning, allergic reactions); safe working methods; personal hygiene; medical supervision. (100256)

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CIS 02-1168 Material safety data sheets. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 8p. Illus. (In English)

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Many chemicals used in industry are hazardous and harmful to health. The purpose of Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) is to provide information on the safe use of hazardous substances and the emergency measures to be followed in the event of accidents. This information leaflet describes outlines the main components of MSDSs: chemical identity; information on ingredients; hazard identification (toxic, corrosive or flammable substances); danger symbols; physical and chemical properties; toxicological information; environmental protection information; first-aid measures; fire fighting; spillage and accidental release; handling and storage; exposure control and personal protection; disposal information; transport; Singapore legislation. (100260)

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CIS 02-1169 Occupational lead poisoning. (French: Le saturnisme professionnel) Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 8p. Illus. (In French)

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Lead poisoning is recognized in Tunisia as a compensable occupational disease. This leaflet highlights the occupations that present exposure hazards to lead and the clinical symptoms of lead poisoning. It offers practical guidance to technical and medical preventive measures, medical supervision, screening and the approach to be adopted by employers in case of lead poisoning. (100389)

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CIS 02-1170 Personal protective equipment. (Spanish: Equipo de protección personal) Montero Bonilla C.E., Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Dirección de Seguros Solidarios, San José, Costa Rica, [c2000]. 42p. Illus. 5 ref. (In Spanish)

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The objective of this guide is to help enterprises choose the appropriate personal protective equipment, taking into account their needs and the acceptance of workers with respect to the use of this equipment. Contents: aspects to be taken into account when selecting equipment; how to motivate workers to use the equipment; protection of the head, eyes, face and ears; different types of respirators; protection of the upper and lower extremities; protection of the torso; other protective equipment (belts and harnesses). A table showing the appropriate gloves to be selected as a function of the chemicals being handled is appended. (100499)

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CIS 02-1171 Do you know what is noise-induced deafness?. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 8p. Illus. (In English)

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Contents of this information leaflet on noise-induced deafness: definition; causes (prolonged exposure to noise levels above 85dB(A)); effects of noise-induced deafness; audiometric examinations; responsibilities of management; responsibilities of workers; Singapore legislation; some basic facts about noise. (100258)

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CIS 02-1172 Less noise for healthier hearing - The Factories (Noise) Regulations 1996 - What you need to know. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road #05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, [c2000]. 6p. Illus. (In English)

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Over 1000 factories in Singapore present a noise hazard and more than 50,000 workers are estimated to be exposed to harmful noise. Prolonged exposure to noise can cause deafness, a chronic disease which cannot be cured. This information leaflet provides guidance on the application of the Singapore Factories (Noise) Regulations 1996. Contents: permissible exposure limits; responsibilities of employers; noise control; noise emission labelling of machinery; noise dosimetry; hearing protection; workers' training and information; medical examinations. (100259)

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CIS 02-1173 Practical guide to the selection of personal hearing protectors. (French: Guide pratique pour le choix des protecteurs individuels contre le bruit) Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 4p. Illus. (In French)

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Exposure to sound levels above 85dB presents a hazard to hearing. This leaflet offers practical guidance for choosing appropriate hearing protection (earplugs or earmuffs) according to whether the exposure to noise is continuous or intermittent. The concept of global attenuation is explained. The importance of wearing the personal noise protective device as long as possible is emphasized. (100386)

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CIS 02-1174 Safety during the handling of uprooted trees. (French: Sécurité lors de l'exploitation des chablis!; German: Sturmholz sicher aufrüsten; Italian: Come allestire il legname d'infortunio in modo sicuro) Suva, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, Feb. 2002. 27p. Illus. 20 ref. (In French, German, Italian)

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http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/44070-d.pdf

http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/44070-f.pdf

http://wwwitsp1.suva.ch/sap/its/mimes/waswo/99/pdf/44070-i.pdf

Contents of this training manual on the safe handling of uprooted trees in forestry work: tasks and their corresponding hazards; priorities to be set (preparing appropriate technical means, work organization, skills of workers); safety concepts; emergency cases (preparation and action); signalling and restricting access to the working zone; safe working methods applicable to various situations. (100088)

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CIS 02-1175 Lock-out safety. Ministry of Manpower, Occupational Health Department, 18 Havelock Road No.05-01, Singapore 059764, Republic of Singapore, no date. 24p. Illus. (In English)

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The inadvertent activation of machinery during inspection, cleaning, repair or maintenance may cause serious injury. Lock-out procedures are a set of procedures aimed at ensuring the disconnection and isolation of equipment and preventing its accidental activation. Contents of this practical safety guide on lock-out procedures aimed at the metalworking industry: lock-out legislation in Singapore; persons who need to know about lock-out procedures (those involved in inspection, cleaning, repair and maintenance); knowledge required by persons involved and not involved in implementing lock-out procedures; energies requiring lock-out (electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, chemical; thermal), five-step procedure to perform lock-out (announce the shut-down, shut down the machine, disconnect all energy sources, apply lock-out devices, verify the isolation and lock-out); information tags on lock-out devices; steps for restoring the machinery for operation; cases of accidents that could have been prevented by lock-out. (100092)

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CIS 02-1176 Steps to be taken in cases of accidental exposure to blood or biological fluids. (French: Conduite à tenir en cas d'accident d'exposition au sang ou à des produits biologiques) Institut de Santé et de Sécurité au Travail, Bd. M. Khaznadar 5, 1007 Tunis, Tunisia, no date. 6p. Illus. (In French)

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This leaflet contains practical guidance on the steps that need to be taken in cases of accidental exposure to blood or biological fluids. Contents include: first aid; reporting the accident to the employer; consulting an occupational physician or general practitioner; preventive measures including avoiding pricks from contaminated needles and using appropriate waste collectors. (100387)

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CIS 02-1177 Ergonomic principles. (Spanish: Principios de ergonomía) Jiménez Rodríguez J., Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Dirección de Seguros Solidarios, San José, Costa Rica, [c2000]. 18p. Illus. 4 ref. (In Spanish)

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This practical guide presents the following basic ergonomic principles: having everything at arm's reach; being constantly aware of shoulder height; understanding the relationship between effort and handle shape; finding the right position for each task; avoiding excessive repetition of movements; minimizing fatigue; minimizing direct pressure of the hands, arms and legs; ensuring that workstations and seats be adjustable and inclinable; ensuring sufficient space and ease of access to workplaces; ensuring comfortable working environments; ensuring clear signalling and using where possible standardized layouts of control elements; improving conditions of work. Practical examples illustrating each of the ergonomic principles are included. (100500)

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CIS 02-1178 Training course for the qualification of senior technician in occupational safety and health - Ergonomics, psychology and sociology. (Spanish: Curso de técnico superior en prevención de riesgos - Ergonomía y psicosociología) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2002. CD-ROM for Pentium 133MHz (needs Windows 95, NT or higher, min. 24MB RAM, hard disk, SVGA monitor 800x600 or higher). (In Spanish)

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CD-ROM-based training course for obtaining the qualification of senior technician in occupational safety and health with specialization in ergonomics, psychology and sociology (see also CIS 02-1145, 1146 and 1153). It contains 25 lessons covering the following subjects: the ergonomic approach; statistical methods; assessment of ambient conditions; thermal environment; noise; lighting; harmful physical agents; body mechanics; safety rules and signalling; visual display units; ergonomics of computer applications; physical workload; work postures; upper extremity disorders; work organization; occupational stress; psychological and social factors; action plans. (100497)

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CIS 02-1179 Tackling work-related stress - A manager's guide to improving and maintaining employee health and well-being. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. vi, 42p. 21 ref. Price: GBP 7.95., ISBN 0-7176-2050-6 (In English)

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This guide aimed at managers provides practical advice on how to prevent work-related stress so as to comply with safety and health laws in the United Kingdom. Contents: definition of work-related-stress; identifying the hazard; defining who can be harmed and how; evaluating the risk; recording the significant findings of the assessment; review of the assessment at appropriate intervals; helping employees who suffer from work-related stress. (100081)

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[ Top of page ]

Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals


001 General safety, health and conditions of work

CIS 02-1180 Evaluation of worker safety and health training. Mukherjee S., Overman L., Leviton L., Hilyer B., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.155-163. 30 ref. (In English)

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The University of Alabama Center for Labor Education and Research programme has trained over 1,000 workers since 1992 in chemical hazards recognition and protection methods, as well as in peer training. In order to assess the effectiveness of this programme, a questionnaire was mailed to a sample of workers and to all participating managers. Both groups of participants reported improved personal safety and health behaviour, both contributed to emergency preparedness, and both influenced the elimination of hazardous chemicals. Managers reported greater influence on health and safety which may be explained by their relatively more powerful position. However, a high percentage of workers also reported influencing changes. This pattern indicates that when the working environment supports joint decision making by workers and management, initiating changes becomes easier. (100363)

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CIS 02-1181 Emergency organization within the enterprise - Emergency and first-aid services at the place of work. (French: Organisation des urgences dans l'entreprise - Sauvetage-secourisme du travail) Leprince A., Guillemy N., Ferreira M., Biélec P., Vuillerminaz C., Jannière D., Julien H., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.5-21. Illus. 16 ref. (In French)

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This article describes the current situation with respect to the organization of emergency services in France and their practical implications for the organization of enterprise-level emergency services. Contents: organization of emergency services in France; organization of emergency services within the enterprise; practical aspects (human resources needed, ways of raising the alarm and their practical details, first-aid equipment); rescue and first-aid services at the workplace; answers to frequently-asked questions on responsibilities with respect to rescue and first-aid at the workplace. (100413)

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CIS 02-1182 The professional working environment consultant - A new actor in the health and safety arena. Limborg H.J., Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Spring 2001, Vol.11, No.2, p.159-172. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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This article examines the development of the occupational working environment activities conducted by professionals working at the Danish Occupational Health Service (OHS). In a historical analysis of OHS, the development of professional approaches to the working environment is shown to have shifted in focus from an early concern with the control of occupational diseases and machine safety to a greater emphasis on technical prevention in the early 1980s, through to a consultancy approach today. The article discusses trends and possible new approaches for professionals specialized in analysing the working environment. (100024)

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CIS 02-1183 Occupational injuries in Italy: Risk factors and long-term trend (1951-98). Fabiano B., Currò F., Pastorino R., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.58, No.5, p.330-338. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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Trends in the rates of total injuries and fatal accidents in different sectors of Italian industry were studied during the period 1951-98. Data on occupational injuries from the National Organization for Workers' Compensation were combined with data from the State Statistics Institute to highlight the interaction between the injury frequency and the production cycle. The ratios between the injury frequency and industrial production showed a good correlation over the whole period. A general decline in injuries was found across all sectors, with values ranging from 79.86% in the energy group to 23.32% in the textile group. The trend for fatalities appeared to be decreasing faster than that of total injuries, including temporary and permanent disabilities. The most effective actions in preventing injuries were directed towards fatal accidents. By analysing the rates of fatal accident in the different sectors, appropriate targets and priorities for strategies aimed at preventing injuries are proposed. More consideration needs to be given to human and organizational factors. (100009)

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CIS 02-1184 Identifying high-risk small business industries for occupational safety and health interventions. Okun A., Lentz T.J., Schulte P., Stayner L., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.301-311. 19 ref. (In English)

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Incidence rates and numbers of occupational injuries and diseases were identified in 253 US small business industries. There were 1,568 work-related fatalities, caused for the most part by transportation accidents and violent acts. Many of the industries had morbidity and mortality rates exceeding the average rates for all private industry. The highest risks resulted from operations such as logging, cut stone and stone products, truck terminals, roofing and sheet metal work. (100147)

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CIS 02-1185 Mechanisms of occupational injuries reported to insurance companies in Norway from 1991 to 1996. Bull N., Riise T., Moen B.E., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.312-319. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

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An analytical study of the occupational injury claims made to insurance companies in Norway (1991-1996).Most frequent injury events were falls affecting both sexes and all occupational groups; the incidence rate increased with age. Some preventive measures are recommended. (100148)

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CIS 02-1186 Occupational accidents and diseases in the year 2001. (German: Arbeitsunfälle und Berufskrankheiten im Jahr 2001) Rister-Mende S., Die BG, May 2002, No.5, p.254-258. Illus. (In German)

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This paper presents the statistical trends in compensable occupational accidents and diseases in Germany during 2001. There was a 6.4% reduction in reported accidents relative to 2000. A decreasing trend was also observed for fatalities and new invalidity claims. On the whole, commuting accidents decreased by 0.4%; however, important differences were noted in several sectors (mining - 15.3%; construction - 7.1%). The number of fatal accidents also decreased. As for occupational diseases, the number of compensation claims for suspected illnesses decreased by 5% and for treated illnesses by 1%. However, confirmed cases following suspicions of illness increased by approximately 2%. (100350)

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CIS 02-1187 Occupational safety and health in Poland. Koradecka D., Dryzek H., Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2001, Vol.32, No.2, p.187-208. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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A system of occupational safety and health (OSH) in Poland was first created after the First World War. Since its onset, it has been subjected to various changes related to changes in the country's political and economic system. At present, two decisive processes have an impact on OSH, socioeconomic transformation and Poland's planned accession to the European Union (EU). The former results in significant changes in statistics of occupational accidents and diseases and in social problems resulting from high unemployment. The latter manifests itself in efforts to harmonize the law and standards with those of the EU requirements. Within this framework, a National Strategic Programme called "Occupational Safety and Health Protection in the Working Environment" has been carried out since 1995. The goal of this programme is to create an effective system of safety and health protection in the context of Poland's association with the EU. (100011)

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CIS 02-1188 A new occupational health prevention for a new work environment: Needs, principles and challenges. Benach J., Muntaner C., Benavides F.G., Amable M., Jódar P., Newsletter of the European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety - Bulletin d'information du Bureau technique syndical européen pour la santé et la sécurité, Feb. 2001, No. 15-16, p.29-38. Illus. 71 ref. (In English)

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The emergence of new forms of work organization are transforming what had become standard forms of work arrangement in industrialized countries. In this new work environment, new firms, new types of workers and new risk factors are emerging. Contrary to common belief, it is argued that emergent occupational health hazards should not be approached only as "technical" or "economic" problems. Indeed, many of the new challenges faced by occupational health policy are largely related to professional values as well as to the political ideologies and economic interests of key players in the decision-making process. Some of the key principles needed to put into action efficient and equitable occupational health policies in the new work environment are discussed. An alternative proposal is made on the necessary conditions and settings to address the new challenges needed to reach effective occupational health policy. (100028)

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CIS 02-1189 A survey of UK approaches to sharing good practice in health and safety management. Baker E., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. vi, 53p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2273-8 (In English)

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The concept of "good practice" being central to occupational safety and health management, there must be a common understanding of what this term designates. A survey was conducted to explore the ways with which industry identifies good practices in occupational safety and health management. 278 responses to a questionnaire addressed to 1270 enterprises were analysed. Discussions were also held with several respondents. Finally, the preliminary results were validated in a series of workshops. It was found that there is no common understanding of the term "good practice". Regulatory interpretation of this concept is perceived to be inconsistent. Large organizations generally have effective trade associations where good practice is developed and guidance disseminated industry-wide. However, medium-sized organizations often have ineffective trade associations, and good practices developed by some companies in-house generally do not get shared across the industry. Finally, small organizations look to the Health and Safety Executive to provide guidance on good practices in an accessible form. (100099)

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CIS 02-1190 Success is no accident - Accident prevention in practice. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 73p. Illus., ISBN 92-95007-34-4 (In English)

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Each year in the European Union, over five million persons suffer workplace accidents involving more than three days' absence, amounting to approximately 150 million working days lost. An important role of the European Agency for Safety and Health at Work is to gather and make available information to promote the prevention of occupational accidents, including assisting and stimulating the sharing of information to solve common problems. This booklet describes 22 examples of good accident prevention practices developed and adopted at the enterprise level having won awards during the European Week for Safety and Health at Work. Areas include: slaughterhouses; sawmills; micro-enterprises; floor cleaning: road transportation; woodworking shops; automation; fork-lift trucks; safety consultants; sea fishing; building renovation; safety planning; road works; preventing falls from roofs among carpenters; colour-coded badges for controlling access to building sites; craft industries; accident prevention training; workers' participation; near-miss accident analyses in metalworking plants and mechanical workshops. (100119)

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CIS 02-1191 The job of safety consultant: Between the devil and the deep blue sea. (French: Le métier de prévisioniste: entre l'arbre et l'écorce) Brun J.P., Loiselle C.D., Gauthier G., Bégin C., Sansectra Inc, Case postale 1089, Napierville, Québec J0J 1LO, Canada; Imact, Division of Editions Héritage Inc., 300 rue Arran, Saint-Lambert, Québec J4R 1K5, Canada, June 1998. 191p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: CAD 19.95 + TPS., ISBN 2-9804804-1-X (In French)

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Safety consultants play a complex role. Their work environment is subject to constant change due to technological, economic, legislative, social and cultural factors. Furthermore, they have to interact with a wide variety of participants from different backgrounds: indeed, an important aspect of their job involves convincing managers and workers to take on a larger share of responsibility in occupational safety and health. This publication describes the job of safety consultants in the paper and pulp industry, but is also more generally applicable to all industrial sectors. (100267)

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CIS 02-1192 Occupational accident prevention toolkit. (French: Le coffre à outils de la prévention des accidents en milieu de travail) Pérusse M., Le Groupe de Communication Sansectra Inc., Case postale 1089, Napierville, Québec J0J 1L0, Canada, 2nd ed., 1995. 303p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: CAD 39.95 + TPS., ISBN 2-9804804-0-1 (In French)

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This publication consists of a practical guide to preventing occupational accidents, and includes the following topics: definition of accidents; hazard identification; accident statistics; investigation and analysis of accident causes; workplace inspection; job and task analysis; selection of solutions; preventive maintenance; actions at the organizational level; equipment modifications; collective protection; personal protection; human behaviour; training and information of personnel; encouraging good attitudes towards safety; follow-up, control and evaluation. (100268)

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CIS 02-1193 Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors - HELA Strategic Plan 2001-04. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. 12p. (In English)

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This document describes the strategic plan of the Health and Safety Executive Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA) for 2001-2004. It consists of four elements: effective management of the safety and health enforcement role of local authorities (LAs); compliance agenda which concentrates on key hazards; new focus of LA contributions to occupational health; full engagement of stakeholders including small firms. (100245)

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CIS 02-1194 Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors - HELA National Picture 2001. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 74p. lllus. (In English)

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This document presents an assessment of local authority (LA) work in enforcing occupational safety and health regulations during 2001. Contents: estimates of LA work on inspection and enforcement; statistics of workplace injuries reported to LAs during the period; targets for reducing rates of injury, ill-health and lost days of work; comparison of inspection activity with risks of injury; indicators of LA enforcement; occupational disease statistics. (100246)

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CIS 02-1195 Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors - HELA Annual Report 2001. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 70p. lllus. (In English)

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Annual report of the Health and Safety Executive Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA) for 2001. It includes occupational safety and health statistics for the 1999-2000 period and local authority initiatives in response to the following strategic themes: raising the profile of occupational health; improving safety and health performance in key risk areas; developing safety and health aspects of the competitiveness and social equality programmes, increasing participation; improving openness and accountability; modernizing and simplifying the regulatory framework; ensuring compliance with regulations in line with the principles of proportionality, consistency, transparency and targeting on a risk-selected basis; improving the knowledge and understanding of safety and health through the provision of appropriate information and advice. Examples of prosecutions and fines and the management structure of the local authority safety and health unit are included. (100247)

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CIS 02-1196 Health and safety in local authority enforced sectors - Section 18: HSC Guidance to local authorities. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 26p. (In English)

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This document consists of the guidance issued by the Health and Safety Executive Local Authority Enforcement Liaison Committee (HELA) aimed at local authorities. It explains their duties under Section 18 of the Health and Safety at Work, etc. Act 1974 (HSW, see CIS 74-2099). Contents: enforcement policy and procedures; prioritized planning; requirement to produce a service plan; requirement to undergo audit of the management system and develop an action plan; provision of a trained and competent inspectorate; requirements in respect to collaboration between local authorities to ensure consistency for organizations with multiple premises in different areas. (100248)

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CIS 02-1197 Expanding HSE's ability to communicate with small firms: A targeted approach. McKinney P., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 91p. 20 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2306-8 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02420.htm

Communicating with small firms for the purpose of raising awareness in safety and health issues is difficult, and requires a high degree of focus on those activities that relate to the firms' core business needs. The aim of this study was to identify "key events" in the life of small firms that illustrate their need for advice or information and to propose appropriate channels for the Health and Safety Executive (HSE) to communicate this guidance. The approach used was based on identifying key events that take place in the operations of small firms and the type of safety and health information required to respond to these key events. Sector Key Events Approaches (SKEAs) were developed for the plastics, catering, motor vehicle repair, car-body repair and construction sectors. These describe the attitudes to safety and health, the key events and the best communication channels for reaching small firms within each sector (such as visits by HSE staff, online information, trade associations, trade press, focus groups, etc.). (100073)

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CIS 02-1198 Reducing risks, protecting people: HSE's decision-making process. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 74p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 5.00., ISBN 0-7176-2151-0 (In English)

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This document describes HSE's philosophy for securing the safety, health and welfare of persons at work and for protecting them against risks to safety and health arising from work activities. Contents: overview of risk and risk management issues; developments that have influence the decision-making approach; approach to reaching decisions on risk. In appendices: conventions adopted for undertaking risk assessments; identifying and considering options for new regulations, approved Codes of Practice and guidance; issues relevant to assessing risk-reduction options; statistics for comparing risks from different hazards. (100083)

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CIS 02-1199 Occupational safety and health in the Czech Republic. EGO Advertising & Communication (Brno, Czech republic), HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Mar. 2002. iv, 66p. Illus. (Part 1); iv, 6p. (Part 2). Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-2277-0 (In English)

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This report presents the results of the analysis of 940 responses to a questionnaire on perceptions with respect to occupational safety and health addressed to a random sample of the working-age population of the Czech Republic. Detailed interviews were also held with 180 respondents. 24.5% rated their jobs as "very safe", 50.0% as "quite safe", 17.7% as "rather dangerous" and 2.8% as "very dangerous". Concerning health symptoms, 20.3% of the respondents believed that they were "certainly" related to their work, with a further 37.9% under the impression that there was some linkage. 50% felt exposed to stress. Other issues covered in the report: training; personal protective equipment; attitudes towards safety; commitment of employers to occupational safety and health. (100098)

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CIS 02-1200 Workplace consultation on health and safety. Hillage J., Kersley B., Bates P., Rick J. M.J., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. xii, 123p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-1796-3 (In English)

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The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of the Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations (1997) and the Health and Safety (Consultation with Employee) Regulations (1996) (CIS 97-355) on the degree of consultation in safety and health matters in British industry. 1000 responses to a postal questionnaire addressed to employers were analysed, and telephone and face-to face interviews were carried out with over 200 employees and 200 trade-union safety and health representatives. A wide range of issues were examined, including employers' awareness of their obligations, the process of consultation, the role of trade union appointed and non-union safety representatives and the impact of consultation on employers' safety and health management. (100112)

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CIS 02-1201 Taking occupational health and safety into account in investment decisions - Software implementation and procedure applications. (German: Gesundheits- und Arbeitsschutz in der Investitionsplanung - DV-Unterstützung für erweiterte Wirtschaftlichkeitsrechnungen) Schweres M., Sengotta M., Roesler J., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 305p. Illus. 141 ref. + 1 CD-Rom. Price: EUR 27.00., ISBN 3-89701-367-3 (In German)

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The investment stage of a project is the crucial starting point for the optimal design of work systems. It is indeed at this level that production methods are fixed for years to come. This report describes a software application based on a holistic calculation of investments, taking into account items such as the benefits of flexibility, occupational safety and health and environmental protection, enabling the calculation of a broader measure of return on investment. In addition to the software itself, the accompanying CD-ROM contains an interactive tutorial and online help. (100346)

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CIS 02-1202 Development of an OSH concept for the improvement of work safety and health protection - Empirical study in a large enterprise. (German: Entwicklung eines Präventionskonzeptes zur Verbesserung der Arbeitssicherheit und des Gesundheitsschutzes - Empirische Untersuchung in einem Großunternehmen) Ramsauer F., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 130p. Illus. 117 ref. Price: EUR 14.00., ISBN 3-89701-383-5 (In German)

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This report describes the development of an occupational safety and health (OSH) management system that takes into account current regulatory requirements in Germany with respect to worker participation and the inclusion of OSH considerations in the overall company strategy. It is based on several methods and tools, including expert control groups, occupational health circles, worker surveys and workplace check lists. The system was tested in a large enterprise located in the new German Länder (states), and was shown to be effective in that it was possible to implement all theoretical requirements while at the same time achieving improvements in OSH criteria. Instructions for the practical implementation of the system were also developed. (100347)

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CIS 02-1203 4th national survey on working conditions. (Spanish: IV encuesta nacional de condiciones de trabajo) Maqueda Blasco J., Almodóvar Molina A., eds., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 285p. Illus., ISBN 84-7425-585-6 (In Spanish)

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This report presents the results of a Spanish national survey on working conditions and occupational hazards for which the preliminary results were analysed earlier under CIS 01-407. It is based on surveys, firstly of companies in order to establish modes of organization, prevention activities, technological complexity and workers' training, and secondly of workers in order to understand their conditions of employment and of work, preventive measures being implemented and the information provided, and to identify impairments to health and personal variables linked to health. Contents: analytical model; methodology; safety and health organization and activities; safety conditions; working environments; design of workplaces; workload; psychosocial factors; technological progress in machines and work equipment; health effects; analysis of differences and similarities in working conditions. (100419)

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CIS 02-1204 Introductory guide to national occupational safety and health systems. (Spanish: Guía de introducción a los sistemas nacionales de seguridad y salud en el trabajo) Castellá J.L., ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. vii, 90p. 71 ref., ISBN 92-2-313074-3 (In Spanish)

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The "systems" concept can be applied to national regulatory frameworks concerning occupational safety and health. It should consist of a coherent and uniform set of elements which are complementary and mutually enriching. Aimed at persons participating in decision-making at the national level in the area of occupational hazard control, this guide provides an analysis of the different elements of the system. Contents: introduction; national occupational safety and health policies; national organization; planning the implementation of the national policy. Appendices include references to relevant ILO standards, conventions and recommendations, in particular to the ILO Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems (ILO-OSH 2001) (see CIS 02-162). (100420)

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CIS 02-1205 Factbook® - Prevention of occupational hazards. (Spanish: Factbook® - Prevención de riesgos laborales) González García A., Carreño Quiñones J.M., Nelson Gascow L., eds., Editorial Aranzadi SA, Carretera de Aoiz, kilómetro 3,5, 31486 Elanco (Navarra), Spain, 2000. x, approx. 1320p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index., ISBN 84-8410-512-1 (In Spanish)

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Reference manual on occupational safety and health. Contents: occupational safety and health representatives; occupational safety and health management systems; dangers and risks; measurements and procedures; medical supervision; training; safety and health legislation; related fields; computer applications in occupational safety and health; directory of sources of useful information. Appendices include various occupational safety and health statistics in Spain, as well as applicable legislation and standards. (100466)

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CIS 02-1206 Mandatory qualifications for safety and health personnel. (French: Qualifications obligatoires des personnes en santé et sécurité du travail) Guérin S., Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex, France, Jan. 2001, No.6, 32p. (In French)

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This practical guide discusses the requisite training to qualify for certain jobs or for carrying out certain tasks. Contents: practical and appropriate safety training; required training or information in relation to specific hazards; government administrations involved; applicable legislation; responsibilities of employers; requirements with respect to salaried and self-employed qualified persons; accreditation of occupational safety and health bodies; requirements with respect to the supervision of training programmes giving rise to qualification; European Union directives; role of public education; access to workplaces involving electrical, chemical, radiation or explosion hazards, as well as work under hyperbaric conditions; job of safety and health coordinators; specialists in transportation, loading and unloading of hazardous substances; competent persons in the nuclear industry; person responsible for evacuation in buildings receiving the public or in high-rise buildings; persons organizing safety events; first-aid workers. (100394)

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CIS 02-1207 Occupational hygiene and hazard prevention: A complementary discipline to that of occupational health. (French: Hygiène du travail et prévention des risques: une science complémentaire à la médecine du travail) Guillemin M., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2rd Quarter 2002, No.135, 7p. Illus. 19 ref. (In French)

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The objective of occupational health is to ensure working conditions compatible with health and a healthy workforce. Occupational hygiene focuses on the working environment to develop a full understanding of occupational hazards and thus avoid diseases or discomfort for workers. Occupational hygiene became a full-fledged discipline once the need was expressed for a better understanding of the causes of occupational diseases so as to better control them. This discipline brings a new dimension to the team responsible for occupational health by requiring that equal professional attention be given to the quality of the workplace and of conditions of work and to workers' health. The article discusses the specific aspects of this discipline, emphasizing its complementarity with occupational medicine. (100400)

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CIS 02-1208 The health and safety system in Great Britain. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., Mar. 2002. v, 41p. lllus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 8.50., ISBN 0-7176-2243-6 (In English)

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This guide outlines the occupational safety and health (OSH) system of the United Kingdom. The OSH system is integrated across industry sectors. It is based on tripartism (cooperation between the government, employers' federations and workers' representatives) and participation (consultation and engagement), and is aimed at delivering a proportionate, targeted and risk-based approach. Contents: key facts; brief description of the system, with reference to the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974 (see CIS 74-2099); role of the Health and Safety Executive; legal framework; policy process; enforcement; control of risks at the workplace; insurance and compensation. (100095)

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CIS 02-1209 "Levels of health" and quality of the enterprise: Updated EFQM audit model. (Spanish: Nivel de "salud" y calidad de la empresa: el modelo de auditoría EFQM actualizado) Bestratén Belloví M., Benita Hortelano M.R., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 3 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note describes an updated version of the method for the auto-evaluation of total quality management systems of enterprises based on the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) model (see CIS 00-104, CIS 01-105 and CIS 01-106), which includes a new logical analysis model (RADAR). With this new model, the nine criteria taken into account are assessed from four standpoints: desired results, planning of objectives and strategies, implementation of objectives and assessment and revision of objectives. (100213)

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CIS 02-1210 Prevention management systems: Declaration of principles of a safety and health policy. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva: declaración de principios de política preventiva) Bestratén Belloví M., Marrón Vidal M.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 4p. 5 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note covers the issue of defining the occupational safety and health policy for the enterprise. The approach involves identifying the hazards, evaluating those that cannot be eliminated, defining the needs of the enterprise and identifying its strengths and weaknesses. The occupational safety and health policy of the enterprise is recorded in a document that formally defines the guidelines and basic objectives with respect to occupational hazards and specifies the responsibilities. Examples of an occupational safety and health policy statement according to the requirements of the law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 95-1921) and of the commitments made by the enterprise with respect to occupational health are presented. (100215)

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CIS 02-1211 Prevention management systems: Information control procedure and safety and health training. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva: procedimiento de control de la información y formación preventiva) Bestratén Belloví M., Marrón Vidal M.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 4p. 3 ref. (In Spanish)

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According to the provisions of the law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 95-1921) and the regulations on occupational safety and health services, enterprises are required to implement various occupational safety and health activities, to define procedures and to compile the corresponding documentation. This information note describes the procedures that need to be put in place for the information and induction training of workers with respect to the prevention of occupational safety and health hazards related to their workplaces, as well for their further training. An appendix presents an example of a certificate awarded by the enterprise to employees upon completion of their occupational safety and health information and induction training. See also CIS 02-1212/1215. (100216)

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CIS 02-1212 Prevention management systems: Procedure for the elaboration of working instructions. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva: procedimiento de elaboración de las instrucciones de trabajo) Bestratén Belloví M., Marrón Vidal M.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 3 ref. (In Spanish)

