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ILO-CIS Bulletin 2002/02

CIS 02-501 --- CIS 02-1000

Laws, regulations, directives
Chemical data sheets and criteria documents
Training materials and practical information
Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals
   001 General safety, health and conditions of work
   002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology
   003 Industries and occupations
   004 New technologies
   005 Chemical safety
   006 Fires, explosions and major hazards
   007 Electrical safety
   008 Physical hazards
   009 Mechanical hazards, transport
   010 Biological hazards
   011 Physiology, ergonomics
   012 Stress, psychosocial factors


Laws, regulations, directives

CIS 02-501 Law of 7 Aug. 1996 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work - Law on Occupational Safety and Health [Germany]. (German: Gesetz über die Durchführung von Maßnahmen des Arbeitsschutzes zur Verbesserung der Sicherheit und des Gesundheitsschutzes der Beschäftigten bei der Arbeit (Arbeitsschutzgesetz - ArbSchG)) Bundesgesetzblatt, 20 Aug. 1996, Part I, No.43, p.1246-1253. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.umwelt-online.de/recht/arbeitss/arbsch/arbs_ges.htm
http://www.bma.bund.de/doc/doc_request.cfm?336E8D2DEA0440F5AD260C15AE07B91F
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0501.pdf

This Law, as amended through 21 June 2002, implements in Germany provisions of Directives 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401) and 91/383/EEC (see CIS 92-6). It covers all employees except domestic workers and seafarers. It requires the employer to eliminate safety hazards, to document risk assessment and measures taken to reduce hazards, and to provide safety and first aid equipment. Employees shall have the right to be consulted regarding safety and health measures adopted in the workplace. (78541)

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CIS 02-502 Factories Act [Barbados]. Government Printing Department, Bay Street, St. Michael, Barbados, 1985. Offprint, 108p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0502.pdf

This is a consolidation of the law relating to factories and the safety, health and welfare of persons employed in them. Contents: definitions (incl. the definition of "factory", to include, in addition to manufacturing establishments, slaughterhouses, refrigeration facilities, boat and automobile repair facilities, laundries, printing and bookbinding establishments and gas storage facilities); general provisions; basic safety measures (fencing of machinery, safety standards for transmission machinery, the training and supervision of persons, the fencing of places containing dangerous substances, precautions with respect to explosive or flammable dust, vapour or gas and the safety provisions of steam boilers); fire safety provisions; general environmental provisions (cleanliness, waste disposal, sanitation, lighting, ventilation and precautions against overcrowding); welfare measures (drinking water supply, rest rooms and first aid); the working environment (removal of gas, dust and fumes, the use of protective equipment and the employment of persons in processes involving lead compounds); prohibition of the importation and sale of articles made with prohibited materials; rights of inspectors; medical examination of young persons in determining their fitness for employment; safety organization; enforcement. In annex: machinery requiring fencing; machinery requiring appropriate training and instruction. (78641)

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CIS 02-503 Accidents and Occupational Diseases (Notification) Act [Barbados]. Government Printing Department, Bay Street, St. Michael, Barbados, 1985. Offprint, 13p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0503.pdf

This law specify the conditions under which employers, physicians and coroners (the latter when investigating a death suspected of being due to an occupational cause) are obliged to report cases of occupational accidents and suspected occupational diseases to the Chief Labour Officer. In annex: sample declaration forms; schedule of occupational diseases. (78643)

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CIS 02-504 Labour Code [Bulgaria]. (Bulgarian: Kodeks na truda) Bulgarian version, 1986-2001 (64p.). English language version (62p). (In Bulgarian, English)

Internet:
http://www.tu-sofia.acad.bg/BUL/normativni/KT-86.htm
http://www.mlsp.government.bg/bg/law/law/kodex.doc
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0504bg.pdf
http://natlex.ilo.org/txt/E01BGR01.htm
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0504en.pdf

Consolidated text of the Bulgarian Labour Code, originally promulgated in the Bulgarian State Gazette (Nos.26 and 27/1986), as amended until 2001. Chapter 13 (articles 273-290) contains provisions for occupational safety and health, including: obligation for the employer to ensure healthy and safe working conditions; issuing of appropriate safety and health rules; obligation for the employer to provide training in safe working methods; right of refusal; provision of work clothes and personal protective equipment; provision of free preventive meals and anti-toxins; time limitation of work in hazardous environments; periodic medical examinations; provision of safety and health data to the authorities. Chapter 15 (articles 301-324) provide for the protection of special categories of workers (adolescents, women, persons with partial incapacity). Previous analysis: CIS 90-4. (78649)

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CIS 02-505 Act No.124 on Health and Safety at Work [Bulgaria]. CIS copy, 1997. 21p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0505.pdf

English translation of the basic OSH law in Bulgaria (for the original, see CIS 98-354). Contents: general provisions; general OSH requirements in workplaces; obligations of employers and workers regarding OSH matters; organization and management of activities; establishment of a Working Conditions Fund; economic incentives for improving working conditions; additional provisions (definitions). (78650)

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CIS 02-506 Systematic work environment management [Sweden]. (Swedish: Systematiskt arbetmiljöarbete - Arbetsmiljöverkets föreskrifter om systematiskt arbetmiljöarbete och allmänna råd om tillämpningen av föreskrifterna) Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1998. 25p. (Swe.), 30p. (Eng.), ISBN 91-7930-400-1 (Sv) (In English, Swedish)

Internet:
http://www.av.se/english/legislation/afs/eng0101.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0506en.pdf
http://www.av.se/regler/afs/2001_01.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0506sv.pdf

Regulation on the basic requirements for managing the work environment in such a way as to prevent work-related ill health and accidents, adopted on 15 Feb. 2001 (entry into force: 1 July 2001). It was issued pursuant to Section 18 of the Work Environment Ordinance (SFS 1977:1166, for latest available version see CIS 00-901). Contents: definition of systematic work environment management (SWEM); inclusion of SWEM as a natural part of work activity, workers' participation, environment policy and routines; allocation of tasks and provision of knowledge and other information to employees to enable them to work in a safe and healthy manner; risk assessment, remedial measures and follow-up; occupational health services. Regulation AFS 1996:6 on the internal control of the working environment is repealed. In annex: rights of employees to whom the employer has allotted tasks related to the management of the working environment; detailed, general and section-by-section recommendations on the implementation of the Regulation. (78648)

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CIS 02-507 General regulation for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases [Honduras]. (Spanish: Reglamento general de medidas preventivas de accidentes de trabajo y enfermedades profesionales) La Gaceta - Diario oficial de la República de Honduras, 25 Jan. 2002, Vol.CXXVI, No.29,691, p.1-71. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.natlaw.com/honduras/topical/lb/rghnlb/rghnlb1.htm
http://www.cohep.com/Reglamento%20SST_1.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0507.pdf

These Regulations were issued by Executive Agreement (Acuerdo Ejecutivo) No.STSS-001-02 of 7 Jan. 2002. Contents: scope (all workplaces in Honduras) and definitions; obligations of employers, employees, and of their respective organizations; workplace OSH committees; information of workers concerning workplace hazards; OSH programmes; general workplace conditions; temporary housing for workers; equipment, machinery and tools; electrical safety; pressurized equipment; cold storage; lifting and transportation; work at heights; manual handling of loads; fire safety; safety signs and gestures; personal protection; welding and cutting; paint spraying; standards relating to physical agents (temperature, lighting, noise and vibration); standards related to biological agents; safety in the use of industrial chemicals; safe use of agricultural chemicals; work in confined spaces; visual display terminals; penalties. The 1952 Regulations (of 4 Sep.) on the prevention of occupational accidents are repealed. (78801)

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CIS 02-508 Order approving the model for the annual report on the activities of occupational safety, hygiene and health [Portugal]. (Portuguese: Portaria n.þ1184/2002 - Aprova o modelo de relatório anual da actividade dos serviços de segurança, higiene e saúde no trabalho) Diário da República, 29 Aug. 2002, Série I-B, No.199, p.6190-6194. Illus. (In Portuguese)

Internet:
http://www.adm.ua.pt/legua/LegAdmPublica/Port1184_2002.htm
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0508.pdf

This Regulation defines the standard form to be used for the annual reporting to the authorities of the activities of occupational safety and health services within enterprises. (78802)

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CIS 02-509 Joint Ordinance 3/2002 (of 8 Feb.) of the Minister of Social Affairs and the Family and of the Minister of Health concerning the minimum safety and health requirements of workplaces [Hungary]. (Hungarian: A szociális és családügyi miniszter, valamint az egészségügyi miniszter 3/2002. (II.8) SZCSM-EüM együttes rendelete a munkahelyek munkavédelmi követelményeinek minimális szintjéről) Magyar Közlöny, 8 Feb. 2002, No.19, p.967-986. Illus. (In Hungarian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0509.pdf
http://net.jogtar.hu/jr/gen/hjegy_doc.cgi?docid=A0200003.SCM

This Ordinance was issued under the authority of Act No.1993/93 concerning occupational safety and health (see CIS 94-1). It applies in Hungary the provisions of Directive 89/654/EEC (see CIS 90-356). It applies to all workplaces, with the exception of temporary construction sites, mines, fishing vessels, and land and vehicles outside the employer's control. Contents: general obligations of employers; emergency exits; fire protection; waste disposal in the workplace; ventilation of enclosed workplaces; temperature; lighting; floors, walls, ceilings and roofs; windows; doors; transport ways and danger zones; escalators; ramps; size of work spaces; welfare facilities (incl. special areas for pregnant women and lactating mothers); first aid provision; workplaces for handicapped workers; open-air workplaces; noise and vibration. Regulation No.25/1996 concerning the minimum health requirements of normal workplaces is repealed. In annex: definitions and limit values for various physical parameters (temperature, lighting, noise); definition of work difficulty in terms of energy expenditure. (78803)

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CIS 02-510 Occupational safety and health management system standards [Costa Rica]. (Spanish: Normas sobre sistemas de gestión preventiva de riesgos laborales) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Dirección de Seguros, San José, Costa Rica, 2000. 154p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0510.pdf

This publication contains the full text of six Costa Rican standards applicable to occupational safety and health management systems (OSH-MS), covering the following areas: definitions; general rules for the implementation of OHS-MS; guide to the implementation of an OSH-MS; general rules for OSH-MS evaluation; criteria for the qualification of auditors; management of audit programmes. (78476)

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CIS 02-511 Ordinance of 31 Oct. 1997 on Occupational Diseases [Germany]. (German: Berufskrankheiten-Verordnung (BKV)) Bundesgesetzblatt, 5 Nov. 1997, Part I, No.73, p.2623-2626. Photocopy in CIS: 7p. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.bma.de/download/gesetze_web/BKV/BerufskrankheitenVO.htm
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0511.pdf

This Ordinance (effective: 1 Dec. 1997), as updated last on 11 Dec. 2002, provides the legal basis for the definition of occupational diseases in Germany. In annex: schedule of occupational diseases, classified by type of causing agent (chemical agents; physical agents; infectious and parasitical agents; dusts and other agents afecting the respiratory system; agents affecting the skin; other diseases [miner's nystagmus]). The Occupational Disease Ordinance of 20 June 1968, with its various amendments (including that of 15 Dec. 1976, see CIS 77-590), is repealed. (78543)

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CIS 02-512 Decree No.2002-1082 of 7 Aug. 2002 applying Art.189 of Law No.2002-73 of 17 Jan. 2002 on social modernization and modifying the Labour Code [France]. (French: Décret n°2002-1082 du 7 août 2002 pris pour l'application de l'article 189 de la loi n°2002-73 du 17 janv. 2002 de modernisation sociale et modifiant le code du travail [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 11 Aug. 2002, 134th Year, No.187, p.13774-13775. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.adminet.com/jo/20020811/SOCT0211049D.html
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0512.pdf

This Decree modifies the qualifications necessary for occupational physicians, previously defined by Decrees No.82-453 (see CIS 99-703) and No.85-603 (see CIS 99-370). (78804)

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CIS 02-513 Quarries Act [Barbados]. Government Printing Department, Bay Street, St. Michael, Barbados, 1987. Offprint, 41p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0513.pdf

Law for the registration, licensing and supervision of quarries and for the safety of workers employed in them. (78642)

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CIS 02-514 Ordinance of 10 June 1998 on occupational safety and health on construction sites [Germany]. (German: Verordnung über Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz auf Baustellen (Baustellenverordnung - BaustellV)) Bundesgesetzblatt, 18 June 1998, Part I, No.35, p.1283-1285. (In German)

Internet:
http://217.160.60.235/BGBL/bgbl1f/b198035f.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0514.pdf

Contents of this Ordinance (effective: 1 July 1998): aims and definitions; construction planning; coordination of activities on the construction site; responsibilities of the employer and of others involved in a construction activity; penalties for non-compliance. In annex: minimum contents of information to be posted at the site; list of particularly dangerous construction jobs. (78542)

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CIS 02-515 Order No.117/2002 of 20 Feb. 2002 on the minimum safety and health requirements of workers in the mining industry [Slovak Republic]. (Slovak: Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 20. februára 2002 o minimálnych požiadavkách na bezpečnost' a ochranu zdravia zamestnancov pri banskej činnosti a pri dobývaní ložísk nevyhradených nerastov) Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 13 Mar. 2002, No.49, p.1322-1335. (In Slovak)

Internet:
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/117_02.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0515.pdf

This Order (entry into force: 1 Apr. 2002) establishes the minimum requirements for the protection of the safety and health of workers in mines and related industries. (78629)

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CIS 02-516 Occupational Safety and Health (Display Screen Equipment) Regulation [Hong Kong]. (Chinese: Zhiye anquan ji jiankang (Xianshi pingmu shebei) guili) Government of the Hong Kong SAR Gazette, Legal Supplement No.2, 26 Apr. 2002, p.B367-375. (In Chinese, English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0516.pdf

This Regulation is made under the 1997 Occupational Safety and Health Ordinance (see CIS 99-1756). Contents: definitions; scope of application (all workplaces where visual display screen equipment is used for or in connection with work, except for some highly specific exceptions); risk assessment; risk reduction; provision of information; requirements of workstations; provision of safety and health training. (78809)

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CIS 02-517 Law No.72 of 5 April 2002 on waste [Uzbekistan]. (Russian: Zakon ob othodah) Üzbekiston Respublikasi Olij Mažlisining Ahborotnomasi - Vedomosti Olij Mažlisa Respubliki Uzbekistan, Apr.-May 2002, No.4-5, p.227-237. (In Russian)

Internet:
http://ecoinform.freenet.uz/zacon_oth.html
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0517.pdf

This law provides for safety during waste treatment, and it defines the responsibilities of people and legal entities in connection with waste disposal, storage and transport. (78550)

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CIS 02-518 Act for protection against dangerous substances (Chemical Substances Act) [Germany]. (German: Gesetz zum Schutz vor gefährlichen Stoffen (Chemikaliengesetz - ChemG)) Bundesgesetzblatt, 27 June 2002, Part I, No.40, p.2090-2130. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.chemie-vorschrift.de/Chemg.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0518.pdf

New consolidation of the German Chemical Substances Act (for its 1994 version, see CIS 95-16), as modified by various laws, regulations and orders during the period 1994-2002. Contents: introduction (scope of application, definitions, dangerous substances and preparations); notification of new substances; authorization of biocidal products (this is the main new element); classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances, preparations and products; communication requirements; empowerments of the government to prohibit or limit the use of dangerous chemicals and to introduce protective measures for workers; good working practices; general regulations (testing certificates, setting up of advisory committees, monitoring of the application of the Act, protection of industrial secrets, fines etc.). In the appendix: detailed prescriptions of good work practices; sample standard form for the certification of Good Laboratory Parctice (GLP). (78807)

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CIS 02-519 Grand-Ducal Regulation of 30 July 2002 concerning the protection of workers against the hazards of exposure to carcinogenic or mutagenic agents [Luxembourg]. (French: Règlement grand-ducal du 30 juillet 2002 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à l'exposition à des agents cancérigènes ou mutagènes au travail [Luxembourg]) Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 26 Aug. 2002, No.A-96, p.1957-1962. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.etat.lu/legilux/DOCUMENTS_PDF/MEMORIAL/memorial/a/2002/a0962608.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0519.pdf

This regulation introduces into Luxembourg legislation the provisions of Directive 90/394/EEC (see CIS 90-1758), as modified by Directive 1999/38/EC (see CIS 00-1516). Contents: purpose; definitions; scope, risk identification and risk evaluation; reduction of use and elimination; information of competent authorities; unforeseen and predictable exposures; access to danger zones; hygiene measures and personal protection; information and training of workers; consultation of workers; medical supervision; keeping of registers. The regulation of 4 Nov. 1994 on the same subject, as modified subsequently (see CIS 00-622), is repealed. In annex: list of substances, preparations and processes associated with exposure to carcinogens or mutagens; practical recommendations for medical supervision; threshold limit values for benzene, vinyl chloride monomer and hard wood dust. (78471)

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CIS 02-520 Grand-Ducal Regulation of 30 July 2002 concerning the protection of the health and safety of workers against the hazards of chemical agents in the workplace [Luxembourg]. (French: Règlement grand-ducal du 30 juillet 2002 concernant la protection de la santé et de la sécurité des travailleurs contre les risques liés à des agents chimiques sur le lieu de travail [Luxembourg]) Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 26 Aug. 2002, No.A-96, p.1948-1956. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.etat.lu/legilux/DOCUMENTS_PDF/MEMORIAL/memorial/a/2002/a0962608.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0520.pdf

This regulation introduces into Luxembourg legislation the provisions of Directive 98/24/EC on chemical hazards (see CIS 98-1094) and of Directive 2000/39/EC on a first list of indicative occupational exposure limits (see CIS 01-966). Contents: purpose and scope; definitions; permissible occupational and biological exposure limits; determination and evaluation of chemical hazards; general principles of hazard prevention connected to dangerous chemicals; specific protective and preventive measures; measures in case of accidents, incidents and emergencies; information and training of workers; prohibited activities; health surveillance; consultation and participation of workers. The Grand-Ducal regulations of 15.7.1988 on lead (CIS 90-711), of 2.7.1992 on the prohibition of certain substances and activities, and of 10.7.1995 on exposure limits (CIS 00-1227), as modified by that of 28.2.1999 (CIS 00-1228), are repealed. In annex: list of exposure limits for approx. 80 substances (both 8h TWA and STEL), with skin notation where appropriate; biological exposure limits for lead and its metallic compounds;4 prohibited substances (2-naphthylamine; 4-aminobiphenyl; benzidine; 4-nitrobiphenyl; salts of the first 3); prohibited activities (where asbestos is present, with some exceptions). (78473)

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CIS 02-521 Order PRE/2317/2002 of 16 Sep. modifying annexes I-VIII of the Regulation concerning ... dangerous substances approved by Royal Decree 363/1995 [Spain]. (Spanish: Orden PRE/2317/2002, de 16 de sept., por la que modifican los anexos I-VIII del Reglamento sobre notificación de sustancias nuevas y clasificación, envasado y etiquetado de sustancias peligrosas, aprobado poe el R.D. 363/1995, de 10 de marzo) Boletín Oficial del Estado, 24 Sep. 2002, Year 342, No.229, p.34058-34059 (without annexes). (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.adr-digital.com/pdf/BOE24092002.PDF
http://www.arquitectura-tecnica.com/html/LE0000178215_20020925.html
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0521.pdf

This Order modifies the 1995 regulations on the notification, classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous chemicals (see CIS 01-631). The substantive parts of the modifications are mostly contained in the Annexes (not copied by CIS). (78492)

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CIS 02-522 Decree No.131 of 1 July 2002 adopting the Order on the final assessment of risks to persons and the environment due to new chemical substances [Bulgaria]. (Bulgarian: Postanovlenie N°131 ot 1 Juli 2002 g. za priemane na Naredba za okončatelnata ocenka na riska za čoveka i okolnata sreda ot novi himični veštestva) Dăržaven vestnik, 12 July 2002, No.67, p.3-7. (In Bulgarian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0522.pdf

Regulation on the risk assessment of new chemicals. Effective: 1 Jan. 2004. (78496)

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CIS 02-523 Order No.46/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on health protection while working with carcinogenic and mutagenic agents [Slovak Republic]. (Slovak: Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pri práci s karcinogénnymi a mutagénnymi faktormi) Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 1 Feb. 2002, No.22, p.482-493. (In Slovak)

Internet:
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/46_02.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0523.pdf

This Order (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum requirements for the protection of workers exposed to carcinogenic and mutagenic agents at work. Regulations of the Slovak Socialist republic dated 1984, 1985 and 1990 concerning carcinogens are repealed. In annex: list of exposure limits (in ppm and mg/m3) and carcinogenic, mutagenic, sensitization and skin notations; permitted levels of biological exposure indices for certain highly dangerous substances. (78546)

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CIS 02-524 Order No.45/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on health protection while working with chemical agents [Slovak Republic]. (Slovak: Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pri práci s chemickými faktormi) Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 1 Feb. 2002, No.22, p.455-481. (In Slovak)

Internet:
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/45_02.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0524.pdf

This Order (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum requirements for the protection of workers exposed to chemical agents at work. Various related regulations of the Slovak Socialist Republic are revoked. In annex: list of exposure limits (in ppm and mg/m3), with hazard codes; specific exposure limits related to aerosols and mineral fibres (incl. asbestos); permitted levels of biological exposure indices for certain highly dangerous substances. (78548)

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CIS 02-525 Order No.39/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on health protection while working with asbestos [Slovak Republic]. (Slovak: Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pri práci s asbestom) Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 30 Jan. 2002, No.19, p.299-303. (In Slovak)

Internet:
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/39_02.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0525.pdf

This Order (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum requirements for the protection of workers exposed to asbestos in its various forms. Exposure limits are given. In annex: reference method for asbestos measurement. (78628)

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CIS 02-526 Asbestos [Sweden]. (Swedish: Asbest) Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1996-1998. 31p. (Swedish), 41p. (English). (In English, Swedish)

Internet:
http://www.av.se/english/legislation/afs/eng9613.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0526en.pdf
http://www.av.se/regler/afs/1996_13.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0526sv.pdf

Regulation on the safe handling of asbestos, adopted on 5 Dec. 1996. It was issued pursuant to Section 18 of the Work Environment Ordinance (SFS 1977:1166, for latest available version see CIS 00-901). Contents: definitions; prohibition (crocidolite may not be handled; other kinds of asbestos may not be used, machined, processed or treated); exceptions to prohibitions; general safety precautions when handling asbestos; monitoring of air contaminants; labelling; application for permission to engage in the use, machining and treatment of asbestos-containing materials; special provisions involving demolition and repair work; personal protective equipment and hygiene; medical surveillance. Regulation AFS 1992:2 on asbestos is repealed. In annex: detailed general recommendations on the implementation of the Regulation. (78645)

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CIS 02-527 Cytostatic drugs and other drugs with enduring toxic effects [Sweden]. Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1999. 38p. Illus. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.av.se/english/legislation/afs/afs9911.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0527.pdf

Translation of the regulation abstracted as CIS 01-15. It is aimed in particular at health-care personnel exposed to toxic medicines in the workplace. It includes both general precautionary measures and measures to be taken in the case of potential exposure to particular cytostatic and otherwise toxic susbtances (incl. those causing sensitization). Extensive commentary. The 1984 Regulation on Cytostatic Agents (see CIS 84-1632) is repealed. (78646)

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CIS 02-528 Lead Regulations, 2001 [South Africa]. (Afrikaans: Loodregulasies, 2001) Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 28 Feb. 2002, Vol.440, No.7292, p.3-42. (In Afrikaans, English)

Internet:
http://www.gov.za/gazette/regulation/2002/23175.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0528.pdf

These regulations were issued under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1451). They apply to all workplaces where lead (Pb) is produced, processed, used, handled and stored in a form in which it can be inhaled, ingested or absorbed by any person in that workplace. Contents: definitions (the Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL) for lead is set at 0.10mg Pb/m3 for tetra-ethyl lead, and at 0.15mg Pb/m3 for all other kinds of lead); prohibition of employment in an environment where exposure to lead may occur beyond occupational exposure limits; information and training of workers; duties of persons who may be exposed; assessment of potential exposure; air monitoring; medical surveillance; respirator zones; record keeping; control of lead exposure (to occur if the level of airborne Pb is above the OEL, or if biological limits (20µg/100mL in blood for ingestible lead and 120µg/L in urine for lead alkyls) are exceeded); personal protective equipment and facilities; cleanliness of premises and plant; maintenance of control measures; prohibitions; labelling, packaging, transportation and storage; disposal of lead waste. The Lead Regulations of 22 Mar. 1991 are repealed. In annex: maximum intervals between blood and urinary Pb measurements, depending on the measured Pb levels in workers. (78808)

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CIS 02-529 Emergency stairway regulations [Costa Rica]. (Spanish: Reglamento de escaleras de emergencia) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Dirección de Seguros, San José, Costa Rica, no date. [4]p. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0529.pdf

This booklet reproduces the full text of Decree No.78538-SPPS of 7 October 1977 and its amendment by way of Decree No.11112-SPPS of 24 January 1980 on emergency stairways, applicable to all buildings of more than four floors. The main provisions are that emergency stairways should be made from incombustible material, easily allow rapid escape, comply with specified dimensions, be protected by a firewall and be free of obstruction, that escape routes be clearly signaled and that exits and stairways be the subject of regular inspection and maintenance. (78472)

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CIS 02-530 Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods - Model regulations [United Nations]. United Nations Publications, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 12th Rev. ed., June 2001. vi, 732p. Illus. Index., ISBN 92-1-139074-5 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0530.pdf

Latest update of the "Orange Book" (see CIS 95-1188 for the 9th edition, and CIS 02-531 for the Spanish-language edition). It contains a list of dangerous goods most commonly carried to which a UN identification number has been allocated. It addresses: principles of classification and definition of classes, general packing requirements, testing procedures; marking, labelling or placarding; shipping documents. Special recommendations apply to certain classes of goods. The recommendations do not apply to dangerous goods in bulk. (78481)

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CIS 02-531 Recommendations on the transport of dangerous goods - Model regulations [United Nations]. (Spanish: Recomendaciones relativas al transporte de mercancías peligrosas - Reglamentación modelo) United Nations Publications, 1211 Genève 10, Switzerland, 12th Rev. ed., Apr. 2001. vi, p.1-462. Illus. (vol. I); vi, p.463-752. Illus. Index (vol. II)., ISBN 92-1-339024-6 (vol. I), ISBN 92-1-339025-4 (vol. II), ISBN 92-1-339026-2 (2 vols) (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0531.pdf

Spanish version of the latest update of the "Orange Book" in two volumes (see CIS 02-530 for the English-language version). It contains a list of dangerous goods most commonly carried to which a UN identification number has been allocated. It addresses: principles of classification and definition of classes, general packing requirements, testing procedures; marking, labelling or placarding; shipping documents. Special recommendations apply to certain classes of goods. The recommendations do not apply to dangerous goods in bulk. (78482)

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CIS 02-532 Ordinance No.125 of 2002 of the Ministry of Social Welfare and Health concerning safety in the production of explosives in the workplace [Finland]. (Finnish: Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriön asetus räjähdysaineen työmaavalmistuksen turvallisuudesta; Swedish: Social- och Hälsovårdsministeriets förordning om säkerheten vid tillverkning av sprängämne på arbetsplatsen) Finlands författningssamling - Suomen säädöskokoelma, 22 Feb. 2002, No.125, p.370-374. (In Finnish, Swedish)

Internet:
http://www.finlex.fi/linkit/sd/20020125
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0532fi.pdf
http://www.finlex.fi/linkit/fs/20020125
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0532sv.pdf

This Ordinance (entry into force: 1 Mar. 2002) governs safety rules in the production of explosives in workplaces, including provisions covering authorizations, safe distances, manufacturing requirements and fire safety. The Directive dated 21 Aug. 1980 on the same subject is repealed. (78805)

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CIS 02-533 Decree No.41- Regulation of radiation protection and safety [El Salvador]. (Spanish: Decreto No.41 - Reglamento especial de protección y seguridad radiológica) Diario Oficial de la República de El Salvador, 18 Mar. 2002, Vol.354, No.53, p.67-93. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.mspas.gob.sv/ley_salud14.htm
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0533.pdf

The Regulation issued by this Decree covers the following types of exposure to ionizing radiation: occupational exposure, medical exposure, exposure of the general public, and potential exposures. Contents: setting up of a specialized government authority called Unidad Reguladora y Asesora de Radiaciones Ionizantes (UNRA); issuing of permits for activities involving ionizing radiation; basic requirements of radiation protection; requirements of radiation protection personnel; radiation protection in the workplace; exposure limits; radiation protection in a medical setting; protection of the public; problems of potential exposure; emergency procedures; penalties for non-compliance; concepts and definitions necessary for the implementation of the Regulation. (78475)

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CIS 02-534 Act No.236 of 2002 on the safe use of nuclear energy [Bulgaria]. (Bulgarian: Zakon za bezopasno izpolzvane na jadrenata energija) Dăržaven vestnik, 28 June 2002, No.63, p.1-29. (In Bulgarian)

Internet:
http://www.bgpage.info/Normakt/Zakoni/view14.asp
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0534.pdf

This law provides for all aspects of radiation safety, including the prevention of exposure to ionizing radiation in the medical field and the safe disposal of radioactive waste. (78549)

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CIS 02-535 Radiation Protection Act [Barbados]. Government Printing Department, Bay Street, St. Michael, Barbados, 1971. Offprint, 7p. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0535.pdf

This law provides for the protection of workers against ionizing radiation they may be exposed to at the workplace. It gives effect to Art.10 of the Radiation Protection Convention, 1960 (ILO Convention No.115, see CIS 89-1767). The main requirement on employers imposed by this law is to notify the Minister responsible for health of any work where exposure of workers to ionizing radiation may occur, and of protective measures taken. (78644)

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CIS 02-536 Order No.40/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on the protection of health of workers exposed to noise and vibration [Slovak Republic]. (Slovak: Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pred hlukom a vibráciami) Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 31 Jan. 2002, No.20, p.306-323. (In Slovak)

Internet:
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/40_02.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0536.pdf

This Regulation (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum health protection requirements of workers exposed to noise and vibration in their work. It defines the maximum acceptable values for noise and vibration in different working environments as well as the requirements for the evaluation of noise and vibration levels. Related regulations from 1977 and 1980 of the Slovak Socialist Republic on noise and vibration are repealed. (78545)

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CIS 02-537 Order of 28 Dec. 2001 of the Minister of Health and the Family, approving the Standard concerning the medical surveillance of people exposed to ionizing radiation in the course of their work [Romania]. (Romanian: Ordin pentru aprobarea Normelor privind supravegherea medicală a persoanelor expuse profesional la radiaţii ionizante) Monitorul Oficial al României, 18 Jan. 2002, Year XIV, No.34, p.12-15. (In Romanian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0537.pdf

Contents of the standard approved by this Order: organization of medical supervision; medical classification of people with regard to their employability in jobs where they may be exposed to ionizing radiation; medical record keeping; medical supervision of personnel exposed to ionizing radiation. (78810)

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CIS 02-538 Official Mexican Standard - Pressure vessels and boilers: Operation - Safety conditions [Mexico]. (Spanish: Norma Oficial Mexicana - Recipientes sujetos a presión y calderas: Funcionamento - Condiciones de seguridad) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Diario Oficial de la Federación, 28 Aug. 2002, Vol.DLXXXVII, No.20, p.32-52. 3 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.stps.gob.mx/04_sub_prevision/03_dgsht/normatividad/normas/nom_020.htm
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0538.pdf

Contents of this standard (effective: 27 Oct. 2002): scope (all workplaces where pressure vessels, boilers or cryogenic equipment are used); equipment not covered (diving equipment, hyperbaric chambers and bells, fire extinguishing equipment, tubing, portable vessels containing compressed gas, equipment under pressure used in conjunction with other fluid-treating mechanisms, LPG containers and tank cars covered by other legislation); definitions; employers' and workers' obligations; minimum safety requirements of equipment; procedures for the obtaining of authorization for the operation of such equipment; safety testing and controls. Mexican standard NOM-122-STPS-1996 on the same subject is repealed. (78474)

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CIS 02-539 Notification No.87 of 2002 concerning biological agents and the working environment on offshore installations [Denmark]. (Danish: Bekendtgørelse om biologiske agenser og arbejdsmiljø på havanlæg) Lovtidende A, 26 Feb. 2002, Vol.22, p.472-477. (In Danish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0539.pdf

Contents of this Notification (effective 2 Mar. 2002): scope of application and definitions; risk evaluation; safety instructions and information; notification of work with certain biological substances; medical examinations; exemptions. Notification No.670 of 14 July 1994 on the same subject is revoked. (78806)

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CIS 02-540 Commission Directive 2001/36/EC of 16 May 2001 amending Council Directive 91/414/EEC concerning the placing of plant protection products on the market [European Union]. (French: Directive 2001/36/CE de la Commission du 16 mai 2001 portant modification de la directive 91/414/CEE du Conseil concernant la mise sur le marché des produits phytopharmaceutiques [Union européenne]) Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 20 June 2001, Vol.44, No.L 164, p.1-38 (whole issue). (In English, French)

Internet:
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/archive/2001/l_16420010620en.html
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0540en.pdf
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/fr/archive/2001/l_16420010620fr.html
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0540fr.pdf

This Directive amends Annexes II and III of Directive 91/414/EEC (see CIS 95-1942). Changes to Annex II: Part B is replaced by a new one detailing the information that must be supplied for micro-organisms (incl. viruses) used in plant protection products (PPPs): identity; biological properties; further information; analytical methods; effects on human health; residues; fate and behaviour in the environment; effects on non-target organisms; summary and evaluation of environmental impact. Changes to Annex III: Part B is replaced by a new one detailing data requirements for the authorization of PPPs based on the preparation of micro-organisms (incl. viruses): identity; physical, chemical and technical properties of the PPP; data on application; further information on the PPP; analytical methods; efficacy data; effects on human health; residues; effects on non-target organisms; summary and evaluation of environmental impact. (78544)

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CIS 02-541 Order No.47/2002 of 16 Jan. 2002 on health protection while working with biological agents [Slovak Republic]. (Slovak: Nariadenie vlády Slovenskej republiky zo 16. januára 2002 o ochrane zdravia pri práci s biologickými faktormi) Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 1 Feb. 2002, No.22, p.494-513. (In Slovak)

Internet:
http://www.bozpo.sk/bezpecnost/predpis/47_02.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0541.pdf

This Order (entry into force: 1 Feb. 2002) establishes the minimum requirements for the protection of workers exposed to biological agents at work. In annex: classification of biological agents; lists of bacteria and similar organisms, viruses, parasites and fungi (with classification codes); safety precautions in certain situations with risk of exposure to biological agents. (78547)

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CIS 02-542 Ergonomics for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders [Sweden]. (Swedish: Belastningsergonomi - Arbetarskyddsstyrelsens föreskrifter om belastningsergonomi samt styrelsens allmänna råd om tillämpningen av föreskrifterna) Swedish National Board of Occupational Safety and Health, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1998. 53p. (Swe.), 54p. (Eng.) Illus., ISBN 91-7930-331-1 (Sv) (In English, Swedish)

Internet:
http://arbetsmiljoverket.nu/dokument/inenglish/legislations/eng9801.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0542en.pdf
http://www.av.se/dokument/afs/afs1998_01.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0542sv.pdf