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According to the provisions of the law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 95-1921) and the regulations on occupational safety and health services, enterprises are required to implement various occupational safety and health activities, to define procedures and compile the corresponding documentation. This information note describes the procedures for preparing work instructions, which represent essential elements for the safety and health planning of critical tasks. It presents a flowchart showing the various steps that need to be taken into consideration for preparing work instructions, as well as an example of work instructions applicable to work in confined spaces. See also CIS 02-1211 and CIS 02-1213/1215. (100217)

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CIS 02-1213 Prevention management systems: Procedure for hazard communication and improvement proposals. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva: procedimiento de comunicación de riesgos y propuestas de mejora) Bestratén Belloví M., Marrón Vidal M.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 5p. Illus. 3 ref. (In Spanish)

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According to the provisions of the law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 95-1921) and the regulations on occupational safety and health services, enterprises are required to implement various occupational safety and health activities, to define procedures and compile the corresponding documentation. This information note describes a procedure for informing all persons concerned by an identified hazard and for proposing corrective measures whose implementation involves all levels in the enterprise. It also presents an example of a sheet for the communication of the hazards and corrective actions. See also CIS 02-1211/1212 and CIS 02-1214/1215. (100218)

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CIS 02-1214 Prevention management systems: Permits-to-work for special work. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva: autorizaciones de trabajos especiales) Bestratén Belloví M., Cuscó Vidal J.M., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 4p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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According to the provisions of the law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 95-1921) and the regulations on occupational safety and health services, enterprises are required to implement various occupational safety and health activities, to define procedures and compile the corresponding documentation. This information note proposes a simple model of a procedure enabling the documenting of permits-to-work for special work (in confined spaces, hot or cold workplaces, electrical work, etc.). It also presents an example of a permit-to-work for dangerous work form. See also CIS 02-1211/1213 and CIS 02-1215. (100219)

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CIS 02-1215 Prevention management systems: Management of the processes of change in the enterprise. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva: gestión de procesos de cambios en la empresa) Piqué Ardanuy T., Marrón Vidal M.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 4p. 1 ref. (In Spanish)

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According to the provisions of the law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 95-1921) and the regulations on occupational safety and health services, enterprises are required to implement various occupational safety and health activities, to define procedures and compile the corresponding documentation. This information note describes the risk management procedures in certain situations involving changes within the enterprise. Contents: commissioning of new or modified equipment; purchase of new equipment or use of chemicals likely to give rise to new hazards; hiring of personnel; access control of personnel and vehicles external to the enterprise; subcontractors. See also CIS 02-1211/1214. (100220)

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CIS 02-1216 Occupational safety and health management systems: Management of contracts. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva: procedimiento de contratas) Piqué Ardanuy T., Marrón Vidal M.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. 1 ref. (In Spanish)

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According to the provisions of the Spanish Law on Occupational Safety and Health (CIS 95-1921) and the regulations concerning occupational safety and health services, enterprises are required to implement a number of occupational safety and health activities for which procedures must be defined and documented. This information note describes a procedure applicable to the selection of subcontractors and to the management of hazards and the coordination of the work that they undertake. It also contains an example of an information sheet aimed at the subcontractor mentioning the specific hazards of the subcontracted tasks and the preventive measures to be implemented. (100314)

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CIS 02-1217 Occupational safety and health management systems: Organization and definition of OSH functions. (Spanish: Sistema de gestión preventiva: organización y definición de funciones preventivas) Bestratén Belloví M., Marrón Vidal M.A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. 3 ref. (In Spanish)

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According to the provisions of the Spanish Law on Occupational Safety and Health (CIS 95-1921) and the regulations concerning occupational safety and health services, enterprises are required to implement a number of occupational safety and health (OSH) activities for which procedures must be defined and documented. This information note describes the safety and health organization to be adopted at the company level (distribution of OSH tasks to designated workers having the necessary aptitude, in-house or contracted OSH services) and specifies the roles and responsibilities of the various participants (senior management, department heads, workers, workers having specific OSH-related tasks, safety coordinators, OSH committees). (100315)

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CIS 02-1218 Maintenance - Safety and health. (German: Instandhaltung. Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz) Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 256p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 21.00., ISBN 3-89701-399-1 (In German)

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Maintenance, inspection and repair work often present significant safety and health hazards. This report reviews all the preventive measures that need to be taken by employers to ensure the safety and health of maintenance workers. The first part includes general recommendations with respect to the preparation and execution of the work. The second part deals with specific hazards of various types of tasks (hazards due to moving parts, risks of falls, electrical, chemical, fire and explosion hazards, exposure to heat, work postures, etc.) and specifies the corresponding preventive measures. (100348)

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CIS 02-1219 Hygiene, safety, health and the prevention of occupational accidents - Requirements and procedures for the certification of OSH specialists. (Portuguese: Higiene, segurança, saúde e prevenção de acidentes de trabalho - Regime e procedimentos da certificação profissional dos técnicos de prevenção) Cabral F., Dashöfer Holding Ldt e Verlag Dahöfer, Edições Profissionais, Sociedade Unipessoal, Lda, Portugal, 2001. CD-ROM for PC, IBM compatible, 486, 33 Mhz or higher (needs Windows 3.1 or Windows 95, 2 MB RAM (4 MB recommended), 10MB free space on disk). (In Portuguese)

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This CD-ROM groups together all the relevant information concerning the training and certification of occupational safety and health specialists. Contents: required qualifications; professional profiles; documents necessary for the certification and its renewal; suspension and cancellation; penalties; contents of training programmes; legislation; application and self-appraisal forms. (100444)

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[ Top of page ]

002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology

CIS 02-1220 High-resolution computed tomography classification of lung fibrosis for patients with asbestos-related disease. Huuskonen O., Kivisaari L., Zitting A., Taskinen K., Tossavainen A., Vehmas T., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.106-112. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of 602 asbestos-exposed workers were reviewed. The sensitivity (70%) and specificity (91%) of the HRCT fibrosis scores were better than those of the International Labour Office (ILO) classification of radiographs of pneumoconioses. The HRCT scoring method proved to be reliable and reproducible for the classification of lung fibrosis and for the diagnosis of asbestosis. (100154)

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CIS 02-1221 Evaluating human response to sensory irritation: Implications for setting occupational exposure limits. Dalton P., AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2001, Vol.62, No.6, p.723-729. Illus. 38 ref. (In English)

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Animal models of sensory irritation have led to the development of useful assays for evaluating the potency of chemical irritants. However, human exposure studies are still required to model and understand the human response to sensory irritants. In recent years a series of tests have been developed for humans that can be safely conducted and that can provide excellent data on which to base occupational exposure limits. This article discusses the major issues involved in the evaluations of sensory irritation in humans. These issues include the differences between odor and irritation, irritation and slight toxicity, adaptation and habituation, as well as personal expectation about discomfort and the reported irritation. The article also describes psycho-physiological and electrophysiological methods for assessing sensory irritation. Some of the possible confounders that can influence the results of human tests involving sensory irritants are addressed. (100351)

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CIS 02-1222 Epidemiology of occupational acute traumatic hand injuries: A literature review. Sorock G.S., Lombardi D.A., Courtney T.K., Cotnam J.P., Mittleman M.A., Safety Science, Aug. 2001, Vol.38, No.3, p.241-256. 56 ref. (In English)

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In 1996, the leading occupational injury treated in United States' hospital emergency departments was an acute hand injury (e.g. laceration, crush or fracture), affecting 990,000 workers, and representing 30% of all occupational injuries. Cuts and lacerations of the fingers ranked third after back and leg strains in the number of lost workday cases in the USA in 1994. The incidence rate of hand injuries studied in seven manufacturing environments around the world ranged from 4 to 11 per 100 workers per year. Workers aged 24 years or less had the highest risk of hand injury. Men had higher rates of severe hand injury than women. There is only one case-control study of occupational hand injury in the literature, which suggested an important role for both fixed (age) and transient risk factors (doing an unusual task) at the time of the injury. Suggestions are made for further research. (100026)

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CIS 02-1223 Review of recent epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects. Chia S.E., Shi L.M., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.59, No.3, p.149-155. 56 ref. (In English)

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Epidemiological studies on paternal occupations and birth defects were reviewed for the period from 1989 to 1999. Several common paternal occupations were repeatedly reported to be associated with birth defects, including janitors, painters, printers, and occupations exposed to solvents; fire fighters or firemen; and occupations related to agriculture. The common weaknesses in most of these studies are inaccurate assessment of exposures, different classification systems, different inclusion criteria of birth defects, and low statistical power. Future studies could be focused on these specific occupational groups so that causative agents may be confirmed enabling appropriate preventive measures to be taken. (100068)

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CIS 02-1224 Work environment and neck and shoulder pain: The influence of exposure time. Results from a population based case-control study. Fredriksson K., Alfredsson L., Ahlberg G., Josephson M., Kilbom Å., Wigaeus Hjelm E., Wiktorin C., Vingård E., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.59, No.3, p.182-188. 52 ref. (In English)

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Information on physical and psychosocial conditions in the work environment, currently and 5 years earlier was obtained by self-administered questionnaires from 310 patients who sought medical care for neck or shoulder pain and 1277 randomly selected referents. Risk patterns differed for the sexes, and risk ratios exceeding 1.5 were more often found among women than among men. Subjects who had experienced a recent increase of exposure were more likely (relative risk (RR) 2.1-3.7) to seek care than those who had been exposed long term (RR 1.5-1.8). Among women, risk factors included an increased amount of visual display terminal (VDT) work, work above shoulder level, and reduced opportunities to acquire new knowledge, while for men, risk factors were an increased amount of work seated. The high relative risks for certain short-term exposures indicates that the induction period for neck or shoulder pain could be short. (100069)

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CIS 02-1225 Detection of workers sensitised to high molecular weight allergens: A diagnostic study in laboratory animal workers. Meijer E., Grobbee D.E., Heederik D., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.59, No.3, p.189-195. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

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To develop a diagnostic rule to predict sensitization to high molecular weight allergens in laboratory animal workers, data from 551 laboratory animal workers over a period of 3 years was used. Serum samples were analysed for specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies against common and laboratory animal allergens. Questionnaire items, exposure determinants, IgE serology, skin prick tests (SPTs) and lung function tests were analysed in a multiple logistic regression model. It was found that work-related asthmatic symptoms, allergic symptoms, sex, occupational exposure to rats and a positive SPT to common allergens showed the best performance in identifying workers at high or at low risk of being sensitized. The method can easily be applied in occupational medical practice. (100070)

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CIS 02-1226 Polymorphisms of the IL-1 gene complex in coal miners with silicosis. Yucesoy B., Vallyathan V., Landsittel D.P., Sharp D.S., Matheson J., Burleson F., Luster M.I., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.286-291. 28 ref. (In English)

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Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), play a role in the development of silicosis. The study compared 318 histopathologically confirmed pulmonary silicosis patients with controls. Genotyping was carried out through the polymerase chain reaction technique. The proportion of the IL-1 receptor antagonist (allele 2 genotype) was higher in miners with silicosis than in controls. This is the first report suggesting that such a genetic polymorphism may confer an increased risk for the development of the disease. (100145)

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CIS 02-1227 Association between pleural plaques and coronary heart disease. Korhola O., Hiltunen A., Karjalainen A., Martikainen R., Riihimäki H., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.154-155. 6 ref. (In English)

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Chest X-rays from 148 patients referred for coronary angiography and from 100 consecutive lung cancer patients were analysed for the presence of calcified pleural plaques according to the classification of the International Labour Office. The prevalence of pleural plaques was 35% for the coronary patients and 19% for the lung cancer patients. The plaques were more common among men than women and the risk increased with age. Further studies on past exposure to asbestos and other potential risk factors are warranted to confirm these observations concerning the association between coronary heart disease and calcified pleural plaques. (100159)

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CIS 02-1228 Bank One's worksite-based asthma disease management program. Burton W.N., Connerty C.M., Schultz A.B., Chen C.Y., Edington D.W., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.75-82. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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Although the value of patient education in the management of asthma is well demonstrated, management programmes generally have not been offered at the workplace. Employees with asthma were identified in a US bank and 76 participated in a worksite asthma disease programme. As outcome, significantly more employees reported using controller medications (to prevent an attack) than reliever medications (to respond to an attack). Similar programmes for asthma should reduce medical care costs, absenteeism and improve worker productivity. (100160)

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CIS 02-1229 Management of musculoskeletal pain in the workplace. Melhorn J.M., Wilkinson L., Riggs J.D., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.83-93. Illus. 58 ref. (In English)

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In order to demonstrate the application and benefits of the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders, a risk-management programme based on the individual risk assessment of new employees in an aircraft manufacturing plant was set up. A subgroup was studied for medical management on the basis of individual risk scores. Outcome measures allowed estimated savings in direct workers compensation costs (USD 2.42 million) and estimated indirect savings (> USD 13.5 million). (100161)

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CIS 02-1230 Incidence and risk of work-related fracture injuries: Experience of a state-managed workers' compensation system. Islam S.S., Biswas R.S., Nambiar A.M., Syamlal G., Velilla A.M., Ducatman A.M., Doyle E.J., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.140-146. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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A total of 3490 work-related fractures were identified from a West Virginia (US) workers' compensation database. The incidence rate of fractures was highest in the agricultural sector, followed by the mining, construction and manufacturing sectors. Fracture of the phalanges was the most common, followed by those of foot and carpal bones. Common causes of fractures were: caught in-between objects, falls, being struck by or against objects, and vehicle collisions. (100168)

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CIS 02-1231 Cancer incidence among employees at a petrochemical research facility. Sathiakumar N., Delzell E., Rodu B., Beall C., Myers S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.166-174. 62 ref. (In English)

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Evaluation of cancer incidence at a petrochemical research facility in the state of Illinois (US). The subjects were 5641 people who had worked in the establishment from 1970 through 1996. They had 18% fewer than expected total cancers. However, the incidence of brain cancer was higher than expected in the overall study group; this was restricted to white male scientists and technicians. The subjects also had an increased incidence of thyroid cancer. (100171)

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CIS 02-1232 Incidence of lymphohaematopoietic malignancies in a petrochemical industry cohort: 1983-94 follow up. Huebner W.W., Chen V.W., Friedlander B.R., Wu X.C., Jorgensen G., Bhojani F.A., Friedmann C.H., Schmidt B.A., Sales E.A., Joy J.A., Correa C.N., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.605-614. 34 ref. (In English)

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An increased mortality for the period 1970-82 from lymphohaematopoietic (LH) malignancies was previously found in a US petrochemical industry cohort (see CIS 01-1432). This follow-up provides information on cases between 1983 and 1994. 672 cases of cancer were identified, including 59 LH malignancies. Women (n=1169) had four LH malignancies versus 2.28 expected. Among 7773 men, those first employed before 1950 had a significant 1.4-fold increase in overall LH malignancies and four chronic lymphocytic leukaemia cases (CLL) versus 3.27 expected. The findings do not suggest a continuing excess of CLL, but show a small increase in incidence of overall LH malignancy for workers first employed before 1950. (100176)

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CIS 02-1233 Reported incidence of occupational asthma in the United Kingdom, 1989-97. McDonald J.C., Keynes H.L., Meredith S.K., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.823-829. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

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A report of the 9 years of the Surveillance of Work Related and Occupational Respiratory Disease data. This scheme was based on reports of chest and occupational physicians during the 9 years 1989-97. An estimated 25,674 new cases of occupational respiratory disease, including 7,387 of occupational asthma, were reported. A third of the suspected causes of asthma were organic, a third chemical, 6% metallic and the rest miscellaneous, or unknown. Incidences were higher in men than women. The lowest risk group was that of professional, clerical, and service workers, the highest risk group was that of coach and other spray painters. The conclusion is that there is certainly more occupational asthma in the population than that which reaches specialists; therefore the incidence rates presented here are to be considered as underestimates. (100181)

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CIS 02-1234 Occupational skin diseases: Cement still causes victims. (French: Dermatoses professionnelles: le ciment fait toujours des victimes) Brasseur G., Travail et sécurité, July-Aug. 2001, No.609, p.22-28. Illus. 6 réf. (In French)

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According to the SUMER 94 survey (see CIS 95-161), more than 300,000 workers are exposed to cement in France. Cement is both corrosive and allergenic, the allergic effects being in particular due to the presence of chromium. Several countries are committed to reducing the chromium content of cement. As a result, skin diseases caused by cement have decreased from 3.1% of compensated occupational diseases in France in 1994 to 1.37% in 1998. Topics covered in this special feature on skin diseases caused by cement: corrosive and allergic effects of cement; allergic effects of chromium VI compounds; chromate chemistry; packaging of cement (in bulk or bags); importance of personal protection; trends over the last 30 years highlighting a 90% decrease in skin diseases caused by cement. (100294)

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CIS 02-1235 Irritant contact dermatitis caused by needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, raphides, in Agave tequilana among workers in tequila distilleries and agave plantations. Salinas M.L., Ogura T., Soffchi L., Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2001, Vol.44, No.2, p.94-96. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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Needle-like calcium oxalate crystals, such as raphides, are found abundantly in all tissues of Agave tequilana plants; thus, 1 droplet (0.03mL) of juice pressed from leaves contains 100-150 crystals, 30-500µm in length, sharpened at both ends. In tequila distilleries, 5/6 of the workers who handle agave stems have experienced the characteristic irritation. In contrast, only one third of workers in agave plantations involved in harvesting agave plants complain of the irritation. This questionnaire study confirms that all the irritation suffered in both distilleries and plantations takes place at bodily locations where the plants come into contact with the workers' skin in the course of their work. (100333)

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CIS 02-1236 Lung cancer among workers in chromium chemical production. Gibb H.J., Lees P.S.J., Pinsky P.F., Rooney B.C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.115-126. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

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To assess the risk of lung cancer among chromate production workers, a cohort of 2,357 workers first employed between 1950 and 1974 at a chromate production plant was identified. Work histories of cohort members were compiled from the beginning of employment through 1985, the year the plant closed. Vital status of the workers was followed until 1992. Annual average exposure estimates, based on historical exposure measurements, were made for each job title in the plant for the years 1950-1985. These exposure estimates were used to calculate the cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure of each subject of the study population. Following closure of the plant, settled dust samples were collected, analysed, and used to estimate cumulative chromium exposure for each individual in the study cohort. It was found that cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure was associated with an increased lung cancer risk, while cumulative trivalent chromium exposure was not. The excess risk of lung cancer associated with cumulative hexavalent chromium exposure was not confounded by smoking status. (100361)

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CIS 02-1237 Nonfatal work-related inhalations: Surveillance data from hospital emergency departments, 1995-1996. Henneberger P.K., Metayer C., Layne L.A., Althouse R., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.140-148. 36 ref. (In English)

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National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) data from hospital emergency rooms in the USA were used to estimate the number of nonfatal work-related inhalation injuries and illnesses from July 1995 to July 1996. There were an estimated 44,423 occupational inhalation cases nationwide, with an annual rate of 3.6 cases/104 workers/year The rate for men (4.4 cases/104) was greater than that observed for women (2.6 cases/104), and the rates tended to decline with increasing age. An estimated 4.6% of the cases were hospitalized for further treatment. The highest rate by industry was 16.4 cases/104 for public administration (which included fire and police departments). Among non firefighters, there were an estimated 6,470 cases nationwide in which respiratory symptoms or conditions were noted, which yielded an annual rate of 0.5 cases/104. Chlorine compounds were a common agent for the cases with adverse respiratory outcomes. It is concluded that the NEISS data provides an efficient method for assessing the national frequency of work-related inhalation injuries and illnesses. (100362)

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CIS 02-1238 Malignant pleural mesothelioma presenting as spontaneous pneumothorax: A case series and review. Alkhuja S., Miller A., Mastellone A.J., Markowitz S., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.219-223. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is thought to arise from the mesothelial cells that line the pleural cavities. Most patients initially experience the insidious onset of chest pain or shortness of breath, and it rarely presents as spontaneous pneumothorax. Case reports of four patients who presented in this manner are included. Three of the patients were exposed to asbestos directly or indirectly at shipyards during World War II; the fourth was exposed as an insulator's wife. Two of our cases were not recognized to have MPM on histological examination at first thoracotomy and remained asymptomatic for 12 and 22 months, respectively. In none of the patients was spontaneous pneumothorax the cause of death. Since many people were exposed to asbestos during and after World War II, spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with the possibility of such exposure should raise the suspicion of malignant pleural mesothelioma. (100365)

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CIS 02-1239 Air pollution and emergency room visits due to chronic lower respiratory diseases in the elderly: An ecological time-series study in São Paulo, Brazil. Martins L.C., do Rosário Dias de Oliveira Latorre M., do Nascimento Saldiva P.H., Ferreira Braga A.L., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.622-627. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of daily air pollution levels (carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide and particulate matter with an aerodynamic profile <10µm) on morbidity by using the daily number of emergency room visits due to chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) in people older than 64 years of age in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1996 to 1998. Generalized additive Poisson regression models were adopted, adjusted for long-time trends and weather, day of the week, and daily number of non-respiratory admissions. Ozone and sulfur dioxide were the pollutants statistically associated with CLRD visits. Increases in the 6-day moving average of sulfur dioxide (17.82µg/m3) and in the 4-day moving average of ozone (35.87µg/m3) increased CLRD emergency room visits in 18% and 14%, respectively. These results reinforce the idea that air pollution may promote adverse health effects in the elderly. (100434)

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CIS 02-1240 Parental occupation and neural tube defect-affected pregnancies among Mexican Americans. Brender J., Suarez L., Hendricks K., Baetz R.A., Larsen R., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.650-656. 40 ref. (In English)

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In this case-control study, it was examined whether parental occupational exposures were related to neural tube defect (NTD)-affected pregnancies among Mexican Americans living along the Texas-Mexico border. Case women were 184 Mexican-American women with NTD-affected pregnancies; control women were 225 study-area residents who delivered normal babies during the same period as the case women. The women were interviewed in person about maternal and paternal occupations and work exposures during the peri-conceptional period. Compared with control women, case women were more likely to have had occupational exposures to solvents and also were more likely to have worked in cleaning or health care occupations than control women. No compelling associations were found between paternal work exposures or occupations and NTDs in offspring in this population. (100436)

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CIS 02-1241 Cancer of the brain and nervous system and occupational exposures in Finnish women. Wesseling C., Pukkala E., Neuvonen K., Kauppinen T., Boffetta P., Partanen T., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.663-668. 39 ref. (In English)

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Occupational agents were evaluated for the risk of brain and nervous system cancer in a cohort of 413,877 Finnish women with blue-collar occupations in 1970. Observed and expected numbers of incident cases and the intensities of exposure to 25 agents were generated for 183 job titles from 1971 to 1995. Poisson regression models linked incidence and exposure data. Increased risks were found for medium/high intensities of iron (standardized incidence ratio (SIR), 2.15), oil mist (SIR 1.95), any chromium compounds (SIR 1.51), electromagnetic fields (SIR 1.37), aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbon compounds (SIR 1.34), lead (SIR 1.27), cadmium (SIR 1.26), and aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (SIR 1.20). (100438)

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CIS 02-1242 Association of comorbidity and outcome in episodes of nonspecific low back pain in occupational populations. Nordin M., Hiebert R., Pietrek M., Alexander M., Crane M., Lewis S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.677-684. Illus. 40 ref. (In English)

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This study examined the relationship between co-morbidity and initial return-to-work after episodes of work-disabling, nonspecific low back pain (NSLBP). A cohort of workers with new episodes of NSLBP was identified from administratively-maintained occupational health records. six-month return-to-work rates were compared between workers with one or more co-morbid conditions with those without documented co-morbidity. Workers with co-morbidity were 1.31 times more likely to remain work disabled than those with uncomplicated NSLBP, after adjusting for age, gender, lifting demands, and tenure (adjusted hazards ratio (HR) 1.31). Concurrent injury (sprains or strains of the neck, upper extremity and lower extremity; contusions; lacerations) had the strongest association (adjusted HR 1.49), followed by musculoskeletal disorders (adjusted HR 1.13). Co-morbidities should be routinely evaluated by occupational health professionals to better manage disability associated with LBP. (100439)

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CIS 02-1243 Occupation and bladder cancer: A population-based, case-control study in Iowa. Zheng T., Cantor K.P., Zhang Y., Lynch C.F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.685-691. 40 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to investigate the role of occupation and industry in the risk of bladder cancer. A population-based, case-control study was conducted in the state of Iowa, including 1452 incident bladder cancer cases and 2434 controls. Occupational history was collected from respondents for each job held for five years or longer since the age of 16. Among men, excess risk was observed for industries including plumbing, heating, and air conditioning (odds ratio (OR)=2.2); rubber and plastic products (OR=3.1), motor vehicle parts and supplies (OR=4.5), and occupations including supervisors for transportation and material moving (OR=6.5), material-moving-equipment operators (OR=1.9), automobile mechanics (OR=1.6), painters (OR=2.7), and metal- and plastic-working machine operators (OR=2.0). Among women, significant excess risk was observed for secondary school teachers and record clerks. Housekeepers and butlers and workers in laundering and dry cleaning were also at increased risk. (100440)

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CIS 02-1244 The incidence of green tobacco sickness among Latino farmworkers. Arcury T.A., Quandt S.A., Preisser J.S., Norton D., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.601-609. 33 ref. (In English)

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The prevalence and incidence density (ID) and the risk factors of green tobacco sickness among minority farm workers in North Carolina were estimated. Using a prospective surveillance design, 182 farm workers were interviewed up to 5 times at biweekly intervals in 1999. The green tobacco sickness prevalence was 24.2%, whereas the ID was 1.88 days per 100 days worked. Greater work experience (more than five years ID = 0.87; first year ID = 2.41) and nonsmoking status (nonsmoker ID of 1.18 compared to smoker ID of 2.39) were negatively associated with green tobacco sickness. Tasks and working in wet clothing had the largest effect. More effort must be directed toward preventing this occupational illness that affects workers who have little control over workplace safety. (100017)

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CIS 02-1245 Work-related respiratory symptoms in New Zealand farmers. Kimbell-Dunn M.R., Fishwick R.D., Bradshaw L., Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen R., Pearce N., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.292-300. 44 ref. (In English)

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A questionnaire survey of respiratory diseases was addressed at 2,203 New Zealand farmers. Breathing problems at work were reported by 17.6% of the responders, in particular by those working with oat. Dyspnoea was more common in female farmers, chronic bronchitis in males. Organic Dust Toxic Syndrome/Farmer's Lung was reported by 7% of workers. Risk factors for all respiratory symptoms were the presence of hay fever, eczema and smoking. (100146)

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CIS 02-1246 Cancer mortality study of employees at lead battery plants and lead smelters, 1947-1995. Wong O., Harris F., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.255-270. 12 ref. (In English)

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To examine the cancer mortality of male workers exposed to lead in the United States, a cohort of 4,518 workers at lead battery plants and 2,300 at lead smelters was examined. Vital status was ascertained between 1947 and 1995. Site-specific cancer standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), based on the mortality rates of the U.S. male population and adjusted for age and calendar time, were calculated for the total cohort as well as subcohorts stratified by various exposure parameters. In addition, a nested case-control study of stomach cancer (30 cases and 120 age-matched controls) was also conducted. Results indicate a significant mortality increase from stomach cancer. A small, but statistically significant mortality increase from lung cancer and from cancer of the thyroid and other endocrine glands was also observed. No increased mortality was found for kidney cancer, bladder cancer, cancer of the central nervous system, lymphatic cancer and haematopoietic cancer. (100339)

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CIS 02-1247 Risk of bronchopulmonary cancer in a stainless and alloyed steels plant. (French: Risques de cancers bronchopulmonaires dans une usine sidérurgique produisant des aciers inoxydables et des aciers alliés) Moulin J.J., Clavel T., Roy D., Dananché B., Marquis N., Févotte J., Fontana J.M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.180, p.49-59. 49 ref. (In French)

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The mortality of workers involved in the production of stainless and alloyed steel in France from 1968 to 1992 was studied. The study design was a historical cohort mortality study and a nested case-control study concerning lung cancer. Relative risk was expressed in the form of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs). The cohort comprised 4,288 male and 609 female workers. The observed overall mortality was significantly lower than expected (649 deaths; SMR = 0.91). No significant SMR was observed for mortality from bronchopulmonary cancer (54 deaths; SMR = 1.19). The case-control study was based on 54 cases and 162 individually matched controls. No bronchopulmonary cancer excess was observed for exposure to iron (OR = 0.94), chromium and/or nickel (OR = 1.18), cobalt (OR = 0.64), acid mists (OR = 0.43) and asbestos (OR = 1.00). However, high and statistically significant bronchopulmonary cancer excesses were observed for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and silica which are often found together in workplaces, the ORs being 1.95 and 2.47 respectively. (100384)

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CIS 02-1248 Respiratory symptoms, lung function and cell surface markers in a group of hemp fiber processors. Fishwick D., Allan L.J., Wright A., Barber C.M., Curran A.D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.419-425. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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Lung function and immunological changes associated with hemp dust exposure were studied in 11 male hemp processors with a mean age of 43 years. All workers were subjected to a questionnaire, lung function testing including FEV1 and blood analyses. In total, seven workers (64%) complained of at least one respiratory symptom (one with byssinosis). The mean percentage predicted FEV1 was 91.5, FVC 97.7, PEF 92.1, and FEF25-75 79.5. Serial FEV1 measurements in the two workers with work-related respiratory symptoms revealed a mean change in FEV1 on the first working day of -12.9%. This contrasted with +6.25% on the last working day. Respective values for two workers without work-related symptoms were -1.4 and +3.2 %. Lung function changes and abnormalities in a profile of cell surface activation markers and antibodies related to the presence of work-related respiratory symptoms were not seen in the control group. (100370)

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CIS 02-1249 The prevention of occupational hand dermatitis in bakers, confectioners and employees in the catering trades - Preliminary results of a skin prevention program. Bauer A., Kelterer D., Stadeler M., Schneider W., Kleesz P., Wollina U., Elsner P., Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2001, Vol.44, No.2, p.85-88. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

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Bakers, confectioners and employees in the catering trades are at a high risk of developing occupational skin diseases (OSDs). A skin disease prevention programme in the baking, hotel and catering industries was initiated. It involved a detailed analysis of the occupational exposure and occupational disease history of the employees, during which the patients' diagnosis and therapy was re-evaluated and supplemented if necessary. Individual skin care and protection regimes were demonstrated, skin care and protection products were supplied, and skin care and protection seminars were offered to volunteering participants. From January to December 1999, 29 affected employees were examined. 22 employees suffered from irritant contact dermatitis. In the follow-up of 11 employees, the skin disease improved or disappeared in 8 cases. Moreover, in 1 employee, the skin condition was stabilized even though continued employment. In only 2 cases did the skin condition worsen. These preliminary results showed that most of the OSD were due to lack of or unsuitable skin care and protection. (100331)

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CIS 02-1250 Dermatitis in a particleboard manufacturing facility. Saary M.J., House R.A., Holness D.L., Contact Dermatitis, June 2001, Vol.44, No.6, p.325-330. 11 ref. (In English)

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To assess the prevalence and nature of skin complaints in the refining and drying department of a particleboard manufacturing facility, workers were assessed by a physician using a standardized questionnaire concerning symptoms, past and family history, workplace exposures, and use of protective equipment. Cutaneous examination and patch testing were also performed. Questionnaire results showed that workers complained of rash, nasal and eye irritation, as well as cough and bothersome odours. Cutaneous examination identified a heterogeneity of skin problems, with dermatitis being mainly irritant rather than allergic. Quaternium-15 was the only allergen to which more than one individual reacted. Aside from the odours, exposure to wood dust could account for the other reported symptoms. There were few allergic reactions on patch testing, and most skin reactions were irritant. Recommendations included improved dust control, through ventilation and personal hygiene measures, as well as protective clothing. (100336)

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CIS 02-1251 A case-referent study of cancer mortality among sulfate mill workers in Sweden. Andersson E., Hagberg S., Nilsson T., Persson B., Wingren G., Torén K., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.58, No.5, p.321-324. 24 ref. (In English)

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To investigate whether workers in Swedish sulfate pulp mills have an increased risk of death from certain malignancies, 2480 men aged 40-75 at death during 1960-89 in the parishes surrounding four sulfate mills were studied. Exposure assessment was based on information from the personnel files in the mills. It was observed that among all sulfate mill workers, the odds ratio (OR) for death from lung cancer was 1.6, pleural mesotheliomas 9.5, brain tumours 2.6, and liver or biliary tract cancer 2.3. There was an increased mortality from leukaemia among workers in the soda recovery plant (5.9) and bleaching plant and digester house (2.8). In conclusion, sulfate mill workers were at increased risk of dying from lung cancer and pleural mesotheliomas, probably due to exposure to asbestos. Increased risks of brain tumours and cancers of the liver or biliary tract were also found but the aetiology is not obvious. (100008)

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CIS 02-1252 Cohort cancer incidence among pulp and paper mill workers in British Columbia. Band P.R., Le N.D., Fang R., Astrakianakis G., Bert J., Keefe A., Krewski D., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.113-119. 33 ref. (In English)

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In a cohort of male pulp and paper workers in British Columbia (Canada), 1756 cancer cases were observed in the period 1950-1992. The results of the analysis suggest that long-term work in the pulp and paper industry is associated with excess risks of prostate and stomach cancers and all leukaemias for work in workers engaged in both the kraft and the sulfite processes, and of rectal cancer for work in the sulfite process only. (100155)

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CIS 02-1253 Occupational skin diseases in national servicemen and military personnel in Singapore, 1989-1999. Goon A.T.J., Goh C.L., Contact Dermatitis, Feb. 2001, Vol.44, No.2, p.89-90. 1 ref. (In English)

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In a study of occupational skin disease in the armed forces of Singapore, all military personnel and conscripts diagnosed with occupational dermatoses in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, between 1989-1999 were studied retrospectively. Conscripts and regulars comprised 7.3% of all the occupational skin disease patients examined. All were male, with a mean age of 23 years. Irritant contact dermatitis was more common than allergic contact dermatitis, by a ratio of 4.4:1. The most common activities associated with occupational skin diseases were those involving vehicle repairs and maintenance (48%) and food handling (19%). The most common irritants were oil/grease (66%), wet work (23%) and solvents (18%). The most common allergens were food (40%) and chromates (20%). In conclusion, military personnel and conscripts make up a significant proportion of occupational skin disease patients seen in Singapore. (100332)

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CIS 02-1254 Occupational contact dermatitis in nurses with hand eczema. Strauss R.M., Gawkrodger D.J., Contact Dermatitis, May 2001, Vol.44, No.5, p.293-296. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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Occupation-related dermatitis is a common problem in nurses, who are exposed to a wide variety of allergenic and irritant substances. In a group of 44 nurses with hand dermatitis (40 female), 18 were thought to have an allergic contact dermatitis, 15 an irritant dermatitis, 7 other form of eczema, 3 atopic dermatitis and one pompholyx. 10 of the 15 irritant cases were diagnosed as occupational. Of the 18 patients with allergic contact dermatitis, the allergens were thought to be occupationally relevant in 8 cases. In 6 of these cases, the dermatitis was due to natural rubber latex (3) or other rubber chemicals (3). Two had additional evidence of immediate-type hypersensitivity to natural rubber latex (one was patch test allergic to latex, the other to thiuram mix). Natural rubber latex allergy, both delayed and immediate, is a significant problem, and nurses at risk should be tested for both types of hypersensitivity, as well as being patch tested to standard, rubber and medicaments series. (100335)

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CIS 02-1255 Work environment of Danish shift and day workers. Bøggild H., Burr H., Tüchsen F., Jeppesen H.J., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.97-105. 51 ref. (In English)

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Data on 5940 Danish employees in a cohort study from 1990 were reanalysed in order to study whether shift work is associated with other work factors related to heart disease. Beside work schedules, length of the work week, physical factors, psychosocial factors and age of workers were considered. Conflicts at work were higher among all the groups of shift workers and all-day walking or standing work were more often found among females. The analysed shift work was found to be associated with other work environment factors suspected to be involved in heart disease. (100153)

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CIS 02-1256 The shoulder - Medical considerations in occupational settings: Part 1. (French: L'épaule, de la réflexion médicale en milieu de travail: 1ère partie) Revue de médecine du travail, May-June 2001, Vol.XXVIII, No.3, p.149-188. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In French)

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Proceedings of the XXVIth French national conference of occupational medicine in the construction industry devoted to the shoulder, held in Besançon, France, 14-15 June 2001. Contents: functional anatomy of the shoulder; clinical examination of a chronically painful shoulder; medical examination of painful shoulders by occupational physicians; classification of musculotendinous cuff lesions; radiological examination of the shoulder; risk factors and pathophysiology of musculoskeletal diseases of the shoulder; shoulder traumas; shoulder physiotherapy. (100264)

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CIS 02-1257 Prevalence and risk factors of tendinitis and related disorders of the distal upper extremity among U.S. workers: Comparison to carpal tunnel syndrome. Tanaka S., Petersen M., Cameron L., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.328-335. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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An analysis of tendinitis and related disorders of upper extremities among U.S. workers on the basis of 1988 National Health Interview Survey. Prolonged hand discomfort, diagnosed as tendinitis, synovitis, tenosynovitis, de Quervain's disease, epicondylitis or ganglion cyst in 28% (164,000 subjects) were thought to be work-related. Risk factors examined included: bending/twisting of the hands/wrists and female sex. It was concluded that, based on this information and previously reported cases of work-related carpal tunnel syndrome, there were approx. 520,000 cases of work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the distal upper extremities among US workers in 1988. (100150)

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CIS 02-1258 Prioritization of Occupational Sentinel Health Events for workplace health and hazard surveillance: The Pan American Health Organization experience. Choi B.C., Eijkemans G.J.M., Tennassee L.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.147-157. 24 ref. (In English)

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A report of a Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) project in July 1999 (Washington, D.C.) to discuss the problems found in the surveillance of workers' health. The objectives were to select the top three occupational sentinel health events for incorporation into the health surveillance systems in the Americas. The prioritized three surveillance protocols were: occupational fatalities, pesticide poisoning and low back pain. (100169)

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CIS 02-1259 A comparison of the carcinogenic risk assessment and management of asbestos, nickel and ionising radiation. Schneider T., Lepicard S., Oudiz A., Gadbois S., Hériard-Dubreuil G., OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, Le Seine St-Germain, 12 Boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, Nov. 2000. 83p. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

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French regulations and methodologies used for the assessment and management of the carcinogenic risk of asbestos, nickel aerosols and ionizing radiation are discussed and compared. The data collected reveal some significant similarities in the principle on which the assessment and management of risks of low-level exposure are based, and although the procedures used are based on relatively distinct instruments, they produce results that are not dissimilar and that in general reflect the shared concern to devise reasonable solutions with regard to the prevention of carcinogenic risks. (100289)

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CIS 02-1260 Skin diseases in occupational settings - Protective measures. (French: Les dermatoses en milieu professionnel - Dispositifs de protection) Frimat P., Grascha P., Yeboué-Kouamé Y., Les Editions d'Ergonomie, BP 138, 13267 Marseille cedex 08, France, 2001. 118p. 24 ref. Price: EUR 31.00., ISBN 2-908191-20-2 (In French)

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In most developed countries, skin diseases are the second most frequent type of occupational disease, after musculoskeletal diseases. The main causal factor is exposure to chemicals. The most frequent diseases are irritation or caustic contact dermatitis, followed by eczema. Contents: generalities and definitions; epidemiology; basic notions of skin biology and pathophysiology; socio-professional levels (occupations at risk); compensation; prevention; regulations that apply to skin hygiene and protection products. (100265)

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CIS 02-1261 Cost of occupational diseases. (German: Kosten arbeitsbedingter Erkrankungen) Bödeker W., Friedel H., Röttger C., Schröer A., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 180p. Illus. 67 ref. Price: EUR 16.00., ISBN 3-89701-806-3 (In German)

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The cost of occupational diseases in Germany is estimated at EUR 28 billion each year. This report investigates the relationship between the cost of occupational diseases (including lost productivity due to absenteeism) and several workload factors, with the objective of assigning a cost to each factor, so as to enable the planning of the most efficient prevention strategies. The most important workload factors were found to be "heavy physical workloads and lifting", and "low control". The greatest contributions to overall cost were mainly musculoskeletal disorders, diseases of the digestive system and injuries. Detailed summary in English and French. (100104)

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CIS 02-1262 Idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI): Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and related phenomena. (Spanish: Intolerancia ambiental idiopática (IAI): sensibilidad química múltiple (SQM) y fenómenos asociados) Obiols Quinto J., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 5p. 11 ref. (In Spanish)

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Multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCS) and associated phenomena are increasingly frequent at work. Certain authors suggest that they could affect 2 to 10% of the population. This information note summarizes current understanding of idiopathic environmental intolerance (IEI) and MCS. Contents: definitions; most frequent causal agents; systems or organs affected and most frequent symptoms; possible mechanisms (biological or psychogenic); diagnosis consensus criteria. (100214)

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CIS 02-1263 Occupational skin diseases caused by polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins. (French: Dermatoses professionnelles aux résines polyacrylates et polyméthacrylates) Crépy M.N., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.87, p.345-354. Illus. 69 ref. (In French)

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Polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins are used in dental care, inks, paints, coatings, adhesives and plastics. By themselves they have little or no allergic potential; however, they are obtained through the polymerization of monomers (acrylates and methacrylates) which are potent sensitizers. The resins often contain residual quantities of monomers, which may give rise to occupational skin diseases among persons involved in their processing. Contents of this information note on occupational skin diseases caused by polyacrylate and polymethacrylate resins: aetiology; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation. (100307)

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CIS 02-1264 Occupational skin diseases due to cement (calcium aluminosilicates). (French: Dermatoses professionnelles au ciment (alumino-silicates de calcium)) Crépy M.N., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.88, p.419-429. Illus. 60 ref. (In French)

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The construction industry is a sector with a high risk of occupational skin diseases. These are mainly due to exposure to cement, which can give rise to severe burns as well as to allergic contact eczemas. The "Sumer 94" survey (see CIS 95-161) showed that approximately 310,000 workers are exposed to cement in France. The most common allergen contained in cement is chromium VI. In certain countries, decreases in the incidence of skin diseases have been observed among persons exposed to cement following the adoption of legislation limiting the chromium content of cement. Contents of this article on occupational skin diseases due to cement: cement composition; skin toxicity; epidemiology; diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation. (100310)

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CIS 02-1265 First aid: Bruises and wounds. (Spanish: Primeros auxilios: contusiones y heridas) Moliné Marco J.L., Solé Gómez M.D., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note covers first aid to be administered in cases of bruises or wounds of various levels of severity. It describes symptoms, possible complications, actions to be carried out and those that should be avoided. (100318)

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003 Industries and occupations

CIS 02-1266 Updated mortality among diverse operating segments of a petroleum company. Lewis R.J., Schnatter A.R., Katz A.M., Thompson F.S., Murray N., Jorgensen G., Thériault G., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.595-604. 49 ref. (In English)

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A follow-up of an earlier study on 34,560 employees of a Canadian petroleum company. Analyses used standardized mortality ratios to compare cause-specific mortality in the workers with that of the Canadian general population. For the years 1964-94, employees experienced significantly low overall mortality. Acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia was non-significantly increased. The most notable finding was that of increased deaths from mesothelioma among refinery and petrochemical workers, most of them in jobs with presumed exposure to asbestos. Deaths from multiple myeloma and aortic aneurysms among marketing and distribution workers, which were previously increased, remained increased. In conclusion, apart from mesothelioma, no clear work-related increases in mortality were identified. (100175)

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CIS 02-1267 The safety of commercial fishing: Determinants of vessel total losses and injuries. Jin D., Kite-Powell H., Talley W., Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2001, Vol.32, No.2, p.209-228. 26 ref. (In English)

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This study investigates determinants of vessel total losses and number of fatal and non-fatal crew injuries resulting from commercial fishing vessel accidents in the United States. An injury and vessel damage accident model was developed. Total vessel loss and crew injury models were estimated using regression analysis and a data set of commercial fishing vessel accidents. Results indicate that the probability of a total loss is greatest in the case of capsizing. Fires and explosions, together with capsizing accidents, are expected to result in the greatest number of crew fatalities, 3.5 and 3.8 for every 100 such accidents. For every 100 collisions, 2.1 nonfatal crew injuries are expected. The probability of total loss and the expected number of crew fatalities vary inversely with the price of the fish catch. Relevant issues related to fishing vessel safety management and regulation are discussed. (100012)

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CIS 02-1268 Preferred methods to reduce farm-related injury. Mather C., Lower T., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.301-307. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

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To identify preferred farm injury prevention strategies from a producers' viewpoint, a sample of 506 Tasmanian farmers responded to a questionnaire which assessed their preference for broad approaches to reduce farm-related injuries and the provision of safety information. The main approaches suggested were education and common sense. Other options were increased commodity prices and modifications to existing workers compensation arrangements. In ranking potential mechanisms for the dissemination of information related to farm injury prevention, the vast majority of farmers selected fact sheets as their first preference, with field day sessions and seminars or courses as the next options. This study illustrates that farmers have specific preferences for the manner in which safety information is disseminated. (100065)

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CIS 02-1269 Fatal accidents in Swedish farming and forestry, 1988-1997. Thelin A., Safety Science, Aug. 2002, Vol.40, No.6, p.501-517. Illus. 48 ref. (In English)

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This article examines how accident risks in Swedish farming and forestry have changed between 1988 and 1997, and how different factors have affected the risk pattern. The number of fatal accidents occurring at work is decreasing in Sweden and in many other countries. However, this does not apply to Swedish farming and forestry operations. The frequency of fatal accidents is 11.6 per year per 100,000 persons among those with farming as a main occupation, and 13.6 among those with forestry as a main occupation, and the trend appears to be on the increase. Participation in occupational health schemes was lower than expected among the victims. Furthermore, over half of the accidents were due to either the victim or a fellow worker not following generally accepted rules or recommendations. (100066)

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CIS 02-1270 The forest and its ills: From tree to man - XXVIIIth national symposium of agricultural medicine, 22 June 2002, Tours. (French: La forêt et ses maux: de l'arbre à l'homme - XXVIIIe symposium national de médecine agricole, 22 juin 2001, Tours) Le Bâcle C., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.65-74. (In French)

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This article is a summary of the papers presented at an agricultural medicine symposium devoted to forestry, held on 22 June 2001 in Tours, France. Contents: economic and social role of forestry in France; occupational hazards during forestry work and woodworking; forestry workers and vibration hazards; hazards from toxic substances used for the treatment of wood; prevention of diseases caused by arthropods; epidemic haemorrhagic fever; Lyme's disease. (100416)

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CIS 02-1271 Improving the safety culture of the Australian mining industry. Stephan S., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.237-249. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

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Managers, inspectors and employees frequently refer to the state of the safety culture at a particular mine, and a poor accident record is often said to be linked to a poor safety culture. This article attempts to define safety culture and illustrates the importance of considering national, industry and organizational cultural factors when implementing safety management systems. Using the commonly-understood management improvement process of total quality management, the importance of safety management plans and risk assessment processes to improve the safety performance of the mining industry is demonstrated. Significant improvement in industry safety performance can be achieved only through the adoption of socio-technical systems which consider both the engineering and human factors responsible for accidents. (100061)

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CIS 02-1272 Health and safety training in a sample of open-shop construction companies. Goldenhar L.M., Moran S.K., Colligan M., Journal of Safety Research, Summer 2001, Vol.32, No.2, p.237-252. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

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Construction has the third-highest death rate among industrial sectors in the United States. Research has shown that one way to reduce fatalities is through effective worker safety and health training. Little is known about the quality and nature of safety and health training available to open-shop (non-union) construction workers. The objective of this preliminary study was to provide some initial background information on the nature and quality of safety and training in open-shop construction operations in the United States. It was found that while the majority of contractors surveyed did provide safety and health training, most did not quantitatively evaluate their training programmes in terms of reduction in hazardous behaviours or exposures, or increased job satisfaction and productivity. An understanding of the major parameters (such as methods, policies, barriers, company and worker perceptions) influencing non-union construction safety training will help guide future construction safety-related research and intervention strategies on a national basis. (100013)

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CIS 02-1273 Sickness absence and early retirement on health grounds in the construction industry in Ireland. Brenner H., Ahern W., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.615-620. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

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Records of sickness absence among construction workers in Ireland since 1981 were analysed. The mean annual absence rate was 7.8/100 workers. Three quarters of the absences were among younger workers; however, the rate of absence and the mean duration of it increased with age. Injury was the most frequent reason for absence, followed by infectious disease and musculoskeletal disorders. The mean annual rate of early retirement on health grounds was 5.3/1000 workers. The median age at retirement was 58 years. Cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders accounted for nearly one third of the conditions leading to permanent disability. (100177)

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CIS 02-1274 Mortality among unionized construction plasterers and cement masons. Stern F., Lehmann E., Ruder A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.373-388. Illus. 42 ref. (In English)

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Toxic exposures among plasterers include plaster of Paris, silica, fiberglass, talc and 1,1,1-trichloroethane at the present, as well asbestos in the past. Cement masons are exposed to cement dust, silica, asphalt, and various solvents. Proportionate mortality ratios were calculated for 99 causes of death among 12,873 members of the Operative Plasterers' and Cement Masons' International Association who died between 1972 and 1996. Among plasterers, statistically significant elevated mortality was observed for asbestosis, lung cancer and benign neoplasms. Among cement masons, statistically significant elevated mortality was observed for cancer of the stomach, benign neoplasms and poisonings. Most of the statistically significant results occurred among those members who entered the union prior to 1950. However, the risk for lung cancer among plasterers was still high among those entering the union after 1970, as was the risk for stomach cancer among cement masons who entered the union after 1950. Union members currently living should be screened for asbestos-related diseases and educated about the future risks for these diseases. (100367)

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CIS 02-1275 The "Construction Products" European Directive - Transposition and challenges for the prevention of occupational hazards. (French: La directive européenne "Produits de construction" - Transposition et enjeux pour la prévention) Moineau J.P., Voisin J.C., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.180, p.69-88. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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The smooth running of the single European market assumes adequate harmonization of technical rules. However, in the construction sector, the impediments to trade primarily stem from the numerous provisions made by the member states to regulate construction sites. In addition, among the various directives affecting the building and civil engineering sector, Directive 89/106/EEC of the Council of 21 December 1998, termed Construction Products Directive, aims to harmonize these regulations in order to facilitate the free movement of construction products. The aims of this paper are to review this system, which is set to modify well-entrenched habits and which is gradually being introduced into the French legislative system, and to draw attention both to the risks of the period of transition and to the challenges for the prevention of occupational risks. (100385)

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CIS 02-1276 Professional drivers' working time as a factor of flexibility and competitiveness in road haulage. Hamelin P., Newsletter of the European Trade Union Technical Bureau for Health and Safety - Bulletin d'information du Bureau technique syndical européen pour la santé et la sécurité, Feb. 2001, No. 15-16, p.39-47. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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Summary of a report on professional road-transport drivers, analysing working time and conditions, accident risks and occupational illnesses, and taking into account competitive conditions and European legislation on weekly working hours. (100029)

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CIS 02-1277 Safety and hygiene in chicken preparation. (French: Sécurité et hygiène pour la préparation des poulets) Richez J.P., Travail et sécurité, Feb. 2001, No.604, p.34-36. Illus. (In French)

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This article describes the efforts undertaken to reduce mechanical hazards in a chicken plant producing over 200,000 chickens per week. On one hand, to satisfy hygiene requirements, it is necessary to have easy access to all surfaces in contact with chickens so as to be able to clean them with high-pressure water jets. On the other hand, operators should be kept away from moving elements so as to avoid risks of crushing or cuts. After analysing the risks of each job, access to all areas where it was not strictly necessary was restricted with railings, and vertically-lifting gates were installed to control the access to dangerous areas. The article also refers to French regulations, in particular sections R.233-16 and R.233-83 (for the latter see CIS 81-346) of the Labour Code concerning restricting the access to dangerous machinery and the design of machinery used in the food industry for avoiding risks of infection, disease and contagion, respectively. (100291)

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CIS 02-1278 Firefighters' hearing: A comparison with population databases from the International Standards Organization. Kales S.N., Freyman R.L., Hill J.M., Polyhronopoulos G.N., Aldrich J.M., Christiani D.C., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.650-656. 19 ref. (In English)

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This study investigated firefighters' hearing relative to general population. For five groups of male firefighters with increasing mean ages, their hearing thresholds at the 50th and 90th percentiles were compared with normative and age- and sex-matched hearing data from the standardized ISO and United States population databases (databases A and B, respectively). At the 50th percentile, from a mean age of 28 to a mean age of 53 years, relative to databases A and B, the firefighters lost an excess of 19 to 23dB, 20 to 23dB, and 16 to 19dB at 3000, 4000, and 6000Hz, respectively. At the 90th percentile, from a mean age of 28 to a mean age of 53 years, relative to databases A and B, the firefighters lost an excess of 12 to 20dB, 38 to 44dB, 41 to 45dB, and 22 to 28dB at 2000, 3000, 4000, and 6000Hz, respectively. The results are consistent with accelerated hearing loss in excess of age-expected loss among the firefighters, especially at or above the 90th percentile. (100020)

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CIS 02-1279 Ocular discomfort and conjunctival alterations in operating room workers: A single-institution pilot study. Fenga C., Aragona P., Cacciola A., Ferreri F., Spatari G., Stilo A., Spinella R., Germanò D., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Mar. 2001, Vol.74, No.2, p.123-128. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

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A questionnaire study was carried in an Italian hospital among 213 subjects working in operating theatres and 40 other hospital workers, aimed at investigating the prevalence of ocular discomfort symptoms. A randomized comparative study of the ocular surface and conjunctival cytology was also carried out, comparing two groups of age- and sex-matched subjects among operating-theatre workers reporting ocular discomfort symptoms and randomly-enrolled subjects among other hospital staff. Ophthalmological examination of the ocular surface was performed on each subject. A high prevalence (72.3%) of ocular discomfort symptoms was reported by operating- theatre workers, while in other personnel the prevalence was 55%. The ocular tests showed that the conjunctival features and break-up time were statistically significantly altered in operating-theatre workers reporting ocular discomfort symptoms. Also, the conjunctival impression cytology study showed statistically significant alterations of all the investigated parameters. This seems to indicate that the operating-theatre environment could play a role in the onset of eye disturbances. (100030)

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CIS 02-1280 Occupational risks of modern dentistry: A review. Leggat P., Kedjarune U., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.279-286. 48 ref. (In English)

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Occupational health risks in modern dentistry include exposure to infectious diseases (such as hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)), musculoskeletal and other injuries, contact dermatitis, radiation, noise, mercury, dental materials and stress. Percutaneous injuries are of particular concern to those dentists who may be exposed to serious infectious agents (such as HIV, HBV and HCV), and education on how to avoid such injuries would be beneficial. Dentists should receive HBV immunization and use personal protective measures and appropriate sterilization or high-level disinfection techniques. Dentists should be kept up to date with current OHS practices (particularly in areas such as exposure to mercury, radiation and some of the newer dental materials) through continuing education programmes. (100063)

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CIS 02-1281 Job study of local authority employees specialized in nursery schools (ATSEM). (French: Etude du poste d'agent territorial spécialisé des écoles maternelles (ATSEM)) Lacombe A.M., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.4, p.455-461. 9 ref. (In French)

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The role of local authority employees specialized in nursery schools is to assist teachers, provide care to the children (particularly during dressing, washing, serving snacks and rest periods) and carry out housework tasks within the school premises. This article presents the findings of a study on the working conditions of these employees aimed at understanding the reasons behind their high rates of absenteeism. The study involved timed observations, heart rhythm measurements, podometry and noise dosimetry. Results enabled the definition of the job profile. The study showed that one third of the absenteeism was related to infectious diseases favoured by contact with children, one third was linked to physical and psychological working conditions and one third was due to various causes. Several leads were identified for improving the least satisfactory aspects of this occupation. (100302)

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CIS 02-1282 Occupations involved with young children. (French: Les métiers de la petite enfance) David M.O., Delhostal J., Gotlib F., Jardinier P., Soubeyrand D., Roux F., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.4, p.463-470. Illus. 11 ref. (In French)

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Occupations involved with young children employ a large number of persons in a wide variety of jobs including pediatric nurses, assistant pediatric nurses, educators, psychologists and kindergarten assistants. The care of babies and very young children, traditionally a women's occupation, has constantly evolved over the years, particularly since 1945. New institutional structures came into place, including community day nurseries, family day nurseries, mini-nurseries, after-school child-minding facilities and parental nurseries. This article presents the findings of a survey conducted by occupational physicians aimed at identifying the various job profiles and difficulties of these occupations. (100303)

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CIS 02-1283 Waste treatment - A changing industry. (French: Traitement des déchets - Une industrie en mutation) Brasseur G., Travail et sécurité, Apr. 2002, No.617, p.16-27. Illus. 1 ref. (In French)

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According to the provisions of French regulations concerning waste recycling, only inert waste will be accepted in landfills from July 2002 onwards. This will have significant effects on the waste management industry, since it will require the development of whole new recycling and energy recovery processes. Contents of this special feature on the waste management industry: regulatory aspects; figures concerning the volumes of waste generated in France; definition of waste; safety and health in the waste management industry; design of new waste processing plants; description of a new hospital waste treatment unit. (100391)

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CIS 02-1284 State of health of workers of large retail chains: Epigrandis, a descriptive study in the Department of Rhône. (French: Etat de santé des salariés de la grande distribution: Epigrandis, une étude descriptive dans le département du Rhône) Dousson C., Ferrand C., Grossetête A., Biermé J., Amar M., Balland E., Barbin M.C., Lambert R., Guth B., Royer X., Hours M., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.29-49. Illus. 24 ref. (In French)

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There are only a few detailed epidemiological studies of jobs in the retail sector apart from that of cashiers, who represent one third of all those employed in the sector. The objectives of the study presented in this article were to highlight the state of health of all categories of employees by type of retail outlet and sex, to describe the conditions of work and their possible effects on health, to identify possible differences between small and large supermarkets, and to better understand and correct conditions of work which appear to be the source of occupational diseases. This cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out on 860 randomly-selected workers in the retail sector in the French Department of Rhône, representing 10% of the sector's workforce. Data were compiled by company physicians during medical examinations over a one-year period, based on responses to questionnaires, interviews and clinical examinations. The study highlighted signs of psychosomatic illness, but further research would be required to identify the specific causal factors. (100414)

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CIS 02-1285 Effective support for participatory work improvement programmes in small and medium enterprises. Torres C.I., Conferido R.D., Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 2000, Vol.76, No.3, p.32-40. 5 ref. (In English)

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Compared with productivity or profitability, concerns over occupational safety and health often receive relatively low priority among Philippine small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), although some of the SMEs now recognize that by improving working conditions can also be profitable. To help small- and medium-sized enterprises in this regard, the Philippine Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) has adopted the Work Improvement in Small Enterprises (WISE) approach. The WISE approach developed by the International Labour Organization (see CIS 93-1851) aims primarily to improve working conditions in small and medium-sized enterprises, but also has the consequence of increasing their productivity. This article discusses the implementation of the WISE programme in SMEs in the Philippines, and concludes that despite some successes, continued and sustained support by the Philippine government is required. (100022)

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CIS 02-1286 Injuries among youth on farms in the United States 1998. Myers J.R., Hendricks K.J., Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, June 2001. x, 179p. 8 ref. (In English)

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More than two million young persons less than 20 years of age are potentially exposed to injuries in the agricultural sector each year in the United States. They include farm residents, farm family workers, hired workers, children of migrant or seasonal workers and farm visitors. They are exposed to a wide range of hazards, including farm machinery and vehicles, falls and animals. This document presents national and regional data for nonfatal youth injuries in farms in 1998 drawn from a special survey of farm operators. 33,000 youth were injured on farms in 1998. Major causes of injury were falls, animals and all-terrain vehicles. (100243)

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CIS 02-1287 Injuries among farm workers the United States 1995. Myers J.R., Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, May 2001. viii, 338p. 6 ref. (In English)

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This report presents statistical data from the 1995 US national Traumatic Injury Surveillance of Farmers Project. Data include injury estimates by type of farm, status of worker, sex, age group, race and source of injury at the national and regional level, along with injury estimates for each State. An estimated total of 195,825 lost-time work injuries occurred (incidence rate 6.8 injuries/100 full-time workers). The highest injury rates were associated with specialty livestock operations followed by cash grain operations, nursery operations and field crop operations. The leading causes of injuries were machinery (excluding tractors), followed by livestock, working surfaces and tractors. (100244)

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CIS 02-1288 Possibilities for the prevention of falls from heights and of electrical accidents during light and rapidly-executed construction work. (German: Möglichkeiten der Verhinderung von Absturz- und Elektrounfällen bei Bau- und Montagearbeiten geringen Umfanges und kurzer Dauer) Lang K.H., Jahr M., Vorath B.J., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 214p. Illus. 44 ref. Price: EUR 18.00., ISBN 3-89701-699-0 (In German)

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During light and rapidly-executed construction work there is a risk that safety precautions may not be deemed necessary or worthwhile. Based on inspections of construction sites and on discussions with safety experts, this report describes various hazardous situations with respect to falls from heights or electrocution. Safety measures are proposed for each of these situations. An approach is proposed for the implementation of appropriate safety measures when planning light and rapidly-executed construction work. Detailed summary in English and French. (100105)

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CIS 02-1289 The construction industry in the twenty-first century: Its image, employment prospects and skill requirements. (French: L'industrie de la construction au XXIe siècle: image de marque, perspectives d'emploi et qualifications professionnelles; Spanish: La industria de la construcción en el siglo XXI: su imagen, perspectivas de empleo y necesidades en materia de calificaciones) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 68p. Illus. 96 ref. Price: CHF 15.00., ISBN 92-2-112622-6 (En), ISBN 92-2-212622-X (fr), ISBN 92-2-312622-3 (es) (In English, French, Spanish)

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The theme of this report is the changing employment relationships and industrial structures in the construction industry and the impact of these changes on the quality of employment in the industry. Contents: global construction output and employment statistics; recent changes in employment relationships and industrial structure; implications of changes in the employment relationship; future developments; points for further discussion, including how to encourage dialogue between social partners, collaboration between governments and employers' and workers' organizations in providing training to meet future skill requirements, promoting safe work practices and priority areas for ILO action. (100250)

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CIS 02-1290 Investigations on industrial safety and health protection using devices working with jets of liquids on building sites in the construction industry. (German: Untersuchungen zur Arbeitssicherheit und zum Gesundheitsschutz beim Einsatz von Flüssigkeitsstrahlern auf Baustellen im Bauhaupt- und Baunebengewerbe) Petzschmann E., Jung D., Watermann D., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 417p. Illus. 89 ref. Price: EUR 32.50., ISBN 3-89701-670-2 (In German)

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High-pressure water-jet equipment is increasingly used in many sectors of the building industry. In this study, the different hazards due to these devices are analysed with the objective of identifying appropriate prevention measures. The main hazards identified include the high noise level, bruises and injuries due to the jet, the wrenching of the hose and fittings, risks of trips and falls, high recoil forces and vibrations, in particular from the hand-held parts and due to poor work postures. Preventive measures for reducing these hazards are proposed. (100342)

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CIS 02-1291 Railway safety - HM Chief Inspector of Railways' Annual Report on the safety record of the railways in Great Britain during 2000/01. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. xvi, 156p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 16.95., ISBN 0-7176-2126-X (In English)

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This report provides statistics and comments on accidents and dangerous occurrences in railway operations in Great Britain during 2000/2001. Two chapters are specifically devoted to the safety and health of railway employees. Contents: statistics and case reports of fatalities, major injuries, assaults on staff by members of the public, reports of occupational diseases, inspection and accident investigation activities and activities of occupational health working group. (100359)