Regulation on the application of ergonomics to the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace, adopted on 29 Jan. 1998. It was issued pursuant to Section 18 of the Work Environment Ordinance (SFS 1977:1166, for latest available version see CIS 00-901). The main purpose of the Regulation is to provide for the design and arrangement of workstations, jobs and working environment conditions in such a way that the risk of dangerous or tiring physical workload is minimized. Regulations AFS 1980:8 (on the handling of meat carcasses, CIS 80-1809) and AFS 1983:6 (on work postures and work movement, CIS 83-1180) are repealed. In annex: detailed, general and section-by-section recommendations on the implementation of the Regulation. (78647)

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[ Top of page ]

Chemical data sheets and criteria documents

CIS 02-543 Tolylene diisocyanate. (French: Diisocyanate de toluylène) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. Illus. 24 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0543.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-440. Tolylene diisocyanate (TDI) is usually a mixture of 80% tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate and 20% tolylene 2,6-diisocyanate. Acute toxicity: splashes may cause severe skin and eye lesions; irritation of ocular, respiratory tract and digestive mucous membranes; bronchial irritation (cough, asthmatic dyspnoea); neurological signs; delayed pulmonary oedema. Chronic toxicity: contact dermatitis; allergic asthma; respiratory disorders; delayed pulmonary oedema; bronchopneumonia; restrictive ventilatory impairment; sensitization. Exposure limits: France: TWA = 0.08mg/m3 (0.010ppm); ceiling value (5min) = 0.16mg/m3 (0.020ppm); USA (ACGIH, 1996): TWA for tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate = 0.005ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.615-006-00-4; T, R23, R36/37/38, R42, S23, S26, S28, S38, S45, 209-544-4, 202-039-0. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78421)

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CIS 02-544 Carbon monoxide. (French: Oxyde de carbone) Brondeau M.T., Calvel T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Serre P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 6p. Illus. 38 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0544.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: paresis of the limbs, coma, convulsions, leading rapidly to death in the absence of treatment (superacute or massive intoxication); depending on the carboxyhaemoglobinaemia level, dyspnoea when undertaking efforts, reduction of the nervous conduction velocity, visual disorders, irritability; cardiotoxic effects. Chronic toxicity: migraine, vertigo, asthenia, cardiological effects; foetotoxic effects. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 55mg/m3 (50ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.006-001-00-2; F+, T, R12, R61, R23, R48/23, S45, S53, 211-128-3. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78422)

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CIS 02-545 Ethanol. (French: Ethanol) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 21 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0545.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 90-740. Acute toxicity: absorption by ingestion and inhalation (very limited through the skin); irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects. Chronic toxicity: neuropsychic effects; liver damage, cirrhosis; cardiovascular effects; carcinogenic effects; effects on reproduction. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 1900mg/m3 (1000ppm); ceiling value = 9500mg/m3 (5000ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-003-00-5; F, R11, S7, S16, 200-578-6. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78423)

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CIS 02-546 Benzene. (French: Benzène) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 27 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0546.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 90-32. Acute toxicity: neurotoxic effects; skin and eye irritation. Chronic toxicity: neuropsychic disorders; haematological disorders; leukaemia. Exposure limits (France, 1986): TWA = 16mg/m3 (5ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.601-020-00-8; T, F, R45, R11, R48/23/24/25, S53, S45, 200-753-7. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78424)

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CIS 02-547 Commercial methyl ethyl ketone peroxide. (French: Peroxyde de méthyléthylcétone commercial) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. 23 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0547.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: butanone peroxide. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 88-1465. Acute toxicity: sever skin burns; eye damage which may induce blindness; burns of the gastrointestinal tract (ingestion). Chronic toxicity: allergic sensitization; eczema. Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 1.5mg/m3 (0.2ppm). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78425)

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CIS 02-548 Chlorine. (French: Chlore) Brondeau M.T., Calvel T., Falcy M., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. 4p. Illus. 31 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0548.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Acute toxicity: irritation of the nasal, ocular and pharyngeal mucous membranes; sensation of burn and suffocation; respiratory impairment; cyanosis; pulmonary oedema; most of the time respiratory function disorders persist after treatment. Chronic toxicity: chloracne; conjunctivitis; keratitis; erosion of the teeth enamel; anorexia; anaemia; migraine; chronic bronchitis. Exposure limits (France): ceiling value = 3mg/m3 (1ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.017-001-00-7; T, N, R23, R36/37/38, R50, S9, S45, S61, 231-959-5. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78426)

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CIS 02-549 Manganese dioxide. (French: Dioxyde de manganèse) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 5p. Illus. 26 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0549.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 91-1440. Acute toxicity: irritation of lungs; alveolitis. Chronic toxicity: neurotoxic effects (manganism); respiratory diseases (manganic pneumonia); irritation of the mucous membranes; antifertility effects. Exposure limits: France: TWA =1mg Mg/m3; USA (ACGIH, 1996): TWA = 0.2mg Mg/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.025-001-00-3; Xn, R20/22, S25, 215-202-8. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78427)

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CIS 02-550 Arsine. (French: Trihydrure d'arsenic) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 3p. Illus. 13 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0550.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Toxicity: haemoglobinaemia, which can lead to renal insufficiency with anuria; hepatotoxic effects; pulmonary disorders; neurotoxic effects. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.2mg/m3 (0.05ppm); ceiling value = 0.8mg/m3 (0.2ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.033-006-00-7; T, F+, N, R12, R26, R48/20, R50/53, S9, S16, S28, S33, S36/37, S45, S60, S61, 232-066-3. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78428)

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CIS 02-551 1,2-Dichloroethane. (French: 1,2-Dichloroéthane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 4p. Illus. 21 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0551.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-405. Acute toxicity: delayed effects; neuropsychic disorders (migraine, agitation, loss of balance, coma); hepatotoxic effects; kidney damage; delayed pulmonary oedema; blood coagulation disorders. Chronic toxicity: anorexia; sleepiness; hepatotoxic effects; nephrotoxic effects; dermatosis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 40mg/m3 (10ppm). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.602-012-00-7; T, F, R45, R11, R22, R36/37/38, S53, S45, 203-458-1. The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78429)

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CIS 02-552 Mercury and its mineral compounds. (French: Mercure et composés minéraux) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, CD-ROM CD 613, May 2000. Rev.ed. 6p. Illus. 36 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0552.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 90-45. Acute toxicity: skin absorption; respiratory tract irritation; encephalopathy; renal damage. Chronic toxicity: mercury poisoning; tremor; peripheral neurological disorders; loss of teeth; mercurialentis; eczematous dermatosis; sensitization; chromosome changes and spontaneous abortions. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.05mg/m3 (mercury vapour); 0.1mg Hg/m3 (inorganic compounds). EEC numbers and mandatory labelling codes: No.080-001-00-0; T; R23, R33, S7, S45, 231-106-7 (mercury); No.080-003-00-1; T+; R28, R34, R48/24/25, S36/37/39, S45, 231-299-8 (mercury dichloride). The complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM has been analysed under CIS 01-201. (78430)

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CIS 02-553 Trichlorofluoromethane. (Spanish: Triclorofluorometano) Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 2000, Vol.62, No.10, 3p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0553.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 5600mg/m3 or 1000ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: narcotic; arrhythmia; irritation of the sin and eyes; dermatitis. (78461)

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CIS 02-554 2-Ethoxyethyl acetate. (Spanish: 2-etoxietilacetato) Noticias de seguridad, Oct. 2000, Vol.62, No.10, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0554.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 540mg/m3 or 100ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: irritation of eyes and mucous membranes; neurotoxic effects (paralysis); kidney damage. (78462)

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CIS 02-555 Dimethyl-1,2-dibromo-2,2-dichloroethyl phosphate. (Spanish: Fosfato de dimetil-1,2-dibromo-2,2-dicloroetilo) Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 2000, Vol.62, No.11, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0555.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonym: naled. Exposure limit: 3mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: eye ailments (watering of the eyes, burred vision) and respiratory system impairment; digestive disorders; irritation and itching of the skin; neurological disorders; arrhythmia; cholinesterase inhibitor. Repeated exposure leads to sensitization to the substance and to related products. (78463)

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CIS 02-556 Diisopropylamine. (Spanish: Diisopropilamina) Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 2000, Vol.62, No.11, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0556.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 20mg/m3 or 5ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract, headache; vision disorders; nausea. (78464)

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CIS 02-557 Diethylaminoethanol. (Spanish: Etanol dietilamínico) Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 2000, Vol.62, No.12, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0557.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 20mg/m3 or 10ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: irritation of skin and eyes; nausea and vomiting. (78465)

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CIS 02-558 Dichlorotetrafluoroethane (Refrigerant 114). (Spanish: Diclorotetrafluoroetano (Refrigerante 114)) Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 2000, Vol.62, No.12, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0558.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 7000mg/m3 or 1000ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: refrigerant which may induce burns in case of contact with the skin and eyes; sleepiness; unconsciousness; arrhythmia. (78466)

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CIS 02-559 1,3-Dichloro-5,5-dimethyl hydantoin. (Spanish: 1,3-dicloro-5,5-dimetilhidantoína) Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 2001, Vol.63, No.1, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0559.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 0.2mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. (78467)

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CIS 02-560 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine. (Spanish: 3,3'-diclorobencidina) Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 2001, Vol.63, No.1, 5p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0560.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 0.1% by weight or volume (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: skin allergies; dermatitis; headache; vertigo; severe eye irritation and caustic skin lesions; haematuria. (78468)

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CIS 02-561 Tetrachloronaphthalene. (Spanish: Tetracloronaftaleno) Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 2001, Vol.63, No.3, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0561.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 2mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: acneic skin rashes; hepatic damage (fatigue and dark urine). (78469)

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CIS 02-562 Tetramethylthiuram disulfide. (Spanish: Tiram) Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 2001, Vol.63, No.3, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0562.pdf

Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Synonym: thiram. Exposure limit: 5mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin, eyes, throat and nose; skin allergies effects similar to those of Antabuse (nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, loss of appetite); teratogenic effects in animals. (78470)

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CIS 02-563 α-Naphthylamine. (German: α-Naphthylamin) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 115p. 283 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0563.pdf

Toxicological criteria document. There are no conclusive indications that 1-naphthylamine has carcinogenic potential. Animal experiments show toxicity upon acute oral and dermal exposure. A mutagenic and chromosome-damaging activity has been found in various test systems. (78571)

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CIS 02-564 Fluorobenzene. (German: Fluorbenzol) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 22 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0564.pdf

Toxicological criteria document. There are no data available on the effects of exposure to fluorobenzene in humans. Animal experiments show a low acute toxicity upon oral and inhalation exposure. The substance is not clastogenic. Fluorobenzene is not neurotoxic in rats following inhalation exposure for 28 days. (78572)

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CIS 02-565 Chloracetyl chloride. (German: Chloracetylchlorid) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 19p. 30 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0565.pdf

Toxicological criteria document. Chloracetyl chloride causes irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Concentrations around 1ppm cause painful eye irritation and lacrimation. Extensive skin contact has been fatal within 5min. Dermal exposure to a mixture of solvents containing chloracetyl chloride induced convulsions and coma. Animal experiments show a moderate toxicity upon acute oral and dermal exposure. Repeated inhalation exposure leads to effects on the respiratory tract. No mutagenic or clastogenic effect has been found. (78573)

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CIS 02-566 Triethyl phosphite. (German: Triethylphosphit) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 15 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0566.pdf

Toxicological criteria document. There are no data available on the effects of exposure to triethyl phosphite in humans. Animal experiments show a low acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity. No mutagenic or clastogenic effect has been found. (78574)

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CIS 02-567 Diethyl phosphite. (German: Diethylphosphit) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 16 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0567.pdf

Toxicological criteria document. There are no data available on the effects of exposure to diethyl phosphite in humans. Animal experiments show a low acute oral, dermal and inhalation toxicity. No mutagenic or clastogenic effects have been reported. (78575)

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CIS 02-568 2,4,5-Trichloroaniline. Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA), S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Allemagne, 2002. xvi, 140p. 122 ref., ISBN 3-7776-1176-X (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0568.pdf

Toxicological criteria document. 2,4,5-trichloroaniline can be absorbed orally, dermally and possibly also by inhalation. Animal studies show symptoms such as narcosis, weight loss, paralysis of the hind extremities as well as a mild methaemoglobin formation. Retarded growth and alterations in the liver and spleen as well as blood alterations have been observed. 2,4,5-trichloroaniline has no mutagenic effect. (78576)

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CIS 02-569 Monochloroacetone. Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA), S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Allemagne, 2002. xiii, 80p. 74 ref., ISBN 3-7776-1173-X (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0569.pdf

Toxicological criteria document. Monochloroacetone causes irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract. Skin contact causes painful blistering. Animal studies show toxic effects upon repeated oral administration, inhalation exposure and repeated spreading onto the skin. Results of genotoxicity studies are contradictory. No tumour-initiating effect was shown. There are no carcinogenicity studies available. (78577)

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CIS 02-570 Joint assessment of commodity chemicals No.39: Tetrachloroethylene. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 1999. 271p. Illus. Approx. 720 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0570.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: tetrachloroethylene is absorbed via the lungs, the skin and the gastro-intestinal tract. It is irritant to the skin and mildly irritant to the eyes. Target organs are the central nervous system (CNS) and (possibly) the heart. A relationship between tetrachloroethylene exposure and cancer has not been clearly demonstrated. Some studies suggest a relationship between repeated exposure to tetrachloroethylene and permanent chronic toxic effects on the CNS. Human health hazard assessments should be conducted on toxic effects on the liver and the kidney. (78580)

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CIS 02-571 Genistein - Model substance for describing endocrine effects of phytoestrogens. Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA), S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. xviii, 134p. 237 ref., ISBN 3-7776-1100-X (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0571.pdf

Based on a literature survey, this report reviews the effects of genostein. Genostein is a phyto-estrogen, i.e. its effects are similar to those of estrogens. High concentrations of genostein are found notably in soybeans which are a staple food in Asia. It is therefore important to understand the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and induced effects of this product. At genistein concentrations corresponding to those of the typical Asian diet, findings included relatively low effects on the hormonal system and a lengthening of the menstrual cycle among pre-menopausal women. These effects may influence cancer incidence rates, in particular for breast cancer. However, many studies highlight the beneficial effects of diets rich in genostein or phyto-estrogens. In vitro studies and animal experiments show genistein to have toxicological properties similar to those of estrogens. (78617)

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CIS 02-572 Propargyl alcohol. Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA), S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. x, 118p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-7776-1096-8 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0572.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: the sensitization capacity, reproductive toxicity and carcinogenicity of propargyl alcohol cannot be adequately evaluated on the basis of available data. Animal experiments are recommended to clarify the sensitizing properties of the substance. Genotoxicity studies showed no signs of genotoxic potential. (78618)

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CIS 02-573 2-Chloroacetamide. Advisory Committee on Existing Chemicals of Environmental Relevance (BUA), S. Hirzel Verlag, Birkenwaldstrasse 44, 70191 Stuttgart, Germany, 2001. xiii, 125p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-7776-1169-7 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0573.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: there are no data available on the toxicokinetics, metabolism and carcinogenicity of 2-chloroacetamide, nor on its dermal acute toxicity or dust inhalation toxicity. Numerous cases of 2-chloroacetamide-induced contact allergies are reported. (78619)

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CIS 02-574 Toxicological evaluations. (German: Toxikologische Bewertungen) Toxikologische Bewertungen - Berufsgenossenschaft der chemische Industrie, Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, 16. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2000. 18 vols. Bibl.ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0574.pdf

Sixteenth update of a collection of separately-printed criteria documents. The collection summarizes knowledge of the properties of the chemicals included on the priority list of the Mutual Accident Insurance Association of the German Chemical Industry. Each brochure provides normal toxicological data sheet information, together with an evaluation of the source documents. The substances covered are: piperidine; o- and m-chloronitrobenzene; chloro-p-xylene; dicyclohexylamine; 2-mercaptobenzimidazol; 1-(2,4-dinitro-phenylazo)-2-naphthol; QUAB 188; vinyl propionate; vinyl ethyl ether; carbamic acid butyl ester; γ-butyrolactone; hydroxylamine and its salts; benzothiazolethiol; triisobutyl phosphate; tetrafluoroboric acid and its salts; tributyl phosphate. One booklet contains a list of synonyms, trivial and commercial names of the chemicals for which toxicological assessments have been published. (78639)

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CIS 02-575 Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 33p. Illus. 107 ref., ISBN 92-4-153041-3 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad41.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0575.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document on diethylene glycol dimethyl ether: in vitro studies indicate that the product is not mutagenic nor genotoxic. Animal experiments show no chromosomal aberrations, and indicate low ingestion and inhalation toxicities. The primary form of exposure is by inhalation. Although not conclusive, the limited epidemiological studies involving exposed workers show some indication of reproductive effects (spontaneous abortions among women, lower sperm counts among men). Animal studies confirm the reproductive disorders, and possible mechanisms are discussed. (78663)

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CIS 02-576 Formaldehyde. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. v, 75p. Illus. Approx. 400 ref., ISBN 92-4-153040-5 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad40.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0576.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document on formaldehyde: in vitro, the product induced DNA changes, chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges and gene mutations in human and rodent cells. The primary source of exposure is through inhalation. Results of epidemiological studies in occupationally-exposed populations show a weak positive response for genotoxicity, particularly at the site of contact (buccal or nasal mucal cells), and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Evidence for a causal association between formaldehyde exposure and human cancers is weak, but cannot be excluded. (78664)

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CIS 02-577 Acrylonitrile. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 51p. Illus. Approx. 220 ref., ISBN 92-4-153039-1 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad39.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0577.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document on acrylonitrile: data from animal studies indicate that the product is a skin, respiratory and severe eye irritant. Acute dermal irritation has been reported in human studies. Animal ingestion and inhalation studies have given rise to the consistent observation of cancers (of the brain and spinal cord, ear canal, gastrointestinal tract and mammary glands), including upon the administration of non-toxic doses. Increases in cancer incidence have not been confirmed in epidemiological studies involving exposed workers, in part due to the limited number of published studies. (78665)

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CIS 02-578 N-Nitrosodimethylamine. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 45p. Illus. Approx. 250 ref., ISBN 92-4-153038-3 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad38.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0578.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: on N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA): numerous in vitro studies in bacterial and mamallian cells show overwhelming evidence of mutagenicity, clastogenicity, gene mutations, chromosomal damage, sister chromatid exchanges and unscheduled DNA synthesis. Animal studies indicate that NDMA is clearly carcinogenic, even at low doses. The primary targets are the gastro-intestinal tract and the liver. As a result, it is considered highly likely to be carcinogenic to humans, even at low levels of exposure. The most frequent mode of exposure is ingestion. Epidemiological studies show positive relationships between NDMA exposure and stomach, gastric and colorectal cancers. (78666)

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CIS 02-579 Chlorine dioxide (gas). Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. iv, 26p. 54 ref., ISBN 92-4-153037-5 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad37.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0579.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document on gaseous chlorine dioxide: given the highly reactive nature of the product, it seems likely that health effects would be restricted to local responses. Animal experiments show the high acute inhalation and ingestion toxicities. Severe skin and respiratory tract irritation has been observed in rats. Long-term inhalation exposure testing in animals show indications of nasal tissue and respiratory tract damage. Eye and respiratory tact irritation has been observed in humans. There are no reports of skin sensitization or asthma associated with occupational exposure to the product. (78667)

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CIS 02-580 Thiourea. (German: Thioharnstoff) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 23 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0580.pdf

Thiourea has no clear mutagenic activity in bacterial systems. Genotoxic tests have given contradictory results and the tumorigenic effect of thiourea on the thyroid gland may represent an epigenetic effect. Research is currently underway on the question as to whether thiourea is metabolically activated in the rat thyroid gland to give a genotoxic metabolite. (78792)

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CIS 02-581 Ethylenethiourea. (German: Ethylenthioharnstoff) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 94p. 147 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0581.pdf

A few cases of dermal sensitization to ethylenethiourea have been described. Studies on five workers employed in the processing of ethylenethiourea showed lower serum T4 levels than controls, indicating a possibility of a disturbance of the thyroid function. The are no indications of thyroid tumour development in workers in the rubber industry and no indication of an increased incidence of congenital malformations in the children of occupationally exposed women. Animal experiments show that ethylenethiourea is concentrated in the thyroid. Thiourea is carcinogenic (dose-dependent thyroid carcinomas) and teratogenic. (78793)

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CIS 02-582 Copper phthalocyanine, chlorinated. (German: Kupferphthalocyanin, chloriert) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 15p. 22 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0582.pdf

Animal experiments show a low toxicity upon acute oral exposure and a high toxicity on inhalation exposure. Chlorinated copper phthalocyanine is not a skin and eye irritant, and no sensitizing potential has been observed. Results of mutagenicity tests with Salmonella typhimurium were negative. (78794)

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CIS 02-583 Dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea. (German: Dimethyloldihydroxyethylenharnstoff) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 19p. 25 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0583.pdf

Patients suffering from contact dermatitis or eczema had positive results to dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea in patch tests. Aqueous solutions can induce sensitization. Animal experiments show a low acute toxicity upon oral administration. After inhalation, dyspnoea and irritation of the mucous membranes are observed which increase with exposure to higher temperatures. However the substance begins to decompose at 40°C, and it is assumed that the symptoms are attribuable to decomposition products of dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea. A slight mutagencic effect has been found. It is not possible to assess conclusively whether the observed mutagenic and sensitizing effetcts are due to dimethylol dihydroxyethylene urea and/or to formaldehyde contamination or liberation. (78795)

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CIS 02-584 m-Chlorobenzotrifluoride. (German: m-Chlorobenzotrifluorid) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 15p. 15 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0584.pdf

There is no information available on the effects of m-chlorobenzotrifluoride on humans. Animal experiments show a very low toxicity upon acute oral administration. The substance does not induce gene mutations or chromosome aberrations. Because of the structural relationship of m-chlorobenzotrifluoride with p-chlorobenzotrifluoride and 3,4-dichlorobenzotrifluoride, similar effects on the liver and kidney may be expected. (78796)

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CIS 02-585 2-Methylpropanol-1. (German: 2-Methylpropanol-1) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 43p. Illus. 117 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0585.pdf

2-Methylpropanol-1 vapours cause narcosis and irritation of the upper airways. Reversible eye damage may also occur. Ingestion induces a deterioration of the attention span. Animal experiments show a low toxicity upon acute oral and inhalation exposure. 2-methylpropanol-1 is an irritant to the skin and the eyes of rabbits. Results of carcinogenicity studies do not enable its carcinogenic potential to be evaluated. No embryotoxic, foetotoxic or teratogenic effects have been reported. (78797)

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CIS 02-586 Glyoxal. (German: Glyoxal) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 67p. 146 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0586.pdf

Glyoxal irritates the skin and induces sensitization. Animal experiments show a low toxicity upon oral, dermal and inhalation exposure. It causes slight skin irritation, eye irritation which can lead to necrotic lesions of the and induces skin sensitization. The substance has been shown to be mutagenic in numerous in vitro and in vivo tests. Local tumour promoting properties on the mucosa of the glandular stomach have been observed following oral administration in rats. (78798)

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CIS 02-587 3-Methylbutanol-1. (German: 3-Methylbutanol-1) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, Jan. 1997. 31p. 82 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0587.pdf

Exposure to concentrations of 3-methylbutanol-1 in air exceeding 100ppm causes irritation of the eyes, nose and throat. Ingestion causes a decrease in attention span, and ingestion of 50 to 100mL of may lead to death within one or two days. Animal experiments show a low to moderate toxicity upon acute oral and inhalation exposure. 3-methylbutanol-1 is an irritant to the skin and the eyes of rabbits. Results of carcinogenicity studies do not enable the evaluation of its carcinogenic potential. No embryotoxic, foetotoxic or teratogenic effects have been reported. (78799)

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[ Top of page ]

Training materials and practical information

CIS 02-588 Personal protective equipment. (Spanish: Equipo de protección personal) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 22p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0588.pdf

Contents of this booklet on personal protective equipment (PPE): equipment characteristics (certification, quality, ease of use, maintenance); means of encouraging the use of PPEs (designating safety representatives, training, incentives, safety rules); types of PPEs (protection of the head, eyes and face, hearing protection, respirators, protective gloves, aprons, leg protection, belts, harnesses, high-visibility clothing); check list for hazard evaluation. (78857)

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CIS 02-589 Working conditions and working environment. (Spanish: Condiciones y medio ambiente de trabajo) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 14p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0589.pdf

Contents of this booklet on occupational safety and hygiene: occupational safety; occupational hygiene; ergonomics; working conditions; techniques of workplace safety and hygiene evaluation; legal aspects; workplace inspection; accident investigation. (78853)

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CIS 02-590 Health at work - A handbook for people who work. Koh D., Siang L.H., Tin L.L., Huang K.Y., Occupational and Environmental Health Society, eds., Armour Publishing Pte Ltd, Kent Ridge Post Office, P.O. Box 1193, Singapore 911107, Singapore, 2001. xi, 132p. Illus. Index., ISBN 981-4045-18-7 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0590.pdf

Aimed at all working persons who desire to adopt a preventive approach to their own health, this publication seeks to encourage the adoption of healthy work practices and lifestyles. Contents: work and health; changing patterns of work, lifestyles and diseases; importance of health protection and promotion; work stress; work with computers; shift work; aches and pains at work; noise and hearing; chemicals at the workplace; preventing illnesses caused by work; personal protective equipment; compensation of occupational diseases; lifestyle and disease; health risk screening at the workplace; preventing travel-related illnesses; avoiding burnout at work; health education and health promotion services in Singapore. (78740)

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CIS 02-591 Safe handling of chemicals. (Spanish: Manejo seguro de químicos) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 15p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0591.pdf

Contents of this booklet on the safe handling of chemicals: classification of chemicals by type of hazard and physical state; colour coding of labels (red: flammable products; yellow: oxidizing products; white: toxic products; blue: products that react in the presence of water); effects on health; sources of information (material safety data sheets, labels, placards); handling techniques; personal protection; emergency measures; check list for hazard evaluation. (78854)

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CIS 02-592 Six steps for facing minor spills. (Spanish: 6 pasos para enfrentar derrames menores) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 11p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0592.pdf

When faced with a minor spill or leakage, one should proceed in the following sequence: evaluate the hazard; notify the supervisor; take immediate actions (evacuate the area, cut-off the supply of product to the leaking equipment, use personal protective equipment); take further control measures; clean-up the area; take decontamination measures. The booklet includes a check list for hazard evaluation. (78855)

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CIS 02-593 Official standard for the use of colours in safety, and their symbols - Executive Decree 12715 - MEIC. (Spanish: Norma oficial para la utilización de colores en seguridad y su simbología - Decreto Ejecutivo 12715 - MEIC) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 14p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0593.pdf

Booklet summarizing the provisions of the official standard for the use of colours in safety (see CIS 95-1929). Contents: general aspects; colours and their use, in particular on piping; width of colour stripes and height of lettering of warning notices on piping; international classification of dangerous goods and its symbols. (78860)

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CIS 02-594 Caution with compressed gases. (Spanish: @20Cuidado con los gases comprimidos!) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 14p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0594.pdf

Contents of this booklet on compressed gases: types of gases (flammable, non flammable, oxidizing, toxic); forms of gas (compressed, liquid, dissolved; cryogenic); appropriate use of valves; gas leaks; check list for hazard evaluation. (78852)

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CIS 02-595 Occupational safety and health for work in confined spaces. (Spanish: Prevención para labores en espacios confinados) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 7p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0595.pdf

Contents of this booklet on occupational safety and health measures for work in confined spaces: characteristics of confined spaces; hazards (lack of oxygen, flammable or toxic atmospheres, suffocation, electrocution, heat-induced fatigue, remaining trapped, falls); precautions before entry into a confined space; personal protective equipment; check list for hazard evaluation. (78858)

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CIS 02-596 Take care of your ears. (Spanish: Cuide sus oídos) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 14p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0596.pdf

Contents of this booklet on hearing protection: consequences of exposure to noise; control measures (monitoring, medical examinations, preventive measures); types of personal protective equipment (earplugs, earmuffs); taking proper care of reusable protective equipment; check list for hazard evaluation. (78859)

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CIS 02-597 Safety devices for machinery. (Spanish: Mecanismos de seguridad en máquinas) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 14p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0597.pdf

Contents of this booklet on safety devices for machinery: fixed and adjustable parts; emergency stop devices (pressure-sensitive barriers, cables); two-hand controls; proximity detector guards; safe working methods; machinery feed and ejection systems; check list for hazard evaluation. (78851)

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CIS 02-598 Personal protective equipment of forestry workers. (French: Equipements de protection individuelle du personnel forestier - Exemple de calcul des coûts 2002-03; German: Persönliche Schutzausrüstung für das Forstpersonal - Kostenbeispiel 2002-03; Italian: Dispositivi di protezione individuale per il personale forestale - Esempio di calcolo dei costi 2002-03) Suva, Schweizerische Unfallversicherungsanstalt, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 8th ed., Feb. 2002. 4p. Illus. (In French, German, Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
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http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
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http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
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Swiss law specifies that the employer has to provide personal protective equipment, with the exception of shoes, for which the employer is required to pay at least half the cost. Aimed at employers in the forestry sector, this booklet lists the costs of new equipment for new hires, as well as the annual replacement costs of the equipment based on their average lifetime. The following protective equipment is considered: helmets with built-in earmuffs, face shields and neck protection; ear muffs; jackets; trousers; gloves; boots; weatherproof coats. (78850)

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CIS 02-599 Safety during excavation work. (Spanish: Seguridad en trabajos de excavación) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, no date. 15p. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0599.pdf

In the construction sector, excavation work is particularly dangerous, with a high risk of collapse in the absence of safety precautions. This booklet outlines some of the safety measures applicable to open excavation work. Contents: stabilization of trench walls; main hazards; types of soil; preventive measures (design of trench dimensions, shoring, reinforcement structures, slope angles); check list for hazard evaluation. (78856)

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[ Top of page ]

Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals


001 General safety, health and conditions of work

CIS 02-600 Longest held occupation in a lifetime and risk of disability in activities of daily living. Li C.Y., Wu S.C., Wen S.W., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.550-554.32 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0600.pdf

A case-control study was conducted on 360 elderly people in northern Taiwan with activities of daily living (ADL) disability and 720 controls. Occupational data were collected through interviews conducted in 1997. Performed job contents were classified into occupational categories and occupation-based social classes. Workers in agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing and workers in craft and related trades had significantly increased risks of subsequent ADL disability in comparison to higher level white-collar workers. Unskilled blue-collar workers had an 1.8 times higher risk of ADL disability than workers from higher social classes. The results tend to suggest a potential for an effect of longest-held occupation on the risk of ADL disability. (78695)

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CIS 02-601 PPE: A cornerstone of occupational health and safety. (French: Les EPI, élément déterminant de la prévention; German: PSA: Baustein des Arbeischutzes) Müller E., Zimmermann D., Korhonen E., Noetel K.H., KANBRIEF, Verein zur Förderung der Arbeitssicherheit in Europa e.V., Kommission Arbeitsschutz und Normung (KAN), Geschäftsstelle, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2002, No.2, p.1-10. Illus. (In English, French, German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0601.pdf

Personal protective equipment (PPE) is used when engineered or organizational measures are not sufficient to protect employees at work. These four articles discuss the development of standards for PPEs and cover the following topics: main conclusions of a study on the standardization of PPEs carried out with a view to the adapting of Directive 89/686/EEC (see CIS 90-381) on the design and safety requirements of PPEs to technical progress of the last ten years; interview of a past consultant specialized in PPEs; the PPE directive as a basis for standardization efforts. (78611)

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CIS 02-602 The distribution of occupational injury risks in the state of Victoria. Larsson T.J., Field B., Safety Science, July 2002, Vol.40, No.5, p.419-437. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0602.pdf

The relative distribution of occupational injury risk in the state of Victoria (Australia) has been calculated from workers' compensation data for 1992-1998 and data from the 1996 Australian census. An injury severity index, generated by the claims-settling process, was used to differentiate occupations, tasks and activities in terms of priorities for intervention and prevention. Based on annual injury incidence and injury severity, the following occupational groups were identified as being the top priorities for prevention counter-measures: glass, clay and stone workers; miners and drillers; forestry and logging workers; roof layers; drivers; wood industry workers; other construction workers. Ergonomic interventions, together with the prevention of falls and power tool incidents related to the relevant occupational exposures, are discussed. (78451)

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CIS 02-603 Safety-related software applications - Study of the problems arising from their use. (French: Logiciels applicatifs relatifs à la sécurité - Etude des problèmes liés à leur exploitation) Neugnot C., Kneppert M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2172-187-02, p.101-115. Illus. 23 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0603.pdf

This article lists the various safety elements that exist within a complex machinery system. The way in which the software application manages safety issues is subsequently analysed. The hierarchical structure and limitation of access (by passwords) must prevent the final operator from any possibility of acting in a way affecting safety, while at the same time preserving the options of further adapting the programmes. On the basis of these observations, the development cycle of the software application is analysed, in particular with respect to programming, simulation and validation issues. Finally, based on the practical example of the high-speed machining sector, discussions with users, machinery manufacturers, supervisory bodies and the technical committee of the trade association enabled the definition of recommendations relating to each phase of the development cycle of the software application (design, validation, modification, maintenance, documentation and training). (78675)

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CIS 02-604 Effectiveness of a workplace risk assessment team in reducing the rate, cost, and duration of occupational injury. Carrivick P.J.W., Lee A.H., Yau K.K.W., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.155-159. 15 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0604.pdf

This study evaluated the effectiveness of a consultative workplace risk assessment team in reducing the rate and severity of injury among cleaners in a 600-bed hospital. Cohorts of cleaning services and orderly services staff ever employed within both a 4 year pre-intervention and a three-year post-intervention period were assigned to the intervention and comparison groups, respectively. The date, compensation claims cost, and hours lost from work were obtained for each injury during the study period. Age, sex, work experience and hours worked were ascertained for every subject whether injured or not. Reductions of two thirds in injury rate, 73% in cost, and 43% in duration were evident in the intervention group. The success of the workplace risk assessment team intervention supports the adoption of a participatory approach to reducing the rate and consequence of workplace injury. (78728)

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CIS 02-605 1999 technology statistics - Continued rise in occupational accidents and increase in occupational diseases. (French: Les statistiques technologiques 1999 - Hausse continue du nombre des accidents du travail et progression des maladies professionnelles) Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2001, No.613, p.45-52. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0605.pdf

Sectoral statistics of occupational accidents in France show an increase from 1998 to 1999 in terms of lost-work-time accidents (3.2%), commuting accidents (7.2%) and fatal accidents (5.1%). Compared with 1998, there was a rise of 24% in the number of cases of occupational diseases that were compensated. Tables present accident statistics by type of accident, industrial sector and cause; occupational disease statistics are presented by disease and industrial sector; finally, commuting accidents are presented by industrial sector. (78834)

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CIS 02-606 A major need for harmonized standards on general product safety. (French: Besoin considérable en normes harmonisées sur la sécurité générale des produits; German: Erheblicher Bedarf an harmonisierten Normen zur allgemeinen Produktsicherheit) Mattiuzzo C., KANBRIEF, Verein zur Förderung der Arbeitssicherheit in Europa e.V., Kommission Arbeitsschutz und Normung (KAN), Geschäftsstelle, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2002, No.2, p.17-19. Illus. (In English, French, German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0606.pdf

Member states are required to transpose the European Directive on general product safety (2001/95/CE) into their national legislation by 15 January 2004 at the latest. Based on the Directive, a working group has defined the standardization priorities with respect to occupational safety and health. The work consisted in identifying the products that have a particular impact on occupational safety and health, as well as the priorities for the standardization of these products. The criteria used were the frequency of use at the place of work and the magnitude of the hazard. A table listing the products according to their classification into one of three hazard categories is included. (78613)