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CIS 02-1292 Homeworkers - Towards improving their working conditions in the textile, clothing and footwear industries. Barme C., ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2000. ix, 312p., ISBN 92-2-112246-8 (In English)

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Home work is growing in importance in the textile, clothing and footwear (TCF) industries. A first part of this report gives a broad outline of the conditions of work among home workers in these industries, highlighting their problems. Contents: globalization of home work; definition of home work in the TCF industries; regional trends in industrialized counties; role of home work in subcontracting schemes; recent trends in OECD countries, in Latin America and in Asia; statistical data; competitive advantages of home work; socio-economic profile of home workers; advantages of home work for the worker; remuneration; hours of work and insecurity of employment. A second part of the report reviews national and multilateral efforts aimed at promoting equality of treatment and improving working conditions of home workers. (100117)

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CIS 02-1293 The social situation of musical performers in Africa, Asia and Latin America. (French: La situation sociale des artistes-interprètes de la musique en Asie, en Afrique et en Amérique latine) Vincent J., ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. viii, 110p. 17 ref., ISBN 92-2-112600-5 (En), ISBN 92-2-212600-9 (fr) (In English, French)

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The ILO commissioned this study as part of the background work for a symposium on the impact of information technologies on employment, working conditions and labour-management relations in the media and entertainment industries. It reviews international legal standards concerning labour law and intellectual property law, as well as the general legal framework at the national level for musical performers. Data were based on responses to detailed questionnaires sent to union organizations, associations for the defence of musicians and government bodies in 54 countries. Topics addressed included hours of work, protection of health, inspection of working conditions and professional training. It is recommended that the ILO take a number of initiatives to promote training in information technology, protection of intellectual property rights and social security coverage for musical performers. Appendix 1 (detailed presentation of the situation of musical performers) and Appendix 9 (state of ratification of ILO Conventions applicable to musical performers) are available in the French version only. (100118)

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CIS 02-1294 Evaluation of the working conditions of supermarket cashiers. (Portuguese: Avaliação das condições de trabalho em postos de caixa de supermercados) Cabeças J.M., Graça L., Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, July 2001. 176p. Illus. 20 ref., ISBN 972-8321-40-6 (In Portuguese)

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This study of the working conditions of supermarket cashiers involved 235 cashiers and 65 supervisors or supporting staff. Several methodologies were adopted for evaluating the ergonomics of the work stations, perceptions of ill health and musculoskeletal symptoms (backaches, muscular pain in arms and legs), signs of discomfort and workload. The following problems were highlighted: poor work postures due to the absence of lumbar support in the seats used; lifting of heavy loads; insufficient lighting; noise; rise of the pulse rate. Recommendations are made with respect to the layout of the work stations. Detailed summaries in Portuguese, English and French. (100446)

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CIS 02-1295 Safety and health protection in the small agriculture and forest enterprises - Problems and solutions. (French: Problèmes et ébauches de solutions - Sécurité et santé au travail dans les petites exploitations agricoles et forestières; German: Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz in land- und forstwirtschaftlichen Kleinbetrieben - Probleme und Lösungsansätze) International Social Security Association, IVSS-Sektion Landwirtschaft beim Bundesverband der landwirtschaftlichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Weissensteinstrasse 72, 34131 Kassel, Germany, [c2000]. 36p. Illus., ISBN 92-843-1144-6 (En), ISBN 92-843-2144-1 (fr), ISBN 92-843-7144-9 (de) (In English, French, German)

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Contents of this booklet on occupational safety and health in the small farming and forestry sectors: prevention for children; education and training; women farmers; older workers; seasonal workers; agricultural buildings; machinery; forestry work; cooperation with professional associations; work- related health risks; personal protective equipment; legislation; role of the agricultural section of ISSA; contact addresses in Europe. (100249)

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CIS 02-1296 Health care and first aid on offshore installations and pipeline works - Approved Code of Practice and guidance. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2000. vi, 30p. 20 ref. Price: GBP 6.00., ISBN 0-7176-1851-X (In English)

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The Offshore Installations and Pipeline Works (First-Aid) Regulations 1989 require employers to ensure adequate first-aid and basic health-care provision for all their personnel. This guidance document takes into account the amendments to the regulations in 1993, 1995 and 1999, and includes a revised Code of Practice. It replaces the guidance of 1990 (see CIS 91-12). Contents: comments on the regulations and Code of Practice with emphasis on the responsibilities of the person in control, followed by guidance on the following topics: assessment of first aid and basic health care needs; roles and responsibilities of offshore medical practitioners; roles and responsibilities of offshore first-aid personnel; training objectives for offshore medical practitioners; competencies for offshore first-aid personnel; criteria for the approval of training providers. (100113)

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CIS 02-1297 Construction health and safety checklist. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2001. 4p. 1 ref. (In English)

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This data sheet lists the main points to consider when checking health and safety on a construction site. Topics covered: safe places of work; scaffolds; powered access equipment; ladders; roof work; excavations; manual handling; cranes and lifting appliances; plant and machinery; traffic and vehicles; fire and emergencies; hazardous substances; noise; welfare facilities; protective clothing; electricity; protecting the public. Replaces CIS 94-1620. (100132)

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CIS 02-1298 Safety during emptying and cleaning of fryers. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2001. 2p. 4 ref. (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/cais17.pdf

Accidents during the emptying and cleaning of fryers are a major cause of burns suffered by employees in the restaurant industry. This information sheet provides guidance on how to empty and clean fryers safely. Contents include: list of main hazards; when to empty and clean; proper sequence for oil draining; cleaning procedures; training of employees. This information sheet replaces the one already analysed under CIS 00-1375. The main difference lies in the recommended time for heating cold oil to enable draining. It is now one minute as opposed to "several minutes" in the earlier version. (100131)

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CIS 02-1299 Reporting accidents in the catering industry. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2001. 4p. 3 ref. (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/cais18.pdf

The purpose of this information sheet is to explain the main requirements of the British Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985 (RIDDOR) (see CIS 88-1753) as they apply to the catering industry. It provides several examples of reportable and non-reportable incidents. Contents include: what needs to be reported, and who is responsible for making the report; reportable accidents to members of the public; reportable violence to staff; reportable accidents to contractors; definitions of "major injuries" and "over-three-day injuries" under the regulations; other categories of incidents that need to be reported; when and how to report; whom to report to; records that need to be kept. (100133)

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CIS 02-1300 Health and safety for waiting staff. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2001. 4p. 4 ref. (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/cais20.pdf

This information sheet is aimed at employers in the catering industry and contains practical advice on how to reduce safety and health risks associated with waiting work. Contents include: employer's responsibilities; applicability of the guidance to temporary staff; special considerations relating to one-time venues or events; comprehensive check-list for briefing staff and for use as a reminder of good practice. (100134)

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CIS 02-1301 Health and safety of children and young people in catering. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2001. 4p. 6 ref. (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/cais21.pdf

This information sheet is aimed at employers in the catering industry and outlines safety and health law specifically covering workers not having reached the age of adulthood. There are many young workers in the catering industry, often on a casual or temporary basis, or on work experience schemes, and they are at a greater risk of injury. Contents include: legal responsibilities of employers; risk assessment and control measures; employment of young workers; information that needs given to parents or guardians; supervision and working times. (100135)

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CIS 02-1302 Community day nursery personnel: After-school child minding facilities - Kindergartens - Mini-nurseries. (French: Personnel de crèche collective: halte garderie - jardin maternel - mini-crèche) David M.O., Delhostal J., Gotlib F., Jardinier P., Soubeyrand D., Roux F., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.4, insert 2p. (In French)

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Contents of this occupational information sheet on the personnel of community day nurseries: definitions; characteristics of the occupation; description of activities (work locations, materials and equipment, products used, body movements and postures, personal equipment); risks and stresses of the job (connected with materials, products used, noise, working hours and physical and mental workload); occupational diseases and accidents (biological hazards, osteo-articular diseases, neuropsychic disorders, skin diseases, accidents); prevention; regulations applicable in France. (100304)

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CIS 02-1303 Hazard prevention in laboratories: The importance of design. (Spanish: Prevención de riesgos en el laboratorio: la importancia del diseño) Gadea Carrera E., Guardino Solá X., Rossel M.G., Silva Alonso J.V., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 7 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note covers the various elements to be considered when designing laboratory facilities in order to ensure optimal levels of protection as a function of their planned use. Contents: characteristics of external walls and interior partitions to ensure fire protection; characteristics of ceilings and double ceilings; characteristics of floors (resistance to chemicals, risks of falls of persons, cleaning and decontamination, electrical conductivity, etc.); design and layout of a workbench for men or women; risks from glazing; characteristics of doors and windows; trim materials and classification of materials as a function of their fire performance; selection of colours for walls, floors and ceilings; lighting and lighting intensity as a function of the planned use. (100311)

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CIS 02-1304 Developing and maintaining staff competence. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 72p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: GBP 12.95., ISBN 0-7176-1732-7 (In English)

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This guidance is primarily aimed at persons responsible for managing and assuring the competence of individuals and teams in the railway transportation sector, whose work may have an impact on operational safety and on occupational safety and health. Companies in the railway transportation sector who are concerned by this guidance include infrastructure controllers, train operating companies and maintenance companies, as well as their contractors and subcontractors. Contents: general principles; legislative background; outline of the guidance and its application; establishing the requirements for the competence management system (CMS); design, implementation, maintenance and auditing of the CMS. (100076)

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CIS 02-1305 Global best practices in contractor safety. The Institution of Occupational Safety and Health, The Grange, Highfield Drive, Wigston, Leicester LE18 1NN, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 26p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.iosh.co.uk/files/technical/ACFAED2.pdf

Aimed at all persons who seek to ensure occupational safety and health in contracting organizations worldwide, these guidelines were developed during a working seminar held in London in October 2000. They summarize current good practices in occupational safety and health management of relevance to contractors and their clients, and are applicable to all contract situations, to project-related and ongoing work, in to both developed and developing countries. Contents: definition of "good practice" applied to contractor safety and health; implementing good practice in developed and developing countries; implementing good practice in international contracts. An appendix includes papers presented at the October 2000 seminar in London. (100077)

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CIS 02-1306 Electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing sector - Prevention manual. (Portuguese: Sector do material eléctrico e electrónico - Manual de prevenção) Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecçaão das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, 1999. CD-ROM for Windows 95/98/NT (requirements: PC Pentium 400Mhz, 32 MB RAM, CD-ROM unit min. 32x, graphic card 800x600). (In Portuguese)

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CD-ROM version of the manual analysed under CIS 01-1007. Contents: organization of occupational safety and health services; occupational safety in the electrical and electronic manufacturing sectors; occupational hygiene (noise and vibration, ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, dangerous substances, thermal environment, ventilation, lighting, order and cleanliness); ergonomic issues; personal protective equipment; safety signs; emergency plans; offices, storage areas and staff rooms; safety and health on construction sites; health surveillance; accident investigation and analysis; training and information of workers; glossary; labelling of dangerous substances; example of emergency plan; relevant legislation and standards in Portugal. (100443)

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[ Top of page ]

004 New technologies

CIS 02-1307 What has become of employees in our start-up enterprises?. (French: Que sont nos start-uppers devenus?) Gozlan-Savaro M., Hays G., Mzabi M., Cohen P., Alcouffe J., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.4, p.449-454. 9 ref. (In French)

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Occupational physicians in Paris had the opportunity to follow a new type of enterprise, the start-up. Their attention was drawn by the contrast between the personal effort of the employees and the material and working-hour conditions which they judged to be particularly constraining. They expressed the interest to study this special population over a longer period. While it was possible to establish the baseline conditions at the start of the study, the rapid rate of disappearance of start-up enterprises did not permit a longitudinal follow-up of the cohort of entrepreneurs. This article describes start-up enterprises, proposes the psychological profile of entrepreneurs and presents the trends in the working conditions of the few employees who remained within the field of observation. (100301)

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CIS 02-1308 Design, construction and testing of a control loop for an electro-mechanical hand-arm model. (German: Auslegung, Aufbau und Erprobung eines Regelkreises für ein elektromechanisches Hand-Arm-Modell) Badelt W., John C., v. Löwis J., Seidel E., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 66p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: EUR 10.00., ISBN 3-89701-390-8 (In German)

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A mechanical model of a hand-arm system can be used for testing hand tools or for the optimization of the transmission properties of anti-vibration elements of these tools, in order to avoid exposing the persons testing the products to vibrations and to avoid subjective assessments. A hand-arm model was developed and tested. However, it will require further work on the control systems before it can be applied to all types of vibrating tools across the entire frequency spectrum. (100345)

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CIS 02-1309 Software usability - ErgoNorm: Conformity and non-conformity of software with usability standards (EN ISO 9241 Parts 10 and 11). (German: Gebrauchstauglichkeit von Software - ErgoNorm: Ein Verfahren zur Konformitätsprüfung von Software auf der Grundlage von DIN EN ISO 9241 Teile 10 und 11) Dzida W., Hofmann B., Freitag R., Redtenbacher W., Baggen R., Geis T., Beimel J., Zurheiden C., Hampe-Neteler W., Hartwig R., Peters H., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 241p. Illus. 66 ref. Price: EUR 19.50., ISBN 3-89701-678-8 (In German)

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This report describes ErgoNorm, a two-part method for evaluating the usability of software applications based on the ISO 9241 standard (parts 10 and 11, for the latter see CIS 98-1534). The first part of the method applies to users; it consists of a subjective evaluation of the effectiveness and efficiency of the software application, highlighting difficulties of use and possible deviations from the standard. The second part of the method is aimed at ergonomics experts who focus on compliance with the standard. By using the method, it is possible to highlight the ergonomic deficiencies of the software application and their consequences, thereby actively contributing to improving their quality. (100341)

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CIS 02-1310 VDT workplaces on the test table of European Directives: Concepts, strategies and practical experiences. (German: Bildschirmarbeit auf dem Prüfstand der EU-Richtlinien - Konzepte, Strategien und betriebliche Erfahrungen) Wieland R., Koller F., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 277p. Illus. 190 ref. Price: EUR 22.50., ISBN 3-89701-394-0 (In German)

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This report describes SANUS, an approach for evaluating and organizing the layout of VDT workstations that take all current safety and health standards into account. The ergonomic aspects of computer hardware and software are discussed, together with the design of VDT workstation layouts that protect users' health while enhancing their productivity. Practical experiences in implementing SANUS in both small and large enterprises are presented. Results of these observations confirm the effectiveness of the SANUS approach. (100344)

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[ Top of page ]

005 Chemical safety

CIS 02-1311 Asbestos and man-made vitreous fibers as risk factors for diffuse malignant mesothelioma: Results from a German hospital-based case-control study. Rödelsperger K., Jöckel K.H., Pohlabeln H., Römer W., Woitowitz H.J., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.262-275. 59 ref. (In English)

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Occupational factors in the development of diffuse malignant mesothelioma were examined in relationship to exposures to asbestos and man-made vitreous fibres (MMVFs). 125 male subjects diagnosed by pathologists were interviewed concerning their occupational and smoking history. Odds ratios were calculated for an expert-based exposure index. The study confirms that asbestos is a relevant confounder for MMVF, while a relationship between exposure to MMVFs and mesothelioma could neither be detected nor excluded. (100143)

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CIS 02-1312 Differential pressure response of 25-mm-diameter glass fiber filters challenged with coal and limestone dust mixtures. Dobroski H., Tuchman D.P., Vinson R.P., Timko R.J., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.96-103. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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The correlation between the mass of respirable coal and limestone dusts collected on glass fibre filters and the increase in differential pressure across the filters were studied. Test aerosols were generated inside a laboratory dust chamber using various coal and limestone dusts. The relationship between differential pressure increase and dust mass is linear. This relationship may thus provide a pointer at a reasonable method for measuring respirable dust concentrations. (100186)

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CIS 02-1313 Occupational exposure to cotton dust in cottonseed oil mills. Tabak S., Broday D.M., Tabak I., Manor G., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.121-130. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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Non-uniform airborne dust concentration was found at breathing height in the hulling-separation department of a cottonseed oil mill in Uzbekistan. The data obtained from the different air sampling procedures suggest that most of the dust consisted of particles with diameters >15µm. The high total mass readings show that workers were exposed to very high levels of nonthoracic airborne dust, which upon inhalation tends to deposit in the extrathoracic airways. Regression analysis between measured dust concentrations (by stationary vertical elutriators and personal samplers) can be used for estimating the potential occupational exposure of workers to cotton dust. (100189)

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CIS 02-1314 Malfunctioning of dust control units in the woodworking industry - Study of detection devices based on two different principles. (French: Dysfonctionnement des dépoussiéreurs de l'industrie du bois - Etude de deux principes d'appareils de détection) Muller J.P., Bémer D., Dessagne J.M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.180, p.21-34. Illus. 12 ref. (In French)

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Re-circulation of purified air in woodworking workshops requires efficient and continuous monitoring. Systems for the detection of dust control unit malfunctions must be installed to prevent the accidental reintroduction of dust. The aim of this test bench study was to investigate two measurement principles specifically adapted to this type of monitoring. The method developed for the tests allowed simulation of two types of incidents and verification of the influence of certain parameters on the response of the detection devices. The study showed that all the tribo-electric effect devices tested are capable, with varying degrees of sensitivity, of detecting both types of incidents simulated on the test bench. As regards the photometers, orthogonal diffusion devices, which are very sensitive to variations in aerosol particle site, are unsuitable for this type of application. However, results obtained for photometers operating with low front diffusion angles, often with computerized corrections, indicate that they could be used to detect malfunctions. (100382)

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CIS 02-1315 Associations of tibia lead, DMSA-chelatable lead, and blood lead with measures of peripheral nervous system function in former organolead manufacturing workers. Tassler P.L., Schwartz B.S., Coresh J., Stewart W.F., Todd A.C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.254-261. 35 ref. (In English)

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This study of former organolead manufacturing workers (with an average of 16 years since their last occupational lead exposure) found no strong association between biomarkers (blood lead, DMSA-chelatable lead, current tibia lead and back-extrapolated "peak" tibia lead) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) sensory or motor function indicators. PNS may be less affected than some other body systems by the chronic toxic effects of lead in adults, possibly because it has a greater capacity for repair than does the central nervous system (CNS). (100142)

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CIS 02-1316 Urinary concentrations of trichloroacetic acid in Danish workers exposed to trichloroethylene, 1947-1985. Raaschou-Nielsen O., Hansen J., Christensen J.M., Blot W.J., McLaughlin J.K., Olsen J.H., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.320-327. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

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The National Labour Inspection Service in Denmark has relied since 1947 on urinary measurements of trichloroacetic acid (TCA) for the monitoring of occupational exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE). A study of these analyses showed a four-fold decrease in TCA concentrations from 1947 to 1985. The highest concentrations were found in the chemical, metal and dry cleaning industries; TCA levels were higher among men in the latter two groups of industries and among younger workers. Subjects not working with TCE themselves, but in an area in which TCE was used, also showed urinary TCA levels indicative of exposure. (100149)

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CIS 02-1317 A review and meta-analysis of formaldehyde exposure and pancreatic cancer. Collins J.J., Esmen N.A., Hall T.A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.336-345. Illus. 70 ref. (In English)

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A meta-analysis of the literature concerning 14 epidemiological studies of workers exposed to formaldehyde has revealed a small increase of pancreatic cancer risk in embalmers, pathologists and anatomists. There may, however, be a diagnostic bias or occupational exposures other than formaldehyde in the mentioned professions. No increased risk was found among industrial workers, even in those with higher formaldehyde exposures than in the medical professions mentioned above. (100151)

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CIS 02-1318 Total plasma protein adducts of allergenic hexahydrophthalic and methylhexahydrophthalic anhydrides as biomarkers of long-term exposure. Rosqvist S., Johannesson G., Lindh C.H., Jönsson B.A.G., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.133-139. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

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Urine samples from occupationally exposed workers in the capacitor manufacturing industry were analysed for hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) and methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) metabolite levels. In blood samples from the same persons total plasma protein adduct (TPPA) levels of these two low-molecular-weight allergens were determined. Levels of TPPA correlated well with metabolite levels in urine. TPPA levels of HHPA and MHHPA appear to be suitable biomarkers of long- term exposure to anhydrides. (100156)

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CIS 02-1319 Phosgene exposure: Mechanisms of injury and treatment strategies. Borak J., Diller W.F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.110-119. Illus. 82 ref. (In English)

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The study summarizes recent findings on the mechanisms of phosgene-induced pulmonary oedema and provides an approach to the treatment of phosgene exposure victims. (100164)

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CIS 02-1320 Neurological effects in workers exposed to manganese. Deschamps F.J., Guillaumot M., Raux S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.127-132. 26 ref. (In English)

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To examine the effects on the nervous system in enamel production workers with low blood levels (approx. 200µg/m3) of and long exposure to manganese (Mn), 138 workers and 137 controls received questionnaires on symptoms, a battery of psychological tests and blood concentrations assays of the metal. Airborne Mn concentrations were determined by personal and stationary sampling. The mean duration of exposure was 19.87 years. The workers did not have significantly higher concentrations of Mn in blood than the controls and showed no significant disturbance of neurological performance. (100166)

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CIS 02-1321 Cancer incidence among Danish workers exposed to trichloroethylene. Hansen J., Raaschou-Nielsen O., Christensen J.M., Johansen I., McLaughlin J.K., Lipworth L., Blot W.J., Olsen J.H., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.133-139. 41 ref. (In English)

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An evaluation of cancer occurrence among 803 Danish workers exposed to trichloroethylene (TCE), using individual records of air and urinary measurements of exposure. No clear dose-response relationship appeared for any type of cancer. (100167)

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CIS 02-1322 Investigation of an acute chemical incident: Exposure to fluorinated hydrocarbons. Lyons R.A., Wright D., Fielder H.M.P., McCabe M., Gunneberg A., Nash P., Routledge P., Rees H., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.577-581. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

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Symptoms experienced by 254 people present at an accident in a sewer in the United Kingdom (including 2 fatalities) suggested a chemical hazard. The prevalence of symptoms and concentrations of creatine phosphokinase in the serum of 83 patients were recorded. Among all workers, symptoms (shortness of breath and sore throat) were not significantly associated with concentrations of creatine phosphokinase as biomarker of fluorinated hydrocarbons intoxication. Freon 11 was detected in two blood samples. In a nearby chemical company there had been a Freon 11 spill months earlier. (100172)

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CIS 02-1323 Impairment of colour vision in workers exposed to organic solvents. Semple S., Dick F., Osborne A., Cherrie J.W., Soutar A., Seaton A., Haites N., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.582-587. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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Since exposure to mixed solvents is associated with impairment of colour vision, a study was conducted on 68 male dockyard workers and 42 controls. Indices of exposure to solvents were calculated for all subjects. Colour vision was tested and, in order to assess the possibility of genetic effects, genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1 and T1 and N-acetyltransferase 2 polymorphisms were determined. Increasing annual exposure to solvents was associated with reduced colour vision, but no significant association was found between such acquired impairment and genetic polymorphisms. (100173)

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CIS 02-1324 Vibration perception thresholds in workers with long term exposure to lead. Chuang H.Y., Schwartz J., Tsai S.Y., Lee M.L.T., Wang J.D., Hu H., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.588-594. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

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Workers in a lead battery factory in Taiwan (China) were required to have a blood lead measurement during each of the 5 years preceding this study. All were invited to take the vibration perception threshold (VPT) test. The variables of exposure to lead were all significantly correlated with the VPT of the feet, but not of the hands. The conclusion is that measurement of VPT is a relatively effective tool for detecting lead neuropathy and that lead might cause sensory neuropathy with an effect threshold corresponding to a 5 year mean blood lead concentration of 31µg/dL. (100174)

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CIS 02-1325 Study of two cohorts of workers exposed to methyl methacrylate in acrylic sheet production. Tomenson J.A., Bonner S.M., Edwards J.C., Pemberton M.A., Cummings T.F., Paddle G.M., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.810-817. 16 ref. (In English)

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A study among workers at two British plants to investigate patterns of mortality (in particular, mortality from colon and rectal cancer) after exposure to methyl methacrylate (MMA). The mean duration of exposure was 7.6 years at a mean exposure of 13.2ppm, although exposures in some work groups were as high as 100ppm. The study provided no clear evidence that employment at the factories or exposure to MMA had adversely affected the mortality of workers. (100180)

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CIS 02-1326 Isocyanate exposure and occupational asthma: A case-referent study. Meredith S.K., Bugler J., Clark R.L., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.830-836. 25 ref. (In English)

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Case study of 34 workers from two British manufacturing companies. In one plant occupational asthma was mainly attributed to tolylene diisocyanate exposure, while in the other one to 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate. No difference in peak exposures between cases and referents was found in either plant. However, time weighted average (TWA) exposures at the time of onset of asthma were higher for cases. The findings were that asthma can occur at low concentrations of isocyanates, but even then the higher the exposure, the greater the risk. Smoking and atopy seemed to increase the odds of this occupational asthma due to isocyanates. (100182)

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CIS 02-1327 Two cases of paraoccupational asthma due to toluene diisocyanate (TDI). De Zotti R., Muran A., Zambon F., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.837-839. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

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A report of two cases of paraoccupational asthma caused by tolylene diisocyanate (TDI). The first patient was a metal worker with previous occasional work in an adjacent polyurethane factory. A specific inhalation (SIC) test, performed with TDI, confirmed the diagnosis of TDI asthma. The second case was a woman working part time in the offices of a factory for varnishing wooden chairs. TDI was present in the products used. The inhalation test confirmed the diagnosis of TDI asthma, despite the fact that the patient's current job did not present risk of exposure to the substance. These two cases suggest the need for more studies evaluating the health risk for the general population living near polyurethane factories or other firms that use TDI. (100183)

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CIS 02-1328 An evaluation of retrofit engineering control interventions to reduce perchloroethylene exposures in commercial dry-cleaning shops. Earnest G.S., Ewers L.M., Ruder A.M., Petersen M.R., Kovein R.J., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.104-111. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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Evaluation of technical developments to reduce workers' exposures to tetrachloroethylene in existing dry-cleaning machines. In one shop a refrigerated condenser was installed on a machine to reduce the air temperature, improve vapour recovery and lower exposures. In a second shop, a carbon adsorber was retrofitted on a machine to adsorb residual tetrachloroethylene. Peak operator exposures during loading and unloading were reduced by 60% in the first shop and 92% in the second. (100187)

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CIS 02-1329 Effects of retrofit emission controls and work practices on perchloroethylene exposures in small dry-cleaning shops. Ewers L.M., Ruder A.M., Petersen M.R., Earnest G.S., Goldenhar L.M., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.112-120. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

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An evaluation of technological development for reducing workers' tetrachloroethylene exposures in dry-cleaning shops. The interventions were either the addition of a refrigerated condenser or a closed-loop carbon adsorber. The effectiveness was judged using three types of measurements: (1) full-shift, personal breathing zone, air monitoring, (2) next-morning, end-exhaled worker breath concentrations of tetrachloroethylene and (3) differences in the end-exhaled breath concentrations before and after opening the dry-cleaning machine door. (100188)

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CIS 02-1330 JETOC Information Sheet - 1998:2. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center, JETOC Information Sheet, Apr.-June 1998, No.33, p.1-52. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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Contents of this issue: I. Laws, regulations and related matters in Japan: 4433 new chemical substances notified; new regulations in the United States, the EU and Australia; II: Toxicological data and information of chemical substances: citation of IARC biennial report 1996/1997 and IARC meeting in 1998; III. New books and documents available at JETOC; IV Activity of JETOC: meetings and seminars held in Japan in 1997. (100201)

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CIS 02-1331 JETOC Information Sheet - 1998:3. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center, JETOC Information Sheet, July-Sep. 1998, No.34, p.1-18. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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Contents of this issue: I. Laws, regulations and related matters in Japan: statistics of new notified chemical substances from 1992 to 1997; 128 new chemical substances notified; amendments to the Poisonous and Deleterious Substances Control Law; new regulations in the United States, the UE, Australia and the Republic of Korea; II: Toxicological data and information of chemical substances: citation of an EC guidance document on risk assessment for new notified substances; III. New books and documents available at JETOC. (100202)

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CIS 02-1332 JETOC Information Sheet - 1998:4. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center, JETOC Information Sheet, Oct.-Dec. 1998, No.35, p.1-23. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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Contents of this issue: I. Laws, regulations and related matters in Japan: 35 chemical substances announced as Designated Chemical Substances; 145 new chemical substances notified; proposal for testing lists and testing rules and guidelines; new regulations in the United States, the EU, Australia, Canada and the Republic of Korea; II: Toxicological data and information of chemical substances: citation of the 1998 list of MAK and BAT values by the German Research Association; III. New books and documents available at JETOC. (100203)

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CIS 02-1333 JETOC Information Sheet - 1999:1. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center, JETOC Information Sheet, Jan.-Mar. 1999, No.36, p.1-25. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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Contents of this issue: I. Laws, regulations and related matters in Japan: results of biodegradation tests on 36 substances; total volume of production and importation of 27 Designated Chemical Substances for 1997; list of 14 new and 2 existing chemical substances indicating positive results in mutagenicity tests; 196 new chemical substances notified; amendments to the Poisonous Substances legislation; new regulations in the United States, the EU, Canada and Australia; II: New books and documents available at JETOC. (100204)

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CIS 02-1334 JETOC Information Sheet - Special Issue No. 4. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center, JETOC Information Sheet, Apr. 1999, No.37, special issue No.4, p.1-130. (In English)

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Summarized data from toxicity studies for 31 chemical substances in Japan. Tests include repeat dose toxicity tests and single oral dose toxicity tests on rats, genetic toxicity test on bacteria and chromosomal aberration tests on in vitro mammalian cells. (100205)

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CIS 02-1335 JETOC Information Sheet - Special Issue No. 5. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center, JETOC Information Sheet, May 1999, No.38, special issue No.5.p.1-106. (In English)

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Summarized data from toxicity studies for 26 chemical substances in Japan. Tests include repeat dose toxicity tests and single oral dose toxicity tests on rats, genetic toxicity test on bacteria and chromosomal aberration tests on in vitro mammalian cells. (100206)

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CIS 02-1336 Lead - The hazard continues. (French: Plomb - Le risque persiste) Roulleau C., Travail et sécurité, Mar. 2001, No.605, p.20-38. Illus. 12 ref. (In French)

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Risks of exposure to lead arise mainly during the use of the metal in the chemical, metallurgical and glass industries, as well as in building renovation, since old paints used in buildings often contain lead. According to the SUMER 1994 survey (see CIS 95-161), more than 120,000 workers are at risk of exposure to lead in France. Topics covered in this special feature on lead: sectors at risk; secondary exposure of persons close to the directly-exposed workers; regulations; sampling and analysis of lead concentrations in workplace air by accredited laboratories; medical supervision; appropriateness of lowering limit values for blood lead; toxic effects; lead poisoning; collective and personal protective measures on building renovation sites; building waste management; example of preventive measures implemented by a lead battery producer. (100296)

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CIS 02-1337 The reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of lead: A critical review. Landrigan P.J., Boffetta P., Apostoli P., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.231-243. 89 ref. (In English)

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Lead is a known reproductive toxin, causing reductions in sperm count and fertility in males and an increased risk of miscarriage in females. Recent research has shown that these reproductive effects occur at relatively low levels of exposure that were previously considered safe. Lead is also a potent neurotoxin. Prospective longitudinal studies demonstrate that prenatal and early postnatal exposure to lead at levels as low as 10-20µg/dL results in damage to the central nervous system, resulting in diminished intelligence and altered behaviour. These effects appear to be irreversible and untreatable, the only approach to their control being to reduce prenatal and early life exposure to lead. Lead is a proven animal carcinogen. It can cause renal cancer and possibly brain tumours in rats and mice. In humans, IARC had previously considered the evidence on the carcinogenicity of lead to be "inadequate". However, new data have accumulated on the cancer risk of workers exposed to lead, which justify a re-evaluation of the classification. (100337)

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CIS 02-1338 Lead poisoning in a historical perspective. Hernberg S., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.244-254. 54 ref. (In English)

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Lead poisoning was already known in Antiquity. In the 19th century, it reached epidemic proportions during the period of industrialization, and several comprehensive clinical articles appeared in the literature. The clinical picture became clearer at the beginning of the 20th century, at which time preventive efforts were initiated. However, the concept of poisoning remained strictly clinical. During the latter half of the 20th century a new concept emerged: subclinical and early forms became recognized as undesirable effects. This led to a substantial lowering of exposure levels. After the 1920s, environmental pollution by lead caused by the introduction of tetraethyllead in gasoline became an alarming public health problem. Its use became restricted in the 1980s; its effects on blood lead levels are now evident. Current research focuses on the effects of low exposure, often with the aim of defining non-effect levels for different types of effects. (100338)

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CIS 02-1339 Effects of lead on immune parameters in occupationally exposed workers. Başaran N., Ündeğer Ü., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.38, No.3, p.349-354. 36 ref. (In English)

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To assess the immune competence of workers occupationally exposed to lead, several subsets of peripheral lymphocytes, i.e., T, TCD4+, TCD8+, B, NK cells, serum immunoglobulin and complement protein concentrations, chemotaxis, and intracellular killing activity of neutrophils of 25 male storage battery workers were analysed and compared with those of 25 healthy males with no history of lead exposure. The results indicated that industrial exposure to lead resulting in group mean blood lead concentrations of 75±18µg/dL are associated with a significant depression of: T helper lymphocytes, IgG, IgM and C3, C4 complement levels, chemotaxis, and random migration of neutrophils. No correlation was found between the duration of exposure and the altered immune parameters. In conclusion, the immune system can be a target for lead toxicity and elimination of lead hazard in working places is necessary. (100340)

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CIS 02-1340 Setting occupational exposure limits for sensory irritants: The approach in the European Union. Meldrum M., AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2001, Vol.62, No.6, p.730-732. 5 ref. (In English)

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Beginning in 1990, the European Commission initiated a programme to establish European Union (EU)-wide occupational exposure limits (OELs). As in the United States and other countries, a panel of experts known as the Scientific Committee on Occupational Exposure Limits (SCOEL) was identified and brought together to identify the proper values. This article describes the approach used by SCOEL to identify appropriate values for sensory irritants. The EU panel believes that irritant effects in the eyes and respiratory tract can produce symptoms that range from trivial to serious, and that responses to irritants may be viewed as belonging to a continuum. One of the interesting differences between the approach used by the ACGIH TLV committee and the SCOEL is the use of five grades of irritation to evaluate this class of chemicals. For purposes of setting an OEL, the SCOEL makes no distinction between irritation or nuisance and related somatic effects such as headache. The approach used by the committee to establish an OEL for ethyl acetate is included as an example. (100352)

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CIS 02-1341 Biological monitoring of exposure to benzene in petrol pump workers and dry cleaners. Verma Y., Rana S.V.S., Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.330-333. 29 ref. (In English)

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Exposure to benzene was monitored in service station employees and dry cleaners in Meerut City (India) by measuring the phenol content in urine samples taken from them. The influence of three factors was determined, namely alcohol consumption, smoking and food habits (vegetarians and non-vegetarians). While smoking and food habits had little effect on phenol excretion, it was found that alcohol-consuming subjects excreted more phenol. It is concluded that alcohol can alter the susceptibility of humans to benzene toxicity by affecting its metabolism. (100354)

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CIS 02-1342 Three cases of acute methyl bromide poisoning in a seedling farm family. Yamano Y., Kagawa J., Ishizu S., Harayama O., Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.353-358. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

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Three patients of a same Japanese farming family (39-year-old man, 34-year-old woman, 5-year-old girl) exhibited almost the same initial symptoms, i.e., severe vomiting, tonic convulsions and clouding of consciousness. Subsequent inquiry revealed that 27 cans of methyl bromide had been stored in the building that the patients lived in, and that the cans had been damaged a few days before the onset of the patients' illness. Inspection revealed that all the cans of methyl bromide had passed the expiry date and were corroded. Even though none of the cans had been used, three cans with a capacity of 750g were found to be empty. Plasma bromide ion concentrations were found to be high (72.9µg/mL, 67.8µg/mL and 91.5µg/mL; normal level <5µg/mL), and acute methyl bromide poisoning was diagnosed 8 days after admission of the patients to the hospital. Haemodialysis (peritoneal lavage in the case of the child) was performed immediately, after which the plasma bromide ion concentrations returned to normal and the general condition of the patients gradually improved. (100356)

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CIS 02-1343 Occupational airway sensitizers: A review on the respective literature. van Kampen V., Merget R., Baur X., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.38, No.2, p.164-218. 292 ref. (In English)

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This article consists of a literature review on the topic of allergic occupational asthma. Papers were selected according to criteria of study design and diagnostic test methods. Approximately 300 publications were reviewed including both epidemiological studies and individual case reports. Technical directives on hazardous substances are enforced in several countries and are being continuously updated; in particular, the European Union has established a code for several occupational substances, now labelled R 42 ("may cause sensitization by inhalation"). The most common sensitizing substances causing occupational asthma were dust of cereal flours, enzymes, natural rubber latex, laboratory animals as well as low molecular substances such as isocyanates and acid anhydrides. A table which lists threshold limit values (TLV), R 42 labelling requirements and a summary of clinical data for 250 airway-sensitizing substances is included. (100364)

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CIS 02-1344 Cumulative exposure to styrene and visual functions. Castillo L., Baldwin M., Sassine M.P., Mergler D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.351-360. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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A 1990-1992 longitudinal study of several reinforced plastics plants had showed that for those workers whose styrene exposure had decreased, colour vision (CV) improved while near-visual contrast sensitivity (CS) was poorer. In 1999, these visual functions were re-tested in 18 workers with good visual acuity. A cumulative exposure index (CEI), corrected for respirator use, was calculated for each worker. For CV, no significant difference was observed between 1992 and 1999. The CS profile decreased over time, with significant differences at frequencies of 3 cycles per degree. CS did not vary with urinary mandelic acid levels, but was significantly depressed at the intermediate frequencies among those in the upper CEI category. These findings suggest that CS loss increases with long-term cumulative exposure, reflecting chronic damage to the neuro-optic pathways. (100366)

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CIS 02-1345 Control of chemical risks during the treatment of soil contaminated with chlorophenol, creosote and copper-chrome-arsenic-wood preservatives. Priha E., Ahonen I., Oksa P., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.402-409. 30 ref. (In English)

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Exposure to chemicals was studied during the remediation of four polluted sites: a sawmill contaminated with chlorophenols, polychlorinated dioxins and furans (PCDD/F), a wood impregnating plant contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), an old gas works area contaminated with PAH, and a wood impregnation plant contaminated with copper-chromium-arsenic (CCA) preservative. Air monitoring showed that the exposure levels were generally well below the current occupational exposure limits. However, the recommended daily intake value for PCDD/F was exceeded. Chlorophenol exposure was generally low. Exposure to volatile PAH was 0.038-0.884mg/m3 and that to particulate PAH was 0.004-0.183mg/m3. The biomonitoring results (urinary 1-pyrenol) suggested that some exposure occurs, probably through the contamination of hands or skin absorption. Exposure limits were not exceeded at the site contaminated with CCA. More attention should be given to skin protection. (100369)

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CIS 02-1346 Assessment of variability in biomonitoring data using a large database of biological measures of exposure. Symanski E., Greeson N.M.H., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.390-401. 102 ref. (In English)

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Biological monitoring data that examined workers' exposures to metals, solvents, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides were collected from 53 published studies. This study evaluates intra- and inter-individual sources of variation in biological measures of exposure collected from workers employed at the same plant. In 60% of the data sets, there was more variation among workers than variation from day to day. The relative magnitude of the intra- to inter-individual source of variation was larger for biomarkers with short compared to long half-lives, which suggests that biomarkers with half-lives of seven days or longer offer advantages when compared to short-lived biomarkers or exposures assessed by air monitoring. The use of biological indices of exposure, however, places an additional burden on the strategy used to evaluate exposures, because data may be serially correlated, resulting in biased estimates of the variance components if autocorrelation is undetected or ignored in the statistical analyses. (100401)

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CIS 02-1347 Performance of deterministic workplace exposure assessment models for various containment source, air inlet, and exhaust locations. Feigley C.E., Bennett J.S., Khan J., Lee E., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.402-412. Illus. 25 ref. (In English)

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Contaminant concentration estimates from simple models were compared with concentration fields obtained by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations for various room and source configurations under steady-state conditions. For a high wall jet inlet, simulations were performed for nine room air exhaust locations and eight source locations. For a ceiling diffuser inlet the impact of two exhaust locations and eight source locations were investigated. Parameters of the one- and two-zone completely mixed models (CM-1 and CM-2) and the uniform turbulent diffusivity model (UD) were determined from CFD simulation results. The CM-1 model had generally the best performance for applications such as occupational epidemiology for the conditions and configurations studied. However, CM-1 tended to underestimate the near field concentration; thus, CM-2 was judged to be better in the near field when underestimation is undesirable, such as when determining compliance with occupational exposure limits. The UD model performed poorly on average in both near and far fields. (100402)

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CIS 02-1348 Characterization of particulate matter in carbon-graphite/epoxy advanced composite material smoke. Kimmel E.C., Courson D.L., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.413-423. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

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The physical and chemical properties of the particulate fraction of carbon/epoxy advanced composite material (cgeACM) smoke were measured to address concerns regarding potential health hazards posed by the release of fibres during pyrolysis of this material. Samples were collected from cgeACM smoke in which the aerosol concentration ranged from 0.20 to 5.39g/m3. Fibres were found in the smoke among individual, spherical or nearly spherical particles and chain aggregates. The fibres had a mean count diameter of 0.54µm and an average length of 2.84µm. However, fibres accounted for only 0.3% of the particles counted. More than 88% of the smoke aerosols were in the thoracic size range (mass median aerodynamic diameter ≤4.0µm). All particles were composed primarily of carbon, silicon, sulfur and oxygen, with traces of metals. By comparison, fibres were composed almost exclusively of silicon. (100403)

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CIS 02-1349 Variation in exposure levels for high hazard frequently monitored agents. Wambach P.F., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.421-429. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

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Assumptions about the underlying distribution of occupational exposures affect decisions on exposure monitoring strategies, the interpretation of monitoring results, and the degree of protection provided by occupational exposure limits and action levels. Strict exposure limits for asbestos, beryllium and ionizing radiation resulted in frequent monitoring of occupational exposure levels, with thousands of exposure measurements available for analysis. Statistical analysis of these data sets indicates that within-worker geometric standard deviation (GSD) is higher than is generally assumed for occupational exposures. Despite the high variation, arithmetic mean levels and the percentage of measurements exceeding exposure limits were low, indicating that a large GSD does not imply that working conditions are unacceptable. (100404)

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CIS 02-1350 Exposure of health-care personnel to cytostatic substances - Experience of hospitals in Dax and Bayonne. (French: Exposition du personnel de soins aux cytostatiques - L'expérience des centres hospitaliers de Dax et de Bayonne) Caillaud V., Benegas-Bernard M., Creppy E., Sanchez D., Teulières A.M., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.51-64. 19 ref. (In French)

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The cell toxicity of cytostatic substances affect both cancerous and healthy cells. Most of these products also exhibit mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic activity. There are very few published studies concerning the risks from handling cytostatic substances and the preventive measures to be implemented for limiting exposure to them. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of exposure of health care workers to cytostatic substances. It involved 60 workers in the oncology departments of two hospitals in southwestern France. Urinary metabolites were determined and health data were collected by means of questionnaires. No pathologies that could be linked to exposure to cytostatic substances were found. The principles of precaution and prevention applicable to work in the presence of cytostatic substances are outlined. (100415)

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CIS 02-1351 Pulmonary function in long-term asbestos workers in China. Wang X.R., Yano E., Wang M., Wang Z., Christiani D.C., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.623-629. 30 ref. (In English)

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The aim of this study was to provide further understanding of the radiographic physiological associations in nonsmoking and smoking asbestos workers. Radiographic asbestosis, pleural lesion, and pulmonary function were studied in 269 Chinese asbestos workers, with average exposure periods of 23yrs for male workers and 18yrs for female workers. Their functional data were compared with those of 274 controls without exposure to dust. Although most of the male workers were smokers, none of the female workers smoked. In comparison with controls, asbestos workers had significantly lower lung volume and diffusing capacity, irrespective of sex. Female workers and smoking male workers had lower measurements of one-second forced expiratory volume and instantaneous forced expiratory flow at 50% and 25% of forced vital capacity. After adjustment for relevant covariates, asbestos exposure, asbestosis, and pleural abnormalities were associated with decreased parameters of pulmonary function, including lung volume, diffusing capacity and airway flow. (100018)

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CIS 02-1352 Agricultural exposure to carbamate pesticides and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Zheng T., Zahm S.H., Cantor K.P., Weisenburger D.D., Zhang Y., Blair A., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.43, No.7, p.641-649. 33 ref. (In English)

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To explore the possible relationship between non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and carbamate insecticide use among farmers, a pooled analysis of three population-based case-control studies conducted in four mid-western states in the United States was conducted involving 985 white male subjects and 2895 matched controls. Compared with non-farmers, farmers who had ever used carbamate pesticides had a 30% to 50% increased risk of NHL, whereas farmers without carbamate pesticide use showed no increased risk. Analyses for individual carbamate pesticides found a more consistent association with Sevin but not carbofuran, butylate, or S-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate plus protectant. Among farmers using Sevin, the risk of NHL was limited to those who personally handled the product, those who first used the product for >20 years before their disease diagnosis, and those who used the product for a longer period. These associations persisted after adjusting for other major classes of pesticides. These results suggest an increased risk of NHL associated with carbamate pesticide use, particularly Sevin. Further investigation of the association is warranted. (100019)

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CIS 02-1353 Occupational airborne contact dermatitis caused by thyme dust. Spiewak R., Skorska C., Dutkiewicz J., Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 2001, Vol.44, No.4, p.235-239. 16 ref. (In English)

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To assess occupational hazards to the farmer's skin associated with processing thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.), 46 farmers were studied during the threshing of dried thyme. They were questioned about work-related skin problems and examined before and after work. In all persons studied, serum thyme-specific IgE was measured. Skin prick tests, the Ouchterlony test and the leukocyte migration inhibition test were carried out with allergens of airborne bacteria and fungi present in the working environment. Of the 46 farmers studied, 4 showed skin symptoms after 530min of exposure to thyme dust. Thyme-specific IgE was found in 1 person with work-related symptoms, but also in 2 asymptomatic farmers. Therefore, the importance of IgE seems to be questionable in eczema related to thyme dust. Skin and blood tests with microbial allergens also showed no significant differences between the symptomatic and asymptomatic farmers. The aetiology of thyme-related skin symptoms remains unknown, although an irritant mechanism seems probable. (100334)

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CIS 02-1354 Occupational contact urticaria caused by airborne methyhexahydrophthalic anhydride. Yokota K., Johyama Y., Miyaue H., Matsumoto N., Yamaguchi K., Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.347-352. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

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Three subjects with occupational exposure to methyl hexahydrophthalic anhydride (MHHPA) and hexahydrophthalic anhydride (HHPA) from an epoxy resin system were studied to evaluate the nature of their reported skin and nose complaints. Specific IgE antibody was detected in serum from one of the three workers. One unsensitized worker displayed nasal pain and rhinorrhoea only when loading liquid epoxy resins into the pouring machine, probably as a result of an irritant reaction. Two workers had work-related symptoms at relatively low levels of exposure; one complained of only rhinitis, and the other was sensitized against HHPA and displayed both rhinitis and contact urticaria (in the face and neck). The worker's skin symptoms were evidently due to airborne contact, since she had not had any skin contact with liquid epoxy resin or mixtures of MHHPA and HHPA. These urticaria symptoms were confirmed by a 20-min closed patch test for MHHPA, but not by that for HHPA. The causative agent was considered to be MHHPA, although the specific IgE determination to MHHPA was not performed. (100355)

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CIS 02-1355 Occupational skin diseases due to colophony. (French: Dermatoses professionnelles à la colophane) Crépy M.N., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 1st Quarter 2002, No.89, p.75-82. Illus. 66 ref. (In French)

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Colophony is a resin drawn from coniferous trees used in many industrial products. It is composed of approximately 100 products, some of them allergens. Colophony is included in the European standard battery of skin tests. Contents of this review article on skin diseases due to colophony: composition and production of colophony; aetiologies (allergenicity, sources of exposure); epidemiology (prevalence, incidence, exposed populations); diagnosis in occupational settings; diagnosis in specialized institutions; prognosis; prevention; compensation of occupational diseases. (100417)

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CIS 02-1356 Community cancer assessment in response to long-time exposure to perchlorate and trichloroethylene in drinking water. Morgan J.W., Cassady R.E., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.616-621. 19 ref. (In English)

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In response to concerns about cancer from drinking water contaminated with ammonium perchlorate and trichloroethylene, observed and expected numbers of new cancer cases were assessed for all sites combined and 16 cancer types in a California community between 1988 and 1998. The numbers of observed cancer cases divided by expected numbers defined standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). No significant differences between observed and expected numbers were found for all cancers (SIR 0.97), thyroid cancer (SIR 1.00), or 11 other cancer types. Significantly fewer cases were observed than expected for cancer of the lung and bronchus (SIR 0.71) and the colon and rectum (SIR 0.86), whereas more cases were observed for uterine cancer (SIR 1.35) and skin melanoma (SIR 1.42). These findings did not identify a generalized cancer excess or thyroid cancer excess in this community. (100433)

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CIS 02-1357 Toxic inhalation fatalities of US construction workers, 1990 to 1999. Dorevitch S., Forst L., Conroy L., Levy P., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.657-662. 23 ref. (In English)

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Construction poisoning fatalities from 1990 to 1999 in the OSHA Integrated Management and Information System data set were analysed. Risk and risk factors were determined using Bureau of Labor Statistics and census data. 87 poisoning deaths of construction workers are characterized, all attributable to toxic inhalation. Cellular and simple asphyxiants accounted for the largest numbers of fatalities. The majority of these deaths occurred in confined spaces. Water, sewer, and electrical utility workers are at increased risk for poisoning fatality. Toxic inhalation fatalities in the construction industry are preventable, and extending OSHA's confined space standard to other occupations could save lives. (100437)

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CIS 02-1358 Remediation of polluted sites: Prevention of occupational hazards. (French: Réhabilitation des sites pollués: prévention des risques professionnels) Héry M., Mouton C., Maison A., Falcy M., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.87, p.291-320. 7 ref. (In French)

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During polluted site remediation, workers may be faced with many different hazards. Construction work, in particular involving earthmoving equipment, can give rise to collapse and burying accidents. The presence of chemicals can result in poisonings, fires and explosions. Machinery may emit noise and vibrations. This article describes a methodological approach for a systematic organization of polluted site remediation, based on a meticulous analysis of hazards. An appendix includes examples of preventive measures adopted for the removal of drums stored in a disused manufacturing plant, the demolition of a caustic-chlorine electrolysis plant and the remediation of solvent-polluted soil. (100305)

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CIS 02-1359 Farmworker reports of pesticide safety and sanitation in the work environment. Arcury T.A., Quandt S.A., Cravey A.J., Elmore R.C., Russell G.B., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2001, Vol.39, No.5, p.487-498. 34 ref. (In English)

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Migrant and seasonal farm workers are at risk for occupational illnesses from pesticide exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pesticide safety regulations, to learn from farm worker safety experiences in the United States and to develop effective measures to improve agricultural workplace safety. Research included in-depth interviews with farm workers, farmers and health care providers, including interviews with 270 minority farm workers during 1998, and 293 during 1999. It was found that farm workers and farmers held different beliefs concerning pesticide safety, which affects sanitation practices. Farm workers report that farm owners do not adhere to regulations mandating training and basic sanitation facilities. Several points of intervention are proposed for improving pesticide safety and sanitation. In particular, the emphasis for intervention must include educating farmers as well as farm workers. (100014)

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CIS 02-1360 Pest control operators: Risk perception of the use of chlorpyrifos. Cattani M., Cena K., Edwards J., Pisaniello D., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.295-299. 15 ref. (In English)

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A questionnaire survey addressing the health symptoms and work practices of 31 Western Australian pest control operators who used chlorpyrifos was conducted. Task observations were also made. All operators reported that: all washed their hands when "dirty" or following a job; 58% spilt the concentrate at least once a week; 74% had recently spilt or splashed diluted chlorpyrifos in their eyes and 90% on their boots; and 52% believed that they would benefit from more education concerning chlorpyrifos. No significant adverse health symptoms were reported. Observations showed that: all operators were exposed to chlorpyrifos; 26% washed their hands; 78% had a spill or splash; and 48% wore inappropriate gloves or no gloves. A discrepancy therefore exists between the operators' perceptions of risk and their actual exposure. (100064)

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CIS 02-1361 Present status of asbestos mining and related health problems in India - A survey. Ramanathan A.L., Subramanian V., Industrial Health, Oct. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.309-315. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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At present in India more than thirty asbestos mines are in operation, producing 2800 tons of asbestos per month (mainly chrysotile and tremolite). In addition, a substantial quantity (approx. 70% of industrial consumption) is imported from Canada. The mining and milling and other related processes expose workers to cancer and related diseases. Women are more affected by their exposure in processing units compared to men who generally work in mines. Direct and indirect employment in asbestos mining and industrial processing is around 100,000 workers. The latency period (length of the time between exposure and the onset of diseases) in India is estimated to be 20-37 years. The causes for lung and breathing problems are mainly reliance on obsolete technology and direct contact with asbestos products without proper precautions, because in India asbestos is sold without statutory warning. This paper reviews health effects (such as fibrosis, sequelae, bronchogenic cancer, and malignant mesothelioma) on the Indian workers from asbestos-related activities. (100353)

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CIS 02-1362 Assessing mercury health effects in gold workers near El Callao, Venezuela. Rojas M., Drake P.L., Roberts S.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.158-165. Illus. 42 ref. (In English)

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Report on the health status of 40 gold workers in Venezuela with occupational exposure to mercury (Hg). Use of protective equipment was limited, and environmental concentrations of Hg and Hg concentrations in the hair and urine of workers were above occupational guidelines. The workers were found to be generally healthy and without symptoms of mercury poisoning. Despite substantial exposure among a number of subjects, few adverse health effects were found with a possibly connection to Hg exposure. (100170)

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CIS 02-1363 Exposures to quartz, diesel, dust, and welding fumes during heavy and highway construction. Woskie S.R., Kalil A., Bello D., Virji M.A., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.447-457. 62 ref. (In English)

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Personal samples for exposure to dust, diesel exhaust, quartz and welding fume were collected on 260 heavy and highway construction workers. Respirable quartz exposures exceeded the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommended exposure limit (REL) in 7-31% of cases for the jobs sampled. More than 50% of the samples in the installation of ceilings, wall tiles and concrete finish operations exceeded the NIOSH REL for quartz. Thoracic exposures to quartz and dust exceeded respirable exposures by a factor of 4.5 and 2.8, respectively. Inhalable exposures to quartz and dust exceeded respirable exposures by a factor of 25.6 and 9.3, respectively. 14% of the personal samples for elemental carbon collected as a marker for diesel exhaust, exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for diesel exhaust. 17 of the 22 samples taken during a partially enclosed welding operation reached or exceeded the ACGIH TLV of 5 mg/m3 for welding fume. (100407)

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CIS 02-1364 The effect of local exhaust ventilation controls on dust exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities. Croteau G.A., Guffey S.E., Flanagan M.E., Seixas N.S., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.458-467. Illus. 25 ref. (In English)

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This study assessed the effectiveness of commercially available local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems for controlling respirable dust and crystalline silica exposures during concrete cutting and grinding activities using various tools. Three ventilation rates were tested for each tool. With the exception of the hand-held saw, the use of LEV resulted in a significant reduction in respirable dust exposure. Although exposure reduction was significant, personal respirable quartz exposures remained very high: 1.4-2.8 times the permissible exposure limit (PEL) at the low ventilation rate and 0.9-1.7 times the PEL at the high ventilation rate. Exposure levels found under actual field conditions would likely be lower due to the intermittent nature of most job tasks. Despite incomplete control, LEV reduces the risk of workers developing disease, allows workers to use a lower level of respiratory protection, protects workers during short duration work episodes, reduces exposure to nearby workers, and reduces clean-up associated dust exposures. (100408)

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CIS 02-1365 Serum hepatic biochemical activity in two populations of workers exposed to styrene. Brodkin C.A., Moon J.M., Camp J., Echeverria D., Redlich C.A., Willson R.A., Checkoway H., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.95-102. Illus. 41 ref. (In English)

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Two independent cross sectional studies were performed in the state of Washington (USA) comparing serum hepatic transaminases (alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)), cholestatic enzymes (alkaline phosphatase (AP) and γ glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)), and bilirubin in 47 workers of glass-fibre reinforced plastics who were exposed to styrene, as well as to 21 boat and tank fabricators, with separate referent groups of unexposed workers. Exposure to styrene was assessed in air by dosimetry, and in venous blood by headspace gas chromatography. A significant relationship between direct bilirubin and direct to total bilirubin ratio, and exposure to styrene was observed, by both air and blood monitoring, providing evidence for diminished hepatic clearance of conjugated bilirubin with associated cholestasis in workers exposed to styrene. Also, a significant linear association between the hepatic transaminases ALT and AST and exposure to styrene was found in regression analyses, consistent with mild hepatic injury and associated metabolic dysfunction. (100001)

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CIS 02-1366 Neurobehavioural changes and persistence of complaints in workers exposed to styrene in a polyester boat building plant: Influence of exposure characteristics and microsomal epoxide hydrolase phenotype. Viaene M.K., Pauwels W., Veulemans H., Roels H.A., Masschelein R., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.103-112. Illus. 34 ref. (In English)

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To investigate neurobehavioural effects in workers exposed to styrene and microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) activity, a cross sectional study was performed among former workers of a polyester boat plant. A structured neurological anamnesis into former and present complaints, the NSC-60 questionnaire, and computer assisted neurobehavioural tests were administered. It was observed that most subjective symptoms were reversible, while dysfunction of visual-motor performance and perceptual speed seemed to persist. Duration of exposure at lamination tasks and duration of exposure multiplied by exposure concentration were found to be the best predictors of worsening visual-motor and perceptual speed performances. Activity of the mEH phenotype may play a modulating part in styrene neurotoxicity. The results suggest that less than 10 years of exposure to styrene at an average concentration of 155mg/m3 may result in persistent neurotoxic effects. (100002)

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CIS 02-1367 Sensitization to enzymes in the animal feed industry. Vanhanen M., Tuomi T., Tiikkainen U., Tupasela O., Tuomainen A., Luukkonen R., Nordman H., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.119-123. 16 ref. (In English)

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To assess the prevalence of enzyme sensitization in the animal feed industry in Finland, a cross-sectional study was conducted in four animal feed factories, where several enzymes had been used in powder form for 7-9 years. 218 workers were tested, including 140 employed in various manufacturing tasks where exposure to various organic dusts and to enzymes was possible, together with 78 non-exposed office workers. The workers were interviewed for work-related respiratory and skin symptoms. Enzyme concentrations in the air varied from less than 0.8ng/m3 up to 16ng/m3 for xylanase, from less than 20ng/m3 up to 200 ng/m3 for α-amylase, and from less than 0.4ng/m3 up to 2900ng/m3 for protease. Ten workers were sensitized to enzymes in the exposed group of 140, whereas none were sensitized in the non-exposed group. Six of the sensitized workers had respiratory symptoms at work, of which two especially in connection with exposure to enzymes. (100004)

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CIS 02-1368 Three woodworking shops adopt variable-flow exhaust ventilation. (French: Trois menuiseries industrielles adoptent l'aspiration à débit variable) Richez J.P., Travail et sécurité, June 2001, No.608, p.10-15. Illus. (In French)

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Wood dust being a known carcinogen, it is necessary to equip woodworking shops with dust collection systems. This article presents the experience of thee small woodworking shops having opted for a variable-flow exhaust ventilation system. This system constantly adjusts the flow of air required for collecting dust as a function of the number of machines being used. As a result, it is not only more efficient, but also allows energy savings. The schematic design of a variable-flow exhaust ventilation system is presented. The article also refers to relevant French and European regulations, in particular to Council Directive 1999/38/EC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work (see CIS 00-1516). (100292)

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CIS 02-1369 Inhalation exposures to acrylamide in biomedical laboratories. Pantusa V.P., Stock T.H., Morandi M.T., Harrist R.B., Afshar M., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.468-473. 22 ref. (In English)

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This study evaluated airborne acrylamide exposures experienced by laboratory personnel using either crystalline acrylamide or commercially-available solutions to make polyacrylamide gels. Exposures were monitored for a short-term (15-min) period and for a long-term period, during which a sample was collected for as long as the subject was potentially exposed to acrylamide. Mean air concentrations for the 15-min exposures were 7.20±5.64µg/m3 and 5.81±4.53µg/m3 for the users of crystalline and solution acrylamide, respectively. Mean concentrations for the long-term exposures were 12.77±24.20µg/m3 for workers employing crystalline acrylamide and 4.22±7.05µg/m3 for personnel using acrylamide solutions. Although the results indicate that several subjects were exposed to elevated levels, the calculated 8-hour time-weighted average exposures were below current occupational exposure limits. However, because the neurotoxic effects of acrylamide are cumulative and it is a suspected carcinogen, all exposures should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. (100409)

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CIS 02-1370 Health effects and occupational exposures among office workers near the World Trade Center disaster site. Trout D., Nimgade A., Mueller C., Hall R., Earnest G.S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.601-605. 11 ref. (In English)

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To evaluate health effects and occupational exposures three months after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center (WTC) among a population of employees working close to the disaster site, a cross-sectional survey was carried out among government employees working near the WTC site in New York City (NYC) and a comparison group in Dallas, Texas. An industrial hygiene evaluation of the NYC workplace was conducted. Constitutional and mental health symptoms were reported more frequently among workers in NYC. Post-September 11 counseling services were utilized to a greater degree among workers in NYC, while utilization of other types of medical services did not differ significantly between the groups. No occupational exposures to substances at concentrations that would explain the reported constitutional symptoms were found. There is no evidence of ongoing hazardous exposure to airborne contaminants among the workers surveyed. Specific causes of reported constitutional health symptoms have not been determined. (100431)

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CIS 02-1371 Field evaluation of a transportable open-path FTIR spectrometer for real-time air monitoring. Ross K.R., Todd L.A., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.131-143. Illus. 40 ref. (In English)

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A field evaluation of a prototype new transportable instrument that incorporates the features of extractive and open-path Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometers and measures chemicals passively and in real time in the vicinity of the breathing zone. A field study was conducted in three different occupational settings: dental and cytology laboratories and a surgery recovery area. Chemicals identified and quantified were: methyl methacrylate, nitrous oxide, xylene isomers, toluene and ethanol. The instrument consistently produced results comparable to recognized analytical methods (100190)

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CIS 02-1372 Clinical audit of occupational medicine - Application to the assessment of the quality of medical services for employees previously exposed to asbestos. (French: Audit clinique en médecine du travail - Application à l'évaluation de la qualité de la surveillance médicale des salariés anciennement exposés à l'amiante) Thoumelin P., Ayasse-Jaubert A.M., Laffitte-Rigaud G., Musso P., Jeanne C., Vandenbulcke S., de Gaudemaris R., François P., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.88, p.395-401. 22 ref. (In French)

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The evaluation of professional practices is becoming common in the medical field. Quality and evaluation programmes have been implemented in the occupational health services of several countries, including France. The first part of this article consists of a review of published literature on the subject. A second part presents a study aimed at evaluating the quality of the medical supervision of employees of a large industrial enterprise having been previously exposed to asbestos, carried out by the company physicians of an industrial company, through an audit of employee medical records. This example should encourage a more widespread implementation of quality audits of occupational medicine services. (100309)