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CIS 02-607 Creating safer and healthier workplaces: Role of organizational factors and job characteristics. Shannon H.S., Robson L.S., Sale J.E.M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.319-334. 173 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0607.pdf

A comprehensive understanding of workplace organizational risk factors for illness and injury and interventions to alleviate these factors is important for workplace prevention efforts. The evidence for the role of workplace organizational factors and work factors in occupational health and safety (OHS) are reviewed and summarized. Where possible, emphasis is on workplace rather than individual factors. Three types of outcomes are considered: injuries, ill-health and musculoskeletal problems; and the evidence for their relationship to work is noted. Workplace interventions intended to alleviate each type of outcome are reviewed, and methodological limitations of previous research are highlighted. Despite the methodological limitations, the balance of the literature supports the work-relatedness of the three types of outcomes, although questions remain about exact mechanisms and the effectiveness of specific interventions. (78378)

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CIS 02-608 Implementation of systematic OHS activity in Norway. Nytrø K., Saksvik P., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.491-498. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0608.pdf

Internal control regulations of occupational safety and health (IC, see CIS 94-407) were launched in Norway in 1992 to prevent further negative trends in accidents and absenteeism in the offshore oil industry, and more broadly as a national strategy to promote occupational hygiene. However, many small enterprises encountered problems in implementing IC. The regulations were revised in 1997 in a form that required less administration, making it easier for compliance by small firms. This article discusses the main aspects of IC, emphasizes the importance of in-house competence in occupational safety and health and presents a practical approach for implementing the IC regulation in small and medium-sized businesses. (78414)

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CIS 02-609 Occupational health and safety in small businesses. O'Connell L., Firth H., McBride D., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.509-513. 16 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0609.pdf

A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of owners and managers of small businesses with one to five employees in South Dunedin, New Zealand was undertaken with the aim of describing their OHS practices. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used. The response rate was 66% of the 77 businesses identified. Awareness of the relevant legislation was high, but 45% of respondents believed that they had insufficient knowledge and understanding for successful compliance. Compliance with hazard identification and control was high, but only 65% kept an accident register. The annual rate for injuries requiring health intervention was 39/1,000. Agencies other than the enforcing agency could be utilized more extensively for conveying information and advice. Also, work-related injury data collected centrally should include firm size so that a better understanding of risk in small businesses can be determined. (78415)

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CIS 02-610 Occupational health research priorities in Malaysia: A Delphi study. Sadhra S., Beach J.R., Aw T.C., Sheikh-Ahmed K., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.58, No.7, p.426-431. 14 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0610.pdf

The Delphi method was used to identify research priorities in occupational health in Malaysia. Participating organizations included government ministries, industry, professional organizations and university departments. The resulting list of priorities showed noticeable differences between participants depending on whether they worked in industry or were from government organizations. Ministry of Health participants placed emphasis on healthcare workers (52% ranking it as top priority), whereas those from industry identified construction and plantation workers as groups which should be accorded the highest priority. Chemical poisonings and workplace accidents were accorded a high priority by all participants. However, workplace psychosocial problems and musculoskeletal diseases were deemed less important. There also seemed to be greater emphasis on adopting interventions based on experience in other countries rather than on evaluating local occupational health solutions. (78437)

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CIS 02-611 Why federal agencies should estimate their long-term occupational injury and illness costs. Freeman K., LaFleur B.J., Booth J., Doyle E.J., Pugh W.M., Journal of Safety Research, Fall 2001, Vol.32, No.3, p.277-287. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0611.pdf

The U.S. government's annual cost for compensating work-related injuries and illnesses incurred by its civilian labor force is approximately USD 2 billion. To control these costs, federal agencies rely primarily on annual or prevalence-based cost accounting to evaluate the effectiveness of injury prevention efforts. Since most of the annual bill is for the older, persistent and costlier cases, this approach may obscure recent safety trends and can lead to faulty assumptions. Workers' compensation costs in the US Navy were analysed using an incidence-based approach, which considers only new injuries and illnesses occurring in a given year and projects their likely course, duration, and long-term associated costs. It provides the truest measure of the costs of that year's operation. It promotes accountability and cost containment, and allows organizations to hold managers accountable for costs incurred specifically during their tenure. (78454)

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CIS 02-612 Training and information in occupational health and safety. (Russian: Nepreryvnoe obučenie specialistov po ohrane truda) Dorshakova N., Mikheev M., Shlyakhetskiy N., Dahlner B., Oldershaw P.J., Vartio A., Mishkich I.A., Mechnikov I.I., Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2001, Vol.4, No.2, p.43-70 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English, Russian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0612.pdf

This journal focuses on occupational safety and health (OSH) issues specific to the cold climatic conditions of the Nordic Countries and Northwestern Russia (the Barents region). Among the topics covered in this issue devoted to OSH training: continuous training in OSH; advantages of Saint Petersburg as a centre for training professionals in occupational medicine; training for occupational health services in Sweden; advancing prevention; description of an OSH information network grouping countries situated around the Baltic sea; study of the effect of adverse occupational factors on workers' health in fish-processing industries. (78523)

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CIS 02-613 New challenges and opportunities for occupational safety and health (OSH) in a globalized world. López-Valcárcel A., African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2001, Vol.11, No.3, p.61-63. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0613.pdf

The rapid export-driven industrialization of certain developing countries gives rise to challenges and opportunities in the area of occupational safety and health (OSH) which are discussed in this article. Contents: harmonizing working conditions and product standards; OSH as a determining factor for competitiveness; OSH and the environment; new codes of conduct to be adopted by the enterprise. (78525)

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CIS 02-614 External relations of the European Union are a global commitment. Leichnitz K., African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2001, Vol.11, No.3, p.64-65. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0614.pdf

This article mentions some of the development programmes funded by the European Union (EU), such as the "Phare" programme aimed at EU candidate countries, and the programmes aimed at African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries. It describes a project funded by the "Phare" programme on the "training of trainers" in occupational safety and health. The project involved presentations, case studies, discussions, practical demonstrations, visits to workplaces, visits to research laboratories and individual and group exercises. (78526)

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CIS 02-615 Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems (ILO-OSH 2001). Machida S., Baichoo P., African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2001, Vol.11, No.3, p.68-69. Illus. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0615.pdf

The ILO Guidelines on Occupational Safety and Health Management Systems (ILO-OSH 2001, see CIS 02-162) are presented. They provide guidance for implementation at two levels, the national level and the organizational level. The frameworks and the main elements of OSH management systems at these two levels are described. (78527)

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CIS 02-616 Impacts of globalization on working conditions and the environment - An Asian perspective. Manuaba A., Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Nov. 2001, Vol.8, No.3, p.62-64. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0616.pdf

As a result of rapid globalization, many developing countries are faced with increasing demands on limited natural resources, environmental pressures, inequitable distribution of economic gains, cultural dislocation, poor management of the development process and a shortage of development funds. This article presents the integrated ergonomic workshops approach developed by the Bali Human Ecology Study Group to address these issues. These workshops are based on the SHIP (systemic, holistic, interdisciplinary and participatory) approach. (78529)

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CIS 02-617 Impact of globalization on small enterprises and the informal sector. Phoon W.O., Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Nov. 2001, Vol.8, No.3, p.64-65. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0617.pdf

Generally, the term "small enterprise" refers to one with 50 or fewer workers. The concept of "informal sector" is understood to imply the use of labour-intensive working methods, with most of the workforce being self-employed. The informal sector accounts for 30% to 60% of the GNP in many less-developed countries. In common with workers of small enterprises, those in the informal sector usually have no access to the protection provided by social security systems or occupational safety and health services. This article reviews some of the adverse effects of the rapid industrialization of developing countries, which include health effects from handling dangerous chemicals without precautions, social effects, technology transfer without proper safeguards and economic volatility. (78530)

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CIS 02-618 Evaluation of occupational hazards - Overview of the complexities of the problems facing the company occupational safety and health specialist. (French: Evaluer les risques professionnels - Aperçu de la complexité des problèmes pour le préventeur) Favaro M., Préventique-Sécurité, Mar.-Apr. 2001, No.56, p.40-45. Illus. 21 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0618.pdf

Aimed at persons responsible for safety and health within the enterprise, this article presents the main elements of the approach for evaluating occupational hazards. It provides definitions of "risk", "accident" and "danger". Various methods and approaches for hazard evaluation within the enterprise are presented (including standardized, safety engineering and comprehensive approaches), as well as the selection criteria for the most suited method given the specific conditions prevailing within the enterprise. (78689)

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CIS 02-619 Training plan for occupational safety and health personnel in France. (French: Plan de formation pour le personnel en santé et sécurité du travail) Derrien M.F., Cahier Pratique Tissot - Guide de la santé, sécurité au travail, Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France, Oct. 2000, No.5, p.1-32 (whole issue). Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0619.pdf

This safety guide addresses the issue of basic training for workers and their representatives. Topics covered: Framework Council Directive 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401) on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work, of which article 12 concerns the training of workers, and its transposition into French legislation; safety training as an instrument of occupational hazard prevention policy; training budgets; analysis of training needs; training plan; legal framework of the training of employees; practical aspects of basic training and refresher training; training for specific hazards; training of the members of the committee for hygiene, safety and working conditions. (78690)

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CIS 02-620 Priorities and emerging needs in OSH research. (Italian: Priorità ed esigenze emergenti nel settore della ricerca in tema di Salute e Sicurezza sul lavoro) Castriotta M., Roseo G., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.3-18. (In Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0620.pdf

The Italian Istituto Superiore per la Prevenzione e la Sicurezza sul Lavoro (ISPESL) has finalized the results of an extensive data collection from both national and EU research establishments, government services and other sources with the aim of highlighting and classifying into precise thematic areas the current OSH situation in Italy. This document will also be used as the basis for future research plans in conjunction with the European Commission as well as the future OSH activities of a number national government services. A target is the optimization of resources and the avoidance of duplication. A list of Italian experts active in OSH is annexed. (78746)

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CIS 02-621 Valuing the economic consequences of work injury and illness: A comparison of methods and findings. Weil D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.418-437. Illus. 127 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0621.pdf

Workplace injuries and fatalities in the US create significant economic costs to society. Although economic costs should measure the opportunity cost to society arising from injuries and fatalities, estimating them in practice often proves difficult. This paper compares methods of economic valuation. It surveys the literature published in the past 25 years to measure different aspects of economic consequences. It concludes that estimates of the costs of injuries and fatalities tend to understate the true economic costs from a social welfare perspective, particularly in how they account for occupational fatalities and losses arising from work disabilities. Researchers should attempt to more fully integrate such approaches into estimation procedures and interpretation of their results. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999). (78758)

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CIS 02-622 New methods and data sources for measuring economic consequences of workplace injuries. Reville R.T., Bhattacharya J., Sager Weinstein L.R., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.452-463. 61 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0622.pdf

Evaluation of programmes and policies to reduce the incidence of workplace injuries require that the consequences of injury be estimated correctly. Data availability is often the largest obstacle to this estimation. This article reviews the literature on the consequences of workplace injuries for both workers and employers, focusing on data sources, including administrative data from different public agencies, public-use survey data, primary data collection, and linked employee-employer databases. Recent advances in the literature on the economic consequences of workplace injuries for workers have been driven to a great extent by the availability of new data sources. It is expected that these new data sources should lead to rapid advances in the understanding of the economic consequences of workplace injuries for both workers and employers. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999). (78759)

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CIS 02-623 Determinants of duration of disability and return-to-work after work-related injury and illness: Challenges for future research. Krause N., Frank J.W., Dasinger L.K., Sullivan T.J., Sinclair S.J., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.464-484. Illus. 173 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0623.pdf

The purpose of this literature review was to identify critical data and research needs in addressing the questions of the primary factors that affect the time lost from work, return-to-work (RTW), subsequent unemployment, and changes in occupation after disabling illness or injury. Approximately 100 different determinants of RTW outcomes were identified. It is proposed that priority be given to studies meeting the following criteria: amenability to change; relevance to users of research; general applicability across health conditions, disability phases, and settings; "degree of promise" as derived from qualitative exploratory studies; and capacity to improve measurement instruments. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999). (78760)

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CIS 02-624 Data on occupational health and safety in Australia. Mandryk J., Driscoll T., Mazurski E., Healey S., Travis J., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2001, Vol.17, No.4, p.349-361. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0624.pdf

To provide an overview of the most up-to-date information on occupational safety and health (OSH) activity, exposures, hazards, morbidity and mortality, based on relatively easily accessible (public domain) OSH data in Australia, this project involved a detailed examination of national OSH-related data sources. The approach of this investigation provides some insight into the gaps and deficiencies of OSH data in Australia which may need attention if informed and proper intervention and remedial actions are to take place. This work directly supports the National OSH Improvement Framework's goal of focusing prevention through improved data systems. The findings confirm that, while outcome data such as fatal and non-fatal injury are relatively well described in Australia, disease data continue to have serious deficiencies and data on the level of prevailing conditions of OSH are also lacking. (78811)

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CIS 02-625 Occupational health and safety in Taiwan. Smith D., Hsu P., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2001, Vol.17, No.4, p.401-403. 7 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0625.pdf

Taiwan's major OHS problems have been caused by a number of factors, including rapid industrial development and the propensity for small-scale enterprises. Despite such limitations, progress has been made in many areas of OHS during recent years. However, as the size of many businesses prevents adequate workplace inspections, governmental enforcement of Taiwan's OHS legislation remains less than complete. Therefore, if advancements are to be made in workplace safety, small business must be targeted as this area is the least knowledgeable in OHS matters and the least compliant with OHS laws and regulations. (78814)

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CIS 02-626 Work-related fatal injuries in New Zealand 1985-1994: Descriptive epidemiology. Feyer A.M., Langley J., Howard M., Horsburgh S., Wright C., Alsop J., Cryer C., Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, PO Box 913, Dunedin, New Zealand, 1999. iv, 52p. Illus. 10 ref., ISBN 0-908958-30-7 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0626.pdf

This report analyses traumatic work-related fatalities that occurred in New Zealand between 1985 and 1994. 817 work-related injury fatalities occurred, including 741 deaths of workers, 67 deaths of bystanders and 9 deaths of volunteers. The rate of work-related injury fatalities for the study period was 5/100,000/per year; it declined over the decade to 4/100,000/per year during the final year. The majority of fatalities were of males (30 times that of women), and a high increase was observed for men over the age of 65. Industries with the highest rates were mining, agriculture, forestry and fishing, followed by construction, transport and storage. The occupational groups with the highest rates were drivers and mobile machinery operators. The report is a follow-up to one covering the period 1975-1984 (see CIS 87-894). (78380)

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CIS 02-627 Benchmarking Working Europe 2002. European Trade Union Confederation, 5 Boulevard du Roi Albert II, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2002. 75p. Illus. 57 ref. Price: EUR 10.00, ISBN 2-930143-98-3 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0627.pdf

This benchmarking report examines a number of employment indicators in Member and Applicant States of the European Union and in Norway. A chapter is specifically devoted to occupational safety and health and covers the exposure of workers to risk factors, occupational accidents and occupational diseases. Statistics for the following topics are presented in graphical form and commented: employees exposed to heavy loads, painful or tiring work positions, vibrations and noise; incidence rate of accidents by sex; occupational accidents with more than three days' absence; incidence rates of accidents in the construction sector; fatal occupational accidents; occupational accidents by company size; recognized occupational deafness. Among the conclusions, it is highlighted that if the European average occupational accident incidence rate were to be lowered to that of the best performing countries, a 50% improvement would be achieved. (78490)

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CIS 02-628 Health and safety statistics 2000/01. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Oct. 2001. xii, 228p. Illus. 33 ref. Price: GBP 17.50., ISBN 0-7176-2110-3 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0628.pdf

A first part of this report presents and comments on British statistics relating to workplace injuries, accidents and dangerous occurrences: fatal injuries; non-fatal injuries; kinds of accident; types of injury; site of injury; injuries by industry; types of worker and rates of injury (by sex, age and type of employment contract); gas safety statistics; dangerous occurrences; enforcement notices and prosecutions; reporting requirements of the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR, see CIS 95-1930). A second part covers statistics on occupational ill-health: sources of information; general overview of work-related illness; causes and kinds of diseases (chemical, physical, biological and other hazards). (78600)

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CIS 02-629 Assessment of working conditions under the Occupational Safety and Heath Act - Models of good practice. (German: Beurteilung der Arbeitsbedingungen nach dem Arbeitsschutzgesetz - bewährte Praxisbeispiele) Barth C., Dörr R., Hamacher W., Kliemt G., Voullaire E., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 142p. Illus. Price: EUR 14.00., ISBN 3-89701-794-6 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0629.pdf

According to the German Occupational Safety and Health Act (Arbeitsschutzgesetz, see CIS 02-501), employers need to carry out an assessment of working conditions to determine what occupational safety and health measures need to be implemented, and to strive for the continuous improvement in working conditions. These provisions can be met only if a suitable occupational safety and health organization system is implemented within the company. This report presents examples of good practices in the assessment of working conditions implemented by enterprises in the following sectors: non-ferrous metal foundry; regional bus transport operator; care institution for the elderly; brewery; chemical company; sugar manufacturer; textile company; water supply; laundry; cleaning tasks in day nurseries; hospital; machinery manufacturer; police force. (78392)

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CIS 02-630 Inclusion of safety and health protection during the planning and implementation of investment projects - A report based on practical experience. (German: Einbeziehung von Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz bei der Planung und Durchführung von Investitionsvorhaben - ein Bericht aus der Praxis) Langhoff T., Lang K.H., Schmidt J., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 103p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: EUR 11.00., ISBN 3-89701-813-6 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0630.pdf

The objective of this project was to understand the factors behind the good safety performance of a steel company, which had in particular been able to achieve low rates of occupational injury during the planning and implementation phases of investment projects. Approaches based on European Foundation for Quality Management models were applied to the evaluation of excellence during the design, planning, and building phases of a galvanization unit within the steelworks site. Three factors were found to be responsible for the good safety performance of the company: "contextual conditions for occupational safety and health" (including the early involvement of external authorities and departments); "central processes of occupational safety and health" (in particular the selection and qualification of external contractors); "assessment dimensions pertaining to the investment" (including controlling of the benefits of occupational safety and health). These factors are considered applicable to other sectors and to firms of various sizes. (78393)

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CIS 02-631 Analysis and assessment of strategies for occupational safety and health organization systems in medium-sized and large companies. (German: Beobachtung und Bewertung von Lösungsvorschlägen zur Organisation des betrieblichen Arbeitsschutzes in Mittel- und Grossbetrieben) Braun M., Lang K.H., Langhoff T., Schmauder M., Volkholz V., Vorath B.J., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 113p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: EUR 12.50., ISBN 3-89701-417-3 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0631.pdf

This report presents the results of an investigation of the occupational safety and health (OSH) organization systems of large and medium-sized companies. Based on an analysis of human factors, the report shows how efforts in the field of OSH can help retain qualified human resources and thus bring in numerous benefits. The advantages of benefit-oriented OSH efforts are illustrated with the help of examples. Impact chains are used to show how the company can meet its internal targets. The importance of the role of OSH experts is emphasized. Finally, the key aspects for implementing a successful OSH organization system within the company are discussed. (78394)

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CIS 02-632 The ILO guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems. ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. vi, 44p., ISBN 92-2-113000-2 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0632.pdf

This publication includes excerpts of papers presented and summaries of working group reports of an ILO regional seminar held on 22-24 May 2001 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on the topic of the ILO OSH-2001 management system (OSH-MS). Working groups were held on the identification of key elements of OSH-MS, strategies for applying OSH-MS to workplaces and ways of promoting OSH-MS at the country level. (78484)

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CIS 02-633 Strategies to promote safe behaviour as part of a health and safety management system. Fleming M., Lardner R., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. v, 74p. Illus. 51 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2352-1 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2002/crr02430.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0633.pdf

The aim of behavioural programmes is to reduce the proportion of occupational accidents caused by unsafe behaviour. To effectively change behaviour, it is also necessary to address the root causes of unsafe behaviour by considering how people are organized, managed, motivated and rewarded, as well as their physical work environment, tools and equipment. This report addresses theories underpinning strategies to promote safe behaviour, key elements of programmes to promote safe behaviour and ways of integrating behavioural strategies into a health and safety management system. (78486)

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CIS 02-634 Accidents at work and employability: Factors influencing successful reintegration of injured workers. (French: Accidents du travail et employabilité: facteurs clés pour une bonne réintégration des travailleurs victimes d'un accident de travail) European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2002. 4p. 4 ref., ISBN 92-95007-43-3 (es), ISBN 92-95007-45-X (En), ISBN 92-95007-46-8 (fr) (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/forum/4/en/FORUMN4-EN.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0634en.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0634es.pdf
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/forum/4/fr/FORUMN4-FR.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0634fr.pdf

In 1998 in the European Union there were 4.7 million occupational accidents that resulted in more than three days of absence from work. Approximately six percent of these accidents resulted in three months or more of incapacity. Contents of this information sheet on factors influencing the reintegration of occupationally injured workers: persons at risk (by sector, sex, age, company size and employment status); employers' attitudes towards reintegration; key factors in the return to work. (78487)

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CIS 02-635 The changing world of work - Trends and implications for occupational safety and health in the European Union. (French: Le monde du travail en mutation - Tendances et implications pour la sécurité et la santé du travail dans l'Union européenne; Spanish: Cambios en el mundo del trabajo - Tendencias e implicaciones para la seguridad y la salud del trabajo en la Unión Europea) European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2002. 12p. Illus. 15 ref., ISBN 92-95007-47-6 (es), ISBN 92-95007-49-2 (En), ISBN 92-95007-50-6 (fr) (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/forum/5/en/Forum5_en.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0635en.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0635es.pdf
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/forum/5/fr/Forum5_fr.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0635fr.pdf

To better respond to competitive pressures, companies are looking for greater flexibility to respond rapidly to peak production demands and seasonal variations while at the same time controlling labour costs. This has given rise to new working practices such as "just-in-time" production and the employment of temporary workers and workers under short, fixed-term contracts. This information sheet addresses the following issues relating to the changing world of work: changes in the characteristics of organizations; changes in working time and employment contracts; changes in work organization; use of information and communication technology; changes in the composition of the workforce, with a growing percentage of women and older workers. (78488)

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CIS 02-636 Recognition schemes in occupational safety and health - Experiences in the Member States of the European Union. (French: Programmes de reconnaissance en matière de sécurité et de santé au travail - Expériences dans les Etats membres de l'Union européenne; Spanish: Programas de reconocimiento en material de seguridad y salud en el trabajo - Experiencias en los Estados Miembros de la Unión Europea) European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Gran Vía 33, 48009 Bilbao, Spain, 2002. 4p. Illus. 6 ref., ISBN 92-95007-51-4 (es), ISBN 92-95007-53-0 (En), ISBN 92-95007-54-9 (fr) (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/forum/6/en/Forum6_en.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0636en.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0636es.pdf
http://agency.osha.eu.int/publications/forum/6/fr/FORUM6-FR.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0636fr.pdf

"Recognition schemes" consist of programmes to which groups of organizations participate on a voluntary basis to identify "best practices" on specific subjects or to implement voluntary certification schemes. By participating in such schemes, organizations demonstrate their interest in their social responsibilities. This information sheet contains examples drawn from European Union Member States of schemes for reward or recognition of the following situations: labelling of safe products; certification of qualified subcontractors; certification of occupational safety and health management at the company level. These recognition schemes were presented during a workshop held on 2-3 October 2001 in Bilbao, Spain. (78489)

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CIS 02-637 Development of a model describing transfer processes in occupational safety and health. (German: Entwicklung eines Modells zur Beschreibung des Transferprozesses am Beispiel Arbeitsschutz) Stein M., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 176p. Illus. 311 ref. Price: EUR 15.50., ISBN 3-89701-844-6 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0637.pdf

In an initial phase of a research project on information transfer processes, a literature survey on occupational safety and health (OSH) information was carried out, enabling the highlighting of problems both with respect to the information itself and to its use. In order to address these problems, a Transfer Process Model (TPM) was developed for representing and describing all relevant factors which determine the transfer of OSH information. It is based on learning theories and technical and interpersonal models of communication. Elements of the model include transmission of information, learning, assessment of the transfer process by users of the information, and their decisions and actions based on this information. (78500)

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CIS 02-638 Results-based occupational safety and hygiene - Current understanding and future prospects for return-on-investment-based occupational safety and health measures. (German: Ergebnisorientierter Arbeitsschutz - Bilanzierung und Perspektiven eines innovativen Ansatzes zur betrieblichen Arbeitsschutzökonomie) Langhoff T., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 185p. Illus. 106 ref. Price: EUR 16.50., ISBN 3-89701-831-4 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0638.pdf

This study evaluates following four approaches that enable the quantification of the impact of occupational safety and health investments on the financial performance of enterprises in Germany: analysis of the cause-and-effect chain of events of occupational safety and health measures as contributors to the financial performance of the enterprise; differential analysis of combined measures; integration of financial performance-based occupational safety and health measures within the framework of enterprise management, using the example of the "balanced score card"; integration of financial performance-based occupational safety and health measures in investment projects. Results of this analysis highlight the usefulness of occupational safety and health measures based on the financial performance of the enterprise. (78631)

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CIS 02-639 Evaluating the quality of occupational safety and health in enterprises and public administrations. (German: Bewertung der Qualität von Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz in Unternehmen und Verwaltungen) Saßmannshausen A., Lang K.H., Langhoff T., Müller B.H., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 119p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: EUR 12.50., ISBN 3-89701-827-6 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0639.pdf

This report describes a management tool for evaluating the quality of occupational safety and health management systems within German enterprises. The tool is based on the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) RADAR method applied to the eight central components of occupational safety that form the basis of German statutory occupational safety requirements (creating a suitable organization, ensuring the availability of occupational safety and health specialists, ensuring the availability of resources, evaluating working conditions, taking preventive measures, controlling the effectiveness of the measures, documenting the results, training the personnel). This tool enables the evaluation of organizations of different size and in different sectors. It has been applied to 16 private enterprises and public administrations for benchmarking their current situation with respect to their compliance with the new occupational safety and health legislation, and for highlighting positive areas and areas requiring improvement. (78634)

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CIS 02-640 A new impetus for community occupational health policy. (French: Pour une relance de la politique communautaire en santé au travail) European Trade Union Confederation (ETUC), 5 bd du Roi Albert II, 1210 Bruxelles, Belgium, June 2001. 50p., ISBN 2-930003-38-3 (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0640.pdf

French version of the English document analysed as CIS 01-1668. In view of what is perceived to be worsening working conditions for many groups of workers leading to musculoskeletal disorders, stress, burnout and a high accident rate among temporary workers, this report advocates more involvement on the part of the European Union in monitoring working conditions, assessing the compliance with Directives at the Member State level, ensuring the harmonization of safety and health legislation and defining policies. This discussion paper proposes a framework for community-level action aimed at improving occupational safety and health. (78780)

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CIS 02-641 Global employment agenda. (French: Agenda global pour l'emploi) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, Mar. 2002. xviii, 100p. Illus. (In English, French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0641en.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0641fr.pdf

The main purpose of the ILO's Global Employment Agenda is to make employment central to economic and social policies of all Member States. It outlines the seven key elements that aim to promote a virtuous circle of productivity, employment and output growth. A section is devoted to occupational safety and health (OSH), where the relationship between OSH performance and competitiveness is highlighted. Policies to be implemented include promoting awareness of OSH as a positive factor for productivity, undertaking measures to integrate OSH in the business plans of all organizations, communicating information on safety standards, dangerous substances and safe working methods, and undertaking special reviews of environmental risks to health in regions where informal-sector operations are clustered. (78785)

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CIS 02-642 Ten years of working conditions in the European Union. (French: Dix ans de conditions de travail dans l'Union européenne; Spanish: Diez años de condiciones de trabajo en la Unión Europea) Merllié D., Paoli P., European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus., ISBN 92-897-0088-2 (es), ISBN 92-897-0092-0 (En), ISBN 92-897-0093-9 (fr) (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.eurofound.ie/publications/files/EF00128EN.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0642en.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0642es.pdf
http://www.eurofound.ie/publications/files/EF00128FR.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0642fr.pdf

In the year 2000, the working population of the European Union (EU) consisted of 159 million persons, of whom 83% were salaried and 17% self-employed. That year, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out its third European survey (the two earlier surveys were carried out in 1990 and 1995; for the latter survey, see CIS 98-133). Exposure to physical hazards at the workplace, dissatisfaction with work and employment practices regarding job flexibility continue to be main causes of health problems among workers in the EU. Altogether, 21,500 workers were questioned regarding their conditions of work. The results of the survey show no significant improvements with respect to risk factors and general working conditions during the last ten years. The survey provides a general overview of the conditions of work in the EU, highlighting the trends, major issues and changes at the workplace. (78849)

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CIS 02-643 Safety and health in coal mines. (Mongolian: Nüürsnij uurhajn hödölmörijn ajuulgüj ažillagaa, erüül ahuj; Spanish: Seguridad e higiene en las minas de carbón) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1986. xiv, 188p. Index. Price: CHF 20.00.(Spanish); 135p. (Mongolian)., ISBN 92-2-305339-0 (es) (In Mongolian, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0643es.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0643mn.pdf

Spanish and Mongolian versions of the document analysed under CIS 86-802. This code of practice was prepared to help those responsible for improving safety and health standards and to provide guidelines for the drafting of safety and health regulations for the coalmining industry. It contains provisions on general safety and health measures, specific measures for work underground, road and shaft driving, coal-getting, transport, etc., and procedures for the control of dust, firedamp, fire and other hazards. Local circumstances and technical facilities will determine how far it is practicable to follow these provisions. (78511)

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CIS 02-644 Company internal accident investigations: Let's avoid this happening again. (French: Enquête d'accident interne à l'entreprise: évitons que cela ne se reproduise; German: Betriebsinterne Unfallabklärung: Damit es nicht wieder passiert/L'indagine d'infortunio aziendale; Italian: Per evitare che possa ripetersi) Suva, Arbeitssicherheit, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1st ed., Jan. 2002. 8p. Illus. (In French, German, Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0644de.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0644fr.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0644it.pdf

This booklet presents a method for carrying out company internal analyses of accident causes that enable the identification of the underlying causes and the adoption of preventive measures that are effective over the long term. The method consists of the following steps: establish the facts; determine the causes; define measures; keep records of the results of the investigations; inform concerned persons; control the implementation. Forms and check-lists for carrying out each step are included. (78660)

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CIS 02-645 Complete database of accident prevention directives on CD-ROM. (German: BGVR Gesamtausgabe) Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, 16th ed. (2nd actualisation), 2002. CD-ROM for Windows 95/98/200 or NT., ISBN 3-452-23845-8 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0645.pdf

This CD-ROM contains the full text of German safety and health directives, technical rules and other German occupational safety and health guidance documents. The Mutual Accident Insurance Associations have recently changed the classification and numbering of their guidelines and rules, in particular the ZH documents which are renamed BGR and the UW documents which are renamed BVG. This CD-ROM groups the BGR, BGI, BGG, BGV, VBG TRB, TRR, TRGS, ASR and GUV series. For the previous edition, see CIS 01-774. (78630)

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[ Top of page ]

002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology

CIS 02-646 Mortality among women and men relative to unemployment, part time work, overtime work, and extra work: A study based on data from the Swedish twin registry. Nylén L., Voss M., Floderus B., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.52-57. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0646.pdf

A subcohort of the Swedish twin registry born between 1926-58 was studied. Data were based on a postal questionnaire of 1973 and on information from the Swedish Causes of Death Registry. All subjects reporting a main occupation were selected, 9500 women and 11,132 men, and mortality from all causes during 1973-96 was analysed. Unemployment in 1973 among both women and men showed an association with increased mortality. The adjusted relative risk (RR) was 1.98 for women and 1.43 for men. For the first 5 years of follow up, a threefold increase in risk was found for men (RR 3.29). The RR declined by time, but remained increased throughout the 24 year study period. In women, overtime work of more than 5 hours a week was followed by an increased mortality rate (RR 1.92). A protective effect of moderate overtime work of a maximum 5 hours a week was shown for men (RR 0.58), whereas an increased mortality was indicated for part time work (RR 1.58) and extra work (work outside employment) of more than 5 hours a week (RR 1.29). (78369)

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CIS 02-647 Occupational determinants for rheumatoid arthritis. Olsson Å.R., Skogh T., Wingren G., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.243-249. 29 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0647.pdf

To evaluate possible occupational determinants for rheumatoid arthritis, 422 cases and 859 randomly-selected referents were recruited. Exposure data were collected through a postal questionnaire. For men, occupations with increased odds ratios (OR) were farmers or farm workers (OR 1.8), textile workers (OR 2.0), asphalters (OR 14.0) and employees at service stations (OR 2.2). Among women, hairdressers and beauticians (OR 2.7) had an increased risk as well as those exposed to hairdressing chemicals (OR 3.0) and meat products (OR 2.0). Several of the findings in this study are in accordance with those of previous studies. However, the increased risks of rheumatoid arthritis for asphalters and employees at service stations are new associations not previously described in the literature. (78385)

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CIS 02-648 Occupational risk for male infertility: A case-control study of 218 infertile and 227 fertile men. Chia S.E., Tay S.K., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.43, No.11, p.946-951. 19 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0648.pdf

To determine if certain occupations pose an increased risk for infertility, 218 men whose spouses were unable to conceive were recruited from an infertility clinic. 227 men whose spouses were pregnant at the time of the study were recruited as controls. Semen parameters (density, total sperm counts, motility, viability, and normal morphology) in all of the cases were significantly poorer than those in the controls. The risk for infertility is associated with smoking (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.85). Engineering technicians (adjusted OR, 2.75), financial analysts (adjusted OR, 4.66), corporate and computing managers (adjusted OR, 2.49) and teachers (adjusted OR, 7.72) were at a greater risk of infertility compared with "services and clerical workers". Higher work demands and possible electromagnetic field exposure could be contributory factors for infertility. (78401)

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CIS 02-649 Childhood cancer and parental occupation in the Swedish family-cancer database. Mutanen P., Hemminki K., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.43, No.11, p.952-958. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0649.pdf

The Swedish Family-Cancer Database was used to analyse the risk for tumours in offspring in relation to parental occupation as recorded in the census of 1960. A total of 8158 cancer cases, diagnosed before age 15 between years 1958 and 1996, were included. Standardized incidence ratios were calculated using 52 different parental occupations. Assistant nurses and female cooks were among the maternal occupations associated with the risk of cancer in offspring. The paternal occupations associated with childhood tumours include shoe and leathers workers, miners, quarrymen and hairdressers, who were all likely to be exposed to harmful dusts and chemicals. (78402)

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CIS 02-650 Malignant mesothelioma in Australia, 1945 to 2000. Leigh J., Davidson P., Hendrie L., Berry D., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.453-470. Illus. 35 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0650.pdf

Australia has maintained a total national malignant mesothelioma case register since 1980. There has been a marked increase in the incidence of mesothelioma in the last 20 years. Currently, 450 to 600 cases are notified annually in a population of 19 million. The crocidolite mine in Western Australia accounts for only 5% of the total Australian cases. This article describes the incidence of mesothelioma in Australia as a whole from 1945 to 2000. Australia's high incidence of mesothelioma is related to heavy asbestos use in the past, of all fibre types, in a wide variety of occupational and environmental settings. The total number of cases is expected to be about 18,000 by 2020, with about 11,000 yet to appear. These predictions are consistent on a population and asbestos use adjusted basis with those made for Europe, Scandinavia, the US and Japan. (78411)