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CIS 02-1373 Prevention of lead poisoning in construction workers: A new public health approach. Vork K.L., Hammond S.K., Sparer J., Cullen M.R., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.243-253. 38 ref. (In English)

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Two key features of CRISP (the Connecticut Road Industry Surveillance Project) are: a contract-specified lead health protection programme and a centralized system of medical monitoring. Data from 90 bridge projects from 1991 to 1995 and approximately 2,000 workers were evaluated. Peak lead concentrations in the blood of CRISP workers were compared with those from workers outside of Connecticut. After 1992, only the painting employees experienced peak blood lead levels exceeding 50µg/dL; other Connecticut workers had significantly lower peak blood lead levels than did workers from other states. (100141)

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CIS 02-1374 Evaluation of concurrent personal measurements of acrylonitrile using different sampling techniques. Zey J.N., Stewart P.A., Hornung R., Herrick R., McCammon C., Zaebst D., Pottern L.M., Dosemeci M., Bloom T.F., Applied Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Feb. 2002, Vol.17, No.2, p.88-95. 19 ref. (In English)

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Since the 1980s certain US enterprises engaged in the production of acrylonitrile (AN) monomer, acrylic fibres and resins and other products containing AN have systematically been engaging in monitoring the exposure of their workers to the substance. Each enterprise chose its own method of personal air sampling. The aim of this study was to evaluate these methods in 8 separate locations, in order to establish whether the results can be used in a retrospective epidemiological study. In fact the results show that the plant measurements were sufficiently comparable for purposes of epidemiology. (100185)

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CIS 02-1375 Evaluation of toxic and explosive atmospheres. (French: Evaluation des atmosphères explosives et toxiques) Legris M., Roberge B., Pépin P., Le Groupe de Communication Sansectra Inc., Case postale 1089, Napierville, Québec J0J 1L0, Canada, 2001. 127p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: CAD 29.00 + TPS., ISBN 2-9804804-2-8 (In French)

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A wide range of direct-reading instruments are available for measuring explosives and toxic chemicals. This reference publication is aimed at all users of direct-reading instruments, and includes a proposed approach for instrument selection, a description of their mode of operation and explanations on their optimal and safe use. Contents: identification and evaluation of hazards; toxicology and health hazards; formation of explosive and toxic atmospheres; instrument selection and purchase; evaluation of explosive atmospheres; evaluation of toxic atmospheres; experimental evaluation approach; practical examples. (100270)

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CIS 02-1376 Industrial fibres and health. (Portuguese: As fibras industriais e a saúde) Macedo R., Instituto de Desenvolvimento e Inspecção das Condições de Trabalho (IDICT), Lisboa, Portugal, July 2001. 306p. Illus. 148 ref., ISBN 972-8321-37-6 (In Portuguese)

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This publication discusses the health hazards from exposure to fibres, with emphasis on chrysotile asbestos. It describes sampling and counting methods for measuring and evaluating exposure. It also includes detailed information on hazards from various other fibres produced or used in Portugal: natural mineral fibres (asbestos, atapulgite, erionite, wollastonite); artificial mineral fibres; natural organic fibres (cotton, jute, cellulose, wool hemp, linen); synthetic organic fibres (p-aramids, m-aramids, polyolefins, carbon or graphite fibres, composites). Detailed summaries in Portuguese, English and French. (100447)

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CIS 02-1377 The health effects of chrysotile asbestos - Contribution of science to risk-management decisions. Nolan R.P., Langer A.M., Ross M., Wicks F.J., Martin R.F., eds., Mineralogical Association of Canada, P.O. Box 78087, Meriline Postal Outlet, 1460 Merivale Road, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2E 1B1, 2001. viii, 304p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 0-921294-41-7 (In English)

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Proceedings of a workshop held in Montreal, Canada, 14-16 September 1997, grouped into five broad themes: exposure to amphibole-asbestos and mixed fibres; exposure to commercial chrysotile - mineralogy, modern products and exposures; mechanisms of mesothelioma and lung cancer; exposure to commercial chrysotile - historical perspectives of the health effects; exposure to commercial chrysotile - modern perspectives of the health effects. (100078)

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CIS 02-1378 Bioavailability of azo pigments following uptake through the respiratory system. (German: Bioverfügbarkeit von Azopigmenten nach Aufnahme über die Atemwege) Bartsch W., Berger-Preiß E., Dasenbrock C., Ernst H., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 85p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: EUR 10.50., ISBN 3-89701-765-2 (In German)

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In this study of the bioavailability of azo pigments, rats were treated by intratracheal instillation of two doses (10 and 20mg) each of two insoluble azo pigments, Pigment Yellow 17 and Pigment Yellow 83. The main metabolite of azo dyes, hydrolysable 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine, was determined in the animals' urine, faeces and haemoglobin during five intervals over four weeks, and during a further period four weeks later. A comparison was made with a soluble azo dye, Direct Red 46. It was found that there was practically no bioavailability for either of the two pigments, in contrast to significant bioavailability for the soluble dye. Detailed summary in English and French. (100107)

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CIS 02-1379 Exposure to chemicals in opticians' workshops. (German: Stoffbelastungen im Augenoptikerhandwerk) Auffarth J., Hebisch R., Karmann J., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. xi, 70p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: EUR 10.50., ISBN 3-89701-692-3 (In German)

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Measurements were carried out in 13 opticians' workshops in Germany, with the objective of assessing the degree of compliance with current regulations and directives. The highest values found were for ethanol and acetone, and were > 12% of the limit values for mixtures of substances. Levels for respirable dust were less than 1% of permissible levels. In the course of additional measurements carried out in lens and frame manufacturing units, where the chemicals used are practically identical, levels > 20% of limit values were found. Exposure levels encountered in this sector do not seem to present a problem. Detailed summary in English and French. (100110)

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CIS 02-1380 International activities related to chemicals - Overview of international agreements/instruments, organisations and programmes concerning chemicals management. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP), 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, 3rd ed., 2001. 235p. Illus. Index. (In English)

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This publication is designed to provide key information on inter-governmental activities related to chemicals management for use by a wide range of readers in the public and private sectors. For each of 41 international agreements, instruments, organizations and programmes, it includes website and contact information, a description of the mandate, nature and scope of activity, and relationships with other international organizations and programmes. (100116)

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CIS 02-1381 Human toxicology of plant protection chemicals - Volume I: General principles, Insecticides, Fungicides and Fumigants. (French: Toxicologie humaine des produits phytosanitaires - Tome I: Principes généraux, Insecticides, Fongicides et Fumigants) Testud F., Garnier R., Delemotte B., Editions ESKA, 12 rue du Quatre-Septembre, 75002 Paris, France, 2001. 272p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: EUR 53.36., ISBN 2-7472-0133-3 (In French)

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This publication is aimed at emergency ward physicians, clinicians and forensic surgeons faced with cases of acute and chronic pesticide poisoning, as well as at occupational physicians involved with the evaluation, prevention and medical supervision of toxic hazards linked to the occupational exposure to these products. Contents: general principles; toxicology of major classes of pesticides; insecticides; fungicides; fumigants. (100266)

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CIS 02-1382 Biological monitoring of benzene at low exposure. Lauwerys R., 5th ECSC Medical research programme, European Commission, Directorate general V, Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs Directorate V/F, Public Health and Safety at Work Unit V/F/5 Occupational health and hygiene, EUROFORUM Building, 2920 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1998. 16p. 20 ref. (In English)

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It has been suggested to lower TWA of benzene because of its possible leukogenetic effects at low exposure concentrations. This requires the development of new methods of biological monitoring. The purpose of this study was to measure simultaneously several markers of benzene exposure (blood and breath benzene, urinary phenol and muconic acid) in a population of 410 male workers exposed to benzene, to identify confounding factors which may influence the results and to compare the diagnostic power of the biological tests. 95% of the workers were exposed to less than 0.5ppm. Muconic acid showed very few false-positive tests and remained reliable even at around a cut-off level of 0.5ppm benzene and with smokers. The diagnostic power proved to be good when diluted or concentrated urine samples were used. Blood and breath benzene as well as urinary phenol were clearly less suitable biomarkers than muconic acid. (100288)

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CIS 02-1383 A review of European gasoline exposure data for the period 1993-1998. Claydon M.F., CONCAWE, Madouplein, 1210 Brussels, Belgium, Dec. 2000. vi, 60p. 27 ref. (In English)

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This report presents an overview of European gasoline exposure data from company files and published literature for the period 1993-1998. Data are subdivided according to exposure duration and standardized job categories, covering exposures in the production, distribution, retail and use of gasoline in Member States of the European Union, Norway and Switzerland. Both personal breathing zone air monitoring and biological monitoring data are presented. The available data indicated that the average inhalation exposures were below the current occupational exposure limits of European countries. A comparison with the data from a previous survey published in 1987 in order to examine the impact of a series of measures taken in the 1990's to reduce vapour emissions indicates that since 1984/85, exposures have been reduced in almost all job groups with the exception of service station attendants. (100290)

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CIS 02-1384 Exposure to hazardous substances during electronics waste recycling. (German: Stoffbelastung beim Elektronikschrott-Recycling) Hanke M., Ihrig C., Ihrig D.F., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. xviii, 172p. Illus. 98 ref. Index. Price: EUR 17.00., ISBN 3-89701-677-X (In German)

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A survey on the recycling of electronic waste was carried out in Germany. Of the 162 waste management companies having responded, 81 handle electronic waste, for which the annual volume amounts to approximately 250,000 tons. In 16 waste management companies that together handled approximately 100,000 tons per year, air sampling was carried out and workers were interviewed. On the whole, findings are in compliance with current limit values. However, shredder areas remain highly polluted: limit values for lead, cadmium and manganese, as well as those of dioxins and furan derivatives are often exceeded. In working areas where CRTs are recycled, lead and cadmium levels are in excess of accepted limits. 28% of the workers had redness of the hands and 48% had skin lesions. (100329)

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CIS 02-1385 Hazardous substances in automobile repair shops: Can supra-company support be mobilized?. (German: Gefahrstoffe im Kraftfahrzeuggewerbe: Läßt sich überbetriebliche Unterstützung mobilisieren?) Kliemt G., Voullaire E., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 228p. Illus. 61 ref. Price: EUR 18.50., ISBN 3-89701-396-7 (In German)

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The objective of this project was to analyse the occupational safety and health hazards in automobile repair shops due to harmful substances that could be addressed through technical support from automobile industry manufacturers. Four aspects were evaluated: reducing exposure to harmful substances during vehicle maintenance; reducing exposure to carbon monoxide in vehicle repair shops; support with respect to harmful substances. The project enabled the highlighting of conditions under which effective support from the automobile industry manufacturers was possible, and discusses requirements for the effective management of such cooperation projects. (100343)

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CIS 02-1386 Asbestos. (French: L'amiante) Gabriel D., Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux cedex, France, Oct. 2001, No.9, 32p. (In French)

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Contents of this practical guide on occupational safety and health with respect to asbestos: types of asbestos and their use; risks due to asbestos; protection of exposed persons; compensation of victims of diseases caused by asbestos fibres; approaches for reducing risks related to asbestos. (100393)

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CIS 02-1387 Radioactive iodine. (French: Iodes radioactifs) Le Guen B., Hémidy P.Y., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2rd Quarter 2002, No.135, 12p. Illus. 37 ref. (In French)

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Stable and radioactive forms of iodine evaporate at low temperature and are consequently highly volatile. Stable iodine is a key trace element in human physiology and an essential component of thyroid hormones which are vital for growth and energy metabolism. However, accidental exposure to radioactive isotopes of iodine can be dangerous. Contents of this information note on radioactive iodine: general physical and chemical aspects; environmental sources of radioactive iodine (nuclear tests, nuclear accidents); medical uses of radioactive iodine; environmental and human effects; stable iodine needs and required food intake; exposure, radiation and dosimetry; effects on radioactive iodine on the thyroid; cancer and genetic effects of iodine 131; protection in the event of accidental exposure. (100397)

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CIS 02-1388 Approved supply list (4th edition) - Information approved for the classification and labelling of substances and preparations dangerous for supply. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Dec. 1998. xii, 329p. Illus. Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-1641-X (In English)

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This document replaces the 3rd edition of the Approved Supply List (see CIS 97-1645). The list is based on Annex 1 of the Dangerous Substances Directive (67/548/EEC, see CIS 92-23) as adapted to technical progress. This version was updated to take into account the 1998 amendments to CHIP. Information provided for each substance in Part I: name and synonyms; CAS number; index number; classification and labelling codes. Part II contains EINECS property descriptions for a large number of substances and substance mixtures, identified by the index and CAS numbers. Part III identifies specific mixtures and isomers listed by index number. Part IV includes LD50 values for commonly used pesticides. Part V contains sample entries, and the definitions of R and S phrases, hazard symbols and explanations of notes. (100086)

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CIS 02-1389 Occupational exposure limits 2001. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2001. vi, 54p. 37 ref. Price: GBP 5.00., ISBN 0-7176-1977-X (In English)

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Update of the list of occupational exposure limits for hazardous substances for use with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (see CIS 00-620). The document contains a description of the various exposure limits and explanatory notes. Tables present long-term (8-hour TWA) and short-term (15min) exposure limits, R phrases and references to guidance documents for each substance as well as biological monitoring guidance values. Previous edition abstracted: CIS 00-1100. (100209)

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CIS 02-1390 Approved supply list (Sixth edition) - Information approved for the classification and labelling of substances and preparations dangerous for supply. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 6th ed., 2000. vi, 401p. Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-1832-3 (In English)

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This sixth edition of the Approved Supply List is for use with the Chemicals (Hazard Information and Packaging for Supply) Regulations 1994 (CHIP 2, see CIS 95-23) and its amendments (latest CHIP 2000). Information is provided on the hazard classification of each substance and labelling requirements (symbols, risk phrases, safety precautions, EC number). An alphabetical listing of substances is included. EINECS descriptions of substances listed by index number as well as mixtures of substances or isomers are. LD50 values are provided for pesticides. Previous edition abstracted: CIS 97-1645. (100210)

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CIS 02-1391 Chemicals: Sampling and assessing strategies (II). (Spanish: Agentes químicos: estrategias de muestreo y valoración (II)) Luna Mendaza P., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 4p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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This information note describes two methods for evaluating daily exposure to chemicals, one based on limited sampling, the other on extensive sampling. Both evaluate the chemical exposure risk with reference to the defined limit values (8-hour TWA). Methods of calculation are explained and practical examples are presented (see also CIS 02-1392). (100211)

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CIS 02-1392 Chemicals: Sampling and assessing strategies (III). (Spanish: Agentes químicos: estrategias de muestreo y valoración (III)) Luna Mendaza P., Bernal Domínguez F., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 8p. Illus. 4 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note describes three methods for evaluating short-term exposure (15 minutes) to chemicals. The first method is based on a comparison of the short-term exposure limit and the second on the simultaneous evaluation of short-term and daily exposure, the latter applying to chemicals for which daily and short-term exposure limits have been defined. The third method applies to chemicals for which there are no defined short-term exposure limits; it is based on standard deviation. Calculation methods are explained and practical examples are presented (see also CIS 02-1391). (100212)

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CIS 02-1393 Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate. Wibbertmann A., Kielhorn J., Koennecker G., Mangelsdorf I., Melber C., International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 48p. Illus. 251 ref. Price: CHF 17.00 (CHF 11.90 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153026-X (In English)

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http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad26.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: Benzoic acid is slightly irritating to the skin and eyes while sodium benzoate is only a slight eye irritant. The acute toxicity of the two substances is low but they are known to cause non-immunological contact reactions (pseudoallergy). Data from animal studies indicate embryotoxic and foetototoxic effects for sodium benzoate. Summaries in French and in Spanish. (100286)

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CIS 02-1394 Inventory of IPCS and other WHO pesticide evaluations and summary of toxicological evaluations performed by the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR). Evaluation through 2000. International Programme on Chemical Safety, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. 67p. 91 ref. (In English)

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This inventory summarizes evaluations of pesticides that have been performed by the Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR), as well as other assessments of pesticides by IPCS and other WHO programmes. The introduction briefly describes the pesticide activities that are summarized in the inventory, and the inventory itself lists relevant documents that have been published and summarizes the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) and provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDI) that have been established by JMPR. (100287)

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CIS 02-1395 Degreasing solvents - Selection criteria and safety and health precautions. (French: Solvants de dégraissage - Critères de choix et mesures de prévention) Falcy M., Triolet J., Petit J.M., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, no date. 4p. Illus. 11 ref. (In French)

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Contents of this safety data sheet on solvents used for degreasing: technical performance criteria (characterization of solvating power according to the area of use); flammability; explosion hazards; health risks (toxic substances, harmful substances, irritants, sensitizers); threshold limit values; labelling; safety and health precautions; recommendations with respect to storage and handling. (100297)

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CIS 02-1396 Cobalt. (French: Le cobalt) Moulin J.J., Schneider O., Vincent R., Dornier G., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2001. 4p. Illus. 9 ref. (In French)

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Contents of this data sheet on safety and health precautions and regulations concerning cobalt: areas of use (metallurgy, in particular the production of hard metal alloys, manufacturing of steel-reinforced rubber goods such as tyres and conveyor belts, the chemical, oil and glass industries, pharmaceuticals); experimental animal toxicology; epidemiology and effects on humans (irritation respiratory diseases, occupational asthma, extrinsic allergic alveolitis, fibrosis); regulations; compensation of occupational diseases; labelling; substitution of cobalt chloride and cobalt sulfate, classified as carcinogenic. (100298)

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CIS 02-1397 Phthalates. (French: Les phtalates) Hervé-Bazin B., Laudet-Hesbert A., Mahieu C., Dornier G., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2001. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. (In French)

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Approximately 3m tons of phthalates are produced worldwide each year. They are mainly used as plasticizers for flexible PVC products such as coated textiles, waterproofing membranes, adhesives, lubricants, electrical cable sheathing, medical products (in particular tubes and pouches for dialysis, transfusion and infusion), toys and floor-covering. Studies carried out during the last ten years have highlighted antifertility and carcinogenic effects of certain phthalates on rodents. This information sheet summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to risks to human health from phthalates. Contents: toxicology (low oral toxicity, non irritant, long-term animal studies showing risks of hepatic tumours and antifertility effects, low risk from inhalation due to the low vapour pressures); European regulations concerning classification and labelling; protective measures; threshold limit values; substitution by higher molecular-weight products. (100300)

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CIS 02-1398 Chemical agents: Sampling and evaluation strategies (I). (Spanish: Agentes químicos: estrategias de muestreo y valoración (I)) Luna Mendaza P., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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This information note describes the sampling methods for evaluating daily exposures to chemicals. Contents: length of time over which the sample is collected and detection limits of the chemical; positioning of the sampling location; minimum number of samples to be collected during each working day; different types of sampling methods (sampling over the whole day, extrapolating the average concentration from partial sampling, random sampling). Examples of calculations are also included. (100313)

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CIS 02-1399 The system used by the German Occupational Accident Insurance Federation for the quantitative analysis of dangerous substances. (German: Berufsgenossenschaftliches Messsystem "Gefahrstoffe" der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 4th ed., Sep. 1999. 44p. Illus. (In German)

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The system BGMG (dangerous substance measuring system developed by the German Occupational Accident Insurance Federation) is used for collecting and documenting, for future analysis, validated measurement data on exposure to dangerous substances in the workplace. It is the result of collaboration between the technical services of the German trade association mutual accident insurance companies (Berufsgenossenchaften) which carry out the measurements and sample collection and their occupational safety institute (BIA) which conducts the analyses. This booklet presents the objectives of the BGMG as well as the various services it offers in the context of this collaboration. (100324)

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CIS 02-1400 Occupational exposure limits 2002. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 106p. 228 ref. Price: GBP 10.50, ISBN 0-7176-2083-2 (In English)

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Latest edition of the annual guidance note (previous version abstracted: CIS 98-426). It lists maximum exposure limits, occupational exposure standards and biological monitoring guidance values for use with the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (see CIS 00-620). Substances currently under review are also listed. Additional sections contain detailed discussions of how to control exposure (setting and applying occupational exposure limits; new limits, reviews and revisions; substances which constitute special cases - carcinogens, respiratory allergens, lead and asbestos, pesticides, exposure in mines); monitoring exposure and mixed exposures. A technical supplement describes changes to the previous edition and provides examples of exposure calculations. Previous edition indexed: CIS 00-1100. (100358)

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CIS 02-1401 What we know about cement today. (French: Le point des connaissances sur les ciments) Courtois B., Lafon D., Moineau J.P., Dornier G., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2002. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. (In French)

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Although statistics have shown a decline during the last 40 years, cement remains the prime cause of occupational contact dermatitis among workers in the building and construction industry. Contents of this information sheet: cement manufacturing processes; risks for humans (skin damage, eye damage, other diseases); preventive measures (gloves, protective creams, reduction by ferrous sulfate of the chromium VI contained in cement and primarily responsible for contact dermatitis); legal aspects. (100392)

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CIS 02-1402 Boron and compounds. (French: Bore et composés) Falcy M., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2rd Quarter 2002, No.135, 5p. 32 ref. (In French)

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Boron is contained in substances used in a wide variety of industries including aerospace, agriculture and detergent manufacture. The most widespread products are inorganic compounds (boron oxide, boric acid and boron halides). Their toxicity primarily affects the nervous system and the kidneys. Boric acid also has reproductive effects, and more specifically antifertility effects. Although less widespread, organic boron compounds (boranes) have a particularly high neurotoxicity. (100398)

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CIS 02-1403 Toxicity associated with municipal waste and its different treatment methods. (French: Toxicité associée aux déchets ménagers et à leurs filières de traitement) Keck G., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2rd Quarter 2002, No.135, 13p. Illus. 32 ref. (In French)

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This article discusses the main aspects of hazards and public health risks due to chemicals associated with various municipal waste treatment methods. Following an overview of incineration, landfill and composting, the main metallic and organic pollutants are discussed, with emphasis on their possible toxicological implications and their concentrations in the various gaseous, liquid or solid waste streams of the waste treatment process. Basic notions of the accumulation of certain pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and cadmium in living organisms and in the food chain, as well as their toxicological consequences, are highlighted. (100399)

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CIS 02-1404 Respirators. (French: Les appareils de protection respiratoire) Guimon M., Travail et sécurité, Jan. 2002, No.614, 4p. Insert. Illus. 1 ref. (In French)

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There is a wide variety of respirator types, suitable for different conditions of intervention or specific working environments. Contents of this safety data sheet: brief summary of the regulatory framework; selection of a suitable respirator as a function of the nature and concentration of the pollutants, degree of protection required and conditions of work and of use; classification of respirators (half-masks, full-mask, helmet, air purifying respirators, self-contained breathing apparatus). (100263)

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CIS 02-1405 Demolition, elimination or maintenance operations involving asbestos-containing materials. Practical examples. (Spanish: Operaciones de demolición, retirada o mantenimiento de materiales con amianto. Ejemplos prácticos) Calleja i Vila A., Hernández i Carrascosa S., Freixa Blanxart A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 4p. Illus. 3 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note describes the most important aspects of removal or maintenance of asbestos-containing materials with the help of practical examples for operations involving asbestos cement ("non-friable") and insulating ("friable") materials in the form of building panels or pipe insulation sheathing. The following aspects are covered: personal protective equipment; working methods; preliminary work; preparing the work area; working area entry and exit procedures; preventive measures to be taken outside the direct working area. (100463)

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CIS 02-1406 Controlling exposure to disinfectants used in the food and drink industries. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 4p. 8 ref. (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fis29.pdf

Although disinfectants used in the food and drink industries are specially selected so that the potential residues are not harmful to the consumer, many affect the skin, eyes or respiratory system and can be harmful if ingested in sufficient quantity. This information sheet provides guidance to employers in the food and drink industries on selecting and using disinfectants safely for workers without compromising food hygiene. Contents include: legal requirements; assessment required under the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1999 (COSHH, see CIS 00-620); hazards of disinfectants; controlling exposure; air monitoring; health surveillance; information and training; washing facilities; emergency procedures. (100139)

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CIS 02-1407 Toxicological data sheets. (French: Fiches toxicologiques) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2002. CD-ROM can be read on Macintosh or PC (Windows 95, 98, NT). (In French)

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CD-ROM including the complete collection of data sheets published by the Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS). These data sheets provide technical and regulatory synthesis of information on hazards related to a product or a group of products. Topics covered by each data sheet: uses; physical and chemical properties; methods of detection and determination in air; fire hazards; pathology and toxicology; current French occupational safety and health regulations in areas of occupational safety and hygiene, protection of the environment and transport; technical and medical recommendations. (Replaces CIS 01-201). (100200)

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[ Top of page ]

006 Fires, explosions and major hazards

CIS 02-1408 The FRAME method for evaluating fire risk. (Spanish: El método FRAME de evaluación del riesgo de incendio) Fuertes Peña J., Rubio Romero J.C., Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2002, No.159, p.52-66. Illus. 13 ref. (In Spanish)

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This article presents the FRAME (Fire risk assessment method for engineering) method for evaluating the risk of fire in buildings as a function of three parameters: the value (building envelope and contents), the occupants and the activities carried out within the building. The calculations take into account the potential hazard, the admissible risk and the level or protection, together with a number of additional factors such as thermal load, propagation, geometry, floors, ventilation, access, activation, evacuation time, contents, reserves in water and fire resistance. (100442)

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CIS 02-1409 Public health risks of railroad hazardous substance emergency events. Orr M.F., Kaye W.E., Zeitz P., Powers M.E., Rosenthal L., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.94-100. 7 ref. (In English)

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The number of events in USA associated with transporting hazardous materials by railroad increased from 84 in 1993 to 177 in 1998. After comparisons of data on railroad and non-railroad events, the results indicated a greater impact of the former on public health, both in injuries to employees and to members of the general public. Railroad event victims were more likely to need hospital treatment. The need is suggested for the reevaluation of current federal regulations and of priorities for the organization of hazardous material transport by rail and for a greater commitment to safety by the railroad industry. (100162)

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CIS 02-1410 Study of the accident that occurred in Toulouse on 21 September 2001. (Spanish: Estudio del accidente ocurrido en Toulouse el 21 de septiembre de 2001) Carol Llopart S., Prevención, Jan.-Mar. 2002, No.159, p.8-17. Illus. 19 ref. (In Spanish)

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This article describes the accidental explosion which occurred in Toulouse, France, on 21 September 2001 in an ammonium nitrate warehouse of a fertilizer plant. The explosion caused 29 fatalities and 650 injuries and was the most severe accident having occurred during the last 25 years in industrialized countries. The information on the cause of the accident not being available at the time of writing, the article reviews similar accidents, describes the physical and chemical properties of ammonium nitrate and analyses the mechanism of the reaction which probably caused the explosion. Finally, it presents a theoretical model of the consequences of accidents based on the explosion behaviour of trinitrotoluene (TNT). (100441)

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CIS 02-1411 The derivation and use of population data for major hazard accident modelling. Mooney J., Walker G., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 109p. Illus. 43 ref. Price: GBP 30.00., ISBN 0-7176-2271-1 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02410.htm

The aim of the project was to identify sources of population data to be used in major accident hazard modelling and quantitative risk assessment (QRA). Requirements include national cover and a level of detail that takes into account the diurnal changes in population patterns. Postcode geography was used as a foundation, enriched by cartographic data, remotely sensed land use data, postcode data, commercial directories and other socio-economic data. The project has shown that significant advances are possible in the quality, diversity and accuracy of population data used in major accident hazard modelling and QRA. The enhanced data can be used for the assessment of pipeline, transport and fixed site risks, for making changes to accident modelling assumptions to reflect variations in population vulnerabilities, for the development of macro-level indicators of changes in population exposure to risk and for the use of data in regulatory impact assessments. (100075)

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CIS 02-1412 LPG-powered industrial trucks - Prevention of fire/explosion risks. (French: Chariots automoteurs au GPL - Prévention des risques incendie/explosion) Lalung-Bonnaire J., Aumas M., Petit J.M., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, no date. 4p. Illus. 9 ref. (In French)

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Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is increasingly used as a fuel for industrial trucks, in particular because of its lower level of polluting emissions when compared with those produced by diesel fuel. The objective of this practical information sheet is to present the safety principles to be followed to avoid fire or explosion risks due to the presence of LPG during maintenance or repair of LPG-powered trucks. Contents: hazards (leaks, bursting of tanks); safety measures to be followed during use; safety measures to be followed during maintenance work; preventive measures in the event of leaks or fires. (100418)

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CIS 02-1413 Safety of pressure systems - Approved Code of Practice. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 66p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 7.50., ISBN 0-7176-1767-X (In English)

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This guidance on the Pressure Systems and Transportable Gas Containers Regulations 2000 and approved Code of Practice replaces that of 1990 (see CIS 92-660), taking into account the revision of the regulations in 2000. Topics covered: interpretation, application and duties; design and construction; provision of information and marking; installation; safe operating limits; written scheme of examination; action in case of imminent danger; operation; maintenance; modification and repair; record-keeping; precautions to prevent the pressurization of certain vessels; cases where pressure systems are supplied through leasing or similar arrangements. Appendices include a decision tree for users or owners and the major applicable safety and health legislation. (100114)

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CIS 02-1414 Warning signs on vessels and piping: Practical applications. (Spanish: Señalización de recipientes y tuberías: aplicaciones prácticas) Pérez Guerrero A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 6 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note concerns the warning signs to be affixed to vessels and piping. It provides several practical examples of labels for the identification of hazards or dangerous substances and describes the colour-coding system used for piping as well as the relevant regulations and standards. (100316)

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007 Electrical safety

CIS 02-1415 Safety in electrical testing at work - General guidance. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 15p. Illus. 25 ref., ISBN 0-7176-2296-7 (In English)

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Injury can occur if live parts are exposed and can be touched, or when metalwork which is meant to be earthed becomes live at a dangerous voltage. The likelihood of touching live parts is increased during electrical testing and faultfinding. This booklet provides guidance on safe electrical testing and is aimed at all persons responsible for workplaces where electrical testing is carried out, as well as at persons doing the actual testing. Contents: types of tests covered; risks of injury; carrying out a risk assessment; managing electrical testing workplaces; setting-up safe test areas; protecting the persons doing the testing; test equipment; safe systems of work; training; qualifications of testers; legal requirements. (100096)

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CIS 02-1416 Protection against static discharges. (Spanish: Protección frente a cargas electrostáticas) Turmo Sierra E., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 8p. Illus. 13 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note covers the topic of static electricity, its hazards and the appropriate preventive measures. Contents: description of static electricity (formation, accumulation, dissipation and discharge); hazards due to static electricity (fire, explosion, discharge, electric shock); preventive measures (earthing, increasing the conductivity of materials or of ambient air, reducing the oxygen concentration or the speed at which the materials are conveyed, installing systems for protecting persons from static discharges, various means of reducing charges caused by contact). (100317)

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[ Top of page ]

008 Physical hazards

CIS 02-1417 Lighting quality recommendations for VDT offices: A new method of derivation. Newsham G.R., Veitch J.A., Lighting Research and Technology, 2001, Vol.33, No.2, p.97-116. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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In an experiment in a mock-up office space, occupants were given control over dimmable lighting circuits after a day working under pseudo-random lighting conditions. Data analysis indicated that the lighting experienced during the day influenced the changes in lighting made at the end of the day. Occupants chose to reduce screen glare if any existed. Even after allowing for the effect of glare, desktop illuminance at day's end varied with the illuminance experienced during the day. Regression of these end-of-day choices relative to the illuminance experienced during the day can yield a preferred illuminance, equivalent to the daytime illuminance at which no change was preferred at day's end. Using this method, preferred illuminance in the range 200-500 lux and luminance ratio were derived. The deviation between participants' lighting preferences and the lighting they experienced during the day was a significant predictor of participant mood and satisfaction. The article is followed by comments by other experts in the field (D.J. Carter and P.Boyce), together with reactions to these comments by the authors. (100025)

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CIS 02-1418 Low-vibration fork-lift trucks. (French: Pour des chariots élévateurs moins vibrants) Gauthier F., Travail et sécurité, Sep. 2001, No.610, p.12-17. Illus. (In French)

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Drivers of power trucks are exposed to vibrations, which cause backache and inter-vertebral disk hernia. This article describes work undertaken by the mechanical prevention systems modelling laboratory of the French National Research and Safety Institute (INRS) aimed at reducing these vibrations. Test benches for testing cab suspensions, seats and tyres were designed and set up, and a numerical modelling calculation system was developed and applied for estimating vibration levels in the driver cab. Other topics covered: regulations concerning the compensation of chronic lumbar column diseases caused by vibrations, draft "vibrations" directive on the minimal safety and health requirements for the exposure of workers to physical agents (vibrations), according to which permissible values (8-hour average) would be 0.6m/s2 for whole-body vibration, with a threshold limit value of 1.15m/s2. (100295)

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CIS 02-1419 Effects of vibrations at the workplace - Hazard evaluation and prevention. (German: Vibrationseinwirkung an Arbeitsplätzen - Gefährdungsbeurteilung und Prävention) Christ E., Die BG, May 2002, No.5, p.225-232. Illus. 24 ref. (In German)

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Vibrations caused by hand tools (hand-arm vibrations) and mobile equipment (whole-body vibrations) can give rise to musculoskeletal, muscular, neurological, circulatory and spinal diseases. A European directive on the protection against hazards from vibrations will soon come into effect. In this context, the German Directive VDI 2057 on the evaluation of hazards due to exposure to vibrations has been amended, along with the associated requirements and standards. This article comments the draft European directive and discusses the main changes to the VDI 2057 Directive. (100349)

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CIS 02-1420 Whole-body vibration exposure and its role in the aetiology of backache. (French: L'exposition à des vibrations globales du corps et son rôle dans l'étiologie des maux de dos) Boileau P.E., Travail et santé, Mar. 2002, Vol.18, No.1, p.31-35. 18 réf. (In French)

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This article presents an updated review of published syntheses of epidemiological studies that attempt to establish the relationship between whole-body vibration exposure and the occurrence of low back pain and spinal disorders. The problems associated with the identification of a dose-response relationship are discussed and the vibration exposure limits or reference values adopted in several countries are presented and compared with those originating from a European Union Directive currently under discussion regarding the health hazards associated with exposure to physical agents. Finally, the criteria applied in countries such as Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany and France for the recognition of spinal disorders as an occupational disease resulting from whole-body vibration exposure are presented and compared on the basis of a case study involving a woman forklift truck driver. (100395)

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CIS 02-1421 Effects of electric field reduction in visual display units on skin symptoms. Skulberg K.R., Skyberg K., Eduard W., Goffeng L.O., Vistnes A.I., Levy F., Kjuus H., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.140-145. 21 ref. (In English)

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120 office workers in 11 companies with reported facial skin complaints were randomly selected for this double blind study. Static electric fields surrounding visual display unit were reduced in the intervention group but not in the control group. The intervention group reported significantly fewer facial skin complaints than did the control group. The specified intervention can probably help reduce facial skin complaints in workers in offices with high dust concentrations. (100157)

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CIS 02-1422 Evaluation of the hazards from exposure to optical radiation sources - CatRayon: Interactive computerized catalogue. (French: Evaluation des risques relatifs aux sources de rayonnement optique - CatRayon: catalogue informatisé interactif) Barlier A., Salsi S., Kingler S., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.180, p.37-48. Illus. 17 ref. (In French)

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This article presents "CatRayon", an interactive computerized catalogue used for the assessment of the risks linked to the use of optical radiation sources. It comprises a database of about 400 sources such as general-purpose lamps, lamps for specific use, and industrial sources (furnaces, welding arcs, etc.). Risk assessment is based on the exposure limits proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and takes into account user-defined conditions of use including the position of the source, the exposure distance, and the daily period of exposure. For extended sources, the corresponding configuration factor is determined by means of a finite element method. The results supplied are the spectral ranges presenting a risk, a description of the corresponding physiological effects, and the variation in the risk indexes in relation to the distance or duration of exposure. (100383)

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CIS 02-1423 Leukaemia mortality in relation to magnetic field exposure: Findings from a study of United Kingdom electricity generation and transmission workers, 1973-97. Harrington J.M., Nichols L., Sorahan T., van Tongeren M., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.58, No.5, p.307-314. 14 ref. (In English)

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To investigate whether risks of leukaemia are related to occupational exposure to magnetic fields, the mortality of cohort of 83,997 employees of the Central Electricity Generating Board of England and Wales was investigated for the period 1973-97. All were employed for at least 6 months in the period 1973-82. Computerized work histories were available for 79,972 subjects for the period 1971-93. Based on mortalities for England and Wales, the standardized mortality ratio of 84 for all leukaemias (observed 111, expected 132.3) was similar to that of 83 for all causes (observed 14 845, expected 17 918). No significant positive trends were found for the risks of various types of leukaemia (chronic lymphatic leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia, all leukaemia) either with lifetime cumulative exposure to magnetic fields or with such exposures received in the most recent 5 years. In conclusion, there are no discernible excess risks of leukaemia as a consequence of occupational exposure to magnetic fields in United Kingdom electricity generation and transmission workers. (100007)

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CIS 02-1424 Pregnancy outcome following exposure to shortwaves among female physiotherapists in Israel. Lerman Y., Jacubovich R., Green M.S., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, May 2001, Vol.39, No.5, p.499-504. 12 ref. (In English)

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To study the possible association between short-wave diathermy use by pregnant physiotherapists and adverse pregnancy outcomes, individualized data on exposure to short-wave radiation, ultrasound, and heavy lifting were collected by questionnaires and telephone interviews with 434 female physiotherapists in Israel. The subjects had 930 pregnancies: 175 ended in spontaneous abortions, 45 had foetal malformations, 47 were delivered prematurely, and 33 infants had low birth weight. The remaining 630 normal pregnancies comprised the control group. After controlling for potential confounding variables, it was found that exposure to short-wave radiation was associated with a statistically significant increased odds ratio (O.R.) of low birth weight (O.R. 2.75). This effect increased in a dose-related manner. From the potentially confounding variables tested, febrile disease during pregnancy was found to be significantly associated with low birth weight (O.R. 3.37). The findings suggest that short-wave radiation have potentially harmful effects on pregnancy outcome, specifically low birth weight. (100015)

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CIS 02-1425 Breast cancer, occupation, and exposure to electromagnetic fields among Swedish men. Pollán M., Gustavsson P., Floderus B., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.39, No.3, p.276-285. 52 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to estimate the risks of breast cancer in men exposed to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields (ELFMFs). Standardized incidence ratios were computed for the period 1971-1989 among Swedish men (25-59 years of age) who were employed in 1970. A consistent excess risk was found for machinery repair personnel and increased relative risks also for a few other professions, although based on very few cases. There was no clear evidence for an aetiological role of ELFMFs in the development of breast cancer in male workers. (100144)

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CIS 02-1426 Exposure to electromagnetic fields, its measurement and evaluation using "FieldDB". (German: Exposition gegenüber elektromagnetischen Feldern, ihre Erfassung und Bewertung in "FieldDB") Goltz S., Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, 2000, No.3, p.9-10. (In German)

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"FieldDB" is a user-friendly computer application for data entry, archiving, research, evaluation and presentation of complex data obtained when measuring exposure to electromagnetic radiation at the workplace or in the environment. It is related to a database and allows a statistical evaluation of current and future hazards to health arising from exposure to electromagnetic fields. (100323)

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CIS 02-1427 Risk of hand-arm vibration syndrome according to occupation and sources of exposure to hand-transmitted vibration: A national survey. Palmer K.T., Griffin M.J., Syddall H., Pannett B., Cooper C., Coggon D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.4, p.389-396. 41 ref. (In English)

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A questionnaire on hand-transmitted vibration (HTV) was mailed to a general-population sample of 12,240 men aged 16-64 years and to 906 men from the armed forces, all in the United Kingdom. Questions covered current occupation, sources of HTV, numbness or tingling in the fingers in the past week, and finger blanching. Among the 5,364 respondents who had been at work in the past week, 513 (10%) reported cold-induced finger blanching and 769 (14%) sensory symptoms in the fingers. The risk of blanching was increased in builders (prevalence ratio (PR) 2.4), carpenters and joiners (PR 1.9), motor mechanics (PR 2.3), and labourers (PR 2.8). The risk of sensory symptoms was elevated in labourers (PR 4.0) and plant operatives (PR 3.5). Use of hand-guided mowers, concrete breakers, chain saws and jig saws was significantly associated with symptoms. (100368)

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CIS 02-1428 Positive reform of tuna farm diving in South Australia in response to government intervention. Whyte P., Doolette D.J., Gorman D.F., Craig D.S., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.124-128. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

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Most of the tuna harvested in South Australia since 1990 involves the use of divers. From 1993 to 1995, 17 divers from this industry were treated for decompression illness (DCI). In response, the State Government introduced corrective strategies. A decrease in the number of divers presenting for treatment was subsequently recorded. Consequently, the hypothesis was tested that the government intervention resulted in a decrease in the incidence of DCI in the industry and an improved clinical outcome of divers with DCI. The incidence of treated DCI in tuna farm divers was estimated from the number of divers with DCI treated and the number of dives undertaken extrapolated from a survey of the industry in 1997-8. General health was measured in the tuna farm diving population by a valid and reliable self-assessment questionnaire. The outcome of the divers treated for DCI was analysed with a modified clinical severity scoring system. Results show that the apparent incidence of treated DCI has effectively decreased in tuna farm divers since the government intervention. (100005)

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CIS 02-1429 Changes over time in audiometric thresholds in a group of automobile stamping and assembly workers with a hearing conservation program. Brink L.L., Talbott E.O., Burks J.A., Palmer C.V., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.482-487. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

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Noise-induced hearing loss afflicts millions of persons who work in noise above 85dBA. In this study of 301 workers at an automobile assembly plant, measurements were used to construct average lifetime noise exposure and hearing protection compliance estimates for use in modelling to predict total hearing loss and the onset of hearing loss. 16 subjects were found to have hearing loss at the speech frequencies (defined as an average hearing level ≥25dB at 500, 1000 and 2000Hz). In cross-sectional multivariate analyses, years of employment, male sex and proportion of time wearing hearing protection were the factors most associated with hearing loss at the average of 2000, 3000 and 4000Hz. The most consistent predictor of hearing loss in both univariate and multivariate analyses was percentage of time having used hearing protection during the workers' tenure. (100410)

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CIS 02-1430 Whole-body vibration exposure study in U.S. railroad locomotives - An ergonomic risk assessment. Johanning E., Fischer S., Christ E., Göres B., Landsbergis P., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.439-446. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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Whole-body vibration exposure of locomotive engineers and the vibration attenuation of seats in 22 locomotives built between 1959 and 2000 was studied using international measurement guidelines. Triaxial vibration measurements on the seat and on the floor were compared. In addition to the basic vibration evaluation, the vector sum, the maximum transient vibration value, the vibration dose value and the vibration seat effective transmissibility factor were calculated. The power spectral densities were also reported. It was found that locomotive rides are characterized by relatively high shock content (acceleration peaks) of the vibration signal in all directions. Locomotive vertical and lateral vibrations are similar, which appears to be characteristic for rail vehicles compared with many road and off-road vehicles. Tested locomotive cab seats currently in use (new or old) appear inadequate to reduce potentially harmful vibration and shocks transmitted to the seated operator, and older seats particularly lack basic ergonomic features regarding adjustability and postural support. (100406)

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CIS 02-1431 Checking of sound emission values. Probst W., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 102p. Illus. 19 ref. Price: EUR 11.50., ISBN 3-89701-375-4 (In English)

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The Machinery Directive requires manufacturers to inform users of the noise emission characteristics of their products. Noise measurements are carried out according to procedures defined in a number of standards. In practice, however, the procedures described are not always applicable and the results obtained differ according to the standardized method used. In this study, the accuracy of a series of ISO 11200 standards (see CIS 97-266) was examined using a motor vehicle as the sound source. Based on the acoustic pressure levels measured in the open and on different industrial premises at 94 points on an enveloping surface, the noise emission levels and their deviations with respect to the true values were determined for each of the standards. It was found that ISO 11204 and ISO 11205 gave the most accurate results. A similar examination with ISO 3747 made it possible to formulate proposals with respect to the optimal positioning of noise sources and microphones. (100326)

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CIS 02-1432 Development of effective structures for improving occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized companies taking the examples of noise reduction and ergonomics. (German: Präventive Arbeitsschutzstrukturen für Klein- und Mittelbetriebe am Beispiel Lärmbehinderung und Ergonomie) Barth C., Hamacher W., Stoll R., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 335p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: EUR 25.50., ISBN 3-89701-658-3 (In German)

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Through an analysis of practical cases in small firms in various industries, the objective of this study was to examine organizational factors responsible for levels of noise and physical strain detrimental to the health of employees, as well as the structural causes of the lax application of legal requirements with respect to noise levels and the ergonomic design of workplaces. Based on these elements, effective safety and health organizational structures are proposed. Safety and health considerations need to be integrated into the company's management and organization as well as in its operating procedures, and must equally be based on internal knowledge and on external expert advice. Five recommendations for the development of an integrated safety and health management system are proposed. (100328)

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CIS 02-1433 IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Non-ionizing radiation, part 1: Static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields. World Health Organization (WHO), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France 2002. ix, 429p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index., ISBN 92-832-1280-0 (In English)

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Report of an IARC working group on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans from exposure to static and extremely low-frequency (ELF) electric and magnetic fields held in Lyon, France, 19-26 June 2001. Contents: general introduction and definitions; ELF sources, exposure and exposure assessment; studies of cancer in humans; studies of carcinogenicity in experimental animals; other data relevant to the evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary and evaluation of reported data. It is concluded that ELF magnetic fields are possibly carcinogenic in humans (group 2B), and that static and ELF electric fields are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (group 3). (100079)

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CIS 02-1434 Hand-arm vibration. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., 2001. iv, 64p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: GBP 7.50., ISBN 0-7176-0743-7 (In English)

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This guidance document on the identification and control of hand-arm vibration hazards replaces an earlier edition (see CIS 94-2093). The main changes result from the introduction of the Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1994 (see CIS 96-410), which require that all suppliers of hand-held power tools provide information for users on vibration values. Contents: overview of vibration hazards and control programmes (injuries, factors contributing to risk, risk assessment, prevention programmes, health surveillance programmes, machinery suppliers); technical ways to reduce vibration; clinical effects and the health surveillance programme; measuring hand-arm vibration. In appendices: purchasing new tools and equipment; objective test methods for diagnosis of hand-arm vibration syndrome; health surveillance questionnaire and guidance notes. (100357)

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009 Mechanical hazards, transport

CIS 02-1435 Victims of road accidents - EPICEA analyses 1901 fatal accidents involving employees during the course of their work. (French: EPICEA étudie 1901 accidents mortels survenus à des salariés en mission) Tissot C., Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2001, No.611, p.32-35. Illus. (In French)

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The 1901 fatal road accidents that occurred in France between 1990 and 1997, excluding commuting accidents, were analysed. The scope of the study included light vehicles, trucks, motorized two-wheelers and bicycles. Victims included drivers and passengers of vehicles as well as pedestrians who were knocked down by vehicles. Data are presented by sector of activity, level of responsibility of the victim, type of vehicle and company size. A typological classification into nine risk classes is proposed. (100262)

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CIS 02-1436 An economic framework for assessing the impact of injuries in professional football. Drawer S., Fuller C.W., Safety Science, Aug. 2002, Vol.40, No.6, p.537-556. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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Injury rates in professional football are several orders of magnitude higher than those reported in other occupations. A major risk for clubs arises from players being unavailable for selection through injury, with the possible effect that this may have on the clubs' playing and financial performances. A statistically-based risk management model was developed, using four relationships involving the parameters of team-quality, team-performance, club-turnover and club-salary. The model was based on data from 91 league clubs in English professional football over the seasons 1993/1994 - 1997/1998. The model was shown to describe and assess the impact of injuries on the club's playing and financial performances. It is proposed that the model be used as a basis for cost-benefit analyses of injury prevention strategies in professional football. It may also be applicable within other organizational settings for assessing the costs of accidents and for use in cost benefit analyses. (100067)

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CIS 02-1437 The effectiveness of lap straps as seat restraints on tractors in the event of overturning. Edwards M.J., Neale M., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2000. iv, 29p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-1909-5 (In English)

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The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER, see CIS 99-1429) requires an employer in Great Britain to fit seat restraints to tractors. Two-point lap belts are the only means of providing this protection in retrofitted existing tractors, since the fitting of restraints such as a three-point harness would involve drilling or welding fittings to the safety cab, which is illegal unless approved by the original manufacturer. In order to develop a better understanding of the effectiveness of lap straps, a numerical model of a overturning tractor was developed and used to provide a comparative analysis of the likely injuries to a restrained and unrestrained operator for a number of overturning scenarios. The model was based on the dimensions of a commercially-available tractor, which was also used for the validation tests. It was found that the body regions most likely to be injured would be the head and neck due to impact with the cab interior and, in addition, the lumbar spine for the restrained operator. (100111)

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CIS 02-1438 Construction site safety - Case United States. Koota J., VTT Information Service, PO Box 2000, FIN-02044 VTT, Finland, 2001. 39p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: EUR 28.00 + VAT., ISBN 951-38-5931-2 (In English)

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http://www.vtt.fi/inf/pdf/tiedotteet/2001/T2120.pdf

In recent years, considerable efforts have been taken to increase safety at work on construction sites. The aim of this literature survey was to provide a survey of safety culture as practices in the construction industry in the United States. Topics covered: safety legislation; cost of accidents; safety culture in the company; safety performance measures; areas where safety problems persist in the construction industry. (100090)

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CIS 02-1439 Study of accidents involving falls from heights in the building industry and recommendations for their prevention. (German: Untersuchung von Absturzunfällen bei Hochbauarbeiten und Empfehlung von Maßnahmen zu deren Verhütung) Schüler T., Röbenack K.D., Steinmetzger R., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 120p. Illus. 13 ref. Price: EUR 13.50., ISBN 3-89701-696-6 (In German)

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Between 1991 and 1997, there were 778 fall accidents in the building industry in the new German States (Länder) of Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt and Thuringia, representing 10.6% of the building industry accidents. This report consists of a statistical analysis of the causes of these accidents. Tables present the breakdown by cause, workplace, type of construction work and height of the fall. Falls from scaffolds were the most frequent, followed by falls from ladders. Falls through apertures and falls following the collapse of the construction were the most serious. Almost 80% of the falls occurred from a height below 3m; these included 65% of the serious accidents and 30% of the fatal accidents. A number of preventive measures are recommended. Detailed summary in English and French. (100108)

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CIS 02-1440 Designing or modifying supply-chain warehouses. (French: Créer ou réaménager une plate-forme logistique) Duchet M., Jannin B., Charvolin M., Hughes J., Terrier C., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, no date. 6p. Illus. 20 ref. (In French)

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This practical safety data sheet brings together the main elements to be taken into consideration when designing supply-chain warehouses so as to minimize the risks of accidents from vehicles and traffic, power trucks and storage systems, and during manual handling. Recommendations are made for each module of the warehouse, namely: common areas and offices; co-manufacturing and packing area; packaging area; transit, grouping and splitting area; storage area; technical utilities building and out-door surrounding areas. (100299)

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CIS 02-1441 Automatically-guided vehicles (AGVs) - Pressure-sensitive protection devices - Standards and regulations, design, selection criteria. (French: Véhicules à guidage automatique (VGA) - Dispositifs de protection sensibles à la pression - Normes et réglementation, conception, critères de choix) Dei-Svaldi D., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.180, p.5-19. Illus. 8 ref. (In French)

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Pressure-sensitive bumpers are among the devices used to prevent the risk of collision between workers and automatically guided vehicles. Described in draft standard prEN 1760-3, they are, however, not standard components adapted to every situation but custom-built devices specific to the vehicle and its use. This paper proposes a summary of the known data (regulations and standards) and data stemming from the experience of a wide range of users. Numerous examples of existing systems are given to illustrate the selection approach proposed to users and the technical data intended for designers. An appendix presents an overview of the standardization work currently in progress. (100381)

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CIS 02-1442 Guarding machinery against mechanical hazards: Machine guards. (Spanish: Protección de máquinas frente a peligros mecánicos: resguardos) Piqué Ardanuy T., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 7p. Illus. 5ref. (In Spanish)

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Contents of this information note on the guarding against mechanical hazards due to machinery: different types of guards (fixed, mobile, adjustable); selection criteria; general requirements that need to be fulfilled by guards; dimensions and safe distances. Tables showing the minimum safe distances for different parts of the body that could be subject to injury when working with or inspecting machinery are provided, along with practical examples. (100312)

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CIS 02-1443 Control of ground movement in mines: The Mines (Control of Ground Movement) Regulations 1999. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 1999. iv, 17p. Price: GBP 6.00., ISBN 0-7176-2498-6 (In English)

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This approved Code of Practice gives the text of, and practical guidance on, the Mines (Control of Ground Movement) Regulations 1999 (see CIS 00-1513) and makes reference to other regulations applicable in the mining industry. (100082)

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CIS 02-1444 Packaging machinery: Safeguarding thermoform, fill and seal machines. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 4p. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fis26.pdf

Thermoform, fill and seal machines are used in a wide range of industries. Nearly 50 serious accidents occurred on these machines between 1997 and 2001 in the United Kingdom. One third of these accidents were major injuries involving broken bones or amputations. This information sheet provides guidance on safeguarding both existing and new machinery and is based on European and British Standard BS EN 415-3:2000. Contents include: hazards; safeguarding requirements for new machines and for existing machines; safe methods of work; maintenance and troubleshooting. (100136)

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CIS 02-1445 Packaging machinery: Safeguarding palletisers and depalletisers. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 4p. 16 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fis27.pdf

Between 1997 and 2002, there were 30 cases of serious accidents on palletizers and depalletizers in the United Kingdom. Most accidents happen when operators or maintenance personnel enter the machine and become trapped between fixed and moving parts. This information sheet provides guidance on safeguarding palletizers and depalletizers to meet the requirements of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations (PUWER, see CIS 99-1429), the Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992 (SMR) and BS EN 415-4:1998 Safety of packaging Machines - Part 4: Palletisers and Depalletisers. Contents include: hazards; safeguarding methods (electrosensitive protective equipment, interlocked guards, fixed guards); maintenance of machinery safeguards; safeguarding requirements for new and existing machines. (100137)

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CIS 02-1446 Packaging machinery: Safeguarding pre-formed rigid container packaging machines. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 4p. 15 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fis28.pdf

Between 1997 and 2001, there were 45 cases of serious accidents on machines that pack products into preformed rigid containers in the United Kingdom. The main hazards are mechanical, with moving parts giving rise to shearing, puncture, cutting and entanglement injuries. This information sheet provides guidance on safeguarding pre-formed rigid container packaging machines to meet the requirements of the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER, see CIS 99-1429) and of the British and European Standard BS EN 415-2: 2000 - Safety of packaging Machines - Part 2: Pre-formed rigid container packaging machines. Contents include: hazards; new and existing machinery; safeguards for mechanical hazards; safeguards for other hazards (electrical, thermal, noise, radiation, chemicals); machine-specific safeguards. (100138)

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CIS 02-1447 Preventing falls from height in the food and drink industries. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 4p. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/pubns/fis30.pdf

There are approximately 750 accidents involving falls from heights reported each year in the food and drink industry in the United Kingdom. This information sheet provides guidance on preventing falls from heights in these industries. It analyses where the falls occur, why they occur and how they can be prevented. Summaries of 14 actual fall accidents are provided, including the subsequent corrective measures that were undertaken. (100140)

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CIS 02-1448 Fire fighter deaths from tanker truck rollovers. Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Dec. 2001. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/hid14.html

Mobile water supply vehicles, known as tankers or tenders, are widely used to transport water to areas beyond a water supply system or where the water supply is inadequate. Tanker trucks are more difficult to control than passenger vehicles. During 1977-1999, 73 deaths of firefighters occurred in 63 crashes involving tankers. Of those deaths, 54 occurred in crashes in which tankers rolled over and 8 in crashes in which the tankers left the road. Contents of this information note on firefighter deaths from tanker truck rollovers: risk factors; description of 2 accident cases; recommendations for prevention. (100087)

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CIS 02-1449 Railways (Safety Case) Regulations 2000 including 2001 amendments - Guidance on regulations. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, rev. ed., 2001. iv, 73p. 35 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2127-8 (In English)

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This publication is aimed at managers, safety advisers and safety representatives of railway operators, including owners of infrastructure, train operators and station operators. It contains Health and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance on the Railways (Safety Case) Regulations 2000 as amended by the Railway Safety (Miscellaneous Amendments) Regulations 2001. They require all operators to prepare a comprehensive safety plan ("safety case"), covering the safety an health of all staff and the public, They replace the 1994 regulations (see CIS 94-1757). The main changes are that the function of accepting and safety plans now rests with the HSE, safety audits by independent external bodies are required, and risk assessment needs to be done in greater detail. (100360)

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[ Top of page ]

010 Biological hazards

CIS 02-1450 Occupational asthma caused by bacillary amylase used in the detergent industry. Hole A.M., Draper A., Jolliffe G., Cullinan P., Jones M., Taylor A.J.N., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.840-842. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

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Four cases are reported of occupational asthma due to an enzyme (amylase), used in detergent washing powders. All four employees (men) were from the same factory and developed symptoms that improved during periods away from work. All undertook serial allergy tests and specific bronchial provocation testing. These patients developed occupational asthma despite working only with encapsulated enzymes in the detergent washing powders. (100184)

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CIS 02-1451 Comparison of endotoxin assays using agricultural dusts. Reynolds S.J., Thorne P.S., Donham K.J., Croteau E.A., Kelly K.M., Lewis D., Whitmer M., Heederik D.J.J., Douwes J., Connaughton I., Koch S., Malmberg P., Larsson B.M., Milton D.K., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, July-Aug. 2002, Vol.63, No.4, p.430-438. Illus. 46 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to compare endotoxin analyses in laboratories using Limulus-based assays for analysis of organic dusts in three agricultural environments: chicken barns, swine barns and corn processing facilities. Precision of assays performed within laboratories was good, with pooled coefficients of variation for replicate samples ranging from 1 to 11% over all laboratories and dust types. There were significant differences among laboratories for all three dust types. The pattern of differences between laboratories varied by dust type. For chicken dust, laboratories using the endpoint method reported higher results than those using kinetic methods. For swine and corn dusts, laboratories using the kinetic method reported the highest endotoxin values. Statistical differences in performance between laboratories may be related to extraction and analysis methods. These findings will be useful for the standardization of sampling and analysis of airborne endotoxin in agriculture. (100405)

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CIS 02-1452 Occupational risk of infection by varicella zoster virus in Belgian healthcare workers: A seroprevalence study. Vandersmissen G., Moens G., Vranckx R., de Schryver A., Jacques P., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sep. 2000, Vol.57, No.9, p.621-626. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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The presence of varicella zoster virus (VZV, chickenpox) antibodies was investigated in health care personnel in Belgian hospitals. The prevalence of VZV seropositivity was 98.5%. Seronegative workers were significantly fewer among nursing than among non-nursing staff. Because of this low overall susceptibility, VZV infection seems not to be an important occupational risk among healthcare workers. A negative history of chickenpox had no value as a predictor of susceptibility in adults. (100178)

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CIS 02-1453 Short term exposure to airborne microbial agents during farm work: Exposure-response relations with eye and respiratory symptoms. Eduard W., Douwes J., Mehl R., Heederik D., Melbostad E., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.113-118. 29 ref. (In English)

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Airborne exposure to microbial agents of 106 Norwegian farmers and their spouses was measured while carrying out specific tasks. Fungal spores, bacteria, endotoxins, β(1-3)-glucans, fungal antigens specific for Penicillium and Aspergillus species, and mites were measured by methods not based on microbial cultures. Also silica, inorganic and organic dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen dioxide were measured. Respiratory, nose and eye symptoms experienced during measurements were recorded by a short questionnaire. Prevalences of work related symptoms were: wheezing 3%; chest tightness 7%; cough 14%; eye symptoms 18%; nose symptoms 22%. Prevalence ratios for nose and eye symptoms were 4-8 after exposure to 20-500x103 fungal spores/m3 and higher, and a prevalence ratio for cough was 4 after exposure to 500-17,000x103 fungal spores/m3. Nose symptoms were also associated with exposure to silica with prevalence ratios of 4-6 after exposure to 0.015-0.075mg/m3 and higher. (100003)

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CIS 02-1454 Study of the applicability of normal chemical plant safety checks to biotechnology plants. (German: Untersuchung der Übertragbarkeit der in chemischen Anlagen üblichen Sicherheitsbetrachtung auf biotechnische Anlagen) Barth U., Hesener U., Kaufmann M., Blum C., Wörsdörfer K., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 215p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: EUR 18.00., ISBN 3-89701-786-5 (In German)

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This report proposes an approach for testing the safety of biotechnology plants, based on the German Regulation for Hazardous Substances "Safety Technology" (Technische Regeln für Gefarhstoffe "Sicherheitstechnik", TRGS 300). It takes into account the specific aspects of biological substances as well as the working procedures of the biotechnology industry. Reference is made to current legal requirements in Germany. The validity of the approach is illustrated by reference to several of examples of plants and working procedures. The specific case of genetic engineering is discussed. Detailed summary in English and French. (100103)

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CIS 02-1455 Selection of work processes and equipment for biotechnological laboratories. (German: Auswahl von Arbeitsverfahren und Ausrüstungsgegenständen für biotechnische Laboratorien) Danneberg G., Tichy H.V., Simon R., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. viii, 149p. 54 ref. Price: EUR 15.00., ISBN 3-89701-647-8 (In German)

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This study examines operating procedures and equipment used in biotechnology laboratories in terms of their ability to offer a maximum degree of protection to workers against hazards from exposure to biological substances. Standard scenarios applicable to laboratory work were developed and their frequency of use was determined by means of a questionnaire. For the most frequent work procedures, a description and an evaluation of each step is presented, along with the specific corresponding hazards. Modifications of the procedures aimed at minimizing the risks and taking into account currently-available equipment and instruments are proposed. The study highlights gaps in the area of the evaluation of aerosols formed during many procedures and in data concerning the survival capacity of biological products in ambient conditions in laboratories. Further work in these areas is warranted. (100327)

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CIS 02-1456 Methods for reducing the release of microorganisms during lifting processes by refuse collection vehicles. (German: Methoden zur Minderung der Keimfreisetzung bei Schüttvorgängen an Abfallsammelfahrzeugen) Becker G., Lohmeyer M., Mathys W., Neumann H.D., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 131p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: EUR 13.50., ISBN 3-89701-773-3 (In German)

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The objective of this study was to evaluate garbage truck designs and methods of work aimed at reducing the exposure of garbage collectors to microorganisms. Breathing air was analysed for bioaerosols. Vehicle design parameters studied included the type of compaction system (packer plates or rotating drums), rave rail height, intake hopper depth, body design and closure system (curtain or hinged lid). A prototype suction-type aerosol interceptor was evaluated with inconclusive results, requiring further development work. Several truck design factors and lifting device types resulted in reduced levels of microbial emission. The importance of regular high-pressure water-jet cleaning of the lifting device at fortnightly intervals in stressed. Detailed summary in English and French. (100102)

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CIS 02-1457 Risks of microbial exposure to employees during the collection and transport of garbage. (German: Gefährdung von Beschäftigten bei der Abfallsammlung und -abfuhr durch Keimexpositionen) Neumann H.D., Mathys W., Raulf-Heimsoth M., Becker G., Balfanz J., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 243p. Illus. 77 ref. Price: EUR 22.50., ISBN 3-89701-676-1 (In German)