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CIS 02-651 Sickness absence in diabetic employees. Škerjanc A., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.58, No.7, p.432-436. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0651.pdf

To compare sickness absenteeism between diabetic and non-diabetic employees, a cross sectional case-control study was conducted in a random sample of 400 diabetic employees aged 21-50, comparing their sickness absence in the year 1996 with that of non-diabetic employees matched by sex, age and occupation. Sickness absence was compared in total and also in subgroups formed by sex, age, occupation and disability. The randomized sample consisted of 61.2% of men (245) and 38.8% of women (155) with a mean age of 42.5 years. Unskilled workers made up 30.2% of employees, and less than 16.4% were highly educated. The mean frequency of sickness absence occurrence among diabetic employees was 0.89 in the year 1996 as compared to 0.56 for non-diabetic employees. The mean duration of sickness absence for diabetic employees was 31.71, compared to 16.57 days for non-diabetic employees. The study confirmed that diabetes affects the ability to work. (78438)

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CIS 02-652 Radiological progression and its predictive risk factors in silicosis. Lee H.S., Phoon W.H., Ng T.P., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.58, No.7, p.467-471. 8 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0652.pdf

141 patients with silicosis contracted from granite work with available serial chest X-ray films of acceptable quality taken over a period of 2 to 17 years were selected for study. 94 had ended exposure at least 5 years earlier. Radiological progression was assessed by paired comparison of the initial and most recent radiographs. Overall, 37% of patients had radiological evidence of progression. As expected, progression was more likely to be found after longer periods of follow up (the interval between the two chest X-ray films) with a 20% increased odds of progression for every additional year of follow up. After adjustment for varying intervals of follow up, the probability of radiological progression was found to be significant if large opacities were present in the initial chest X-ray film. Progression was also less likely to be found among those who had ended exposure to silica earlier. Tuberculosis was also associated with increased likelihood of progression. (78439)

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CIS 02-653 Unheard voices of silicosis affected people in Lalkuan, Delhi. Dubey R.K., Collective Initiatives, Oct. 2001, Vol.2, No.2, p.14-18. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0653.pdf

This article presents the results of a survey conducted in a suburb of New Delhi (India), where an important stone-crushing activity had taken place for over 40 years. The purpose was to identify persons who were affected by silicosis or silico-tuberculosis. 146 persons were interviewed, of whom 83 were suspected to be affected on the basis of their symptoms and occupational history. Information was also collected from families of persons who had died from these affections. It is hoped that the survey will give rise to increased awareness of silicosis as an occupational disease. (78445)

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CIS 02-654 Epidemiologic associations between occupational and environmental exposures and autoimmune disease: Report of a meeting to explore current evidence and identify research needs. Van Loveren H., Vos J.G., Germolec D., Simeonova P.P., Eijkemanns G., McMichael A.J., International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 2001, Vol.203, No.5-6, p.483-495. 6 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0654.pdf

This article presents the conclusions of a conference held in Bilthoven (the Netherlands), 10-12 May 2000, whose objective was to determine the optimal methodology for assessment of autoimmunity associated with occupational or environmental exposures in the human population. Epidemiological studies to investigate the association between autoimmune disease and exposure to silica, hexachlorobenzene or ultraviolet radiation, for which the evidence is good, were set up. Specific designs for epidemiological studies and laboratory assays were reviewed. Several recommendations for the epidemiological approach to evaluating effects of environmental or occupational agents on autoimmunity were made. (78460)

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CIS 02-655 Association between plasma testosterone and work-related neck and shoulder disorders among female workers. Kaergaard A., Hansen Å.M., Rasmussen K., Andersen J.H., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.292-298. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0655.pdf

In a cross-sectional study, 145 women from the toy and textile industries responded to questionnaires on their current musculoskeletal complaints, individual characteristics, psychosocial job factors and stress. The subjects also participated in a clinical examination of the neck and upper extremities, and submitted a blood sample for analysis of free testosterone in plasma. In a follow-up study, a subgroup of 73 sewing-machine operators who had participated in the earlier study was reexamined after one year. The group of women with clinically-verified neck or shoulder disorders had significantly lower plasma testosterone. Furthermore, the testosterone level showed a negative association with age and a positive association with smoking and body mass index. The results indicate the existence of an association between musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders and low levels of free plasma testosterone. (78502)

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CIS 02-656 Occupational risk factors for brain cancer: A population-based case-control study in Iowa. Zheng T., Cantor K.P., Zhang Y., Keim S., Lynch C.F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.43, No.4, p.317-324. 46 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0656.pdf

To explore the possible relationship between occupation and brain glioma, a population-based case-control study was conducted in Iowa, involving 375 histologically-confirmed incident cases and 2434 population-based controls. Among men, a significantly increased risk was observed in the following industries and occupations: roofing, siding, and sheet metalworking; newspaper work; rubber and plastics products manufacturing; miscellaneous manufacturing; wholesale trade of durable goods, grain, and field beans; building service occupations; miscellaneous mechanical and repair work; cleaning; plumbing, heating, and air conditioning work; electrical services; gasoline service stations; military occupations. Among women, significant excess risk was observed in agricultural services and farming, apparel and textile products, electrical and electronic equipment manufacturing, various retail sales, record-keeping, and restaurant service. Workers in industries with a potential for gasoline or motor exhaust exposures experienced a non-significant excess risk of brain glioma. (78512)

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CIS 02-657 Health surveillance for occupational chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Meijer E., Grobbee D.E., Heederik D.J.J., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.444-450. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0657.pdf

Screening for lung disease in all workers with a low prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) would lead to unacceptable costs. Surveillance of high-risk groups may be a useful alternative. Data from 314 workers exposed to dust were used to develop a prediction model. Data from a study comprising 96 rubber workers were used to validate the model's performance. COPD was defined as a ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second to forced vital capacity outside the 5th percentile. Shortness of breath, wheeze, heavy smoking, and work-related lower respiratory symptoms were identified as independent determinants of having COPD. Workers with COPD can be distinguished from those without COPD on the basis of a medical and work-related questionnaire, providing occupational physicians with a low-cost strategy for detecting workers at risk for COPD. (78535)

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CIS 02-658 Pathology of human malignant mesothelioma - Preliminary analysis of 1,517 cases. Suzuki Y., Industrial Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.183-185. 8 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0658.pdf

1,517 human malignant mesothelioma cases worldwide from 1975 to 2000 were reviewed. Pathology materials consisted of autopsy, biopsy and rare cytology specimens. 92.3% of these patients were male, and 85.8% were between 50 and 79 years of age. The major primary site of the tumour was the pleura (73.1%). However, in a group of asbestos insulation workers, the peritoneum was the more common primary site of malignant mesothelioma. Histologically, epithelial cell type was the majority (61.1%), followed by biphasic (22.1%) and fibrosarcomatous (16.4%). A double primary tumour (malignant mesothelioma associated with other cancer) was present in 32 of the 1,517 cases. These 32 cancers included lung cancers, renal cell carcinomas, colorectal cancers, pancreatic cancers and a cancer of the larynx, which are known to be at higher risk among asbestos insulation workers. The latency period of the vast majority (98.1%) of these mesothelioma cases were longer than 20 years. It is well accepted that cigarette smoking does not contribute to the induction of malignant mesothelioma. Indeed, the present study confirmed that 19.9% of these mesothelioma patients had never smoked cigarettes. (78560)

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CIS 02-659 Stomach cancer and occupation in Sweden: 1971-89. Aragonés N., Pollán M., Gustavsson P., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.59, No.5, p.329-337. 59 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0659.pdf

This cohort study was carried out to examine the relation between gastric cancer and occupation among persons employed in 1970 in Sweden between 1971 and 1989 and to evaluate a possible excess of incidence of gastric cancer among the sub-cohort of persons reporting the same occupation in 1960 and 1970. In both sexes and cohorts, relative risks were computed by occupation and adjusted for age, period of diagnosis and geographical area. Among men, those with increased risk included miners and quarrymen, construction and metal processing workers, electrical and mechanical engineers, fishermen, petrol station workers, motor vehicle drivers, butchers and meat industry workers, dock workers, freight handlers, laundry workers and dry cleaners. Among women, excess risks were found for nurses, cashiers, bank employees, engineering and electronic industry workers, food industry workers, and housekeeping and cleaning workers. (78570)

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CIS 02-660 Therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa on occupational contact dermatitis. Saad A., Besher S., Ammar N., Emam H., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.26-38. Illus. 42 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0660.pdf

Nigella seeds have known anti-allergic effects in traditional medicine. The therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa powdered in the form of capsules, lipoidal matter extract and the aqueous alcoholic extract of nigella seeds in the form of two ointments were studied in 50 male volunteers aged between 25 and 55 years suffering from chronic occupational contact dermatitis. Blood picture, IgE and natural killer (NK) cells were recorded before and after two weeks of therapy. Treatment with lipoidal extract ointment, alcoholic extract ointment and powdered seed capsules led to complete recovery of the eczematous lesions in 89%, 46%, and 63%, respectively. Clinical improvement by these three treatments was statistically significant, while placebos achieved no significant improvement. NK cell fraction was significantly augmented in treated groups. No harmful effects on the liver and the kidney functions were found. (78597)

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CIS 02-661 Differences between the sexes with regard to work-related skin disease. Meding B., Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2000, Vol.43, No.2, p.65-71. Illus. 41 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0661.pdf

In most countries, reports of skin disease are more frequent for women than for men. Epidemiological studies of hand eczema also show that women, in particular young women, are more often affected than men. Experimental studies of skin irritation have not confirmed differences between the sexes; thus, the higher prevalence of irritant contact dermatitis among women is most likely due to exposure. The most common type of hand eczema is irritant contact dermatitis, which is often caused by wet work encountered in many female-dominated occupations such as hairdressing, catering, cleaning and health-care. These occupations are also high-risk occupations for hand eczema. Nickel allergy is the most common contact allergy, which is most frequent in young women through contact with jewelry, and in 30-40% of cases gives rise to hand eczema. Preventive efforts should aim at reducing wet exposure. (78601)

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CIS 02-662 Epidemiology of occupational skin disease in Singapore 1989 - 1998. Goon A.T.J., Goh C.L., Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2000, Vol.43, No.3, p.133-136. 3 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0662.pdf

All patients diagnosed with occupational skin diseases in the National Skin Centre, Singapore, between 1989 and 1998 were studied retrospectively. Irritant contact dermatitis was found to be more common than allergic contact dermatitis. The major sources of occupational dermatitis were the metalworking and engineering, building and construction, electrical and electronics, and transport industries. The main irritants were detergents and wet work, solvents, and oils and greases. The main allergens were chromate, rubber chemicals and nickel. That the main sources of occupational skin disease and main allergens were the same as those found in a similar study of occupational skin diseases in 1984-85. Weak irritants are still the predominant causes of occupational irritant contact dermatitis. (78603)

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CIS 02-663 Critical review of the list of occupational diseases in the Ivory Coast. (French: Analyse critique des tableaux des maladies professionnelles en Côte-d'Ivoire) Wognin S.B., Kouassi Y.M., Yeboue-Kouame B.Y., Bonny J.S., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Nov. 2001, Vol.62, No.7, p.570-572. 4 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0663.pdf

The 25 october 1919 law on the compensation of occupational diseases was one of the major social breakthroughs of the twentieth century in French-speaking countries. This law, introduced in Côte d'Ivoire legislation, enabled the creation of 42 tables between 1964 and 1967. However, the system has not been changed since then, despite the large increases in worker population and variety of hazards. No new scientific data have been taken into account, not even concerning usual hazards like lead, benzene, ionizing radiation and viral hepatitis. A compete review of the list should be undertaken without further delay. It is proposed that a joint commission be set up on a permanent basis, having the competence to suggest the necessary amendments to the authorities. Finally, the notification of occupational diseases is an aspect which must be taken into account in the social security code. (78656)

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CIS 02-664 Musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulders in female sewing machine operators: Prevalence, incidence, and prognosis. Kaergaard A., Andersen J.H., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.528-534. 35 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0664.pdf

The occurrence of two defined neck-shoulder disorders was assessed in an initial group of 243 female sewing machine operators; 178 were followed up for 2 years. Clinical examination was performed of the neck and arms and criteria for two main neck-shoulder disorders were defined: rotator cuff tendinitis and myofascial pain syndrome. Although the latter syndrome showed a U-shaped association with years, rotator cuff tendinitis was absent among the newest recruits and present among 15% of the women with more than 20 years as a sewing machine operator. Only one of 13 participants with rotator cuff tendinitis recovered during follow up. Women who lived alone with children, who were smokers or who experienced low support from colleagues and supervisors had a higher risk of contracting a neck-shoulder disorder. (78694)

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CIS 02-665 Occupational contact dermatitis has an appreciable impact on quality of life. Hutchings C.V., Shum K.W., Gawkrodger D.J., Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.17-20. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0665.pdf

A questionnaire survey of 181 subjects (70 responded, giving a response rate of 39%), diagnosed with occupational contact dermatitis: 60 (32%) patients were in industrial occupations and 27 (14%) in health care. The questionnaire was based on the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI). The median DLQI score was 5, with a mean score 6.6. There was no statistically significant difference between male and female median scores. Males scored highest in problems associated with work, relationships and treatment, whereas females scored highest in problems associated with symptoms and feelings, daily activities and leisure. The results showed that occupational contact dermatitis has an appreciable impact on quality of life. (78708)

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CIS 02-666 Natural vegetable fats in the prevention of irritant contact dermatitis. Schliemann-Willers S., Wigger-Alberti W., Kleesz P., Grieshaber R., Elsner P., Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2002, Vol.46, No.1, p.6-12. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0666.pdf

Chronic irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is common in the food processing industry. To date, protective creams that comply with the special requirements in the food industry have not been available. This study evaluates the efficacy of pre-exposure application of natural vegetable fats in the prevention of experimentally-induced ICD. Twenty healthy volunteers were subjected to a repetitive irritation test using sodium lauryl sulfate. The application area was the paravertebral skin of mid back. Clinical assessment and bioengineering measurements were carried out one day before and five days after the application of the test substances. Rape seed and palm fats showed significant protective potential. Higher content of linoleic acid and lower content of oleic acid was associated with beneficial effects. The results show promise for the prevention of ICD and towards the development of new protective preparations for workplaces in the foodstuffs industry. (78721)

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CIS 02-667 Patch test results in 542 patients with suspected contact dermatitis in Turkey. Akasya-Hillenbrand E., Özkaya-Bayazit E., Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2002, Vol.46, No.1, p.17-23. 22 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0667.pdf

In this retrospective study, patch test results of 542 patients (303 female and 239 male), referred to a dermatology clinic between June 1996 and July 1999, were evaluated. All patients were patch tested with 32 allergens of an extended European standard series, 140 patients were tested with supplemental series, and 246 patients with their own substances. 280 (51.7%) patients had one or more positive results but allergic contact dermatitis, according to clinical relevance, was diagnosed in only 190 (67.9%) of these. Nickel sulfate was the most frequent sensitizer (19.1%), followed by potassium dichromate (11.8%), palladium chloride (9.4%), cobalt chloride (8.5%), and thiuram mix (7.7%). Occupational contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 77 of the patients with positive reactions (27.5%), most of these being construction workers and house painters who showed relevant sensitizations to potassium dichromate, cobalt chloride, thiuram mix and carba mix. (78722)

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CIS 02-668 Skin problems among fiber-glass reinforced plastics factory workers in Japan. Minamoto K., Nagano M., Inaoka T., Kitano T., Ushijima K., Fukuda Y., Futatsuka M., Industrial Health, Jan. 2002, Vol.40, No.1, p.42-50. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0668.pdf

Skin problems of 148 manual workers from 11 fibre-glass reinforced plastics (FRP) factories were studied by means of a questionnaire and a dermatological examination. 87 workers (58.8%) reported having skin problems (mainly itching or dermatitis) since starting work in FRP manufacturing and 25 workers had consulted a physician for skin problems. One worker was forced to take sick leave for severe dermatitis. A history of allergic diseases and shorter durations of employment in a FRP factory were associated with greater probability of having a history of work-related skin symptoms. Workers in factories where dust-generating and lamination sites were located in different buildings were significantly less likely to have a history of skin problems than those in factories where the two sites were located in the same building. Of the 67 workers examined in summer and winter, close to double the prevalence of dermatitis was found in summer (23.3%) than winter (13.4%). (78725)

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CIS 02-669 Identification and assessment of work-related nervous system lesions. Langauer-Lewowicka H., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.1, p.13-17. 22 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0669.pdf

This article presents a short historical review of work-related neurotoxicity, as well as on the pathogenic mechanisms of the nervous system impairments due to occupational factors. The main difficulties in the assessment of peripheral and central nervous system lesions are stressed. (78732)

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CIS 02-670 Work correlates of back problems and activity restriction due to musculoskeletal disorders in the Canadian national population health survey (NPHS) 1994-5 data. Cole D.C., Ibrahim S.A., Shannon H.S., Scott F., Eyles J., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.58, No.11, p.728-734. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0670.pdf

4230 working men and 4043 working women (ages 18-64) answered a job content questionnaire. Outcomes were restricted activity due to musculoskeletal disorders and the diagnosis of a back problem. Prevalence of chronic back problems diagnosed by a health practitioner was 14.5% among men and 12.5% among women. The prevalence of restricted activity due to musculoskeletal disorders was 6.6% for men and 5.3% for women. Women in high strain jobs were more likely to report both back problems (odds ratio (OR) 1.60) and restricted activity (OR 1.98) compared with those in low strain jobs. High physical exertion was an independent predictor of back problems in both sexes. Low social support at work and high job insecurity were independent predictors of restricted activity due to musculoskeletal disorders. Conversely, chronic back problems contributed to explanation of high job strain among women (OR 1.76) and high physical exertion among men (OR 1.39), whereas restricted activity due to musculoskeletal disorders was related to high job insecurity in both sexes. (78815)

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CIS 02-671 Is there an association between shift work and having a metabolic syndrome? Results from a population based study of 27,485 people. Karlsson B., Knutsson A., Lindahl B., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.58, No.11, p.747-752. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0671.pdf

The association between shift work and cardiovascular disease was analysed in a population of 27,485 working persons. Obesity was more prevalent among shift workers in all age strata of women, but only in two out of four age groups in men. Increased triglycerides were more common among two age groups of shift working women but not among men. Low concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol were present in the youngest age group of shift workers in both men and women. Impaired glucose tolerance was more often found among 60-year-old women shift workers. Obesity and high triglycerides persisted as risk factors in shift working men and women after adjusting for age and socioeconomic factors, with an OR of 1.4 for obesity and 1.1 for high triglyceride concentrations. The relative risks for women working shifts versus days with one, two, and three metabolic variables were 1.06, 1.20, and 1.71, respectively. The corresponding relative risks for men were 0.99, 1.30, and 1.63, respectively. In conclusion, there appears to be an association between shift work and the metabolic syndrome. (78816)

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CIS 02-672 Occupational asthma. (French: L'asthme professionnel) Daly L., Nouaigui H., Hammadi M., Rammeh H., Ben Laïba M., SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Oct. 2001, No.19, p.2-20. Illus. 10 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0672.pdf

Contents of this review article on occupational asthma: definitions; epidemiology; pathophysiological and pathogenic mechanisms (with and without latency period); aetiology; diagnosis; evolution and prognosis; prevention; compensation. Tables include lists of the most important allergens of plant, animal and synthetic origin, incidence rates by occupation, classification system for asthma according to severity and compensation of occupational asthma by allergen under Tunisian legislation. (78831)

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CIS 02-673 Agricultural work and the risk of Parkinson's disease in Denmark, 1981-1993. Tüchsen F., Jensen A.A., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.359-362. 13 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0673.pdf

This study examined the possible association between agricultural and horticultural work and subsequent incidence of Parkinson's disease. Cohorts of 2,273,872 men and women, aged between 20 and 59 years, identified in the Central Population Register of Denmark were followed. All first-time hospitalizations with Parkinson's disease were recorded. A high risk of Parkinson's disease was found for the men and women in agriculture and horticulture (134 cases, standardized hospitalization ratio (SHR) 132). Significantly high risks were found for farmers (79 cases, SHR 130) and for all men in agriculture and horticulture (109 cases, SHR 134). (78508)

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CIS 02-674 Farm-related dermatoses in Iowa male farmers and wives of farmers: A cross-sectional analysis of the Iowa farm family health and hazard surveillance project. Park H., Sprince N.L., Whitten P.S., Burmeister L.F., Zwerling C., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.43, No.4, p.364-369. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0674.pdf

Agricultural workers are exposed to a variety of hazards that increase their risk of dermatitis. Nevertheless, the prevalence, patterns, and risk factors for dermatitis have not been well characterized among farmers in the United States. The prevalence and risk factors for dermatitis among 382 male farmers and 256 wives of farmers in Iowa were assessed using a cross-sectional study design. From 1992 to 1994, data on potential risk factors and dermatitis were collected. The results showed that 9.6% of male farmers and 14.4% of wives of farmers reported dermatitis during the previous 12-month period. In multivariable models, a history of allergy (odds ratio (OR), 8.2) was strongly associated with dermatitis among male farmers. Among wives of farmers, some college education (OR, 3.4) and exposure to petroleum products (OR, 3.1) were associated with dermatitis. These results can be used to undertake preventive efforts in controlling farm work related exposures. (78516)

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CIS 02-675 Exposure assessment and lung function in pig and poultry farmers. Radon K., Weber C., Iversen M., Danuser B., Pedersen S., Nowak D., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.58, No.6, p.405-410. 28 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0675.pdf

To describe the relation between spirometric observations, farming characteristics and variables of exposure to organic dust measured during work in animal buildings, 40 pig farmers in Denmark and 36 poultry farmers in Switzerland were chosen randomly and assessed during one working day. It was found that mean baseline spirometric results in pig farmers were higher than in poultry farmers (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) = 108.3, standard deviation (SD) = 16.7, compared to 100.2, SD=14.2). Baseline lung function results were significantly associated with ventilation of the animal houses. Furthermore, temperature was related to spirometric findings in pig farmers. (78534)

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CIS 02-676 Cancer among Belgian coal miners. (French: Pathologie cancéreuse chez les houilleurs belges) Caroyer J.M., Strauss P., Revue de médecine du travail, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.1, p.60-63. Illus. 41 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0676.pdf

Coal miners are exposed to silica. However, the possibly carcinogenic effect of silica exposure is uncertain, the various studies on lung cancer risks published to date remaining inconclusive. The objective of this study was to determine the level of occurrence of neoplasms, in particular of the lungs, among Belgian coal miners compared to the overall population. The study involved examining the medical files of 1466 miners having received compensation for silicosis and for whom the cause of death and the state of health at the end of their lives was known. Although not statistically significant, the incidence of neoplasms was 32.6% in miners as opposed to 24.9% in the overall population. A statistically significant relationship was found for bronchial cancer and myeloma. However, the possibly confounding roles of other factors such as smoking and exposure to radon cannot be excluded. (78688)

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CIS 02-677 A longitudinal follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers exposed to manganese. Boojar M.M.A., Goodarzi F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.44, No.3, p.282-290. 42 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0677.pdf

To study the effects on the respiratory system in mine workers with long-term exposure to manganese (Mn) in the workplace, a follow-up of pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms was carried out among 145 workers employed in a large manganese mine and 65 matched controls. Lung function was measured by recording spirometric parameters. The Mn-exposed workers reported more respiratory symptoms and a significantly higher prevalence of all grades of pulmonary function impairment. All predicted symptoms except for asthma increased significantly in the current smoking group compared with the non-smoking group. There was a significant decrease in FEV1, FVC, and FEV1% values in exposed workers at stages 2 and 3, with an additive effect of the smoking habit. The Mn concentrations in blood, urine, and hair were significantly higher in the exposed workers. The level of cumulative exposure index of workplace Mn was notable and did not change significantly over this study. (78737)

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CIS 02-678 Medical insurance claims and surveillance for occupational disease: Analysis of respiratory, cardiac, and cancer outcomes in auto industry tool grinding operations. Park R.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.43, No.4, p.335-346. 41 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0678.pdf

To evaluate medical insurance claims for chronic disease investigation, claims from eight automotive machining plants (1984 to 1993) were linked with work histories (1967 to 1993), and associations with respiratory, cardiac, and cancer conditions were investigated in a case-control study. The primary focus was tool grinding, but metalworking, welding, forging, heat treating, engine testing, and diverse-skilled trades work were also investigated. Asthma incidence increased in tool grinding (at mean cumulative duration: odds ratio (OR), 3.0), as did non-ischaemic heart disease (OR 3.1). These trends appeared in models with deficits (OR <1.0) for those ever exposed to tool grinding because of exposure-response miss-specification, demographic confounding, or removal of high-risk workers from the exposed group. The apparent cancer rates identified from claims greatly exceeded the expected rates from a cancer registry, suggesting that diagnostic, "rule-out," and surveillance functions were contributing. (78513)

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CIS 02-679 Mortality at an automotive engine foundry and machine complex. Park R.M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.483-493. 71 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0679.pdf

Mortality was analysed for an automotive engine foundry and machining complex, with process exposures estimated from job assignments. Logistic regression models of mortality odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for 2546 deaths, and numbers of work-related deaths were estimated. Lung cancer mortality in the foundry was increased where cleaning and finishing of castings was performed (OR 1.7) and in core-making after 1967 (OR 1.5). Black workers had excess lung cancer mortality in machining heat-treat operations (OR 2.5) and excess non-malignant respiratory disease mortality in moulding (OR 2.5) and core-making (OR 2.7). Stomach cancer mortality was elevated among workers with metalworking fluid exposures in precision grinding (OR 2.4). Heart disease mortality was increased among all workers in moulding (OR 1.6), as was stroke mortality among workers exposed to metalworking fluids (OR 1.8). 11% of deaths were estimated to be work-related. (78540)

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CIS 02-680 Demonstration of the healthy worker survivor effect in a cohort of workers in the construction industry. Siebert U., Rothenbacher D., Daniel U., Brenner H., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.58, No.12, p.774-779. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0680.pdf

A cohort of 10,809 male workers in the German construction industry aged 15-64 years was followed up for occupational mobility, early retirement due to permanent disability, and total mortality from 1986 to 1994. Relative rates (RRs) of occupational mobility, early retirement and total mortality were estimated according to medical diagnoses. During follow up, 2472 subjects changed employment, 359 employees were granted a disability pension for health reasons and 188 subjects died. A wide range of chronic diseases was associated with increased rates of early retirement and total mortality. A healthy worker survivor effect was identified related to disorders of the back and spine, a common predictor of both occupational mobility (RR 1.17) and early retirement (RR 1.50). There were 41 occupational changes and 39 cases of early retirement due to permanent disability attributable to disorders of the back and spine. Differential occupational mobility preceded differential early retirement due to permanent disability by more than one decade. A healthy worker survivor effect due to occupational mobility needs to be considered in epidemiological research. (78817)

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CIS 02-681 Time to pregnancy among male workers of the reinforced plastics industry in Denmark, Italy and the Netherlands. Kolstad H.A., Bisanti L., Roeleveld N., Baldi R., Bonde J.P., Joffe M., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.353-358. 22 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0681.pdf

The relationship between occupational styrene exposure and male fecundity was examined among 1560 Danish, Italian and Dutch reinforced plastics workers. 220 styrene-exposed workers and 382 unexposed referents who had fathered a child were identified. A total of 768 historical styrene measurements conducted in 1970-1996 formed the basis for semi-quantitative exposure assessment in combination with measurements of urinary styrene metabolite levels. All the subjects were interviewed about work conditions. Fecundity was measured as the reported time to pregnancy. A statistically non-significant reduced fecundity was observed for the styrene-exposed workers (fecundity ratio 0.79), but no consistent pattern of a detrimental effect on fecundity was found when time to pregnancy was related to work-tasks indicating higher styrene exposure levels. The workers with high exposure showed a fecundity ratio of 1.09. It is concluded that it is unlikely that styrene exposure has a strong effect on male fecundity. (78507)

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CIS 02-682 Prevalence of occupational diseases among the workers of Jiwaji Rao Cotton Mill, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India. Kanhere V., Saini R.S., Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, Feb. 2001, Vol.1, No.3, p.11-17. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0682.pdf

Surveys were conducted in the year 2000 among workers of a textile mill that discontinued its operations in 1992. Data were collected through interviews and medical examinations. A preliminary survey of 86 volunteers showed that 40 had vision problems, 22 had respiratory impairment and 11 had hearing problems. In a second survey involving 80 volunteers, 11 were diagnosed with byssinosis, three with pneumoconiosis and five with noise-induced hearing loss. The workers were encouraged to claim compensation for occupational diseases under the compensation system in force in India. It is observed that many workers who would be entitled to compensation do not claim because of ignorance, apathy and complicated procedures. (78591)

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CIS 02-683 Relevance of multiparametric skin bioengineering in a prospectively-followed cohort of junior hairdressers. John S.M., Uter W., Schwanitz H.J., Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2000, Vol.43, No.3, p.161-168. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0683.pdf

To study the association between anamnestic and clinical findings, and multiparametric skin bioengineering data (transepidermal water loss (TEWL), microcirculation, capacitance, pH, sebum, temperature), hairdresser apprentices were prospectively followed for 3 years. Of the 66 apprentices, 19 developed moderate or severe dermatitis ("cases"), 32 had minimal skin changes and 15 were unaffected. Neither the atopy score nor the bioengineering parameters were significantly associated with the development of dermatitis. However, there was a significant increase in TEWL within the first year of training among "cases". Results show that work-related monitoring of basal biophysical skin-functions could become useful in the secondary prevention of occupational dermatitis. Further work is still required to develop a predictive tool for pre-employment counseling in wet work based on a combination of clinical and relevant non-invasive bioengineering parameters. (78605)

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CIS 02-684 Stress fracture - Case of an occupational accident in a hospital. (French: Fracture de fatigue - A propos d'un accident du travail survenu en milieu hospitalier) Laatar A., Dziri-Belellahom M., Chekili S., Zakraoui L., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2001, Vol.62, No.8, p.626-628. Illus. 16 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0684.pdf

Stress fracture is considered to be a multi-factorial disorder, consequent to a local mechanical overload of the bone following hyper-solicitation. Usually described in the military and in athletes, this injury remains rare in the occupational field. This article describes a case of stress fracture of the third metatarsal in a male nurse attached to a surgery department for 17 years, following a particularly strenuous night shift. Several cases of stress fracture related to work were identified through a literature survey, enabling a discussion on the context in which these lesions occurred, as well as their pathophysiological mechanisms. Finally, the difficulties of having these lesions recognized as occupational diseases are discussed. (78652)

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CIS 02-685 Integrating occupational health services and occupational prevention services. Rudolph L., Deitchman S., Dervin K., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.307-318. 96 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0685.pdf

Occupational health care has focused more on treatment than prevention, which represents a failure to meet the health care needs of working patients. Medline searches were conducted for literature on occupational medical treatment and the prevention of occupational injury and illness, and were reviewed for linkages between prevention and treatment. Although examples of the integration of clinical and preventive occupational health services exist, there are barriers to such integration. These include inaction by clinicians who do not recognize their potential role in prevention; the absence of a relationship between the clinician and an employer willing to participate in prevention; economic disincentives against prevention; and the absence of tools that evaluate clinicians on their performance in prevention. (78377)

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CIS 02-686 Occupational hygiene and health surveillance. Mtetwa B., On Guard, Dec. 2001, Vol.6, No.22, p.3-7. 3 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0686.pdf

Contents of this general article on occupational hygiene and health surveillance in Zimbabwe: definitions; role of the occupational hygienist; practice of occupational hygiene; occupational hygiene evaluations (exposure assessment, interpretation of results); links between occupational hygiene, risk assessment and risk management; occupational hygiene programme (hazard surveillance and survey methods, sampling and measurement strategies). (78443)

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CIS 02-687 Special feature on "foreign experiences". (French: Dossier "Expériences étrangères") Revue de médecine du travail, Jan.-Feb. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.1, p.21- 52. Illus. 53 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0687.pdf

Collection of articles on experiences in the field of occupational medicine in Morocco, the Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso. Cases presented: occupational hazards in a small-scale cooperative manufacture of ceramic tiles in Morocco; contact dermatitis in the construction industry in Morocco; survey of sexually-transmitted diseases among workers of a luxury hotel complex in Morocco; preventive vaccination in occupational settings in the Ivory Coast; psycho-pathological disorders and night work among women in the health care sector in Burkina Faso. (78687)

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CIS 02-688 Standing at work and progression of carotid atherosclerosis. Krause N., Lynch J.W., Kaplan G.A., Cohen R.D., Salonen R., Salonen J.T., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.227-236. Illus. 75 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0688.pdf

The association between the extent of standing at work and the progression of carotid intima media thickness (IMT) was studied among 584 men participating in the study. Ultrasound measurements of atherosclerotic changes in the carotid arteries were performed at the beginning of the study and after 4 years. Analyses of changes in IMT included adjustment for risk factors and stratification by base-line levels of atherosclerosis and prevalent ischaemic heart disease (IHD).These findings provide the first empirical support in a population study for the role of haemodynamic factors in the progression of atherosclerosis induced by long-term standing postures. Men with carotid stenosis or IHD appear especially vulnerable. Reducing the duration of standing at work should be considered both in the occupational rehabilitation of such patients and in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis. (78384)

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CIS 02-689 Relationship between health services outcomes and social and economic outcomes in workplace injury and disease: Data sources and methods. Mustard C., Hertzman C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.335-343. 75 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0689.pdf

Understanding the mediating role of health care in mitigating social, economic and occupational role disability is a complex task. No single method of research will be successful in addressing all elements of this research priority area. Research methods should include the following components: a detailed measurement of therapeutic intervention and the impacts of this intervention on clinical and functional health status using study designs which rule out competing explanations; a longitudinal follow-up component which measures social, economic, and occupational role function following the conclusion of therapy; a commitment to execute studies across multiple settings to observe the variations in health care and in social and occupational role function that arise as a result of differences in labour market factors and employer and government policies. (78379)

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CIS 02-690 The association of health risks with workers' compensation costs. Musich S., Napier D., Edington D.W., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.534-541. Illus. 41 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0690.pdf

To investigate the association between health risks and workers' compensation (WC) costs, a study was conducted among Xerox Corporation's long-term employees focused on 1996-to-1999 costs. High WC costs were related to individual health risks, especially the Health Age Index (a measure of controllable risks), smoking, poor physical health, physical inactivity, and life dissatisfaction. WC costs increased with increasing health risk status (low-risk to medium-risk to high-risk). Low-risk employees had the lowest costs. In this population, 85% of WC costs could be attributed to excess risks (medium- or high-risk) or nonparticipation. Among those with claims, a savings of USD 1238 per person per year was associated with Health Risk Appraisal participation. Addressing WC costs by focusing on employee health status provides an additional strategy for health promotion programmes. (78432)

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CIS 02-691 Challenges to the practice of occupational health in Zimbabwe and OHS legal reforms. Chirimumimba G.N., On Guard, Dec. 2001, Vol.6, No.22, p.9-12. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0691.pdf

This article gives a brief overview of current OSH legislation in Zimbabwe. It also mentions forthcoming amendments in the following areas: pneumoconiosis; medical surveillance; dust hazard surveillance; establishment of a second medical bureau in the country; role of government; rehabilitation; revision of the schedule of diseases for compensation; establishment of a board of appeal for occupational diseases. (78444)

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CIS 02-692 Financial assistance in promoting occupational health services for small-scale enterprises in Japan. Muto T., Takata T., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.14, No.2, p.143-150. 57 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0692.pdf

This study was conducted to survey the degree of Japanese government financial assistance in promoting occupational health services (OHS) for small-scale enterprises (SSE). The Ministry of Labor initiated the policy of subsidizing OHS for SSE in the early 1960s. Activities to be subsidized through four mechanisms included primary and secondary prevention of occupational injuries and diseases. The amount of the subsidy ranged between one third to two thirds of the costs. There was a fourteen-fold increase in the amount of subsidies for SSE from USD 7 million in 1986 to USD 98 million in 1998. The long history of financial assistance for SSE and the increasing amount of subsidies suggest that the Ministry of Labour recognizes the importance of financial assistance in promoting OHS in small scale enterprises. (78448)

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CIS 02-693 Occupational health indicators for South Africa. Rees D., Kielkowski D., Lowe R., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.98-102. 8 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0693.pdf

Indicators, which are statistics gathered from a larger pool having the power to summarize or serve as indirect or proxy measures for information that is lacking are valuable in appraising the occupational health status of a country. However, the data need to be both feasible and relatively inexpensive to collect. A generally accepted set of occupational health indicators does not exist. This project aimed to compile a set for South Africa. An initial set of possible indicators was compiled and rated. A committee of the National Centre for Occupational Health selected a final set of 16 indicators. However, further work is required to formally assess their validity and impact. (78608)

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CIS 02-694 Occupational diseases in the Czech Republic: Criteria for their recognition and compensation. (French: Les maladies professionnelles en République tchèque: critères de reconnaissance et d'indemnisation) Pelclová D., Ameille J., Urban P., Fenclová Z., Lebedová J., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2001, Vol.62, No.8, p.629-633. Illus. 7 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0694.pdf

Statistical data concerning occupational diseases in the Czech Republic are presented. Czech criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases and some advantages and disadvantages of the Czech system are discussed. 1751 cases of occupational diseases were recognized in the Czech Republic in the year 2000. Diseases due to physical factors were the most frequent, with 39.9% of the cases in the year 2000; diseases of the respiratory system and skin diseases each accounted for 20.7%; infectious diseases represented 16.4% of all occupational diseases; poisonings were accounted for only 2.1%, and other diseases (i.e. disorders of vocal cords) 0.2%. A disadvantage of the Czech system is the lack of satisfactory incentives for the prevention of occupational diseases. As an illustration, the charges levied on employers are not increased in proportion with the increased incidence of occupational diseases. (78653)

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CIS 02-695 How is sex considered in recent epidemiological publications on occupational risks?. Niedhammer I., Saurel-Cubizolles M.J., Piciotti M., Bonenfant S., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.521-527. 32 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0695.pdf

To review whether epidemiological studies in occupational health show a sex bias, a literature survey was conducted. Publications in six journals during the year 1997 were analysed. 348 articles were reviewed. In 40 of them (11%), the sex of the study population was not specified. In 177 articles (51%), the study population was mixed. In 108 (31%), the population consisted exclusively of men and in only 23 (7%), exclusively of women. Exposure to chemicals in industries was more likely to be studied in samples of men. The same resulted for mortality and health outcomes such as neoplasms and cardiovascular diseases. In 46 mixed studies (26%), the results were adjusted for sex. In conclusion, this review shows that women are still less often studied than men in occupational health epidemiology. (78693)

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CIS 02-696 Effects of working conditions that are unfavourable to health, and their economic consequences. (French: Effets de conditions de travail défavorables sur la santé des travailleurs et leurs conséquences économiques) Conne-Perréard E., Glardon M.J., Parrat J., Usel M., Conférence romande et tessinoise des offices cantonaux de protection des travailleurs, Office cantonal de l'inspection et des relations de travail, 23 rue Ferdinand-Hodler, 1207 Genève, Switzerland, Dec. 2001. xi, 110p. Illus. 252 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0696.pdf

Topics covered in this literature survey on the economic effects of working conditions that are hazardous to health: general considerations; shift work; psychosocial factors; musculoskeletal diseases; cardiovascular diseases; mental health; occupational cancers; cost of occupational diseases in Switzerland, recommendations and conclusions. (78659)

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CIS 02-697 General guidebook on industrial health 2001. Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, International Cooperation Department, 5-35-1 Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0014, Japan, 2001. 173p. Illus. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0697.pdf

Contents of this annual report on occupational health in Japan: present status of industrial health (statistical trends, findings of health screening, reporting of new chemicals); measures aimed at promoting workers' health; occupational health legislation; cases of poisoning from toxic substances at work (organic solvents, specific chemicals, carbon monoxide, anoxia); occupational health statistics. (78720)

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CIS 02-698 Current understanding of occupational cancers. (French: Le point des connaissances sur les cancers professionnels) Brasseur G., Leprince A., Pillière F., Dornier G., Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2001, No.613, 4p. Insert. Illus. 10 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.inrs.fr/produits/publications.pdf/ed5013.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0698.pdf

Occupational cancers depend on many factors. Carcinogens may be chemicals, but may also be physical or biological agents. A large percentage of the working population may be at risk of exposure to carcinogens. Contents of this information sheet: classification of carcinogens; risks to humans; preventive approaches; list of carcinogens and cancers which are included in the tables of occupational diseases which are compensated in France. (78833)

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[ Top of page ]

003 Industries and occupations

CIS 02-699 Is testicular cancer an occupational disease of fire fighters?. Bates M.N., Fawcett J., Garrett N., Arnold R., Pearce N., Woodward A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.263-270. 26 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0699.pdf

A previous investigation showed an increased risk of testicular cancer among firefighters in Wellington City, New Zealand, during the 1980s, while other studies of firefighters had not identified testicular cancer as an occupational disease. The present cohort study of mortality and cancer incidence involved all professional New Zealand firefighters, from 1977 to 1995. It confirms the increased risk of testicular cancer, even after excluding cases from the previous investigation, with a standardized incidence ratio for 1990-96 of 3.0. There was no evidence that firefighters were at increased risk from other cancers nor from any particular cause of death. While this study confirmed that New Zealand firefighters are at increased risk of testicular cancer, the reasons remain unknown. (78374)

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CIS 02-700 Mortality patterns by occupation in a cohort of electrical utility workers. van Wijngaarden E., Savitz D.A., Kleckner R.C., Kavet R., Loomis D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.667-673. 39 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0700.pdf

Mortality patterns were examined in a United States cohort of 138,905 male electric utility workers from five companies. Regression techniques were used to analyse total mortality, and mortalities from cardiovascular disease and cancer in relation to duration of employment in each of the 19 occupational categories of electrical utility operations. Relative to workers who were never involved in utility operations (e.g., administrative workers), mortality rate ratios among operations workers were higher for total mortality, mortality from cardiovascular disease, and total cancer mortality. Lung cancer risk was consistently elevated, whereas increased mortality for other cancers was less consistent. The results of this study indicate excess mortality risks among electric utility workers, which could be related to both occupational and non-occupational risk factors. (78713)

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CIS 02-701 Cause-specific mortality among Michigan employees of a chemical company: 1940 to 1994. Burns C.J., Cartmill J.B., Chau M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.168-175. 28 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0701.pdf

This observation involved 42,076 men and 11,706 women fist employed at the Michigan locations of the Dow Chemical Company between 1940 and 1994. During follow-up, 16,242 deaths were identified. Significant deficits in standardized mortality ratios were observed for all causes, all malignant neoplasms, and more than a dozen other causes of death when compared with rates in the United States. Significant elevations for several causes of death among employees of a magnesium foundry were observed. However, there is little recent exposure information, because the foundry was sold nearly 40 years ago. This routine surveillance activity provided a generally favourable overview of the health experience of the employees of the company and did not suggest a need for an additional focused study. (78730)

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CIS 02-702 Exposures in the painting trades and paint manufacturing industry and risk of cancer among men and women in Sweden. Brown L.M., Moradi T., Gridley G., Plato N., Dosemeci M., Fraumeni J.F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.44, No.3, p.258-264. 39 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0702.pdf

Using data from the 1960 and 1970 Swedish censuses and the Swedish Cancer Register for 1971 to 1989, this study investigated variations in cancer risk by gender associated with painting and paint manufacturing. Among men, standardized incidence ratios were significantly increased for lung cancer among painters and lacquerers, bladder cancer among artists, and pancreas cancer, lung cancer, and non-lymphocytic leukaemia among paint and varnish plant workers. Risks for women were elevated for cancers of the oesophagus, larynx, and oral cavity among lacquerers and for oral cancer among glazers. These findings are consistent with the report of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) that classified painting as an occupationally related cause of cancer and provide further evidence that the risk of certain cancers is increased by exposures in the paint manufacturing process. (78735)

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CIS 02-703 A historical cohort mortality study among shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy. Puntoni R., Merlo F., Borsa L., Reggiardo G., Garrone E., Ceppi M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.363-370. 28 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0703.pdf

A historical cohort mortality study was conducted among 3984 shipyard workers in Genoa, Italy. These workers were exposed between 1960 and 1981 to asbestos fibres, welding fumes and gases, silica dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and solvents. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed using male residents of the Province of Genoa as the referent population. For the whole cohort, significantly increased SMRs were detected for all causes, for all cancers, for liver, larynx, lung, pleural and bladder cancers, for respiratory tract diseases and for cirrhosis of the liver. Analysis by job title showed increased SMRs in occupations entailing heavy asbestos exposure not only for pleural cancer, but also for lung and laryngeal cancers and for respiratory tract diseases. Bladder and liver cancers and liver cirrhosis mortality also appeared to be related to occupational exposure. (78753)

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CIS 02-704 Malignant pleural mesothelioma in bakers and pastry cooks. Ascoli V., Calisti R., Carnovale-Scalzo C., Nardi F., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.371-373. 12 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0704.pdf

The occurrence of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) among bakers and pastry cooks has never been documented. This article describes eight cases of MPM in bakers, pastry cooks, and biscuit cooks engaged in making, baking/cooking and selling pastry/bread in two hospital-based series in Italy totaling 222 cases during the period from 1990 to 1997. Field investigations revealed asbestos-containing material in ovens for baking bread manufactured prior to the 1980s. It is suggested that there is a possible new association between the occupations of baker/pastry cook and malignant pleural mesothelioma. The presumptive sources of asbestos are the asbestos-insulated ovens. (78754)

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CIS 02-705 Occupational safety and health issues of biomedical waste treatment systems. Acharya D.B., Singh M., Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 1998, Vol.XXIX, No.3, p.71-74. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0705.pdf

This article presents a brief overview of occupational safety and health issues facing workers in biomedical waste treatment systems. Some systems such as incinerators and autoclaves have been used to treat biomedical waste for many years, while others are relatively new and unfamiliar to persons responsible for occupational health. Contents: overview; blood-borne pathogens; hazard communication; air contaminants; heat and fire hazards; eye injury hazards; noise; lock-out and tag-out during maintenance and repair on equipment that poses electrocution or mechanical injury hazards; confined spaces; hand protection; foot protection; physical exertion. (78458)

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CIS 02-706 Maternal occupation in agriculture and risk of limb defects in Washington State, 1980-1993. Engel L.S., O'Meara E.S., Schwartz S.M., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.193-198. 10 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0706.pdf

A retrospective cohort study was conducted using birth records from the state of Washington (USA) for the years 1980 through 1993. The exposed group, consisting of 4466 births to mothers employed in agriculture, was compared with 2 reference groups. The outcome of interest was limb defects (syndactyly, polydactyly, adactyly, and "other limb reductions" as listed in the birth record). An elevated risk of limb defects was observed for the exposed group in comparison with the reference groups. These results support the hypothesis that maternal occupational exposure to agricultural chemicals may increase the risk of giving birth to a child with limb defects. (78382)

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CIS 02-707 Risk factors for work-related injury among male farmers in Iowa: A prospective cohort study. Park H., Sprince N.L., Lewis M.Q., Burmeister L.F., Whitten P.S., Zwerling C., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.542-547. 31 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0707.pdf

Agriculture is one of the most hazardous occupations in the United States. In this population-based prospective study, the work-related injury rate and risk factors among 290 Iowa male principal farm operators was investigated. Baseline data were collected between 1991 and 1994, and injury events were surveyed during the autumn of 1995. Cumulative incidence of farming work-related injuries during the previous year was 10.5%. It was found that the factors giving rise to the highest incidence of farming work-related injuries were depressive symptoms (odds ratio 3.22) and the number of hours working with animals (odds ratio 2.14). (78433)

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CIS 02-708 Respiratory findings in livestock farmworkers. Mustajbegovic J., Zuskin E., Schachter E.N., Kern J., Vrcic-Keglevic M., Vitale K., Ebling Z., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.576-584. 51 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0708.pdf

The prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function were investigated in 236 (169 male and 67 female) livestock farm workers. The prevalence of acute and chronic respiratory symptoms was recorded by means of a questionnaire. Lung function was measured by recording the maximum expiratory flow-volume curves. There was a high prevalence of almost all chronic respiratory symptoms in farmers: highest among men for chronic cough (27.2%) and highest among women for dyspnoea (28.3%). Occupational asthma was diagnosed in 3.6% of the men and 1.5% of the women. A large number of workers of both sexes complained of acute work-related symptoms, highest for dry cough (52.2%) and shortness of breath (44.9%). Lung function data among these workers demonstrated a trend toward lower lung function in general. Analysis reveals significant effects of length of employment and smoking in male and length of employment in female livestock farm workers. (78436)

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CIS 02-709 Hormone-dependent cancer and adverse reproductive outcomes in farmers' families - Effects of climatic conditions favoring fungal growth in grain. Kristensen P., Andersen A., Irgens L.M., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.331-337. 24 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0709.pdf

The impact of grain farming and climate on late-term abortion among female farmers, male genital birth defects among their sons, and hormone-dependent cancer among male and female farmers and their adult children was investigated. 246,043 male and female farmers born between 1925 and 1971 and 264,262 of their offspring were identified from the Norwegian national registers. Categories of high exposure were associated with adverse reproductive outcomes and cancer among female farmers, the strongest occurring for late-term abortion (Odds Ratio (OR) 2.6). Exposure associations for ovarian and breast cancer, and male genital defects, were more moderate. Endometrial cancer was associated with grain farming (OR 2.0). Exposure associations for cancer were strongest for pre-menopausal, parous women. The results are consistent with hormonal effects of inhaled mycotoxins during pregnancy. (78505)

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CIS 02-710 Agriculture. Muchiri F.K., Forastieri V., Oldershaw P.J., Macha M., Rwazo A., Mkalaga H., Regoeng K.G., Amweelo M., Bruce T.F., Chithila A., African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 2001, Vol.11, No.2, p.31-51 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0710.pdf

This journal focuses on occupational safety and health (OSH) issues of interest to African countries. Among the topics covered in this issue devoted to agriculture: improving OSH services in the agricultural sector; the ILO programme on safety and health in agriculture; encouraging prevention; OSH considerations in the retail sale of pesticides in Tanzania; OSH in the agricultural sector in Botswana, Namibia and Ghana; description of a fatal accident in Malawi during boiler maintenance. (78524)

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CIS 02-711 Certified safe farm: Using health insurance incentives to promote agricultural safety and health. Schneiders S., Donham K., Hilsenrath P., Roy N., Thu K., Journal of Agromedicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.25-36. Illus. 8 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0711.pdf

Telephone interviews and self-administered questionnaires were used to collect information on health insurance premiums, co-insurance rates and deductibles from 260 farmers in northwest Iowa, USA. Data were also collected on the injury and illness experiences of the subjects. 39% of primary farm operators and 63.5% of spouses worked off the farm. Of those who worked off-farm, 30% of the primary operators had coverage through their off-farm employer, and 27% of the spouses received health insurance through their off-farm employer. There was no significant relationship between the cost of coverage and the number of health care visits. However, persons with off-farm employer-sponsored coverage had significantly lower premiums than those without off-farm coverage. Additionally, those with family coverage from an off-farm employer had significantly lower deductibles. Implications for use of health insurance premium reductions as an incentive for safe farms are discussed. (78564)

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CIS 02-712 Analysis of hospital records on farm injuries over three years in South Carolina. Privette C.V., Journal of Agromedicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.63-76. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0712.pdf

This paper discusses agricultural injury records and injury surveillance needs in the state of South Carolina, USA. Between 1996 and 1998, there were a total of 827 farm related injuries reported by South Carolina hospitals. 79% of the victims were males, 70% were whites and 42% occurred to adults ranging in age from 35-64. The most common injury was trauma to the lower limbs (34%). One critical data element necessary in safety programming is determining the cause of these injuries. Hospital data do not answer causal questions. However, these data do highlight questions that need to be addressed to provide the necessary information to both educate and increase awareness for the rural residents of South Carolina. (78567)

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CIS 02-713 Is it safe on deck? Fatal and non-fatal workplace injuries among Alaskan commercial fishermen. Thomas T.K., Lincoln J.M., Husberg B.J., Conway G.A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.693-702. 16 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0713.pdf

The occupational fatality in rate in commercial fishing is Alaska is 28 times that of all U.S. workers. Most deaths are attributed to vessels sinking or capsizing. However, many deaths and most non fatal injuries are not related to vessel loss. This paper describes injuries that occur on the dock or on the fishing vessel. Data from fishing fatalities and non fatal injuries between 1991-1998 were analysed using the Alaska Occupational Injury Surveillance System and the Alaska Trauma Registry. There were 60 workplace deaths unrelated to vessel loss. Most were from falls overboard, others from trauma caused by equipment on deck. There were 574 hospitalized injuries, often from falls on deck, entanglement in machinery, or being struck by an object. Further efforts are required to prevent falls overboard and on deck, and to redesign or install safety features on fishing machinery and equipment. (78716)

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CIS 02-714 Low back pain among farmers in Southland, NZ. Firth H., Herbison P., McBride D., Feyer A.M., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.167-171. 16 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0714.pdf

Low back pain (LBP) is a common condition with a lifetime prevalence of up to 90%. It is also costly to workers' compensation authorities. Farming is an industry with several major risks for LBP, including heavy physical work and long hours spent on tractors and other vehicles. This cross-sectional study aimed to measure the health of farmers in Southland, New Zealand, including the prevalence of LBP and the risk factors. It was found that over half (54.6%) of the farmers had suffered an episode of LBP in the last 12 months, 1.8 times that of the national population. The most common activities (40.4%) at the time of onset were lifting and/or twisting. Those farmers who had some form of psychological disturbance were significantly more likely to report LBP. Further efforts need to be made to prevent LBP among farmers by engineering high risk tasks and increasing awareness of the contributing factors among farmers. (78773)

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CIS 02-715 Hearing loss and the farming community. Williams W., Forby-Atkinson L., Purdy S., Gartshore G., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.181-186. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0715.pdf

Over recent years, concern has been growing regarding the incidence of hearing loss in rural communities. Anecdotal accounts have always portrayed older farmers as individuals with typical hearing loss characteristics. More recent formal evidence certainly supports this. Recent published statistical data indicate that hearing loss in the rural community is a serious problem for many individuals and their families. Typically, attention has been directed at noise-exposed workers who work in more conventional workplaces, such as factories. However, farm workers have been considered "hard to reach" and, as a consequence, have not experienced traditional hearing loss prevention education programs. Thought needs to be given to more efficient methods of alerting the farming community to noise hazards. (78775)

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CIS 02-716 Occupational accidents in farming in Extremadura. (Spanish: Siniestralidad agrícola en Extremadura) Moreno Gómez A.J., Gutiérrez Vivas J.R., Lobato García M.E., Reveriego Fajardo I.M., Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.17, p.4-15. Illus. 31 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0716.pdf

This study analyses the causes and consequences of 1272 farm accidents having occurred in the region of Extremadura, Spain. Results are expressed as a function of sex, age and occupation of the victims, day of the week, hour of the day, month and place where the accident occurred, as well as type of injury, location of injury, length of incapacitation and cause. 91% of the accidents involved men; severity was also higher among men than among women. Young and less-experienced workers are at greater risk, as are unqualified workers. Monday is the day of the week where accidents are most frequent. Two peaks are observed during the working day, at noon and around 5 p.m. The average duration of incapacitation is 27.75 days. The most frequent injuries are bruises and crushes (25.86%) and lower extremities are the most frequent location (19.81%). (78825)

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CIS 02-717 Safety performance in coal mining: An examination of some underlying issues. Dingsdag D., Gardner D., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.485-489. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0717.pdf

The availability of detailed and reliable data on health, safety and other performance indicators has made the coal mining industry a valuable source of information on possible interrelationships between OHS and productivity. Using this data, it has been possible to demonstrate that a number of factors influence both safety and productivity in the industry. The present article explores some factors that to date have received little attention, including the role of the Joint Coal Board of New South Wales (Australia) and the impact of the production bonus and changes to workers' compensation. (78413)

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CIS 02-718 Non-fatal work related injuries in a cohort of Brazilian steelworkers. Schoemaker M.J., Barreto S.M., Swerdlow A.J., Higgins C.D., Carpenter R.G., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.555-562. Illus. 34 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0718.pdf

Non-fatal work related injuries from January 1977 to September 1992 were analysed in a cohort of 21,732 male workers in a steel plant in Brazil. Overall there were 14,972 non-fatal injuries during this follow up: the majority of them in the workplace and the rest during travel to and from work. The most common injuries were to the hands, arms and eyes, with 90% of the latter caused by a foreign body. Labourers were most at risk of workplace injury, with about 8 injuries per 100 person-years. Prevention of eye injury needs special attention in steelworks (78696)

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CIS 02-719 Lung cancer mortality in a site producing hard metals. Wild P., Perdrix A., Romazini S., Moulin J.J., Pellet F., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.568-573. 15 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0719.pdf

The mortality from lung cancer from exposures to hard metal dust was examined in a historical cohort of all subjects who had worked for at least 3 months on an industrial site producing hard metals and followed up from January 1968 to December 1992. Mortality from lung cancer was significantly increased among men and was higher than expected in hard metal production before sintering, whereas after sintering it was lower. The excess mortality from lung cancer occurred in subjects exposed to unsintered hard metal dust and could not be attributed to smoking. (78698)

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CIS 02-720 Occupational and environmental risks of spontaneous abortions around a smelter. Wulff M., Högberg U., Stenlund H., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.131-138. Illus. 49 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0720.pdf

To evaluate the effects of working or living near a smelter on reproductive outcome, a case-control study was conducted in Sweden involving employees at the smelter, a sample of residents near the smelter and a sample of residents at a distance from the smelter, as controls. Participants were given a questionnaire, in 1992, and cases of live births and spontaneous abortions were obtained for the period between 1982 and 1990 from the population registry. Risk factors were studied by logistic regression. A validity study between register and questionnaire data on spontaneous abortions and legal abortions was completed. The results indicate that there was no increase in the level of spontaneous abortions associated with smelter work or to living close to the smelter. (78770)

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CIS 02-721 Factors associated with medical care-seeking due to low-back pain in scaffolders. Molano S.M., Burdorf A., Elders L.A.M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.275-281. 26 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0721.pdf

The aim of this questionnaire study of 323 scaffolders was to assess the prevalence of back pain and other musculoskeletal complaints and to identify factors that determine specific type of care-seeking due to back pain. The prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints was high. Severe back pain was reported by 28% of the scaffolders, low back pain (LBP) with sciatic pain by 23%, with sickness absence by 21%, with disability by 21%, and chronic back pain by 14%. Back pain was often accompanied by complaints involving the neck, the shoulder or the knee. A general practitioner was sought by 44% of the workers with LBP, a physiotherapist by 22%, an occupational physician by 20%, and a specialist by 11%. The nature and severity of back pain seemed to determine the decision to visit the GP. Irradiating pain and sickness absence were the strongest predictors for seeking medical care and being referred to a specialist or physiotherapist. (78376)

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CIS 02-722 Radiographic knee osteoarthritis in floorlayers and carpenters. Kirkeskov Jensen L., Mikkelsen S., Loft I.P., Eenberg W., Bergmann I., Løgager V., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.257-262. 18 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0722.pdf

The relationship between knee-straining work and radiological findings of knee osteoarthritis and between radiological findings and self-reported knee complaints and clinical signs of knee osteoarthritis were examined in 133 floorlayers, 506 carpenters, and 327 compositors who had completed a questionnaire and reported no previous knee trauma. The radiological investigation showed estimated prevalences of knee osteoarthritis for 14% of the floorlayers, 8% of the carpenters and 6% of the compositors. Radiological grades 2-4 were mainly found for subjects above the age of 50 years, subjects with knee complaints, and floorlayers. The data suggest that work in which a considerable amount of time is spent in knee-straining positions may be a risk factor for the development of knee osteoarthritis above the age of 50 years. (78386)

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CIS 02-723 The distribution of occupational injury risks in the Victorian construction industry. Larsson T.J., Field B., Safety Science, July 2002, Vol.40, No.5, p.439-456. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0723.pdf

This article discusses the findings of the study of occupational risks in the state of Victoria (Australia) as they apply specifically to the construction industry. Falls from heights constitute the major injury risk in the Victoria construction industry. However, the fall risk problem is associated with varying kinds of equipment and tasks among the various occupational groups in the construction process and requires a variety of architectural, engineering and design solutions. (78452)

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CIS 02-724 Occupational accidents aboard merchant ships. Hansen H.L., Nielsen D., Frydenberg M., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.59, No.2, p.85-91. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0724.pdf

A follow up on occupational accidents among crew aboard Danish merchant ships in the period 1993-7 was carried out using data from the Danish Maritime Authority and insurance institutions. Of a total of 1993 accidents, 209 resulted in permanent disability of 5% or more, and 27 were fatal. Relative risks for notified accidents and accidents causing permanent disability of 5% or more were calculated as a function of ship type, occupation, age, time on board, change of ship since last employment period and nationality. Foreigners had a considerably lower recorded rate of accidents than Danish citizens. Age was a major risk factor for accidents causing permanent disability. Change of ship and the first period aboard a particular ship were identified as risk factors. Walking from one place to another aboard the ship caused serious accidents. The most serious accidents happened on deck. Most accidents happened while performing daily routine duties. (78388)

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CIS 02-725 Deaths due to disease of seafarers on board Singapore ships. Nielsen D., Hansen H.L., Gardner B.M., Jungnickel D., International Maritime Health, 2000, Vol. 51, No.1/4, p.20-29. 16 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0725.pdf

373 deaths occurred on board Singapore ships between 1986 and 1995. The mean annual mortality rate for deaths due to all causes was 26.5 and due to disease was 4.9 per 10,000 seafarers (69 cases) respectively. More than 65% (n=45) of the deaths were from circulatory diseases commonly associated with life-style factors, but only 24 cases had a specific and 9 cases had an unspecific diagnosis confirmed by a medical practitioner. 32 seafarers died of a sudden death whereas 17 seafarers died on board after a short illness. In only two cases was it reported that Radio Medical advice had been sought indicating either a lack of concern of the ship's management or a lack of knowledge or information on the availability of such services. Eight of the seafarers who died on board had seen a doctor and been declared fit to stay on board, pointing to deficiencies in the port medical services or pressures on port doctors to avoid a costly repatriation. (78455)

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CIS 02-726 Health care for seafarers in Indonesia. Widjajakusumah M.D., International Maritime Health, 2000, Vol. 51, No.1/4, p.92-95. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0726.pdf

It is estimated that there are approximately 70,000 seafarers in Indonesia. In 1998, the Indonesian government appointed the Maritime Occupational Office (MOH) as the authorized office to issue health certificates for maritime workers. The MOH also organizes health care and health education, and conducts environmental assessments at maritime workplaces. In 1999, the government issued a decree on medical standards which referred to the ILO/WHO guidelines for conducting pre-sea and periodic medical fitness examinations for seafarers. The article describes the current approach to the medical examination of seafarers and suggests a few areas for possible improvement. (78456)

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CIS 02-727 Hospital admissions among male drivers in Denmark. Hannerz H., Tüchsen F., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.58, No.4, p.253-260. Illus. 52 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0727.pdf

To analyse the disease pattern among professional drivers in Denmark, cohorts of all 20-59-year-old Danish male professional drivers in the years 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1994 were formed. Standardized hospital admission ratios SHRs were higher among professional drivers than in the male working population at large. Also, drivers of passenger transport, compared with drivers of goods vehicles, had significantly high SHRs due to infectious and parasitic diseases, diseases of the circulatory system, and diseases of the respiratory system, and significantly lower rates of injury. For both driver groups, the SHRs for acute myocardial infarction increased with time whereas the SHR for acute gastritis decreased. For drivers of passenger transport an increasing SHR for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was found over time. In conclusion, drivers of passenger transport and drivers of goods vehicles differ in their disease patterns. Preventive efforts are needed in both groups, but requiring different strategies. (78519)

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CIS 02-728 Cohort mortality and cancer incidence survey of recent entrants (1982-91) to the United Kingdom rubber industry: Preliminary findings. Straughan J.K., Sorahan T., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.574-576. 7 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0728.pdf

The mortality and cancer incidence experienced by a cohort of 9,031 male and female rubber workers were compared with expected values, based on national rates defined by period, age and sex. All members of the cohort had a minimum of 12 months of employment in the industry and were first employed at one of the 42 participating British factories during the period 1982-91. Mortality data were available for the period 1983-98. Mortality from lung and stomach cancer was not different significanly from the expected ratios. Only one difference between observed and expected numbers was significant, i.e. mortality from testicular cancer (observed 3, expected 0.51). Although the findings relate to an early period of follow-up, they suggest that the increased standardized mortality ratio for stomach and lung cancers reported for historical cohorts of rubber workers may not be apparent in more recent cohorts. (78699)

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CIS 02-729 The tale of textile workers in Amritsar. Dutta T., Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, Feb. 2001, Vol.2, No.1, p.15-20. Illus. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0729.pdf

This article presents the cases of seven cotton mill workers diagnosed with byssinosis having been compensated after several years of efforts on the part of trade unions and non-governmental organizations. These cases have raised interest and awareness among workers. The participation of workers in diagnostic "camps" is increasing, and workers having received compensation are sharing their experiences with other workers. However, much remains to be done, and sustained efforts are needed to make workers aware of their rights and responsibilities. (78593)

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CIS 02-730 Follow-up study of respiratory health of newly-hired female cotton textile workers. Wang X.R., Pan L.D., Zhang H.X., Sun B.X., Dai H.L., Christiani D.C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.111-118. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0730.pdf

To identify early pulmonary responses to cotton dust exposure and associated Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin, respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in 225 newly-hired textile workers were assessed at work initiation, and subsequently three and twelve months later. All the workers were females and nonsmokers, with an average age of 18 years. Symptom incidence at three months was 3.6% for cough with phlegm, and 6.7% for dry cough. Lung function changes were detectable at one year: FEV1 declined by 70mL and FVC by 124mL over the year, and workers reporting respiratory symptoms at three months showed a significantly greater drop in FEV1 (-2.3%) than those without the symptoms (-0.7%). These results suggest that the occurrence of respiratory symptoms represents the earliest response to cotton dust exposure, followed by lung function changes. Early respiratory symptoms may be a risk factor for subsequent loss of pulmonary function in cotton textile workers. (78768)

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CIS 02-731 Beedi industry - Working for solutions. Saini R.S., Jaitli H., Journal on Environment, Health and Industrial Development, June 2001, Vol.2, No.1, p.10-14. 12 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0731.pdf

This article describes a survey carried out in the beedi industry in the city of Gwalior, India. The 75 respondents were all women, of average age 36 (13 to 75), having worked in the sector for an average of 14 years. Four suffered from asthma, 17 from chest pain and three from tuberculosis. All complained of breathlessness. Earlier studies report frequent miscarriages among women beedi workers due to the continuous squatting posture. Workers were found to have minimal awareness of their rights. Several recommendations are made for improving occupational health in this sector. (78592)

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CIS 02-732 Obstructive pulmonary function defects among Taiwanese firebrick workers in a 2-year follow-up study. Chen Y.H., Wu T.N., Liou S.H., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2001, Vol.43, No.11, p.969-975. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0732.pdf

In a two-year follow-up study, the pulmonary function of 291 firebrick workers was compared with that of 72 controls. Pulmonary function parameters tested included forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flow after 50% or 75% of vital capacity has been expelled (FEF50%, FEF75%). Most baseline functions were significantly lower for firebrick workers than in controls. The two-year decreases in FEV1/FVC and FEF50% in the firebrick workers was significantly greater than in controls. FEV1, FEF50%, and FEF75%, also showed a dose-response relationship with job titles. The two-year deterioration in pulmonary functions was the worst in burning work, followed by crushing and moulding. Workers in firebrick manufacturing factories with exposure to silica-containing dusts may develop obstructive pulmonary function defects. (78403)

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CIS 02-733 Upper airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms in domestic waste collectors. Wouters I.M., Hilhorst S.K.M., Kleppe P., Doekes G., Douwes J., Peretz C., Heederik D., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.59, No.2, p.106-112. Illus. 38 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0733.pdf

In a cross sectional study among 47 waste collectors and 15 controls, questionnaire data on respiratory symptoms were collected. Nasal lavage (NAL) was performed before and after a work shift at the beginning and at the end of the working week. In NAL fluid, cells were counted and differentiated and concentrations of interleukin 6 and 8 (IL6, IL8), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNFα), and IL1β were measured. In collectors, inhalable dust samples were collected in which bacterial endotoxin and mould β(1>3)-glucan were assessed. Waste collectors show signs of increased upper airway inflammation and respiratory symptoms compared with controls. Geometric mean exposure concentrations were 0.58mg/m3 for dust, 39EU/m3 for endotoxin, and 1.3µg/m3 for β(1>3)-glucan. At the end of the week collectors had higher concentrations of total cells and IL8 in NAL before and after a shift than controls. However, concentrations of IL6, TNFα, and IL1β were not associated with symptoms or exposure. (78390)

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CIS 02-734 Sickness absence in hospital physicians: 2 year follow up study on determinants. Kivimäki M., Sutinen R., Elovainio M., Vahtera J., Räsänen K., Töyry S., Ferrie J.E., Firth-Cozens J., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.58, No.6, p.361-366. Illus. 34 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0734.pdf

Short (1 to 3 days) and long (more than 3 days) recorded spells of sickness absence during a 2 year follow up period for 447 (251 male and 196 female) hospital physicians in Finland and 466 controls (female head nurses and ward sisters) were analysed. It was found that physicians took one third to a half the sick leave of controls. All the health outcomes were strongly associated with sickness absence in both groups. Of work-related factors, teamwork had the greatest effect on sickness absence in physicians. Physicians working in poorly functioning teams were at 1.8 times greater risk of taking long spells than physicians working in well functioning teams. Risks related to overload, heavy on-call responsibility, poor job control, social circumstances outside the workplace, and health behaviours were smaller. In this occupational group, sickness absence is strongly associated with health problems, and the threshold for taking sick leave is high. (78531)

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CIS 02-735 Adverse respiratory effects following overhaul in firefighters. Burgess J.L., Nanson C.J., Bolstad-Johnson D.M., Gerkin R., Hysong T.A., Lantz R.C., Sherrill D.L., Crutchfield C.D., Quan S.F., Bernard A.M., Witten M.L., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.467-473. 38 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0735.pdf