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The objective of this project was to assess the impact of separate garbage collection and handling on garbage collectors. The exposure to fungal spores, bacteria and endotoxins was determined during waste collection. The state of health of garbage collectors exposed and unexposed to organic waste was assessed by occupational health physicians. It was found that garbage collectors are generally exposed to relatively high levels of microbial emissions. However, only a small number of cases of ill health was found, and a relation between exposure and health status could not be established. Furthermore, there was no indication that the collection of organic waste involved higher health risks for garbage collectors. Several recommendations are made for reducing exposure. Detailed summary in English and French. (100109)

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CIS 02-1458 Anthrax: Stay informed. Industrial Safety News, National Safety Council, Plot No.98A, Sector 15, CBD Belapur, Navi Mumbai 400 614, India, Sep.-Oct. 2001,Vol.33, No.9 & 10, p.1-3. Illus. 3 ref. (In English)

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Anthrax has gained attention with the recent threat of being used as a biological weapon; this article reviews the precautions to be taken and the treatment available. Anthrax is primarily an infectious disease of cattle caused by spores of the bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The spores are highly resistant to inactivation and may be present in the soil even after decades. Occupational exposure to anthrax occurs among workers in contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products (hides, skin, hair, wool, horn, hooves, etc.) which harbour spores. Human infection occurs by cutaneous exposure (cutaneous anthrax) or by inhalation (pulmonary anthrax). The mortality rate of cutaneous anthrax is of 20% whereas that of pulmonary anthrax is of 80% or even higher. The former can usually successfully be treated with antibiotics, the latter by ciprofloxacin. The only known effective prevention against anthrax is vaccination. Protective measures applying to workers are cited. (100089)

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CIS 02-1459 Legionella at the workplace. (French: Les légionnelles en milieu de travail) Balty I., Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Dornier G., Travail et sécurité, Oct. 2001, No.611, 4p. Insert. Illus. 3 ref. (In French)

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Legionella are bacteria that are frequently encountered in wet environments. Thus, they are naturally present in waterways, lakes and occasionally in soil. They proliferate in hot water systems, certain industrial cooling systems and air-conditioning systems, and can give rise to epidemics or isolated cases of legionellosis. Contents of this information note on the prevention of legionella at the place of work: risks to humans; regulations; protective measures. (100261)

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CIS 02-1460 Infection control guidance for health care workers in health care facilities and other institutional settings - Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). (French: Guide de prévention des infections pour les travailleurs de la santé dans les établissements de soins et autres établissements: Syndrome respiratoire aigu sévère (SRAS)) Health Canada, Internet document, 2003. 6p. (In English, French)

Internet:
http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pphb-dgspsp/sars-sras/ic-ci/sars-icg-hcwotherinst_e.html

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/pphb-dgspsp/sars-sras/ic-ci/sars-icg-hcwotherinst_f.html

This fact sheet was developed to assist health care workers in the prevention of the transmission of SARS in institutions where patients suspected of having or diagnosed with the disease are being cared for. Contents: patient triage; hand washing; wearing of masks for eye and face protection; wearing of gloves and gowns; guidelines for patient accommodation; patient transport within the facility and between institutions; disinfection of patient care equipment; environmental control; avoidance of aerosol-generating procedures; post-mortem care. (100085)

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CIS 02-1461 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Isolation and infection control. Internet document, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, 2003. 16p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/sars/ic.htm

A set of interim guidelines published with the aim of reducing the risk if infection by SARS for people occupationally exposed to the disease, in particular in a health care and air travel setting. Individual fact sheets are devoted to the protection of workers in the following areas: health care workers in close contact with SARS patients; cleaners of commercial aircraft following a flight with a passenger with suspected SARS; workers exposed to SARS patients in healthcare and other institutional settings; workers exposed to human remains (bodies) of SARS patients; specific guidelines devoted to aerosol-generating procedures on patients with suspected SARS; laboratory biosafety guidelines for handling and processing specimens associated with SARS. (100091)

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CIS 02-1462 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) - Health information and advisories. Internet document, Ministry of Health, Republic of Singapore, 2003. 22p. Illus. (In English)

Internet:
http://app.moh.gov.sg/sar/sar07.asp

Collection of information sheets on the prevention of infection SARS in various occupational settings, such as: workplaces with foreign workers (particularly from countries with many diagnosed cases of SARS); management of commercial buildings and apartment complexes; hotels and serviced apartments; commercial aircraft; airports. Illustrated 1-page factsheets on SARS are included in English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil. (100101)

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CIS 02-1463 Hospital Infection Control Guidance for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). (French: Conseils en matière de lutte contre l'infection nosocomiale) World Health Organization (WHO), Internet document, 2003. 2p. (In English, French)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/csr/sars/infectioncontrol/en/print.html

http://www.who.int/csr/sars/infectionf/en/print.html

Guidance document designed to prevent the spreading of SARS infection to health care workers involved in the treatment of patients with the disease, whether in an outpatient/triage or an inpatient setting. Measures include the wearing of protective clothing and personal protective equipment, disinfection and attention to sharps. (100120)

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CIS 02-1464 Anthrax: A "forgotten" disease that is now a bioterrorist risk. (French: Le charbon: une maladie professionnelle "oubliée" devenue menace bioterroriste) Bayeux-Dunglas M.C., Balty I., Le Bâcle C., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.88, p.375-387. 25 ref. (In French)

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Anthrax is an animal disease transmissible to humans. It has been listed in the French schedule of occupational diseases since 1938. It is not well understood and is often overlooked, because just a few general practitioners or occupational physicians have ever been confronted with cases. Since September 2001, this disease has emerged at the forefront of the news in a context of international terrorist risk. The French National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Research (INRS) has received numerous requests for information, both on the disease itself and on preventive measures to be adopted in the mailrooms of enterprises. Since it involves a terrorist threat, the recommendations presented in this article are in line with those adopted by public agencies and are aimed at minimizing the consequences both for exposed persons and for the enterprise as a whole. (100308)

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CIS 02-1465 Exposure to biological agents: Personal protective equipment. (Spanish: Exposición a agentes biológicos: equipos de protección individual) Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 12 ref. (In Spanish)

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There is some confusion, particularly in the health care environment, concerning the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) against biological hazards. This information note describes the possibilities of protection against biological hazards, specifically through the use of appropriate PPE. Contents: classification of PPEs; modes of exposure; appropriate PPE against inhalation, dermal, parenteral and conjunctive exposure. (100461)

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CIS 02-1466 Exposure to biological agents. Management of personal protective equipment in health care services. (Spanish: Exposición a agentes biológicos. La gestión de equipos de protección individual en centros sanitarios) Martí Solé M.C., Alonso Espadalé R.M., Constans Aubert A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. 25 ref. (In Spanish)

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The management of personal protective equipment (PPE) against biological hazards includes designating a suitably-qualified team for training and informing the personnel on its use, as well as the acquisition, distribution, proper care and storage of PPE. This information note describes the general aspects of managing PPE against biological hazards in health care services. Contents: why PPEs are needed; designating a qualified team; acquiring the PPE; internal use standards; distribution; supervision and implementation. Tables list the biological hazards specific to different hospital or health care services, together with the suitable PPE. (100462)

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[ Top of page ]

011 Physiology, ergonomics

CIS 02-1467 Consultative team to assess manual handling and reduce the risk of occupational injury. Carrivick PJ.W., Lee A.H., Yau K.K.W., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.58, No.5, p.339-344. 19 ref. (In English)

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The objective of the study was to describe the formation of a consultative team to assess the risk of manual handling within the cleaning services department of a hospital in Western Australia, and to evaluate the effectiveness of its recommendations in reducing the rate and severity of workers' compensation injury. Statistical analysis showed that implementation of the recommendations significantly reduced numbers and rates of injury, but not the severity of injury, in the cleaning services study group. There was no difference in numbers or severity of injuries for the comparison groups before and after implementation of the recommendations. The recommendation of the consultative team can produce a meaningful and sustained reduction in rates of injury within a risk population. The results support a consultative approach to reducing workplace injuries from manual handling. The team process has potential for application to occupational groups at risk of exposure to other types of hazards. (100010)

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CIS 02-1468 Ergonomic and psychosocial factors affect daily function in workers' compensation claimants with persistent upper extremity disorders. Shaw W.S., Feuerstein M., Lincoln A.E., Miller V.I., Wood P.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.606-615. Illus. 35 ref. (In English)

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In this study on work-related upper extremity disorders (WRUFDs), participants were 165 government employees (127 female, 38 male) with an accepted workers' compensation claim (< 90 days from claim filing) who were unable to perform their normal work. Participants completed baseline measures of upper extremity functional limitation, symptoms, general health status, problem solving orientation, pain coping, and workplace factors. After controlling for pain and sex in a multiple regression analysis, greater functional limitation was further explained by upper extremity symptoms other than pain (sleep disturbance, numbness and tingling), symptoms in one or both hands, feeling overwhelmed by pain, low confidence in problem solving abilities, and higher ergonomic risk exposures at work. These results suggest that improving function in this population may require pain coping techniques and active problem solving to overcome functional barriers, together with a reduction of workplace ergonomic risk. (100432)

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CIS 02-1469 The impact on musculoskeletal disorders of changing physical and psychological work environment conditions in the automobile industry. Fredriksson K., Bildt C., Hägg G., Kilbom Å., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, July 2001, Vol.28, No.1, p.31-45. Illus. 70 ref. (In English)

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A reorganization of work was performed in the car-body-sealing department at an automobile assembly plant in Sweden. The aim of the present investigation was to study the influence of these changes in working conditions on musculoskeletal disorders. Strenuous postures and movements were assessed by questionnaires, direct measurement recordings and by computer-assisted observations. Psychosocial conditions were assessed by questionnaires and group discussions. The musculoskeletal disorders of the workers were studied by reports from the occupational health care centre and by self-reported musculoskeletal symptoms. A decrease in the time spent in strenuous positions was found, but the work cycle time decreased considerably and the workers felt "robotized". There was a marked decrease in the perception of opportunities to influence the work, as well as the stimulation at work. The amount of musculoskeletal disorders increased, possibly due to an increase in perceived physical exertion and a decrease in occupational pride. (100027)

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CIS 02-1470 Exercise programme for bakery shop saleswomen. (German: Bewegungsprogramm für Verkäuferinnen im Bäckereihandwerk entwickelt) Amtliche Mitteilungen der Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, 2000, No.3, p.9. (In German)

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One female worker in two employed in bakery shops suffers from back, leg and shoulder pain, due in particular to their constant standing posture and to the cramped working area. A gymnastics programme was designed for their benefit, in which the exercises could be performed at the workplace. It consists of a series of cards, one face illustrating the body movements to be performed and the other explaining the objective of the exercise as well as where and when it should be performed. These exercises are designed to be integrated into the daily working schedule. This programme was successfully tested in bakery shops in the region of Dortmund, Germany. (100322)

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CIS 02-1471 Study of the working conditions of women cashiers at a large retailer in Sousse. (French: Etude des conditions de travail des caissières d'une grande surface de distribution à Sousse) Hidri A., Hajaij K., Said A., Kahouach L., SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2002, No.20, p.22-29. Illus. (In French)

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The objective of this study was to design a cash register for a large Tunisian retail chain, taking into account ergonomic and safety criteria. The project involved analysing the causes of absenteeism among the cashiers (all women), carrying out ergonomic analyses of their workplaces and working conditions and conducting a detailed study of the ergonomic risk factors due to the equipment and the workload. It was possible to make several recommendations with respect to ergonomic improvements (position of the bar code on the articles sold, workplace layout and design, work organization, lighting and the thermal environment). (100412)

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CIS 02-1472 The action plan against repetitive work - An industrial relation strategy for improving the working environment. Hasle P., Møller N., Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Spring 2001, Vol.11, No.2, p.131-143. 19 ref. (In English)

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The Danish Action Plan against Repetitive Work is presented and discussed as a possible new strategy for regulating repetitive work as well as other complex working environment problems. The article is based on an empirical evaluation of the Action Plan. The assessment of the Action Plan indicates that a measurable reduction of repetitive work has been achieved, while recognizing that new management strategies focusing on human resource development have also played an important role. These results are used to suggest that under certain conditions a combination of state regulation and industrial relations agreements can be used to regulate other working environment problems. (100023)

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CIS 02-1473 Intervention in shift scheduling and changes in biomarkers of heart disease in hospital wards. Bøggild H., Jeppesen H.J., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.87-96. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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In a controlled monitoring of 101 nurses in 4 hospital wards in Denmark, measurements of cholesterol and triglycerides were taken over a period of 6 month. Shift scheduling criteria were introduced (few consecutive night shifts, more weekends off and only 2 different types of shifts day-evening or day-night). After 6 months the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level had increased and the total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels had decreased. Scheduling based on ergonomic criteria is thus a possible means for reducing the risk of heart disease among shift workers. (100152)

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CIS 02-1474 Helicopter assembly: High on the wire. (French: L'assemblage d'hélicoptères - Un travail de haute voltige) Gagné I., Turcotte V., Travail et santé, Mar. 2002, Vol.18, No.1, p.38-43. Illus. 4 réf. (In French)

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This article presents a project aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disease risk factors among assembly workers in a helicopter assembly plant in Canada. Contents: description of the plant; methods used in the study (questionnaire distributed to the target group of 12 assembly workers, job studies); description of the tasks carried out by the assembly workers; posture analysis; tools used by the workers; analysis of the tasks; proposed modifications with respect to tools, workstation layout, time constraints, work organization and cognitive requirements. (100396)

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CIS 02-1475 Ergonomic risks and prevention. (French: Risque ergonomique et prévention) Hidri A., Souissi R., Ben Laiba M., SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2002, No.20, p.2-21. Illus. 21 ref. (In French)

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Contents of this special feature on the prevention of ergonomic risks: general aspects and definitions; objectives of ergonomics; areas of application; contributions of ergonomics in the prevention of occupational hazards; fields that form the basis of ergonomics (anthropometrics, biomechanics, occupational physiology, working environment analysis; experimental psychology; psycho-sociology); ergonomic approach; ergonomic workplace design; mental workload. (100411)

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CIS 02-1476 Job experience, work load, and risk of musculoskeletal disorders. Häkkänen M., Viikari-Juntura E., Martikainen R., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.58, No.2, p.129-135. 27 ref. (In English)

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To investigate the effects of physical workload and job experience on morbidity from musculoskeletal disorders, a longitudinal study was carried out in a trailer assembly factory with many new workers employed during the follow up. The sickness absence of 532 workers, including 160 experienced workers and 372 new workers was followed up. Exposure was assessed by job titles, visits, task descriptions, and some direct measurements. The associations between the explanatory variables and sick leave were assessed by linear regression models. A higher rate of sick leave due to disorders of the upper limbs was found for new workers compared with experienced ones, especially in the high work load group. Women had a higher rate than men. New male workers in physically strenuous tasks had a high rate of sick leave due to neck and shoulder disorders. As being unaccustomed to work seems to increase the risk of musculoskeletal disorders, special attention should be paid to newly employed workers. (100006)

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CIS 02-1477 Ergonomics evaluation into the safety of stepladders - User profile and dynamic testing - Phase 2. Clift L., Navarro T., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 214p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 50.00., ISBN 0-7176-2315-7 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02423.htm

This report summarizes the work of second phase of a study to evaluate the stability of stepladders. It follows the report of the first phase (CIS 02-1478) which discusses the findings of a literature search and standards review. The present phase two report describes the methodologies used to examine the attitudes and expectations of typical professional and domestic stepladder users. Dynamic data were collected using a stability platform specially developed for the project. This data are examined to determine the manner in which instability occurs in stepladder systems, relating it to both the stepladder's structure and the user's behaviour. The identified causes of instability are reviewed in order to determine effective safety interventions. These include proposed improvements to the technical standards affecting stepladders, increased levels of user training and better labelling and warnings. (100071)

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CIS 02-1478 Ergonomics evaluation into the safety of stepladders - Literature and standards review - Phase 1. Navarro T., Clift L., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 129p. Illus. 62 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2302-5 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02418.htm

This report summarizes the current state of publications, literature, standards and regulations affecting the safety of stepladders. It reviews the current state of knowledge on ladder design, user expectation, risk perception and accident epidemiology. It contains a review and comparison of the applicable laws and technical standards which cover products sold and used in the United Kingdom, referring where appropriate to the situation in other countries. The purpose of this work was to establish the knowledge base necessary to design and execute a range of dynamic tests intended to examine the factors affecting the stability of stepladders in greater depth (see CIS 02-1477). (100074)

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CIS 02-1479 Auxiliary technical equipment - Manual for an ergonomical design of workplaces adapted to handicapped workers. (German: Technische Arbeitshilfen - Handbuch zur ergonomischen und behinderungsgerechten Gestaltung von Arbeitsplätzen) Lüdke M., Wieland K., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. viii, 726p. Illus. 44 ref. Index. + CD-ROM. Price: EUR 48.50., ISBN 3-89701-230-8 (In German)

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This manual covers the design of workplaces and technical equipment for handicapped or elderly workers. It presents a classification according to equipment type and contains approx. 500 sheets describing each equipment. Each sheet mentions whether the equipment is available commercially or is custom-manufactured, and includes the name of the supplier or distributor, the approximate price and the applicable ISO standard. (100330)

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CIS 02-1480 Working conditions in atypical work. (French: Conditions de travail dans le cadre du travail atypique) European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus. 5 ref., ISBN 92-897-0127-7 (In French)

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French version of the English document analysed under CIS 02-474. Atypical work is defined as non-permanent work, part-time work and forms of work other than full-time employment with a permanent contract. Using data from the Third European Survey on Working Conditions 2000 (see CIS 02-476), a very diverse situation was observed in the European Union, with large differences between and within countries concerning the distribution of different forms of atypical work, the way such work is divided between sectors, the legal frameworks and monitoring mechanisms governing this type of employment. There are important differences between permanent and non-permanent employees in aspects such as control over working time, skills-matching and training provision. Contents: implications for working conditions and employment conditions; health problems and outcomes; situation of temporary agency workers; discussion of results. (100470)

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CIS 02-1481 A look into modern working life. Skiöld L., ed., Arbetslivinsitutet, National Institute for Working Life, Eklundsvägen 16, 11279 Stockholm, Sweden, 2000. 326p., ISBN 91-7045-576-7 (In English)

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This report on the "Working Life 2000" project investigates and discusses the issues of current and future conditions of work in the European Union. The project involved the holding of 63 international workshops led by researchers and practitioners on many different aspects of working life. Reports of these workshops are presented. Issues addressed include: workplace diversity; strategies for new employment and regional development; social changes and employment; labour law and social rights; labour market and gender aspects; work in IT and the telecommunications media; health assessment and hygiene; human resources; future workplaces; information dissemination; physical and chemical hazards; health effects; health of working women; risk assessment and control; occupational safety and health management; medical surveillance. (100242)

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012 Stress, psychosocial factors

CIS 02-1482 Evaluation of 7 commercially-available quick tests for psychoactive drug screening in occupational medicine settings. (French: Evaluation de 7 tests rapides pour le dépistage des substances psychoactives dans le cadre de la médecine du travail) Fontaine B., Legrand P.M., Pamart B., Eloy E., Frimat P., Vignau J., Lhermitte M., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.87, p.321-324. 11 ref. (In French)

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There are currently several commercially-available quick-testing packages for detecting the presence of psychoactive substances or their metabolites in urine. The objective of this study was to evaluate these packages in order to help occupational physicians faced with having to implement drug screening programs in selecting the product best suited to their conditions. Urines of 13 patients of a drug dependency treatment and of 15 employees seen during routine medical examinations by their occupational physician were analysed using seven commercially-available testing packages. Results were compared to those obtained with the fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA). The advantages and drawbacks of each package are discussed. (100306)

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CIS 02-1483 Behavioural safety and incentive schemes. Trethewy R., Gardner D., Cross J., Marosszeky M., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, June 2001, Vol.17, No.3, p.251-262. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

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Examination of successful occupational safety programmes suggests that the two most dominant factors are strong management commitment and frequent close cooperation between workers, supervisors and managers. Effective safety management is primarily dependent on practices which can successfully foster and develop a safe workplace culture. This culture must accommodate the decision-making variables of different people who make up the workplace. The management and evaluation of safe behaviour at work requires an identification of management system characteristics that influence such behaviour as well as techniques for measuring safety-related work behaviour in order to identify and modify unsafe work practices. This article discusses some of the approaches that have been shown to be effective in managing safe behaviour at work in the petroleum refining and construction industries. (100062)

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CIS 02-1484 The effects of job and family conditions on cumulative fatigue of working mothers in double income family. Ishikawa H., Yamazaki Y., Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 2000, Vol.76, No.3, p.1-15. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to investigate the occupational and domestic factors which affect cumulative fatigue. It was hypothesized that the higher level of job-related stress and family related stress were both associated with a greater extent of cumulative fatigue, and that even if job related stress was high, the high quality of family life moderates the increase of cumulative fatigue. In the study sample consisting of 1018 working mothers with young children in double-income families who responded to a questionnaire, both hypotheses were largely supported. Higher scores of negative support, lower feeling of reward at workplace, work addiction, and higher family life stress were directly related to greater cumulative fatigue, although overtime working hours, husband's sharing of housework and childcare, and wife's sex-role orientation showed only indirect association with cumulative fatigue. Also, lower levels of family-life stress were found to moderate the increase of cumulative fatigue. (100021)

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CIS 02-1485 A national survey of psychosocial job stressors and their implications for health among working people in Taiwan. Cheng Y., Guo Y.L., Yeh W.Y., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Sep. 2001, Vol.74, No.7, p.495-504. 39 ref. (In English)

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The prevalence of job stress, distributions of major job stressors, and the associations of job stress with multiple self-reported health complaints were examined in a self-administered questionnaire survey conducted in 1994 in Taiwan involving 9,746 men and 5,599 women, employed at the time and aged between 25 and 65. Overall, 7.6% of men and 6.5% of women reported often or always feeling highly stressed at work. Higher levels of perceived job stress were found among subjects who were younger, with higher education levels, working in a larger firm, working for longer hours per week, and who were administrators or managers. Problems with individual job content were ranked as the most important job stressor in men across all employment categories and in most women. Other major job stressors included problems with monetary rewards and lack of career prospects. After adjustment for age and education, employees who perceived higher levels of job stress had significantly increased risks of multiple health problems, including strained eyes, ringing ears, chronic cough with phlegm, chest tightness, stomach problems, headache, and musculoskeletal discomfort. (100016)

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CIS 02-1486 Association between job stress and depression among Japanese employees threatened by job loss in a comparison between two complementary job-stress models. Tsutsumi A., Kayaba K., Theorell T., Siegrist J., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.146-153. 34 ref. (In English)

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Results of a questionnaire survey of neuropsychic stress among employees threatened by job loss in a small Japanese manufacturing plant. Employees with supportive tasks were more likely to have depressive symptoms than direct assembly-line workers. Despite some limitations, the study provides evidence of significant associations between theoretically grounded measures of job stress and depression in a sample of employees facing job loss. Intensified preventive efforts should be undertaken by those who hold the responsibility for occupational health for such vulnerable groups. (100158)

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CIS 02-1487 Analysis of a managed psychiatric disability program. McCulloch J., Ozminkowski R.J., Cuffel B., Dunn R.L., Goldman W., Kelleher D., Comporato A., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.101-109. 23 ref. (In English)

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A case study of how a health care organization managed psychiatric disabilities among employees of a telecommunications company in the United States. The duration of disability was reduced by 23% (17.1 days), thus illustrating the potential for significantly reducing the costs of disability care. (100163)

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CIS 02-1488 The impact of psychosocial work factors on musculoskeletal pain: A prospective study. Torp S., Riise T., Moen B.E., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2001, Vol.43, No.2, p.120-126. 56 ref. (In English)

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This study, conducted through a questionnaire survey of 721 workers at 226 automobile repair shops in Norway, indicates that psychosocial factors at work may have a role in the prediction of musculoskeletal pain. The best predictors were: low levels of decision authority and of management support. (100165)

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CIS 02-1489 Job strain, social support in the workplace, and haemoglobin A1c in Japanese men. Kawakami N., Akachi K., Shimizu H., Haratani T., Kobayashi F., Ishizaki M., Hayashi T., Fujita O., Aizawa Y., Miyazaki S., Hiro H., Hashimoto S., Araki S., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.57, No.12, p.805-809. 38 ref. (In English)

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A job study was conducted involving 268 male day workers in a manufacturing firm in Japan, in order to examine the association between neuropsychic stress at the workplace and levels of glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Workers with a history of diabetes mellitus were excluded. Average concentrations of HbA1c were significantly higher in the highest quartile group of job strain and the lowest quartile group of social support at the workplace. Increased blood glucose, inducing an alteration of HbA1c levels, may be a mediator between job strain or social support at the workplace and coronary heart disease. (100179)

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CIS 02-1490 Violence at work: Wide differences across Europe. (French: Violence au travail: une Europe disparate) Chouchan D., Travail et sécurité, June 2001, No.608, p.16-22. Illus. (In French)

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According to the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, more than 15 million workers in the European Union claim to be subjected to violence at work, either in the form of sexual harassment, physical violence, threats or psychological violence. This article presents the results of a survey on violence at work carried out among the relevant national institutions of all EU member States. The phenomenon appears to be in the increase everywhere. However, the level of awareness varies greatly from one country to another and it is difficult to make comparisons given the different statistical classification systems. The violence prevention programmes of the London underground and the French post office are presented. The article also includes an example of legislation, that of Sweden, which has included special provisions for violence directed at employees. (100293)

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CIS 02-1491 Depression-related short-term disability in an employed population. Dewa C.S., Goering P., Lin E., Paterson M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2002, Vol.44, No.7, p.628-633. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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This study on disability claims for mental and nervous disorders was based on administrative data collected from three major Canadian financial sector employers, focusing on depression. The prevalence of short-term disability due to depression is reported, the characteristics of workers affected and their disability outcomes are described. It is observed that compared with other nervous and mental disorders, depression-related short-term disability generally affected more employees, lasted longer, and had a higher rate of recurrence. At the end of their episodes, more than three quarters of workers returned to work. These estimates suggest that the potential magnitude of the impact of short-term disability should be a concern for employers. (100435)

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CIS 02-1492 Identification and implementation of programmes for detecting hazardous situations on board ocean-going ships. (German: Identifikations- und Anwendungsprogramme zur Ermittlung von Gefährdungssituationen in der Seeschifffahrt) Hahne J., Baaske G., Moser H.J., Rothe R., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 234p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: EUR 19.00., ISBN 3-89701-700-8 (In German)

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This report analyses the causes of the 645 accidents that occurred between 1990 and 1999 on board ships registered in Germany. A list of individual performance qualities required of naval officers in order that they master critical hazardous situations was developed based on a "duties and requirements" analysis. These qualities could be used as selection criteria for the officers. It was also found that multinational crews present a high managerial workload on the ships' officers. Observations of technical and administrative factors enabled the highlighting of hazards to shipping, and form the starting point of a system aimed at ensuring ships safety. Detailed summary in English and French. (100106)

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CIS 02-1493 Work environment, alcohol consumption and ill-health - The Whitehall II study. Head J., Martikainen P., Kumari M., Kuper H., Marmot M., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 64p. Illus. 194 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2314-9 (In English)

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http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_htm/2002/crr02422.htm

The influences of the psychosocial work environment, change in work and alcohol consumption and dependence on health were studied in a cohort of 10,308 British civil servants. High job demands, low decision latitude and effort reward imbalance were related to increased incidence of coronary heart disease. Effort reward imbalance was related to increased incidence of diabetes in men. Adverse changes in work characteristics, particularly social support at work, predicted worsening of mental health for men and women. The effects of change in work characteristics on physical health and coronary heart disease were modest. Alcohol consumption was related to risk of accident absenteeism with an increased risk already evident at moderate levels of alcohol consumption. (100072)

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CIS 02-1494 Validation and development of a method for assessing the risks arising from mental fatigue. Rogers A.S., Spencer M.B., Stone B.M., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 1999. iii, 31p. Illus. 153 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-1728-9 (In English)

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This report describes a programme of work to validate and develop further a procedure for assessing the risks associated with fatigue in a range of industries. The method involves a Fatigue Index, which incorporates five factors known to be related to the build-up of fatigue, namely the time of the day, shift duration, rest periods, breaks and cumulative fatigue. (100084)

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CIS 02-1495 The profitable balance - About alternatives to the consuming stress of work. (Swedish: Den lönsamma balansen - Om alternativ till arbetets förtärande stress) Kindenberg U., Wallin G., Reimers E., eds., Arbetslivinsitutet, National Institute for Working life, Eklundsvägen 16, 11279 Stockholm, Sweden, 2000. 140p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: SEK 240.00 (plus 25% VAT)., ISBN 91-7045-567-8 (In Swedish)

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This publication provides a historical and scientific overview of occupational stress, which is becoming one of the most important occupational diseases in Sweden. Persons affected by stress describe their experiences. Alternative approaches adopted by enterprises to prevent the risk of stress at the workplace are presented. The importance of a balanced life between work, rest and leisure is emphasized. (100241)

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CIS 02-1496 Research Report - Workplace solutions: Treating alcohol problems through employment-based health insurance. Goplerud E., Cimons M., George Washington University, Center for Health Services Research and Policy, 2021 K St. NW, Suite 800, Washington, DC 20006, USA, Dec. 2002. 28p. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

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http://www.pewtrusts.com/pdf/hhs_alcohol_workplace.pdf

A study was conducted to investigate the extent to which employment-based health insurance plans in the US can be used to offer rehabilitation programmes to workers suffering from alcoholism. In general, health insurance plans are willing to pay for less thorough treatment of alcoholism than they are willing to pay for other illnesses (including mental illness). Only seven states require parity (the same level of benefits for treating substance abuse as for other illnesses): Connecticut, Delaware, Indiana, Minnesota, New Jersey, Vermont and Virginia. The effectiveness of treatment of alcoholism in these states, and among workers whose employers voluntarily offer parity, is much higher than among workers with unequal coverage. (100478)

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CIS 02-1497 Stress among teachers: Assessment methodology. (Spanish: Estrés en el colectivo docente: metodología para su evaluación) Nogareda Cuixart S., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. 6 ref. (In Spanish)

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Contents of this information note on the assessment of occupational stress among teachers: stress factors and stress factor scale specifically adapted to the teaching environment; coping strategies and their subjective assessment by means of the coping strategy questionnaire; physiological assessment of the effects of stress (liberation of adrenalin and noradrenalin, are early indicators of the effects of stress, following the stimulation of the vegetative nervous system); the Langner-Amiel "Total Health Test". (100464)

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CIS 02-1498 Occupational safety and health and emotional intelligence (I): OSH training and emotional memory. (Spanish: Prevención e inteligencia emocional (I): enseñanza de la prevención y recuerdo emocional) Llacuna Morera J., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 17 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note on emotional intelligence explains how emotional memory is acquired. This is the form of memory that enables one to respond in a practical manner and to take decisions when faced with a given situation or stimulus. It is acquired through mechanisms that are not necessarily cognitive: it is not the content of the message itself that gives rise to an action, but its form. (100319)

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CIS 02-1499 Occupational safety and health and emotional intelligence (II): Ability to influence and verbal resources. (Spanish: Prevención e inteligencia emocional (II): capacidad de influencia y recursos lingüísticos) Llacuna Morera J., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 5p. Illus. 12 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note on emotional intelligence covers more specifically the questions of verbal expression and analyses the emotional contents of verbal messages, namely linguistic mechanisms that favour recall and the ability to apply acquired knowledge, thereby contributing to decision taking. (100320)

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CIS 02-1500 Mental workload: Indicators. (Spanish: Carga mental de trabajo: indicadores) de Arquer M.I., Nogareda C., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2000. 6p. Illus. 16 ref. (In Spanish)

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Although there is no single approach for assessing mental workload given the wide variety of working conditions, this information note proposes a general framework that can be used as a guide for developing an assessment approach for specific conditions. This framework consists of the following steps: data collection; description of the workplace, working conditions and profiles of persons assigned to the work; assessment of the mental requirements (or pressures), and resulting tensions; proposals for improvement, their selection and implementation. (100465)

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Página generada a partir de la base de datos CISDOC. Fecha: 16.09.19.