Overhaul is the stage in which fire-fighters search for and extinguish possible sources of reignition, during which they generally do not wear respiratory protection. 51 fire-fighters in two groups, 25 without respiratory protection and 26 wearing cartridge respirators, were monitored for exposure to products of combustion and changes in spirometric measurements and lung permeability following overhaul of a structural fire. Testing at baseline and 1 hour after overhaul included forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), serum Clara cell protein (CC16), and serum surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A). Overhaul increased CC16 in both groups, indicating increased alveolar capillary membrane permeability. Contrary to expectations, SP-A increased and FVC and FEV1 decreased in the fire-fighters wearing cartridge respirators. Changes in FEV1, CC16, and SP-A were associated with concentrations of specific products of combustion or carboxyhaemoglobin levels. It is concluded that self-contained breathing apparatus should be worn during overhaul to prevent lung injury. (78538)

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CIS 02-736 Motorcycle dispatch workers. (French: Les coursiers deux roues) Bonne B., Chartier A.M., Crette A., Grabiaud M.H., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.29-36. Illus. 12 ref. + 2p. Insert. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0736.pdf

This article discusses the risks incurred by motorcycle dispatch workers. This activity is characterized by high rates of severe road accidents, lack of training and the absence of recognition under collective agreements. Workers come from different backgrounds, often unrelated to the activity. Atmospheric pollution is a legitimate case for concern among workers. Three fictional case descriptions illustrate the working conditions experienced in this activity. Contents of the occupational information sheet accompanying the article: characteristics of the activity; description of the activity; risks and constraints; occupational diseases; preventive measures; regulations; aptitude criteria and contraindications. (78683)

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CIS 02-737 Municipal firefighter exposure groups, time spent at fires and use of self-contained-breathing-apparatus. Austin C.C., Dussault G., Ecobichon D.J., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.683-692. Illus. 37 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0737.pdf

The objective of this study was to develop better estimates of firefighter exposures for use in future epidemiological studies. The study population consisted of the 1883 firefighters of the fire department of the city of Montreal. The storage and distribution of self-contained-breathing-apparatus (SCBAs) were tracked for 12 months. Time spent at fires and use of SCBAs were calculated. Eight firefighter exposure groups were identified (based on job title, assignment to a fire district and time spent at fires), ranging from no exposures to 3,244min/year/firefighter. SCBAs appear to have been used for approximately 50% of the time at structural fires but for only 6% of the time at all fires. Failure of previous studies to identify homogeneous exposure groups may have resulted in misclassification and underestimates of health risks. The approach used in this study should facilitate the highlighting of exposure/response relationships in future epidemiological studies. (78715)

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CIS 02-738 Work-related injuries among firefighters: Sites and circumstances of their occurrence. Szubert Z., Sobala W., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.1, p.49-55. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0738.pdf

To determine the injury ratio, causes and duration of temporal work disability from on-duty injuries among firefighters, a sample of 1503 firefighters from 29 fire stations who were employed between 1994 and 1997 was studied. Data examined included the number of days and cases of work disability due to on-duty injury, personal data (age, work duration) and data on the circumstances of injury. The analysis revealed that the large proportion of injuries (40%) occurred during compulsory physical training, being responsible for 41% of post-injury absence at work. The workers employed for less than one year were at highest risk of injury. Injuries during emergency operations made 25% of all injuries and accounted for 24% of post-injury absence. The frequency of injuries was not significantly aged-dependent, however, the duration of work disability was found to increase by 20% with increasing age of workers. (78734)

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CIS 02-739 Hospitalizations among female home-helpers in Denmark, 1981-1997. Hannerz H., Tüchsen F., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.41, No.1, p.1-10. Illus. 42 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0739.pdf

The objective of this study was to elucidate the disease pattern among female home-helpers in Denmark. Cohorts of all 20-59-year-old Danish female home-helpers in the years 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1994 were formed, to calculate age-standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) and time trends (1981-1997) for a large variety of diagnostic aggregations. Significantly high SHRs were found for injuries, infectious and parasitic diseases, and for diseases of the nervous system, circulatory system, the respiratory organs, digestive system, and the musculoskeletal system. When adjusting for social group, the SHRs for varicose veins, ischaemic heart diseases (IHD), and musculoskeletal disorders were still significantly high while the SHR for malignant neoplasm of respiratory organs became significantly low. The time trends revealed increased relative risks for IHD and asthma, and a decreasing relative risk for duodenal ulcer. (78761)

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CIS 02-740 Risk factors for occupational health impairments among Japanese elementary school teachers. (Japanese: Shōgakkō-kyōin no kenkō-shōgai no risuku yōin ni tsuite) Nakaseko M., Hirabayashi M., Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Mar. 2001, Vol.77, No.3, p.97-109. Illus. 8 ref. (In Japanese)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0740.pdf

Risk factors associated with adverse health effects were investigated by means of a questionnaire survey of 283 elementary school teachers in Kyoto, Japan. 64% of the teachers complained of ill-health or unsatisfactory well-being, 89% had complaints of severe or moderate mental fatigue and 84% reported severe or moderate physical fatigue resulting from work. The most frequently identified risk factors due to work included overtime work done after returning home (79.9%), special tasks for classes (73.5%) and management of pupils' problems (68.9%). As risk factors leading to voice disturbances and throat pain, the need to talk loudly and/or continuously was mentioned by 73.0%, the lack of time for resting the throat by 56.2% and long hours of talking by 43.9%. These complaints were more frequent in classes with larger numbers of pupils and in lower-grade classes. Many of the frequently reported complaints were found to relate to long hours of work as well as to short rest breaks, on the average only 24min per day. Abstract in English. (78820)

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CIS 02-741 Improved hazard identification for contractors. Trethewy R., Atkinson M., Falls B., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2000, Vol.16, No.6, p.507-520. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0741.pdf

The formal identification of workplace hazards is a fundamental principle on which successful safety management is founded and an essential component of OHS legislation in Australia. Environment legislation requires a similar control of workplace hazards. However, contractors do not always have the ability of to carry out this process in a formal way and to document an appropriate safe work procedure. Also, the requirement to review such procedures is also problematic for those who control a workplace. For some contractors, hazards can be so ingrained in the work process that they are considered the "norm". In addition, more subtle injury mechanisms such as repetitive lifting may be completely ignored due to the perceived inability to control such hazards at source. This article reports on some useful methods to assist contractors in hazard identification. (78553)

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CIS 02-742 Management systems for contractors. Gardner D., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2000, Vol.16, No.6, p.521-526. 33 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0742.pdf

Occupational health and safety management systems in Australia are becoming increasingly important for building contractors and other organizations. Past experience has shown that many management systems fail or are abandoned. An examination of the factors associated with the success and failure of management systems can provide guidance to enable contractors and others to maximize the chances of successfully implementing such systems. (78554)

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CIS 02-743 OSH performance: Improved indicators for contractors. Trethewy R., Gardner D., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Dec. 2000, Vol.16, No.6, p.527-534. 10 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0743.pdf

Until now, OHS has focussed on injuries and illness rather than the management of safety in the workplace. Common measures have been lost-time injury frequency rates and workers compensation statistics. Such measures in isolation are now regarded as inadequate to provide information to help eliminate or reduce the causes of workplace injury or illness. Indicators that measure the processes of safety management are required to stimulate improvement, particularly in organizations that predominantly employ contractors. In Australia, contractors comprise an increasing proportion of the workforce and this can diminish accurate assessment of safety performance. Therefore, accurate measurement of safety in such a work environment requires indicators of both contractor performance and overall workplace safety management. This article reports on recent developments in performance indicators for the measurement of safety in workplaces that engage a high proportion of contracted labour. (78555)

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CIS 02-744 Evaluation of hazards for handicapped workers. (Spanish: Evaluación de riesgos para trabajadores discapacitados) Santos Guerras J.J., Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2001, No.16, p.18-26; 35-36. Illus. 6 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0744.pdf

This article presents a method for evaluating the hazards to which handicapped workers are exposed. Various types of risk were coded (from 00 to 23). For each hazard highlighted in the analysis of the conditions of work, the level of risk is evaluated by determining the potential seriousness of the injury and its probability of occurrence. Specific preventive measures depend on risk levels highlighted. Four check-lists for hazard evaluation are included, applicable to persons in wheelchairs, with walking difficulties, with handling difficulties (problems in using arms or hands) and with vision problems. (78824)

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CIS 02-745 Medical education for agricultural health and safety. Wheat J.R., Donham K.J., Simpson W.M., Journal of Agromedicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.77-92. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0745.pdf

Family physicians who respond to agricultural hazards can maintain their rural practices while establishing the credibility necessary for acceptance as partners in programmes for agricultural community health. Family physicians with expertise in rural community health and occupational and environmental medicine (OEM) can be the front line of agricultural medicine. They need to be trained in rural medicine, rural public health, family medicine and OEM (including agricultural medicine). Few educational institutions are prepared currently to merge and coordinate these programmes into a coherent rural and agricultural medicine programme. It is recommended that a medical school in each distinctive agricultural region construct a model for developing physicians specialized in agricultural medicine and seek partners and resources to implement the model. Examples include the Iowa, South Carolina and Alabama models. A vocal rural and agricultural constituency may be required for success. (78568)

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CIS 02-746 The hospital environment - Quality considerations and management of services in relation with safety: Organizational requirements and proposals for a model for identification of specific risks. (Italian: L'universo ospedaliero - Considerazioni sulla qualità e la gestione dei servizi in relazione alla sicurezza: esigenze formative e proposta di un modello per la rilevazione dei rischi specifici) Bentivenga R., Bertagnolio G., Deitinger P., Deleo M., Giulianelli F, Macciocu L., Rossetti M., Sala A., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.19-42. Illus. 35 ref. (In Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0746.pdf

A cost-benefit analysis with a wide-ranging list of the most frequent problems connected with the running of hospitals in Italy. A number of possible alternative managerial organizational structures and the rational approach of possible psychological and communication problems within the hospital personnel are considered as a model in order to select the most appropriate preventive measures. (78747)

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CIS 02-747 Nonfatal occupational injuries among African American women by industrial group. Chen G.X., Hendricks K.J., Journal of Safety Research, Spring 2001, Vol.32, No.1, p.75-84. 22 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0747.pdf

Nonfatal occupational injuries among African American women treated in emergency departments in the U.S. were studied using injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System and employment data from the Current Population Survey. In 1996, there were 158,335 nonfatal work-related injuries involving African American women aged 16 or older (2.6/100 full-time equivalents, FTEs). Of these injuries, 39% occurred in health care, 14% in retail trade, and 12% in manufacturing. Health care experienced the highest injury rate of 5.1/100 FTEs, followed by a rate of 2.6/100 FTEs in retail trade. Injury patterns varied by industry in terms of source, event, diagnoses and body part. In health care the leading source involved interactions with patients and the leading event was physical exertion; whereas in retail trade the leading source was structures and surfaces, and the leading event was contact with objects. These findings demonstrate that nonfatal work-related injuries are concentrated in a few high-risk industries, such as health care, manufacturing, and retail sales. (78552)

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CIS 02-748 Key statistics on occupational accidents. (French: Les chiffres clés des accidents du travail) Cariou F., Prévention BTP, Dec. 2001, No.36, p.51-58. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0748.pdf

Contents of this review article on occupational accidents in the construction industry in France: regional differences; main causes of accidents; breakdown by location of injury; occupational accidents during the year 1999 according to sector and company size; trends since 1985 in the number of occupational accidents involving loss of work time and of severe occupational accidents; investigations during the year 2000; jurisprudence that considers accidents involving employees during their travel for occupational purposes to be occupational accidents. (78587)

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CIS 02-749 Proceedings of the 2nd European Symposium on "Mentally handicapped subjects and patients with Down syndrome in 2000 Europe: Attained goals and rights to be achieved". (Italian: 2þ Convegno europeo - Handicappati intellettivi e soggetti con sindrome Down nell'Europa del 2000: Gli obbiettivi raggiunti, i diritti da conquistare) Istituto Italiano di Medicina Sociale, Difesa sociale, Jan.-Feb. 2001, Vol.80, No.1, p.1-167. Bibl.ref. (In Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0749.pdf

The topics under which papers were presented at this conference (held in Milan, Italy, 22-23 October 1998), beside dealing with social, educational and welfare aspects of mentally handicapped and Down syndrome subjects, were those of their employment possibilities, especially in Italy. Case reports in particular concerning the work capacity of these subjects were discussed by parents, employers and employees. (78700)

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CIS 02-750 Occupational health services for small-scale enterprises in Korea. Park H., Ha E., Kim J., Jung H., Paek D., Industrial Health, Jan. 2002, Vol.40, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0750.pdf

The Korean government provides financial subsidies for occupational health services in Small Scale Enterprises (SSE). The subsidy programme involves support for health examinations for workers exposed to specific occupational hazards, workplace environmental measurements and biweekly health education sessions and counseling. 5,080 factories which had participated in the programme in 1997 were surveyed. The overall morbidity of the workers in these SSEs was higher than the national average for both general and occupational diseases. Based on the health examinations for occupational disease of those workers exposed to occupational hazards such as noise, dust or solvents, the industry-specific occupational disease patterns were identified, enabling the planning of targeted occupational health services to specific groups. This programme may also be a good model for rapidly-developing countries. (78724)

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CIS 02-751 New forms of work organization resulting from the decentralization of production. Consequences on occupational safety and health. (Spanish: Las nuevas formas de organización del trabajo derivadas de la decentralización productiva. Incidencia en la seguridad y la salud de los trabajadores) Blasco Mayor A., Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.18, p.27-38. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0751.pdf

New forms of work organization, in particular the decentralization of production and associated cost-reduction policies have consequences for working conditions. These changes in work organization, characterized by outsourcing of tasks (having recourse to tele-workers, subcontractors and temporary workers) and a decentralization of production sites can have consequences for workers' safety and health. This article reviews the responsibilities of employers with respect to occupational safety and health in the context of these new forms of work organization and highlights the gaps in legislation which need to be filled. (78830)

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CIS 02-752 Occupational safety and health on construction sites - Experience with the application of the Construction Sites Ordinance. (German: Sicherheit und Gesundheitsschutz auf Baustellen - Erfahrungen bei der Anwendung der Baustellenverordnung) Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 109p. Price: EUR 12.00., ISBN 3-89701-684-2 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0752.pdf

The German Construction Sites Ordinance (Baustellenverordnung) came into effect on 1 July 1998. It transposes Council Directive 92/57/EEC of 24 June 1992 on the implementation of minimum safety and health requirements at temporary or mobile construction sites (see CIS 93-1062) into German law. This report is a compilation of short communications presented at a workshop held on 16 November 2000 in Dresden, Germany, on experiences in the application of the ordinance, grouped under the following topics: activities of working groups; problems and issues raised by the ordinance, and needs for further action; experiences in the area of advisory and support services aimed at building site supervisors and coordinators with respect to their legal responsibilities. (78391)

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CIS 02-753 Dock work - Social repercussions of new methods of cargo handling. (French: Travail dans les ports - Répercussions sociales des nouvelles méthodes de manutention; Spanish: Trabajo en los puertos - Repercusiones sociales de los nuevos métodos de manutención) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2002. ix; 114p. Price: CHF 17.50., ISBN 92-2-112420-7 (En), ISBN 92-2-212420-0 (fr), ISBN 92-2-312420-4 (es) (In English, French, Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0753en.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
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http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
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At present, the situation in the international maritime transport and port industry is characterized by globally-integrated logistic chains, mergers and alliances of maritime carriers and the building of larger and larger ships operating from an ever smaller number of ports. This report presents the current situation with respect to dock work among ILO Member States, including the social repercussions of these changes. ships. A section is devoted to working conditions, where the aspects relating to remuneration, working hours, social security benefits and occupational safety and health measures are discussed. (78786)

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CIS 02-754 Success of apprenticeship and state of health among ex-apprentice bakers and confectioners - Long-term study and analysis. (German: Ausbildungserfolg und Gesundheitszustand ehemaliger Auszubildender des Bäckerei- und Konditorhandwerks - Langzeitdokumentation/Analyse) Borsch-Galetke E., Muth T., Rattat C., Szymanski C., Voos D., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 92p. Illus. 25 ref. Price: EUR 11.00., ISBN 3-89701-821-7 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0754.pdf

This survey examines the risk factors that can cause a baker or confectioner to change occupation. 496 out of 1129 bakery and confectionery apprentices under apprenticeship in 1981 and 1982 replied to a questionnaire in 2000. Only 23% remained in the trade. The reasons for changing occupation were mainly skin or respiratory allergies (30%). Frequency rates of occupational diseases (expressed as cases per 1000 person-years) were 7.5 for respiratory and 3.4 for skin diseases respectively. Occupational disease risks increased in the presence of risk factors such as milk crust during childhood or allergies in the family history. Among apprentices cumulating two or more risk factors, there was a fivefold likelihood of developing an occupational disease. It is therefore important, at the start of the apprenticeship, to assess whether the occupation is compatible with individual susceptibility or the risk factors highlighted. (78637)

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CIS 02-755 Quality management and integrated occupational safety and health in food retailing - Workshops and preliminary reports. (German: Qualitätsmanagement und integrierter Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutz in Lebensmittelhandel - Workshops und Zwischenberichte) Larisch J., Bieber D., Hien W., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. xviii, 548p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Price: EUR 40.00., ISBN 3-89701-422-X (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0755.pdf

This publication includes preliminary reports and proceedings of a series of workshops on improving occupational safety and health in warehousing and logistics in the food retail sector. A leading German food retail chain with 9500 shops, 30 warehouses and 5000 persons employed in logistics participated in the study. Opportunities to combine quality management and occupational safety and health are identified. Improvements in occupational health can be achieved though participation in worksite health programmes proposed by the insurance company. Continuous health and accident reporting systems are strong stimulators of preventive measures and result in improvements in both safety and health. (78395)

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CIS 02-756 Children at work - Health and safety risks. Forastieri V., ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2002. xiii, 169p. Illus. Index. Price: CHF 27.50., ISBN 92-2-111399-X (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0756.pdf

This book addresses the issue of the protection of children by proposing an occupational safety and health programme specifically adapted to working children. It illustrates how this can be achieved within the framework of national policies aimed at the elimination of child labour. It replaces an earlier edition published in 1997 (see CIS 99-511) and takes account of the provisions of the ILO's Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) and the Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation, 1999 (No. 190). Contents: current legislation and child labour; sources of information on the health of working children; effects of work on children's health; occupational hazards for working children in specific occupations and industries; policy framework at the national level; evaluation of children's working conditions; occupational safety and health programme; education and training; ethical aspects; mobilization and public awareness; legislation and enforcement; ILO actions in this field. (78483)

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CIS 02-757 Occupational hazards for pregnant women. (French: Risques professionnels chez la femme enceinte) Robert E., Saillenfait A.M., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 6p. 39 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0757.pdf

There currently exist very few occupational exposure factors clearly identified as presenting a risk for human reproduction, the most important being solvents and lead for women working in the chemical industry and certain infectious agents (rubella, toxoplasmosis and human immunodeficiency virus) for health care personnel. It is necessary at the same time to evaluate the intensity of exposure through regular measurements, to carry out biological monitoring of exposed workers and to be alert to the general clinical symptoms which include migraine, nausea or perceived ill odours. The importance of applying the basic preventive measures should be emphasized and additional collective or individual protective measures should be provided if necessary. Pregnant women need to inform their occupational physician of their state as soon as possible so as to enable the provision of less constraining working conditions before possibly considering the interruption of work. (78842)

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CIS 02-758 Occupational diseases in the agricultural sector. (French: Pathologie en milieu professionnel agricole) Delemotte B., Liénard M., Abadia G., Gingomard M.A., Grillet J.P., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2001, No.133, 8p. 25 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0758.pdf

In a broad sense, the agricultural sector includes crop and livestock farms, maintenance of parks, forestry work, rural sector crafts, certain food industries and agricultural service organizations. Several hundred types of occupations are represented in this sector, totalling around one million workers in France, of which most are temporary or seasonal workers. For nine types of occupations selected on the basis of their well-defined nature as well as in terms of the number of persons employed, the most frequent occupational hazards, preventive measures and medical supervision procedures are discussed. These occupations include: driving of tractors or agricultural machinery; work on pig farms; work in horticulture and market gardening; viticulture; forestry work; landscaping work; work in grain cooperatives; work in dairies; work in slaughterhouses and in the meat industry. (78848)

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CIS 02-759 BG rules - Disinfection procedures in health care establishments. (German: BG-Regeln - Desinfektionsarbeiten im Gesundheitsdienst) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, July 1999. 98p. Illus. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0759.pdf

This document reproduces the full text of guideline BGR 206 of the Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association (HVBG) concerning disinfection procedures in health care establishments. Contents: scope; definitions; general provisions; responsibilities of employers (hazard evaluation, use of substitute products, employee qualifications, list of dangerous chemicals, environmental surveillance of premises, technical and organizational safety measures, information of personnel); rules applicable to specific disinfection tasks (washing and wiping; sterilization of instruments, beds; elimination of waste and excretions; sterilization of the hands and the skin; disinfection in veterinary medicine). Appendices include examples of a hygiene plan and a disinfection plan, check lists for evaluating the hazards of disinfection work, literature references to the properties of disinfection products and lists of related guidelines, rules and standards. (78623)

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CIS 02-760 What went wrong? A film about industrial accidents on the farm. Sectoral Working Environment Councils Farm to Table, Jordbrigets Arbejdsmiljøudvlag, Torsøvej 7, 8240 Risskov, Denmark, 2000. VHS/PAL video, duration: 27 min. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0760.pdf

In this videotape of a programme which was showns on television in 2000, four farm workers explain occupational accidents which they experienced and their consequences. The advice given to these farm workers by a safety and health specialist is also presented. (78788)

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[ Top of page ]

004 New technologies

CIS 02-761 Psychological factors and visual fatigue in working with video display terminals. Mocci F., Serra A., Corrias G.A., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.58, No.4, p.267-271. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0761.pdf

To examine the importance of psychological factors in complaints about visual health reported by banking officers who work at video display terminals (VDTs), a group of 212 subjects without organic vision disturbances were selected among a population of 385 bank workers. They were administered three questionnaires, the NIOSH job stress questionnaire, a questionnaire investigating subjective discomfort related to environmental and lighting conditions of the workplace, and a questionnaire on the existence of vision disturbances. Social support, group conflict, self-esteem, work satisfaction, and under-use of skills were found to be predictors of vision complaints. Social support also played a part as a moderating factor in the stress and strain model, which accounted for 30% of the variance. Subjective environmental factors were not found to be strong predictors of the symptoms. In conclusion, some of the complaints concerning visual health reported by VDT workers are likely to be indirect expressions of psychological discomfort related to working conditions. (78520)

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CIS 02-762 Modelling and analysis of CAD expert behaviour in using manual input devices. Khalid H.M., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.79-92. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0762.pdf

An analysis illustrated the variety of resources and visual tasks required with the use of computer aided design (CAD) due to the manipulation of input devices, perceptual matching and error corrections. The productivity of CAD output might be enhanced by complementary use of speech input devices. (78742)

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CIS 02-763 VDU-screen filters: Remedy or the ubiquitous Hawthorne effect?. Fostervold K.I., Buckmann E., Lie I., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.107-118. Illus. 34 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0763.pdf

Health hazards attributed in office work to exposure to electrical fields surrounding CRT displays units were investigated without confirming the assumed protection given by screen filters. The results appear to be explained by other facts influencing employees e.g. subject reactivity, known also as the Hawthorne effect (improvement is due to psychological factors related to the subject's awareness that he/she is participating in an experiment). (78744)

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CIS 02-764 Interference between pacemakers (PMK) and cellular telephones: History and prevention. (Italian: Interferenze tra pacemaker (PMK) e telefoni cellulari: storia e prevenzione) Corrao C.R.N., Durante C., Donato A., Farulla A., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.72-105. Illus. 54 ref. (In Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0764.pdf

Different types of pacemakers are described together with known cases of interference due to the use of cellular telephones. Employees wearing pacemakers should be informed about possible health hazards, the adoption of simple preventive measures, such as the maintenance of a distance from the sources of electromagnetic radiations (e.g. not keeping the cellular telephone in a pocket near a PMK) and limiting the periods spent using cellular telephones. Telephone systems using the ETACS (Extended Total Access Communication System) standard are recommended, as opposed to the digital GSM (Groupe Special Mobiles) standard. (78749)

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CIS 02-765 Effectiveness of a VDT ergonomics training program. Lewis R.J., Fogleman M., Deeb J., Crandall E., Agopsowicz D., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.119-131. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0765.pdf

An evaluation of changes introduced in work posture adjustment at visual display terminal (VDT) work stations, due to an ergonomics training course. There were significant reductions in the severity of musculoskeletal symptoms, but no such reductions were detected for the presence of symptoms. A long-term study is suggested to detect statistically significant changes. (78745)

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[ Top of page ]

005 Chemical safety

CIS 02-766 An evaluation of short-term exposures to metalworking fluids in small machine shops. O'Brien D.M, Piacitelli G.M., Sieber W.K., Hughes R.T., Catalano J.D., AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.342-348. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0766.pdf

In 23 small machining shops using metalworking fluids (MWF) in the US, real-time air monitoring using an aerosol photometer was performed. The results were compared to those obtained by collocated thoracic and closed face cassette samplers. Depending on the averaging period used, short-term MWF concentrations exceeded 2.0mg/m3 in 13 to 39% of the workshops studied. The aerosol photometer data most closely matched those obtained from the thoracic fraction of the total mass. If field calibration data are not readily available, use of a calibration factor of 0.7 for straight oils or 0.5 for water-based fluids may assist in the interpretation of aerosol photometer measurements. (78702)

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CIS 02-767 Metalworking fluid exposures in small machine shops: An overview. Piacitelli G.M., Sieber W.K., O'Brien D.M., Hughes R.T., Glaser R.A., Catalano J.D., AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.356-370. Illus. 57 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0767.pdf

In 79 small machine shops in the US, airborne exposure to metalworking fluids (MWF) was compared to data from the literature and to exposure limit criteria currently recommended by NIOSH and OSHA. The results of 62% of 942 personal samples were below the recommended exposure limit (REL) of 0.50mg/m3 for total particulates. However, at least one sample exceeded the REL in 61 of the 79 facilities studied; all the samples collected in 10 shops were greater than the REL. Similar trends were found for thoracic particulate exposures. The highest exposures were measured for grinding shops. Particle size distributions of MWF aerosols had an average mass median aerodynamic diameter of 5.3µm. Workers in these small shops may have risks of adverse health effects similar to those in the automotive industry. (78703)

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CIS 02-768 Characterization of metalworking fluid aerosols in bearing grinding operations. Rosenthal F.S., Yeagy B.L., AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.379-382. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0768.pdf

The concentration and size distribution of metalworking fluid aerosols were investigated in grinding operations (face, microcentric, and progressive) in the bearing manufacturing industry. Aerosol mass concentration as measured by open-face filter sampling ranged from 0.34 to 2.43mg/m3. As measured by closed-face sampling the range was 0.14 to 2.01mg/m3. For each grinding process, open-face concentration was significantly higher than the closed-face concentration. Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) ranged from 3.33 to 6.26µm. The results indicate that (1) closed-face sampling results in a lower aerosol mass concentration, as compared with open-face sampling, and (2) the particle size distribution and concentration of metalworking fluid aerosols may vary with the type of grinding operation sampled. (78705)

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CIS 02-769 Non-malignant asbestos-related diseases in Brazilian asbestos-cement workers. Algranti E., Mendonça E.M.C., DeCapitani E.M., Freitas J.B.P., Silva H.C., Bussacos M.A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.240-254. Illus. 69 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0769.pdf

828 former asbestos-cement workers enrolled in a cross-sectional and cohort study of respiratory morbidity were submitted to a detailed occupational history, respiratory symptoms questionnaire, spirometry, chest x-ray, and high resolution computed chest tomography (HRCT). Asbestosis and pleural thickening were assessed according to HRCT criteria. Asbestosis was present in 74 (8.9%) and pleural thickening in 246 (29.7%) cases. Latency time from first exposure was the best predictor for both asbestosis and pleural thickening. Subjects in the higher exposure groups presented lower levels of lung function. Obstructive defects were significantly related to smoking, shortness of breath, body mass index, and age, whereas restrictive defects were related to asbestosis, shortness of breath, and latency time. Chronic bronchitis increased with latency time in the three smoking groups and was significantly related to pleural thickening (OR 1.56). Shortness of breath was significantly associated with body mass index and pleural thickening (OR 1.30). (78372)

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CIS 02-770 Estimating historical respirable crystalline silica exposures for Chinese pottery workers and iron/copper, tin and tungsten miners. Zhuang Z., Hearl F.J., Odencrantz J., Chen W., Chen B.T., Chen J.Q., McCawley M.A., Gao P., Soderholm S.C., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Nov. 2001, Vol.45, No.8, p.631-642. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0770.pdf

The development of conversion factors and estimates of historical respirable crystalline silica exposure for Chinese workers are described. Ambient total dust concentrations and crystalline silica concentrations in bulk dust were gathered from historical industrial hygiene records. Analysis of the silica content in historical bulk samples revealed no trend from 1950 up to the present. During 1988-1989, airborne dust samples were collected in 20 metal mines and nine pottery factories in China. These data were used to establish conversion factors between respirable crystalline silica concentrations and total dust concentrations. The conversion factors were estimated to be 0.0143 for iron and copper, 0.0355 for pottery factories, 0.0429 for tin mines, and 0.0861 for tungsten mines. The relative merits of using facility-specific conversion factors, industry-wide conversion factors, or a weighted average of the two are discussed. (78431)

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CIS 02-771 Rhinitis and respiratory disorders due to cotton dust in a textile mill in Monastir (Tunisia). (French: Pathologie nasale et respiratoire liée à la poussière de coton dans une entreprise textile à Monastir (Tunisie)) Debbabi F., Mrizek N., Tabka Z., Choudat D., Zebidi A., Conso F., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2001, Vol.62, No.8, p.621-625. 17 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0771.pdf

A transversal epidemiological study was conducted in a textile mill to determine the prevalence of nasal and broncho-pulmonar symptoms, and to establish the relationship with exposure to dust. The study population consisted of 183 workers, of whom 52% were employed in cotton and acrylic fibre spinning, 25% in weaving, 8% in garment manufacturing, 5.5% in dyeing and 9.5% in administration. The investigations included a standardized questionnaire, environmental assessments with dust measurement in the different units of the factory, pulmonary function tests and rhinomanometry. It was found that dust levels were high throughout the mill, and particularly so in the spinning area. A decrease in spirometric values was observed in 21.5% of the workers. The prevalence of nasal obstruction determined by rhinomanometry was high (68.8%), but in 53.5% of the cases the workers had no clinical symptoms of rhinitis. (78651)

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CIS 02-772 Characterization of airborne dust and fibres, especially those of silica and asbestos. (Italian: Caratterizzazione di polveri e fibre aerodisperse con particolare riguardo alla silice ed agli amianti) Maddalon G., Patroni M., Peruzzo G.F., Trimarchi R., Cavallo D.M., Medicina del lavoro, 2001, Vol.92 (suppl.), p.1-101. Illus. Bibl. ref. (In Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0772.pdf

Extensive review of results from scientific studies conducted since the 1940s at the Department of Occupational Safety and Health of the University of Milan, Italy. In addition, research carried out in other countries in the field of airborne contamination from industrial derivatives of silica, silicate and asbestos materials is discussed. A first chapter concerns sampling, measurement and analysis of various types of silica and silicate materials, with special consideration of airborne dusts in the workplace. The methodologies described range from chemical analysis to X-ray diffractometry and microscopic techniques (light microscopy, phase-contrast microscopy and electron microscopy) of free crystalline silica in its various allotropic forms. A second chapter describes the evolution of sampling, counting, identification and qualitative discrimination methods of various types of asbestos and asbestos fibre substitutes. The third (and last) chapter contains an atlas demonstrating the optical and difractometric characteristics of silica and of natural and synthetic fibres (in particular, asbestos and its substitutes). (78706)

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CIS 02-773 Open ventilated booths: Vertical or horizontal air flow? Comparative study in the stonemasonry sector. (French: Cabines ouvertes ventilées: flux vertical ou horizontal? Etude comparative dans le secteur de la taille de la pierre) Régnier R., Brand F., Dessagne J.M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.49-67. Illus. 8 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0773.pdf

Open ventilated booths are one of the most frequently-used means of eliminating the pollutants generated in workshops. Most of these booths apply a horizontal airflow on one side, open to the workshop, and extract it on the opposite side. Vertical air flow ventilation is an alternative which could improve the capture of contaminants. This capability was assessed in two stonemasonry companies using a methodology similar to those used on the test bench. The findings show vertical air flow to be between 20 and 200 times more efficient than horizontal air flow. (78838)

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CIS 02-774 Biological monitoring of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone using 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone in plasma and urine as the biomarker. Åkesson B., Jönsson B.A.G., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.213-218. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0774.pdf

To study the toxicokinetics of 5-hydroxy-N-methyl-pyrrolidone (5-HNMP) in blood and urine after exposure to N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) and the suitability of 5-NMP as a biomarker for assessing the NMP exposure, six male volunteers were exposed for 8 hours to NMP concentrations of 0, 10, 25 and 50mg/m3. Blood and urine were sampled before, during, and up to 40 hours after the exposure. The plasma concentrations after 8-hour NMP exposure to 10, 25, and 50mg/m3 were 8.0, 19.6, and 44.4mmol/L, respectively, and the urinary concentrations for the 2 last hours of exposure were 17.7, 57.3 and 117.3mmol/mol creatinine, respectively. The 5-HNMP urinary concentrations were 58% of the calculated retained dose. There was a close correlation between plasma and urinary 5-HNMP with NMR exposure, making 5-HNMP suitable for monitoring exposure to NMP. (78383)

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CIS 02-775 Particles in ambient air - A health risk assessment. Areskoug H., Camner P., Dahlén S.E., Låstbom L., Nyberg F., Pershagen G., Sydbom A., eds., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2000, Vol.26, Suppl.1, p.1-96 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0775.pdf

The articles presented in this issue focus on the effects other than cancer of particles in ambient air and review the literature published since 1998. Main topics covered: definition and characteristics of airborne particulate matter; deposition and clearance in the lungs; effects of diesel exhaust emissions; effects of ultrafine particles; epidemiologic studies on the health effects of ambient particulate air pollution; health risk evaluation of airborne particulate matter. (78509)

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CIS 02-776 Findings in the field of chemical safety institution building - Benchmarks report. Lindh T., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.87-88. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0776.pdf

Introductory article of a whole issue devoted to the conference on chemical safety institution building held in Budapest, Hungary on 27-29 August 2001. The purpose of the conference was to present the findings of a European Union project on national organization of chemical safety. Chemical safety institutions of Germany, Italy, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom are presented and compared. Topics covered: legislative background; responsibility and scope of authority of the national and regional levels; location of policy-making; basis and method for decision-making; inspection and enforcement; motivation system for implementation in practice; role insurance institutions; hazard communication; use of less hazardous alternatives; organization of information systems; databases; toxicological information services; relationship with poisoning centres; flow of information between parties involved; international cooperation. (78521)

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CIS 02-777 The profile of chemical safety in Hungary. The national action plan and proposed amendments. Ungváry G., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.131-143. Illus. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0777.pdf

This article was presented the conference on chemical safety institution building held in Budapest, Hungary on 27-29 August 2001 (see CIS 02-776). It presents a proposal for revising the Chemical Safety Action Plan of Hungary for the years 2002-2003 by taking the following aspects into account: considering chemical safety as a strategic element of sustainable development; maintaining present chemical safety policies; coherence of chemical safety regulations; work plan of the inter-ministerial committee and its operation in accordance with the regulations; the information system of chemical safety; strengthening the authority charged with chemical safety and the establishment of an independent chemical safety inspectorate; right to chemical safety as a basic civil right; updating the national profile. (78522)

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CIS 02-778 Use of pesticides and personal protective equipment by applicators in a Kenyan district. Hanshi J.A., African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Dec. 2001, Vol.11, No.3, p.74-76. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0778.pdf

Thirty randomly-selected farmers in the Garissa district of Kenya were interviewed to assess their safe working methods with pesticides, in particular with respect to their knowledge, attitudes and practices. All participants were male, of average age 23 years. 83% had no formal education. Half of the participants had used pesticides for a period of five years or more. The most frequently-used insecticides were carbamates (53%), pyrethroids (30%) and Kelthane (organo-chlorine, 17%). Only 17% of the participants used masks, mostly improvised. Among the reasons for not wearing masks, 40% mentioned the heat and 36% the expense, while 24% were unaware of the importance of masks. 77% of the respondents had experienced illness as a result of using pesticides. (78528)

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CIS 02-779 The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos - A review. Nicholson W.J., Industrial Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.57-64. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0779.pdf

The world production of asbestos has been declining dramatically in recent years, particularly in Europe and the United States. However, increases have occurred in Asian nations and chrysotile is the dominant fibre used. Important uses are in cement products, wallboards, friction products and textiles. In a review of studies in the United States and Great Britain, chrysotile has been shown to increase the risk of lung cancer and to cause mesothelioma in exposed workers. (78556)

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CIS 02-780 The trend in airborne asbestos concentrations at plants manufacturing asbestos-containing products in Japan. Yoshizumi K., Hori H., Satoh T., Higashi T., Industrial Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.127-131. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0780.pdf

Although many countries now ban asbestos, the use of chrysotile is still permitted in Japan. The objective of this study was to evaluate the airborne asbestos concentrations in workplaces and estimate the number of related disease cases in order to discuss the possible ban of asbestos use. The survey covered 528 workplaces in 145 plants and included 2795 workers exposed to asbestos from 1985 to 1998. It was found that airborne asbestos had decreased and working conditions were much improved at all workplaces. The Japan Asbestos Association's recommended concentrations of 1.0fibre/mL in 1991 to promote further improvements of the work environment was found to be almost be technically achieved in Japan, and asbestos-related diseases can be expected to decrease over the next 20 to 30 years. (78558)

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CIS 02-781 Application of mathematical models predicting the exposure levels of vapour and gas of chemicals used at the workplace. (Japanese: Jōki-, gasu-jō kagaku busshitsu no skokugyōsei bakuru-nōdo o suitei suru sūri-moderu no ōyō) Hara K., Kumagai S., Nakaaki K., Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Nov. 2001, Vol.77, No.11, p.439-461. Illus. 53 ref. (In Japanese)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0781.pdf

The objective of this paper was to evaluate the applicability of mathematical models reported in literature for predicting exposure levels to chemicals at the workplace. The reviewed models were divided into generation models describing the evaporation or emission from sources into workplace air, and dispersion models describing dispersion through mixing, diffusion and advection. A combination of a generation model and a dispersion model was found to be the most practical for predicting exposure levels. Nine such combinations of mathematical models were considered applicable for predicting occupational exposure levels. It is suggested that future developments of models take into account probabilistic uncertainty, and that the models be validated in field and experimental studies. Detailed abstract in English. (78562)

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CIS 02-782 Occupational carbon monoxide poisoning. (French: Intoxication professionnelle par l'oxyde de carbone) Boulat J.F., Gucève L., Pelé A., Michel M.C., Prévention BTP, Dec. 2001, No.36, p.33-40. Illus. 16 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0782.pdf

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a highly dangerous gas capable of causing death in a few seconds. During 1997, there were 106 occupational accidents in France involving a loss of work time following acute CO poisoning. Contents of this review article on CO poisoning at work: definition of the hazard; conditions of exposure, in particular in the construction industry; pathophysiological mechanisms; preventive measures; trends in the number of cases of occupational diseases due to CO; French and European regulations. (78586)

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CIS 02-783 Smoking and blood cadmium concentrations in young pre-employees. Breton R.A., Vyskocil A., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.22-25. 7 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0783.pdf

Smoking is the main source of cadmium, a known human carcinogen, among young adults. The objective of this study was to determine blood and urine cadmium levels of young adults occupationally exposed to cadmium in relation to number of cigarettes smoked and sex. Data were gathered for 132 young adults (smokers and non-smokers, men and women) by means of a questionnaire and blood and urine analyses. There were no statistical differences between smokers and non-smokers in urine cadmium concentrations, whereas blood cadmium levels in young adult smokers were 11 times higher than in non-smokers. An increase in blood cadmium without any changes in urine cadmium could be explained by the accumulation of cadmium in tissues. After 20 to 40 years of smoking, and without exposure to any other source of cadmium, it is expected that smokers would reach the urinary level of 5µg/g creatinine that would warrant job reassignment away from cadmium exposure. Further thought needs to be given to reassignment policies and work practices for smokers and non-smokers with respect to cadmium exposure. (78596)

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CIS 02-784 Gender differences in blood lead and hemoglobin levels in Andean adults with chronic lead exposure. Counter S.A., Buchanan L.H., Ortega F., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.113-118. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0784.pdf

A study of the prevalence of lead (Pb) intoxication was conducted in 158 adults (67 men and 91 women) living at an altitude of 2,500-2,800 meters in Ecuadorian Andean villages with high Pb contamination from local small-scale Pb-glazing cottage industries. Venous blood samples showed mean blood lead (PbB) levels of 34.5µg/dL for men and 27.0µg/dL for women. 39% of the men had PbB levels≥ 40µg/dL, while 41% of the women had PbB levels≥ 30µg/dL (the WHO health-based biological limits). A reference group of 39 adults (24 men and 15 women) had a mean PbB level of 5.9µg/dL, significantly different from that of the 158 subjects in the study group. The difference in mean PbB levels of men (6.8µg/dL) and women (4.7µg/dL) in the reference group was significant. The mean altitude-corrected haemoglobin levels in the study group were lower than normal, 11.3g/dL for men and 10.9g/dL for women. (78610)

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CIS 02-785 JETOC information sheet. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center, JETOC Information Sheet, Apr.-Sept. 2001, No.46, p.1-45 (whole issue). (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0785.pdf

Contents of this issue: laws, regulations and related matters concerning the toxicological classification, environmental protection and exposure limitations for existing substances, and the notification of new substances in Japan, the United States, the EU, Canada, Australia and Korea; toxicological data and information of chemical substances (threshold limit values, carcinogens); new books and documents available at JETOC; activity of JETOC (meetings and seminars held in Japan in 2000-2001). (78668)

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CIS 02-786 JETOC information sheet. Japan Chemical Industry Ecology-Toxicology and Information Center, JETOC Information Sheet, Oct. 2000. - Mar. 2001, No.45, p.1-58 (whole issue). (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0786.pdf

Contents of this issue: laws, regulations and related matters concerning the toxicological classification, environmental protection and exposure limitations for existing substances, and the notification of new substances in Japan, the United States, the EU, Canada, Australia, China and Taiwan; toxicological data and information of chemical substances (reference to carcinogens cited in IARC monographs Vol. 73 and 77); new books and documents available at JETOC. (78669)

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CIS 02-787 Carcinogens, mutagens and substances toxic for reproduction - Regulatory classification. (French: Produits chimiques cancérogènes, mutagènes, toxiques pour la reproduction - Classification réglementaire) Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2168-187-02, p.5-59. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0787.pdf

This document presents the list of substances classified as carcinogenic, mutagenic and/or toxic for reproduction according to European regulations. This substances appear in Annex I of amended Directive 67/548/EEC (see CIS 92-23; it corresponds in French legislation to Annex I of the amended Ministerial Order of 20 April 1994, see CIS 95-17); this list includes all the substances mentioned in the various adaptations of this directive to technical progress. Carcinogens, mutagens and substances toxic for reproduction are classified in alphabetical order and by CAS number. The corresponding tables are preceded by definitions and classification criteria. (78671)

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CIS 02-788 Occupational exposure to lead - Analysis of the data contained in the COLCHIC database. (French: Exposition professionnelle au plomb - Analyse des résultats archivés dans la base de données COLCHIC) Vincent R., Jeandel B., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2169-187-02, p.63-72. Illus. 16 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0788.pdf

The results of 14,822 determinations in workplace air carried out since 1987 by the eight regional chemical laboratories and specialized laboratories of the French national occupational safety and health institute (INRS) for the purpose of evaluating occupational exposure to lead were recorded in a database. The analysis of this data enabled the assessment of occupational exposure to lead by sector of activity and type of occupation. Results show that despite an overall and continuous decline in the levels of exposure to lead since 1990, there are still occupations where the exposure levels are above the current French TWA exposure limits of 150µg/m3, particularly in the building and metalworking sectors. (78672)

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CIS 02-789 Sampling and quantitative analysis of acetic acid using ion chromatography - Application to the assessment of occupational exposure. (French: Prélèvement et dosage de l'acide acétique par chromatographie ionique - Application à l'évaluation de l'exposition professionnelle) Oury V., Peltier A., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2171-187-02, p.89-99. Illus. 15 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0789.pdf

This article describes a new method for the sampling and analysis of acetic acid in workplace air. It involves sample collection on a quartz fibre filter impregnated with a 5% sodium carbonate solution, followed by suppressor ion chromatography. It is easier to carry out, faster, and can be used in place of the method which was recommended until now, namely sample collection on a silica gel tube followed by analysis by size-exclusion liquid chromatography. (78674)

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CIS 02-790 Use of the micronucleus assay in the assessment of mutagenic risk: Study of ten workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. (French: Le test des micronoyaux dans l'évaluation du risque mutagène: étude auprès de 10 salariés exposés au formaldéhyde) Sari-Minodier I., Orsière T., Auquier P., Pompili J., Gelin C., Patellis C., Gazazian G., François N., Botta A., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.75-82. Illus. 17 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0790.pdf

The cytokinesis blocked micronucleus assay (CBMA) on peripheral blood lymphocytes was used to reveal cytogenetic damages after occupational exposure to formaldehyde. The occupationally exposed population consisted of ten women aged 38, while the unexposed control population consisted of 27 women aged 38 to 62. The average duration of the exposure was nine years. The micronucleated cell rates were 1.88% ±1.31 and 0.88% ±0.44 for the exposed and unexposed populations respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were determined for each micronucleated cell rate recorded. The rate corresponding to the maximal sum of sensitivity and specificity (1.3%) was associated with a high specificity (86%). This value is proposed as a biological exposure limit. (78676)

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CIS 02-791 Allergic contact dermatitis from colophonium in the sawdust of Asturian cider-bars. Álvarez-Cuesta C.C., Vázquez López F., Raya Aguado C., González López M.A., Pérez Oliva N., Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.57. 7 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0791.pdf

Case report of sensitization dermatitis in a young part-time worker, whose job was to spread saw dust on the floor of a Spanish cider bar to keep it dry. Skin tests showed a positive reaction to pine dust, which is a known source of sensitization to colophony. (78691)

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CIS 02-792 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in carpenters. Kanerva L., Leino T., Estlander T., Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.61-62. 22 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0792.pdf

Report of one case and discussion of similar cases in Finland of carpenters with occupational sensitization dermatitis. The case considered showed a positive reaction to epoxy resins. (78692)

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CIS 02-793 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from tetrahydrofurfuryl acrylate in a medical-device adhesive. Moffit D.L., Sansom J.E., Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.54. 3 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0793.pdf

Report of 2 cases of workers showing a sensitization dermatitis due to exposure to a new medical device adhesive introduced 2-3 months prior to the onset of the rush. The performed skin tests showed a positive reaction to a polyacrylate component of the adhesive. (78710)

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CIS 02-794 Pesticide warehouse safety at Bayer. Deshpande A.V., Industrial Safety Chronicle, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.XXXII, No.3, p.35-40. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0794.pdf

The safety policy and safety management system adopted by a large pesticide producer in India to ensure the minimization of hazards during warehousing are summarized. Aspects referred to include the safety training of warehouse managers, regular warehouse inspections, safety equipment in warehouses, safety information and safety audits. Check lists to be followed during safety inspections and safety audits are included. (78738)

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CIS 02-795 Occupational exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide: Complementary use of biological and environmental monitoring. (Italian: Esposizione professionale ad N,N,-dimetilformammide: complementarità del monitoraggio biologico ed ambientale) Marcelloni A.M., Panebianco A., Plebani C., Salerno A., Tranfo G., Gabrielli P., Zanin T., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.115-117. 5 ref. (In Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0795.pdf

Exposure evaluation of N,N,-dimethylformamide (DMF), used as a solvent in the garment industry. Monitoring of air contamination by DMF and urine monitoring of one of the DMF metabolites (NMF) have also been performed. Results indicate that workers are exposed to dermal and inhalation absorption of DMF, which might be responsible of gastrointestinal and nervous system diseases. (78750)

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CIS 02-796 Evaluation of a portable blood lead analyzer with occupationally exposed populations. Taylor L., Jones R.L., Kwan L., Deddens J.A., Ashley K., Sanderson W.T., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.354-362. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0796.pdf

A portable electro-analytical instrument for blood lead determination was evaluated. Samples were obtained from 208 lead-exposed employees who donated two venous blood samples into lead-free evacuated tubes. One blood sample was analysed onsite using the portable field instrument while the second sample was analysed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). According to GFAAS results, employee venous blood lead levels ranged from 1µg/dL to 42µg/dL. The mean difference between the results from the field instrument and GFAAS was less than 1µg/dL. Within the blood range evaluated, the instrument performed adequately according to Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendments (CLIA) proficiency requirements. The ability of the instrument to perform rapid analysis makes it potentially valuable to occupational health professionals for medical monitoring or onsite investigations. (78752)

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CIS 02-797 Personal exposure to formaldehyde in laboratories. Dingle P., Tan R., Jones J., White K., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.161-165. 15 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0797.pdf

There has been little research on the spatial distribution of formaldehyde in work environments and its relationship to personal exposure monitoring. The purpose of this study was to determine personal exposure in five laboratories where formaldehyde was used for tissue preservation, and to examine the relationship between fixed monitoring of formaldehyde and personal exposure in high-exposure occupational situations. It was found that fixed monitoring of formaldehyde was a good predictor of personal exposure and that one or two monitoring locations were adequate. However, depending on the worker's activity, stationary monitors may under-predict actual formaldehyde exposure. Significant levels of formaldehyde were found to infiltrate rooms or offices adjacent to the laboratories. This is of concern because people working on office tasks for extended periods may not take precautionary measures (such as wearing respiratory equipment). (78772)

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CIS 02-798 Cement burns: A review 1960-2000. Spoo J., Elsner P., Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2001, Vol.45, No.2, p.68-71. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0798.pdf

The literature on cement burns of the skin published during the last 4 decades is reviewed. 51 case reports were analysed with special regard to common modes of injury, localization of cement exposure, preventive measures taken and treatment. Cement burns are occupational injuries, but they also involve consumers during do-it-yourself work. In 49% of the cases, no attempt to protect the skin had been made. The majority of injuries were located on the lower legs and knees. Full-thickness burns were reported in 66% of cases. Surgery had to be performed in 34% of the cases. Cement burns can be avoided by adequate skin protection (boots, work trousers, gloves). Although acute cement injuries may seem rare, prospective studies should be carried out for correct estimation of prevalence. The need for information on the harmful properties of cement in the occupational as well as domestic environment is emphasized. (78361)

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CIS 02-799 Occupational dermatitis in dental personnel: Contact dermatitis with special reference to (meth)acrylates in 174 patients. Wrangsjö K., Swartling C., Meding B., Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2001, Vol.45, No.3, p.158-163. 21 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0799.pdf

Between 1995 and 1998, 174 dental personnel were referred as patients to the Department of Occupational and Environmental Dermatology, Stockholm. Hand eczema was diagnosed in 109 patients. 77 had positive reactions to substances in the standard series and 44 to substances exclusive to the dental series. 24 patients had positive reactions to (meth)acrylates, the majority with reactions to several test preparations. The most frequent allergens besides (meth)acrylates were nickel, cobalt, palladium, fragrance mix, colophonium and thiuram mix. Allergy to natural rubber latex was diagnosed in 14 patients. In conclusion, irritant hand dermatitis was the dominant diagnosis. Contact allergy to (meth)acrylate was seen in 22% of the patch tested patients, with reactions to 3 predominant test substances. (78363)

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CIS 02-800 Allergic contact dermatitis from a perinone-type dye C.I. Solvent Red 179 in spectacle frames. Tsunoda T., Kaniwa M.A., Shono M., Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2001, Vol.45, No.3, p.166-167. Illus. 1 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0800.pdf

A 61-year-old Japanese woman developed itchy scaly erythema over the ears where the earpieces of her spectacle frames touched. She had worn the spectacles for 2 years and the eruption appeared after 1 year. She showed a positive patch test reaction to scrapings of red-violet earpieces. Her skin lesions subsided after she changed the red-violet earpieces to colorless ones. She had no history of contact allergy to hair dyes, plastics or other spectacles. According to the producer of spectacles, components of the coloring agent were Solvent Red 179 and 151. Further patch tests were performed with the coloring agent and dyes. Positive reactions were obtained to Solvent Red 179 and Solvent Orange 60. She was negative to Solvent Red 151. (78364)

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CIS 02-801 Exposure to organic solvents and personality. Chen R., Dick F., Semple S., Seaton A., Walker L.G., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.14-18. 22 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0801.pdf

To study the effects of exposure to solvents on personality, 260 male dockyard painters in the United Kingdom, 539 local community controls, 109 Chinese dockyard painters, and 255 dockyard controls completed the personality questionnaires. Both British and Chinese data showed that mean neuroticism scores of painters were significantly higher than those of controls, whereas scores of social conformity did not differ. The relative risk of being a painter increased significantly with increasing neuroticism (N) scores, but social conformity or dissimulation (L) scores showed no such trend. In a case-control analysis, there were significant exposure response relations for the N score. Neuroticism was significantly positively related to neuropsychological symptoms in all subjects. Social conformity showed no association with neuropsychological symptoms in British painters and a negative relation among the Chinese painters. (78365)

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CIS 02-802 Evaluation of a modified German version of the Q16 questionnaire for neurotoxic symptoms in workers exposed to solvents. Ihrig A., Triebig G., Dietz M.C., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.19-23. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0802.pdf

1166 self-administered questionnaires for neurotoxic symptoms consisting of 18 questions (Q18) were completed by adults belonging to the following groups: 483 workers with occupational exposure to solvents and 193 non-exposed controls, 25 patients with a psycho-organic syndrome, 25 sex- and age-matched patients with lung disease, and a sample of 440 people from the general population. Results indicate that workers exposed to solvents reported significantly more complaints than controls (2.9 v 2.5). All patients with a psycho-organic syndrome had five or more complaints. This was true for only 32% of patients with lung disease. These comparisons showed that chronic exposure to solvents was associated with subjective complaints related particularly to cognitive functions. In the sample of the general population, age, education level and smoking habits showed no significant influence on the Q18 result. Women had significantly more complaints than men (3.2 v 2.3). The German Q18 showed an acceptable sensitivity, reliability and specificity, and is easy to apply in practice. (78366)

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CIS 02-803 Crystalline silica exposure and lung cancer mortality in diatomaceous earth industry workers: A quantitative risk assessment. Rice F.L., Park R., Stayner L., Smith R., Gilbert S., Checkoway H., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.38-45. Illus. 43 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0803.pdf

Data from a cohort mortality study of 2342 white male California diatomaceous earth mining and processing workers exposed to crystalline silica dust (mainly cristobalite) were analyzed using different exposure-response models. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was a significant predictor in nearly all of the models evaluated and the linear relative rate model with a 10-year exposure lag seemed to give the best fit in the Poisson regression analysis. For those who died of lung cancer, the linear relative rate model predicted rate ratios for mortality from lung cancer of about 1.6 for the mean cumulative exposure to respirable silica compared with no exposure. Results show that a male worker exposed to 0.05mg/m3 of respirable silica dust containing cristobalite over a 45 year working lifetime has an increase in lifetime risk of lung cancer of about 2%. The predicted number of deaths from lung cancer suggests that current occupational health standards may not be adequately protecting workers from the risk of lung cancer. (78368)

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CIS 02-804 Outdoor exposure to airborne polycyclic organic matter and adverse reproductive outcomes: A pilot study. Vassilev Z.P., Robson M.G., Klotz J.B., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.255-262. 21 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0804.pdf

To investigate the association between outdoor airborne polycyclic organic matter (POM) and adverse reproductive outcomes in New Jersey, a cross-sectional design combining U.S. air quality data and individual data on pregnancy outcomes from birth and foetal death certificates at the census tract level were used. After excluding plural births and chromosomal anomalies, 221,406 live births and 1,591 foetal deaths registered during the years of 1990 and 1991 were included. The exposure estimates were derived from modeled average POM concentrations for each census tract in the state. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios (OR) for very low birth weight for the highest exposure compared to the lowest exposure group was 1.31; high POM exposure was associated with low birth weight (OR = 1.31) among term births, with foetal death (OR = 1.19) and with premature birth (OR = 1.25). In conclusion, this study found associations between outdoor exposure to modeled average airborne POM and several adverse pregnancy outcomes. (78373)

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CIS 02-805 Meta-analysis of systemic sclerosis and exposure to solvents. Aryal B.K., Khuder S.A., Schaub E.A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.271-274. 25 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0805.pdf

Although systemic sclerosis is a rare disease, incidence rates have increased recently in the United States. This study investigated the association between systemic sclerosis and exposure to solvents. A Medline search of articles published between 1966 and 2000 dealing with solvent exposure and systemic sclerosis identified eight studies that met inclusion criteria of the meta-analysis. The studies included seven case-control studies and one cohort study published between 1989 and 1998. A series of meta-analyses of studies on systemic sclerosis and solvent exposure were performed for all studies and for the subset of case-control studies. A random effect model was used to calculate a combined estimator of relative risk. The combined estimator of relative risk for all studies was 2.91. The combined estimator of relative risk for the seven case-control studies was 3.14. In conclusion, a statistically significant increased relative risk for all studies and for case-control studies suggests that exposure to organic solvent may be a risk factor for developing systemic sclerosis. (78375)

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CIS 02-806 A cohort mortality study and nested case-control study of French and Austrian talc workers. Wild P., Leodolter K., Réfrégier M., Schmidt H., Zidek T., Haidinger G., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.59, No.2, p.98-105. 29 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0806.pdf

The mortality of two historical cohorts comprised of male subjects who had worked for at least one year in talc producing companies in France and Austria was compared with local death rates. Case-control studies focusing on respiratory diseases were set up to estimate possible dose-response relations with estimated cumulative exposure to talc dust. Mortality from lung cancer was in small excess in both cohorts (France, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) 1.23, 21 cases observed, Austria SMR 1.06, seven cases observed). The case-control study of non-malignant respiratory disease showed an increased mortality in the highest exposure groups (odds ratio (OR) 2.5 for a cumulative exposure ≥800 year.mg/m3) with a significant trend (OR/100 y.mg/m3 1.08) with cumulative exposure to talc. However, no increasing trend could be found in the case-control study of lung cancer. Adjustment for smoking and exposure to quartz had no significant influence on the results. (78389)

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CIS 02-807 The epidemiology of organophosphate poisoning in urban Zimbabwe from 1995 to 2000. Dong X., Simon M.A., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.333-338. Illus. 52 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0807.pdf

A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted to determine the trends in admissions for organophosphate poisonings in an urban Zimbabwe hospital from 1995 to 2000. Variables such as sex, age, season, geographic area, and intent (suicidal or accidental) were examined. 599 cases of organophosphate poisoning were recorded. Organophosphate poisonings increased by 320% over the six years. The male and female admission rates were similar (48% compared to 52%); 82% of the patients were less than 31 years old. Suicide was the predominant reason for poisoning (74%). Of admissions of children under the age of ten, 62% were due to accidental ingestion. Mortality from organophosphate poisonings was 8.3% over the six years. (78410)

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CIS 02-808 Effects of exposure to organic solvents on menstrual cycle length. Cho S.I., Damokosh A.I., Ryan L.M., Chen D., Hu Y.A., Smith T.J., Christiani D.C., Xu X., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.567-575. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0808.pdf

To investigate the association between organic solvent exposure and menstrual disturbance, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 1408 women petrochemical workers in China. The workplaces were classified according to the presence or absence of organic solvents (benzene, styrene, toluene or xylene). Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for oligomenorrhoea (average cycle length >35 days during the previous year) associated with the exposure. After adjustment for confounders, each additional year of work in an exposed workshop was associated with a 7% increase in oligomenorrhoea (odds ratio 1.07). Compared with no exposure, 3 or more years of exposure was associated with a 53% increase in oligomenorrhoea (odds ratio 1.53). It was concluded that exposure to organic solvents is associated with a trend toward increased frequency of oligomenorrhoea. (78435)

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CIS 02-809 Exposure to lead and male fertility. Sallmén M., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.14, No.3, p.219-222. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0809.pdf

This literature review summarizes the epidemiological evidence for the effects of inorganic lead on male fertility. Blood lead measurements were applied to exposure assessment in all the studies. The results of the studies on fertility rates are consistent in showing an association between lead and reduced fertility. Also, there seems to be a tendency towards stronger association at older age with increasing duration of exposure. The studies conducted suggest that male exposure to lead may be associated with delayed conception. There are a number of mechanisms by which exposure to lead may reduce male fertility. On the basis of animal studies, alterations in sperm chromatin stability or epigenetic effects may be the most probable mechanisms involved at low exposure level. (78449)

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CIS 02-810 Mortality pattern in the cohort of workers exposed to carbon disulfide. Pepłońska B., Sobala W., Szeszenia-Dąbrowska N., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, July-Sep. 2001, Vol.14, No.3, p.267-274. 29 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0810.pdf

To assess the mortality of workers at a viscose factory exposed to carbon disulfide, 2762 male workers employed for at least one year between 1950 and 1985 were enrolled into the study. Total mortality in the cohort was higher than in the general male population in Poland (SMR = 108). A significantly increased risk of deaths was observed for all cardiovascular (SMR = 114) and cerebrovascular (SMR = 208) diseases. Analyses showed a significantly elevated risk of death from the circulatory system diseases in the men of the "highly exposed" group (those employed in the spinning department or first employed before 1974). A statistically-significant trend of mortality from all cardiovascular diseases in relation to the level of exposure (assessed qualitatively) was evident. No clear relationship between duration of exposure and the risk of death was found. (78450)

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CIS 02-811 Human cancer risk and exposure to 1,3-butadiene - A tale of mice and men. Stayner L.T., Dankovic D.A., Smith R.J., Gilbert S.J., Bailer A.J., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.322-330. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0811.pdf

The purpose of this study was to evaluate empirically the relevance of animal-bioassay-based models for predicting human risks from exposure to 1,3-butadiene (BD) using epidemiological data. Relative-risk results obtained with a regression model in a recent epidemiological study were used to estimate leukaemia risk for occupational and environmental exposures to BD and to compare these estimates with those previously derived from an analysis of animal bioassay data. The estimates of risk were found to be highly dependent on the model used when low levels of exposure were evaluated that are of environmental concern, but not at the levels of occupational concern. (78504)

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CIS 02-812 Failure to confirm neurotoxic impairment using cerebral magnetic resonance imaging on solvent-exposed workers. Aaserud O., Nakstad P.H., Bakke S.J., Reinvang I., Borchgrevink H.M., Lie V., Malt U.F., Gjerstad L., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.346-352. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0812.pdf

The purpose of this study was to assess signs of nervous system impairment by cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) among workers with long-term exposure to mixtures of organic solvents. 36 workers with at least 10 years of occupational exposure to solvents and pair-matched referents with no former solvent exposure went through a blind, random-order investigation of cerebral MRI. Linear measurements of the MRI tomograms showed a slight tendency toward wider ventricles and broader cortical sulci in the reference group. The MRI findings of this study do not support the hypothesis that long-term low-level occupational exposure to organic solvents results in the development of brain atrophy, or specific MRI signal changes in the region of the basal ganglia and thalami. (78506)

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CIS 02-813 Solvent use and time to pregnancy among female personnel in biomedical laboratories in Sweden. Wennborg H., Bodin L., Vainio H., Axelsson G., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.58, No.4, p.225-231. Illus. 37 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0813.pdf

To elucidate possible effects on fecundity of chemical, biological, and physical agents in laboratories, a retrospective study based on a questionnaire was conducted among female personnel who worked in Swedish biomedical research laboratories. Female personnel in non-laboratory departments were used as a reference group. 560 women were included in the analyses, corresponding to 2519 menstrual cycles. These women had given birth at least once between 1990 and 1994. Time to pregnancy was used to estimate the fecundability, namely the probability of conception of a clinically detectable pregnancy per cycle. The fecundability ratio (FR) between exposed and unexposed cycles was calculated with an analogue of the Cox's model. The FR estimates below unity indicate sub-fecundity. Work with organic solvents in general in laboratory work, gave a decreased adjusted FR of 0.79. Moreover, work with acetone and handling viruses also showed decreased FRs of 0.72 and 0.66 respectively. (78518)

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CIS 02-814 Association between occupation and contact allergy to the fragrance mix: A multifactorial analysis of national surveillance data. Uter W., Schnuch A., Geier J., Pfahlberg A., Gefeller O., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.58, No.6, p.392-398. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0814.pdf

To assess the role of occupational risk factors for fragrance contact allergy (FCA), data from all 57,779 patch-tested patients in the centres of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology between January 1992 and December 1998 were analysed. It was found that the proportion of patients with FCA varied greatly between different occupational groups from 2.5% to 17.4%, the highest occupational risk of FCA beeing associated with work as a masseur or physiotherapist, foundry operator, potter or glass worker, or geriatric nurse. Non-occupational factors that influenced risk of FCA included atopy, female sex, several sites, in particular the axillae, and age. Occupations with a high risk of FCA were identified as targets of preventive action, namely the substitution of scented products with fragrance-free substances such as skin disinfectants, cleaning solutions or personal care products. (78533)

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CIS 02-815 Abnormal liver function associated with occupational exposure to dimethylformamide and hepatitis B virus. Luo J.C., Kuo H.W., Cheng T.J., Chang M.J.W., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.474-482. 29 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0815.pdf

N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) has excellent solvent properties and is used intensively in the production of synthetic leather and resins. It has caused hepatoxicity in human and animal studies. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus infections are reported to be the major causes of chronic liver diseases (including liver cirrhosis and liver cancer) in Taiwan. This study examined the dose-response relationship of the observed abnormal liver function among the DMF-exposed workers and the interactions among DMF, other chemical exposures, HBV infection, and potential confounders on liver abnormalities. It was observed that a significant dose-response relationship existed between liver function abnormalities and DMF exposure among workers in Taiwan, and that HBV carrier status or increased BMI had synergistic effects with DMF exposure in causing liver abnormalities (abnormal liver function tests and clinical chronic liver diseases). (78539)

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CIS 02-816 Asbestos-related lung cancer and mesothelioma in Japan. Morinaga K., Kishimoto T., Sakatani M., Akira M., Yokoyama K., Sera Y., Industrial Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.65-74. Illus. 63 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0816.pdf

In Japan, crocidolite used to be used for asbestos cement pipes, and amosite was used for building boards; both types were used in spraying applications. The use of these two types of asbestos was discontinued in Japan in the late 1970s. A strong increase in asbestos imports was observed between 1960 (77,000 tons) and 1974 (352,316 tons). This rise in imports correlates well with the recent rapid increase in mortality from malignant pleural mesothelioma. Between 1995 and 1999, the estimated mean annual deaths from pleural mesothelioma was about 500. The annual number of compensated occupational respiratory cancers due to asbestos exposure has also been increasing. Up to the end of March 2000, 162 cases with malignant mesothelioma and 197 cases with lung cancer were compensated. The smoking rate among males in Japan is still over 50%, so lung cancer deaths caused by the interaction between smoking and asbestos exposure are likely to continue. (78557)

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CIS 02-817 Asbestos exposure in malignant mesothelioma of the pleura: A survey of 557 cases. Bianchi C., Brollo A., Ramani L., Bianchi T., Giarelli L., Industrial Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.39, No.2, p.161-167. 32 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0817.pdf

A series of 557 cases of malignant pleural mesothelioma diagnosed in the Trieste-Monfalcone area, Italy, in the period 1968-2000 was reviewed. The cases included 492 men and 65 women, aged between 32 and 93 years. Necropsy findings were available in 456 cases (82%). Occupational histories were obtained from the patients or their relatives. Routine lung sections were examined for asbestos bodies in 442 cases. In 109 cases isolation and counting of asbestos bodies were performed. A majority of people had histories of working in shipyards. Asbestos bodies were observed in lung sections in 67% of the cases. Latency periods (time intervals between first exposure to asbestos and death) ranged between 14 and 75 years. Latency periods among insulators and dock workers were shorter than among the other categories. High asbestos consumption occurred in many countries in the 1960s and in the 1970s. The data on latency periods obtained in the present study suggest that a world mesothelioma epidemic is to be expected in the coming decades. (78559)

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CIS 02-818 Occupational latex contact urticaria in non-health-care occupations. Murphy R., Gawkrodger D.J., Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 2000, Vol.43, No.2, p.111. 6 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0818.pdf

Three case reports of latex contact urticaria are presented, involving workers in non-health-care occupations: a ceramic tiler, a car cleaner and a automobile mechanic. All three wore gloves at work. All tested positive to natural latex rubber patch and prick tests. (78602)

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CIS 02-819 Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a battery-factory worker exposed to cadmium. Bar-Sela S., Reingold S., Richter E.D., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.109-112. 49 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0819.pdf

A 44-year-old patient died from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) after nine years of heavy exposure to cadmium (Cd) in a nickel-cadmium battery plant. Two years after starting work, he and co-workers had experienced pruritus, loss of smell, nasal congestion, nosebleeds, cough, shortness of breath, severe headaches, bone pain, and proteinuria. Upper back pain and muscle weakness progressed to flaccid paralysis. EMG findings were consistent with motor neuron disease. Cd impairs the blood-brain barrier, reduces levels of brain copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and enhances glutamate uptake in glial cells. High levels of methallothionein, a sign of exposure to heavy metals, have been found in brain tissue of deceased ALS patients. The effects of Cd on enzyme systems that mediate neurotoxicity and motor neuron disease suggest a relationship between Cd and ALS in this worker. (78609)

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CIS 02-820 Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians. Lee J.Y., Yoo J.M., Cho B.K., Kim H.O., Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.13-16. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0820.pdf

This study investigated the frequency, characteristics and causative factors of contact dermatitis in 49 Korean dental technicians. 22 (44.9%) subjects had contact dermatitis, present or past, and the site involved was the hand for all of them. Metals, including potassium dichromate (24.5%), nickel sulfate (18.4%), mercury ammonium chloride (16.3%), cobalt chloride (12.2%) and palladium chloride (10.2%), showed high positive rates in patch test results. 7 positive reactions to the various polyacrylates were found in 3 subjects. (78707)

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CIS 02-821 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from N,N-bis(3-aminopropyl)dodecylamine and dimethyldidecylammonium chloride in 2 hospital staff. Dibo M., Brasch J., Contact Dermatitis, July 2001, Vol.45, No.1, p.40. 3 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0821.pdf

A case study of 2 nurses developing eczema on their hands and arms after contact with a new disinfectant containing quaternary ammonium compounds. After changing their workplace, the nurses recovered. (78709)

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CIS 02-822 Adverse effects of gasoline on the skin of exposed workers. Jia X., Xiao P., Shen G., Wang X., Jin T., Nordberg G., Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2002, Vol.46, No.1, p.44-47. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0822.pdf

Gasoline is widely used as a cleaning solvent in industry. Its effects on the skin were studied in 52 exposed workers and 52 control subjects in the clothing industry (all women). Information about general conditions, history of dermatosis and changes in skin after exposure to gasoline was obtained through interviews. Ceramide, fatty acid and cholesterol collected on the last working day before the weekend from the backs of the hands were analysed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography. The results showed that prevalences of hyperkeratosis, dryness, onychosis and dermatitis were clearly higher in exposed workers than in the control group, prevalence ratios being 3.33, 3.00, 11.25 and 5.00, respectively. Fissures and onychorrhexis were the common symptoms in exposed workers. The stratum corneum lipid levels of ceramide, fatty acid and cholesterol were significantly lower in the exposed group than in the control group. (78723)

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CIS 02-823 Natural rubber latex-related occupational asthma: Association with interventions and glove changes over time. Liss G.M., Tarlo S.M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.347-353. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0823.pdf

Until 1999, there were 60 compensated claims for occupational asthma following exposure to latex in the Canadian province of Ontario. Of these, 49 were among health care workers (HCWs). The number of claims among HCWs varied between zero and two per year up to 1990, increased to between seven and eleven per year from 1991 to 1994 and declined to three per year in 1995-1996 and to between one and two per year in 1997-1999. In eight of the ten institutions having two or more occupational asthma latex claims, all claims occurred in 1996 or earlier. At the largest hospital, there were five accepted claims between 1993 and 1995. These findings suggest that despite the effect of increasing recognition of latex-related occupational asthma, the introduction of gloves with reduced powder or protein, and other interventions have resulted in actual declines the number of cases. (78751)

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CIS 02-824 Neurobehavioral disturbances arising from occupational exposure to toluene. Chouanière D., Wild P., Fontana J.M., Héry M., Fournier M., Baudin V., Subra I., Rousselle D., Toamain J.P., Saurin S., Ardiot M.R., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.77-88. 39 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0824.pdf

The current eight-hour time-weighted threshold limit value for toluene in France is 100ppm. However, neurotoxicity resulting from long-term exposure to levels below 50ppm is suspected. A cross-sectional study was carried out in two printing plants on 129 blue collar workers to explore the effects of low levels of toluene exposure. With 231 samples of ambient air, toluene concentration was estimated from 0 to 18ppm in Plant A (offset) and from 2 to 27ppm in Plant B (heliogravure). The workers also answered a self-administered questionnaire on neurotoxic symptoms, and performed psychometric tests on a computer-assisted version of the Neurobehavioural Evaluation System (NES) battery. Significant relationships were found only between present exposure and Digit Span Forwards performance and Digit Span Backwards performance. No other association was found between estimated cumulative exposure and either psychometric performances or neurotoxic symptoms. (78766)

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CIS 02-825 The exposure-time-response relationship between occupational asbestos exposure and lung cancer in two German case-control studies. Hauptmann M., Pohlabeln H., Lubin J.H., Jöckel K.H., Ahrens W., Brüske-Hohlfeld I., Wichmann H.E., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.89-97. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0825.pdf

Numerous studies have been carried out to evaluate the association between lung cancer and occupational asbestos exposure. However, data are lacking on the effects of timing of the exposure. Two German case-control studies with data on occupational asbestos exposure histories were pooled. Duration of work in jobs with potential exposure to asbestos, derived exposure measures and the time lapsed since the last exposure were analyzed. The odds ratios (OR) were 1.8 and 2.4 for subjects having worked for 3 to 7 years and 8 or more years, respectively, in a job with potential asbestos exposure compared to those never exposed. Based on an evaluation of time since last exposure, the OR decreased significantly to about one half after more than 20 years since the exposure ceased. In contrast to previous indications, this study indicates that the risk of lung cancer increases soon after asbestos exposure, with its maximum effect from 10 to 15 years after the exposure was initiated. (78767)

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CIS 02-826 Health effects of environmental tobacco smoke. Zitting A., Husgafvel-Pursiainen K., eds., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 2002, Vol.28, Suppl.2, p.3-96 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0826.pdf

Collection of articles on the health effects of passive smoking, covering the following topics: passive smoking exposure in Finland in 2000; long-term trends in occupational and non-occupational passive smoking exposure in Finland; biomarkers for the assessment of passive smoking exposure; passive smoking and risk of lung cancer risk; passive smoking and risk of cardiovascular disease; effects of passive smoking on the respiratory health of adults; effects of passive smoking on the respiratory health of children; effects of passive smoking on reproductive health. (78778)

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CIS 02-827 Biological monitoring of exposure to chemical contaminants in industrial hygiene. (Spanish: Control biológico de la exposición a contaminantes químicos en higiene industrial) Periago Jiménez J.F., Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.18, p.4-15. Illus. 40 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0827.pdf

Ambient chemicals determined in biological fluids that were collected from exposed workers are indicative of internal doses. This review article enumerates the occupational hygiene aspects that need to be taken into consideration when implementing a biological monitoring programme. Contents: the different types of biological markers; biological fluids to be analysed (blood, urine, exhaled air); sampling strategy; sample preparation and analytical techniques; interpretation of results; reference limit values (American Biological Exposure Index (BEI), German exposure index (BAT), biological limit values (BLV)). Chemicals for which limit values have been established are presented in a table, mentioning the nature of the marker (non-metabolized substance or metabolite) and the biological fluid to be analysed. (78828)

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CIS 02-828 Dose-response relationship between low levels of asbestos and pleural mesothelioma - Population-based case-control study in France. (French: Relation dose-effet entre faibles niveaux d'exposition à l'amiante et mésothéliome pleural - Etude cas-témoins en population générale française) Iwatsubo Y., Pairon J.C., Boutin C., Menard O., Massin N., Caillaud D., Orlowski E., Galateau-Salle F., Bignon J., Brochard P., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.7-16. 52 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0828.pdf

The relationship between prior occupational exposure to asbestos and pleural mesothelioma was studied in 405 cases and 387 controls among hospital patients between 1987 and 1993. Exposure to asbestos fibres was evaluated by a group of experts in terms of the probability, intensity and frequency of exposure. Among men, the odds ratio (OR) increased with probability of exposure from 1.2 for possible exposure to 3.6 for cases where exposure was certain. A dose-effect relationship was observed with the cumulative exposure index: the OR increased from 1.2 for the least-exposed category to 8.7 for the most-exposed category. Among women, the OR was 18.8 for cases where exposure was possible or certain. This study enabled the highlighting of a clear relationship between cumulative exposure to asbestos and pleural mesothelioma. A significant excess of mesothelioma was observed for exposure levels that were probably far below the limits adopted by most industrialized countries during the 1980s. (78835)

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CIS 02-829 Paraquat in developing countries. Wesseling C., van Wendel de Joode B., Ruepert C., León C., Monge P., Hermosillo H., Partanen T.J., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.275-286. Illus. 117 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0829.pdf

The herbicide paraquat is considered safe by industry and most regulatory bodies worldwide. This may not be the case, however, under the conditions of exposure which persist in developing countries. Little is known about systemic absorption from occupational exposures. The relationships between exposure conditions, levels of external exposure, biomarkers of exposure, and outcomes are not clear. High rates of severe acute poisonings have been documented. In addition, topical injuries occur in as many as 50% of exposed workers. Non-worker populations are also at risk, particularly children. Long-term and delayed health effects include Parkinson's disease, lung effects, and skin cancer. Independent risk assessment in the developing-country context and application of the precautionary principle are necessary to prevent adverse effects of dangerous pesticides in susceptible populations. (78404)

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CIS 02-830 Hazardous pesticides in Central America. Wesseling C., Aragón A., Castillo L., Corriols M., Chaverri F., de la Cruz E., Keifer M., Monge P., Partanen T.J., Ruepert C., van Wendel de Joode B., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.287-294. Illus. 72 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0830.pdf

The use of pesticides in Central America increased significantly between 1985 and 1999. Exposure levels are high, and acute poisonings remain a severe problem. Delayed and long-lasting health effects include dermatoses, cancer, and genotoxic, neurotoxic, and respiratory effects. Regulation based on local working conditions data is lacking. The most effective way to reduce risk is to greatly reduce pesticide use. Actions needed include: developing multidisciplinary strategies for local studies on health and environmental impact of pesticides; developing sustainable non-chemical agricultural technologies; evaluating the effectiveness of programmes; extending and sharing expertise within the region; strengthening unions and communities; redefining the role of industry toward development of safer products, with responsible marketing and reliable information. (78405)

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CIS 02-831 Pests, peasants and pesticides on the Northern Nicaraguan Pacific plain. Aragón A., Aragón C., Thörn Å., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.295-302. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0831.pdf

The objective of this study was to explore possible reasons for dangerous work practices during pesticide handling among small-scale farmers in the Pacific plain of Nicaragua. Areas of focus included personal protective equipment, information and farmers' perceptions with respect to their crops, the economy, pests, and pesticide hazards. Factors such as poverty, the inadequacy of protective devices and environmental factors were found to lead to dangerous work practices. Cultural factors also affected the farmers' attitudes in ways that favored hazardous work procedures. This finding, which had not been anticipated, has important practical implications. To be effective, the design, language, execution and materials of education and training courses on occupational health should be culturally relevant and appropriate. (78406)

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CIS 02-832 Pesticide-related illness among migrant farm workers in the United States. Das R., Steege A., Baron S., Beckman J., Harrison R., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.303-312. 79 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0832.pdf

Medical surveillance data show that pesticide-related illness is an important cause of acute morbidity among migrant farm workers in California. A few categories (organophosphates, carbamates, inorganic compounds, and pyrethroids) account for over half of the cases of acute illness. Skin effects dominate the illnesses, although ocular and systemic effects are also common. Pesticide hazards should be ranked based on acute toxicity, chronic toxicity (including reproductive risks), carcinogenic potency, volume applied, and magnitude of worker poisonings. Risk prevention should focus on substitution of safer compounds, establishing effective protections, and ensuring that these measures are enforced. Improved education for health care providers should be a priority. Growers should be educated about alternative forms of pest control and incentives should be provided to encourage their use. (78407)

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CIS 02-833 Pesticide exposures among Hmong farmers in Thailand. Kunstadter P., Prapamontol T., Sirirojn B.O., Sontirat A., Tansuhaj A., Khamboonruang C., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.313-325. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0833.pdf

Farmers of the Hmong ethnic minority in Thailand have abandoned shifting cultivation of subsistence crops and turned to chemical-intensive cultivation of permanent field cash crops. Three Hmong communities were studied. Most study participants applied chemicals, primarily to control insects, weeds, and fungus, by backpack and machine sprays and by hand. Hmong women have less Thai language skill than men and less information concerning hazards of exposure or use of protective clothing. Most Hmong know of the health hazards, but many fail to use adequate protective clothing to prevent exposure. Screening revealed a high proportion of Hmong adults with unsafe levels of cholinesterase inhibition, an indicator of exposure to organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. Exposure rates were as high among those not directly applying pesticides, suggesting that exposure also occurs by other routes. (78408)

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CIS 02-834 Pesticide-handling practices in agriculture in Tanzania: Observational data from 27 coffee and cotton farms. Ngowi A.V.F., Maeda D.N., Wesseling C., Partanen T.J., Sanga M.P., Mbise G., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Oct.-Dec. 2001, Vol.7, No.4, p.326-332. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0834.pdf

The practices of pesticide handling in agriculture were surveyed in 1991-1993 in Tanzania. The study involved 23 coffee farms with 246 persons exposed to hazardous practices, and four cotton farms with 45 exposed. A greater variety of pesticide formulations were used for coffee than for cotton, and by individual rather than cooperative farms. Coffee farms more often had unlabelled pesticide containers and missing mixing instructions. Cotton pesticides were found to be stored in bedrooms, near food and near open fires. Hazardous practices were more pronounced on individual than cooperative farms, with significant differences in pesticide storage areas, as well as in the use of unlabelled and non-original containers. The study demonstrated the need to train farmers in pesticide safety, strengthen advisory and regulatory services, and extend protection to farm workers' families. (78409)

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CIS 02-835 Pesticide-related illness and injuries among banana workers in Costa Rica: A comparison between 1993 and 1996. Wesseling C., Van Wendel de Joode B., Monge P., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.90-97. 25 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0835.pdf

Reported occupational injuries and illness among banana workers in Costa Rica during 1993 and 1996 were analysed. Between 1993 and 1996, an overall 35% decrease in injuries was observed, attributable to a marked decline in topical injuries (3.3 compared to 1.9 per 100 workers), whereas systemic poisonings remained the same (0.7 per 100 in both years). In both years, paraquat was the pesticide most frequently associated with injuries, mostly skin and eye lesions. Workers at highest risk per unit time of exposure were nematocide applicators, herbicide applicators, and cleaners of packing plants. Despite control measures, further reduction of systemic illness had not been achieved. The decrease of topical injuries may be partly explained by improved work conditions, but possible underreporting hinders interpretation. (78607)

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CIS 02-836 Exposure to silica and silicosis among tin miners in China: Exposure-response analyses and risk assessment. Chen W., Zhuang Z., Attfield M.D., Chen B.T., Gao P., Harrison J.C., Fu C., Chen J.Q., Wallace W.E., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0836.pdf

A cohort study of 3010 miners exposed to silica dust and employed for at least 1 year during 1960-5 in one of four Chinese tin mines was conducted. There were 1015 miners identified with silicosis. Among these, 684 developed silicosis after exposure ended (a mean of 3.7 years after). The risk of silicosis was strongly related to cumulative exposure to silica dust, with the risk of silicosis less than 0.1% when the Chinese measure of cumulative exposure to total dust (CTD) was under 10mg/m3-years (or 0.36mg/m3-years of respirable crystalline silica), increasing to 68.7% when CTD exposure was 150mg/m3-years (or 5.4mg/m3-years of respirable crystalline silica). Latency period was not correlated to the risk of silicosis or cumulative dose of exposure. This study predicts an approximate cumulative risk of silicosis of 36% for a 45 year lifetime exposure to these tin mine dusts at the CTD exposure standard of 2mg/m3, and a 55% risk at 45 years exposure to the current United States standards of 0.1mg/m3 100% respirable crystalline silica dust. (78367)

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CIS 02-837 Radiographic abnormalities in long-tenure Vermont granite workers and the permissible exposure limit for crystalline silica. Graham W.G.B., Vacek P.M., Morgan W.K.C., Muir D.C.F., Sisco-Cheng B., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.43, No.4, p.412-417. 15 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0837.pdf

To study the prevalence of radiographic abnormalities among retired granite workers, 408 x-ray films were examined. Dust exposures were estimated for workers hired after 1940, when the dust-control standard of 10 million particles per cubic foot (equivalent to 0.1mg/m3) was put in place. Dust levels were gradually reduced from 1940 to 1954, after which average quartz exposures stabilized to average approximately 0.05 to 0.06mg/m3; however, about 10% to 15% of samples after 1954 exceeded 0.1mg/m3. Of the 408 x-ray films, 58 were taken on workers hired before 1940, and 25.9% showed abnormalities. 350 x-ray films were taken on workers hired in 1940 or after, and the prevalence in this group was 5.7%. The radiographic changes in workers hired after 1940 are likely to be due to excessive exposures during the first 15 years of dust control. It is concluded that if the exposure standard of 0.1mg/m3 is rigorously observed in the workplace, radiographic abnormalities caused by quartz dust in long-term workers will be rare. (78517)

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CIS 02-838 Risk of mesothelioma from exposure to crocidolite asbestos: A 1995 update of a South African mortality study. Kielkowski D., Nelson G., Rees D., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 2000, Vol.57, No.8, p.563-567. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0838.pdf

A cohort mortality study was carried out in Prieska, Northern Cape Province, South Africa, with a history of crocidolite asbestos mining and milling. The cohort comprised 2,390 white births from 1916 to 1936. Causes of death due to mesothelioma and other cancers were investigated. There were 118 cases of cancer, 28 of them from mesothelioma. All cancer mortality, mesothelioma and lung cancer ratios were increased. The mortality for mesothelioma in men was twice that in women, probably because men were more likely to have had both occupational and environmental exposure to asbestos. (78697)

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CIS 02-839 Male-mediated spontaneous abortion among spouses of stainless steel welders. Hjollund N.H.I., Bonde J.P.E., Jensen T.K., Henriksen T.B., Andersson A.M., Kolstad H.A., Ernst E., Giwercman A., Skakkebæk N.E., Olsen J., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 2000, Vol.26, No.3, p.187-192. Illus. 25 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0839.pdf

Clinical and early subclinical spontaneous abortions were examined among spouses of stainless-steel welders in Denmark. A cohort of men among couples planning a first pregnancy was recruited from members of the union of metal workers and three other trade unions. The cohort was followed for 6 menstrual cycles from the cessation of contraceptive use. Information on pregnancy outcome was collected for all 245 clinically recognized pregnancies. Increased risk of spontaneous abortion was found for pregnancies with paternal exposure to stainless-steel welding (adjusted relative risk 3.5). A mutagenic effect of hexavalent chromium has been found previously in both somatic and germ cells, and the findings could be due to mutations in the male genome. (78381)

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CIS 02-840 Analysis of chemical hazards associated with the use of resins during the laying of floorcovering. (French: Analyse des risques chimiques dans la mise en œuvre des résines lors de l'application de revêtements de sols) Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.2, p.101-112. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0840.pdf

The use of chemicals in the construction industry can cause risks to health and give rise to fire and explosion hazards, both for workers and neighbouring populations. This article presents a questionnaire aimed at SMEs in the construction industry, aimed at helping them to identify hazards resulting from the use of resins during the laying of floorcovering, and to implement appropriate preventive measures with the help of the occupational physician. (78686)

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CIS 02-841 Results of an intervention to improve lead safety among painting contractors and their employees. Materna B.L., Harrington D., Scholz P., Payne S.F., Stubbs H.A., Hipkins K., Merideth E., Kirsch L., Lomax G., Coyle P., Uratsu C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.41, No.2, p.119-130. 32 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0841.pdf

Painters are at risk of lead poisoning when preparing surface for painting in older buildings. An intervention strategy was evaluated for improving lead safety in small businesses. 21 painting contractors received 32 hours of training, technical assistance, and a safety manual; their employees attended an 8-hr training session. Impact evaluation involved interviewing participants at baseline, immediately post-intervention and one year later, and conducting contractor focus groups post-intervention. Employers met 15 of the 27 target objectives and workers met 3 of 12; however, even in areas where objectives were not met, both groups made improvements. Motivated contractors and their employees can make moderate improvements in lead-safe practices if provided with extensive training and technical assistance. Changes that are costly, unfamiliar, or perceived as a threat to work quality are more difficult to implement. (78769)

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CIS 02-842 Aircrew exposure to chemicals in aircraft: Symptoms of irritation and toxicity. Winder C., Balouet J.C., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.471-483. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0842.pdf

Materials that are used in the operation of aircraft may contain hazardous ingredients. Poorly controlled maintenance or operating procedures can produce unwanted exposures to crew and passengers through the contamination of aircraft cabin air. Occasionally, such exposures may induce symptoms of toxicity, such as short-term skin, eye, gastrointestinal, respiratory and nervous system effects, and long-term central nervous system and immunological effects. Symptoms from seven case studies are presented. These symptoms may be reversible following brief exposures, but longer-term problems are emerging following significant exposures. This has serious implications for safety and occupational health in the aviation sector. (78412)

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CIS 02-843 Liver function of petrochemical industry workers occupationally exposed to mixed organic solvents. (Spanish: Función hepática de trabajadores ocupacionalmente expuestos a solventes orgánicos mixtos en una industria petroquímica) Fernández-D'Pool J., Oroño-Osorio A., Investigación Clínica, June 2001, Vol.42, No.2, p.87-106. 26 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0843.pdf

The aim of this cross-sectional study involving 77 workers of a Venezuelan petrochemical plant exposed to mixed solvents and 91 non-exposed controls was to establish whether liver function changes were caused by exposure or by confounding factors. Blood and urine samples were collected in order to determine hepatic enzyme activity as well as the concentration of serum biliary acids and urinary phenols. Ambient concentrations of benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene and xylene were determined by gas phase chromatography. Hepatic enzyme activity, biliary acid concentration and the urinary phenol level showed no correlation with exposure. However, the increased activity of γ-glutamyl-transferase was related to obesity and alcohol consumption. (78821)

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CIS 02-844 Monoterpene and wood dust exposures: Work-related symptoms among Finnish sawmill workers. Rosenberg C., Liukkonen T., Kallas-Tarpila T., Ruonakangas A., Ranta R., Nurminen M., Welling I., Jäppinen P., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.41, No.1, p.38-53. Illus. 48 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0844.pdf

This study was carried out on 22 Finnish sawmill workers who processed pine and spruce between 1997 and 1999. Exposure to monoterpenes was assessed by determining monoterpenes in air and verbenols in urine. A questionnaire was used to evaluate work-related subjective symptoms. The highest monoterpene concentration in the breathing zone, measured during processing of pine, was less than one fourth of the Finnish occupational exposure limit (OEL, 570mg/m3). Verbenol concentrations in post-shift urine samples reflected accurately the exposure to monoterpenes. The concentrations of inhalable dust were less than one-half the Finnish OEL (5mg/m3). No significant differences in dust exposure were observed among tree species processed. Work-related eye, skin and respiratory symptoms appeared to correlate with monoterpene exposure during processing of pine and with wood dust exposure during processing of spruce. (78764)

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CIS 02-845 Emissions of chemical compounds and bioaerosols during the secondary treatment of paper mill effluents. Goyer N., Lavoie J., AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.330-341. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0845.pdf

Measurements were taken in summer in 11 Canadian paper mills during a 2- to 3-day period in each mill and identified and quantified the main chemical compounds and the bioaerosols emitted during the biological treatment of paper mill effluents. Sulfur compounds had the highest concentrations in the air. Next were the carbon and nitrogen oxides, ammonia, some organic acids and terpenes, which come from wood. Odour perception thresholds for most of these substances are much lower than those established to protect the health of workers. Gram-negative bacteria were high at only one site, whereas the mould Aspergillus fumigatus was occasionally present at low concentration. The highest concentrations were measured where there was water or dust aerosolization. Emissions are managed by controlling the operations that lead to the dispersion of water and particles into the air and through the wearing of personal protective equipment. Stringent personal hygiene measures remain the best means of prevention for bioaerosols. (78701)

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CIS 02-846 Lung cancer risk, silica exposure, and silicosis in Chinese mines and pottery factories: The modifying role of other workplace lung carcinogens. Cocco P., Rice C.H., Chen J.Q., McCawley M.A., McLaughlin J.K., Dosemeci M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.674-682. 32 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0846.pdf

To explore whether exposure to other lung carcinogens, or clinical features of silicosis, modify or confound the association between silica and lung cancer, data from a nested case-control study conducted in the late 1980s in 29 Chinese mines and potteries were used. The were 316 lung cancer cases and 1,356 controls, matched by decade of birth and facility type. Pooling the 29 work sites, the study showed a moderate association between lung cancer risk and silica exposure. Risk did not vary after excluding subjects with silicosis or adjusting the risk estimates by radiological staging of silicosis. The results suggest that numerous occupational and non-occupational risk factors interact in a complex fashion to modify lung cancer risk. (78714)

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CIS 02-847 Possibility of replacing hazardous raw materials by less hazardous substances in the production process. (Spanish: Posibilidad de sustitución de materias primas peligrosas por otras que entrañen menor peligro en el proceso productivo) Fernández García G., García Menéndez R., Ganga Alonso A., Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.85, p.17-23. Illus. 8 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0847.pdf

The industrial production of pottery decorated using silk-screen printing techniques requires the use of synthetic pigments, most of which represent a hazard to workers' health due to their physical and chemical properties (instability at high temperatures) and their toxicology. Consequently, these cadmium- or lead-based pigments need to be replaced by less harmful products, in particular to prevent the risk of lead poisoning. The pigments industry has developed several low-toxicity products. A test was carried out with new low-toxicity red pigments in order to determine their high-temperature stability and to compare their shades with those of red pigments used until now. It was found that these new pigments exhibit comparable shades while at the same time having lower toxicities and lower costs of production than pigments in current use. (78822)

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CIS 02-848 The efficacy of a protective cream in a real-world apprentice hairdresser environment. Perrenoud D., Gallezot D., van Melle G., Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2001, Vol.45, No.3, p.134-138. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0848.pdf

The aim of this study was to compare the protective action of a new barrier cream and that of its vehicle in the context of hand irritation of apprentice hairdressers caused by repeated shampooing and exposure to hair-care products. This was a double-blind crossover study comparing the barrier cream (containing aluminium chlorohydrate 5% as active ingredient) against its vehicle alone. The efficacy of the creams was evaluated taking into account the clinical scores by researchers, biometric measurements and subjective opinions of the participants. An analysis of variance was performed considering the order of application, degree of atopy, and reported number of shampoos. Very little difference in efficacy between the protective cream and its vehicle was observed. However, the presence of aluminium chlorohydrate in the protective cream was shown to have a positive effect against work-related irritation. The participants rated the cosmetic qualities of the creams to be as important as their real protective and hydrating properties, an important factor in compliance issues. (78362)

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CIS 02-849 Allergic contact dermatitis from glutaraldehyde in health-care workers. Shaffer M.P., Belsito D.V., Contact Dermatitis, Sep. 2000, Vol.43, No.3, p.150-156. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0849.pdf

Glutaraldehyde is the disinfectant of choice for sterilizing medical and dental equipment, but is known to induce allergic contact dermatitis. In a 5-year study, 468 patients were patch tested to glutaraldehyde. Health-care workers were more than eight times more likely to be allergic to glutaraldehyde than non-health-care workers. Allergic contact dermatitis from glutaraldehyde often causes persistent dermatitis, which frequently forces patients to leave their jobs. Until a less sensitizing disinfectant is developed, it is in the best interest of those in health-care professions and other professions exposed to glutaraldehyde to reinforce occupational hygiene standards with respect to the limitation of exposure, in particular through improved methods of barrier protection. (78604)

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CIS 02-850 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from drugs in healthcare workers. Gielen K., Goossens A., Contact Dermatitis, Nov. 2001, Vol.45, No.5, p.273-279. Illus. 41 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0850.pdf

Contact sensitivity to pharmaceutical drugs occurs mainly among healthcare workers, pharmaceutical industry operators and veterinary surgeons. Of the 14,689 patients suspected of contact allergy examined in the dermatology department of a university hospital between 1978 and 2001, occupational allergic contact dermatitis from drugs was diagnosed in 33 cases. The most common sensitizers were antibiotics including penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. They accounted altogether for 35 positive patch tests, followed by propacetamol hydrochloride, and ranitidine hydrochloride, which elicited 10 and 7 positive reactions, respectively. The highest number of the sensitized patients were nurses (26), followed by veterinarians (4), pharmacists (2) and medical doctors (1). (78606)

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CIS 02-851 The utility of Poison Control Center data for assessing toxic occupational exposures among young workers. Rubenstein H., Bresnitz E.A., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.463-466. 14 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0851.pdf

This study assessed the utility of Poison Control Center data for identifying and describing occupational toxic exposures to youth and the associated health outcomes of such exposures. The authors reviewed data from the American Association of Poison Control Centers' Toxic Exposure Surveillance System for occupational exposures to young persons. In 1997, there were 3442 reported occupational exposure cases among 6-19 year-olds. Exposure cases included underage workers, exposure to multiple substances, continuous or repeated exposure to the offending substance, and exposures occurring in the home. Poison Control Centers provide unique and valuable information on toxic workplace exposures to youth. Child labour laws may be violated in many cases, and risks exist with respect to industrial work done in the home. (78537)

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CIS 02-852 Prevalence of cigarette smoking by occupation and industry in the United States. Bang K.M., Kim J.H., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Sep. 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.233-239. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0852.pdf

To estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking by occupation and industry in the US, data from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1988-1994 was used. Included in NHANES III are data on the cigarette smoking status, occupation, industry, and other demographic information of US non-institutionalized civilians obtained through household interview surveys. The study population included 20,032 adults aged 17 years and older. To estimate the prevalence of cigarette smoking across occupation and industry groups, the Survey Data Analysis (SUDAAN) software was used. It was found that the prevalence of cigarette smoking was highest among transport occupations, construction laborers, and vehicle mechanics and repairers, and lowest among teachers. Among industry groups, the construction industry had the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking. (78371)

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CIS 02-853 Evaluation of the effectiveness of following up laboratory reports of elevated blood leads in adults. Rosenman K.D., Sims A., Hogan A., Fialkowski J., Gardiner J., AIHA Journal, May-June 2001, Vol.62, No.3, p.371-378. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0853.pdf

A report of a state-wide laboratory-based blood-lead surveillance system in the state of Michigan (USA). The effectiveness of inspection of companies in which at least one worker had a blood lead level (BLL) of 30-39µg/dL (but not higher) was considered. Companies where lead exposures occurred were identified and enforcement inspections performed. In addition, a cost-benefit analysis was conducted, employing three endpoints: 1) identification of cases of elevated blood lead levels, due to occupational exposure; 2) identification of workplaces that had received a citation for violating the lead standard; 3) identification of workers at risk of exposure to lead at problem work sites. Workplaces with blood lead citations also had increased overall citations and penalties, when compared with control workplaces not using lead. The cost to identify lead-exposed workers at problem worksites was USD 125 per worker. It is recommended that routine inspection be instituted for all companies in which even one employee is identified with blood lead levels ≥30µg/dL. (78704)

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CIS 02-854 90-day inhalation toxicity study of di-n-butylamine in Wistar (WU) rats. (German: 90-Tage Inhalationstoxizitätsprüfung von Di-n-butylamin an Wistar (WU)-Ratten) Buschmann J., Dasenbrock C., Pohlmann G., Bartsch W., Creutzenberg O., Ernst H., Schneider B., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 218p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: EUR 18.00., ISBN 3-89701-391-6 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0854.pdf

Dibutylamine is a known skin and eye irritant. The objective of this study was to investigate whether the irritant nature of dibutylamine also applies to the respiratory tract and gives rise to inhalation toxicity. Rats were exposed to dibutylamine concentrations of 0, 50, 150 and 450mg/m3 over 90 days. Pathological examinations were carried out on randomly-selected rats after 3, 28 and 91 days. Irritating effects could only be shown in the nasal cavities. Effects were noted in the high dose group after 3 and 28 days. Slight adaptive effects in the form of mucous cell hyperplasia were also seen in the low dose group after 91 days. Only marginal effects were observed in the lungs. (78396)

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CIS 02-855 Time and interspecies extrapolation for locally-acting substances for which data are limited. (German: Zeitextrapolation und Interspeziesextrapolation bei lokal wirksamen Stoffen mit begrenzter Datenlage) Kalberlah F., Schneider K., Schuhmacher U.S., Voss J.U,, Ioannidis I., Oltmanns J., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. Approx. 300p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: EUR 25.50., ISBN 3-89701-418-1 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0855.pdf

This project investigates the possibility of estimating the inhalation toxicity of substances for which data are limited by using time extrapolation (from sub-acute to chronic exposure duration) and interspecies extrapolation (animals to humans). The investigation of time extrapolation factors was based on the analysis of 46 technical reports of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the United States. It was found that the possibility of predicting inhalation toxicity on the basis of existing toxicology data was limited. With regard to interspecies extrapolation, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) models for dust and gaseous substances are evaluated separately, and suggestions are made for the modification or improvement of these models. (78400)

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CIS 02-856 Substitution of solvents by dimethyl sulfoxide. (French: La substitution des solvants par le diméthylsulfoxyde) Bilans de connaissances B-062, Bégin D., Lavoué J., Gérin M., Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Mar. 2002. vi, 71p. 160 ref. Price: CAD 25.00., ISBN 2-551-21473-4 (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0856.pdf

Because of its strong solvating power, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is used in many areas as a substitute for more harmful solvents, particularly in stripping. It is characterized by its ease and rapidity of skin penetration, diffusion to all biological compartments, partial oxidation by hepatic microsomes to dimethyl sulfone which is primarily excreted in urine along with unchanged DMSO, and a partial reduction to dimethyl sulfane with a garlic smell found in exhaled air. It has low acute toxicity. In humans, skin exposure to concentrated DMSO can give rise to localized irritation with desquaming, erythema and puritis. Hepatic, kidney, haemolitic and neurotoxic effects are observed in animals or humans only at high concentrations. DMSO may be mildly mutagenic. Available data do not appear to indicate carcinogenic effects, but remain inconclusive. Animal experiments indicate that DMSO has little embryo- or reproductive toxicity and is not teratogenic at concentrations that are non toxic to the mother. In occupational settings, preventive measures should focus primarily on skin protection. In Switzerland, Germany and Sweden, and eight-hour TWA exposure limit has been set at 50ppm. (78478)

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CIS 02-857 Substitution of solvents by aqueous cleaning agents - Degreasing of metals. (French: La substitution des solvants par les nettoyants aqueux - Le dégraissage des métaux) Bilans de connaissances B-064, Lavoué J., Bégin D., Gérin M., Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Mar. 2002. ix, 128p. Illus. 168 ref. Price: CAD 10.70. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0857.pdf

Aqueous cleaning agents used as substitutes of organic solvents for metal degreasing consist of active ingredients dissolved or dispersed in water. Active ingredients include surfactants, pH buffers, sequestering or chelating agents, anticorrosion agents, solvents and other additives. Sold as concentrate, they are generally diluted by a factor of five to twenty before use. The surfactants used generally are of mild acute and chronic toxicity and are only weakly absorbed by the body. Most are skin and eye irritants. The allergenicity of some surfactants is possibly caused by degradation products appearing over time or by impurities during their synthesis. pH buffers may be irritant or corrosive. Ethanolamines can cause allergic dematitis and form products that may be carcinogenic, particularly in the presence of nitrites. Glycol ethers can penetrate the skin and present a hazard for the circulatory and reproductive systems, as well as for development. The lack of data on real exposures in occupational setting to the various compounds should incite caution, and in particular require the use of skin protection equipment. (78479)

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CIS 02-858 1-Bromopropane and the substitution of solvents. (French: Le 1-bromopropane et la substitution des solvants) Bilans de connaissances B-063, Bégin D., Gérin M., Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail du Québec (IRSST), 505 boul. de Maisonneuve Ouest, Montreal (Quebec) H3A 3C2, Canada, Mar. 2002. v, 41p. 134 ref. Price: CAD 6.42., ISBN 2-551-21474-2 (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0858.pdf

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is being promoted as a substitute for solvents that cause ozone depletion, in particular for vapour phase degreasing of metal parts, for the cleaning of printed circuit boards and for the formulation of adhesives. There are no systematic studies available on the toxic effects of 1-BP in humans. However, some cases of eye, throat and skin irritation, as well as of neurotoxic effects have been reported among exposed workers. Inhalation of subchronic levels of 1-BP by rats causes effects on the liver, on the central and peripheral nervous systems and on the male reproductive system. There are no studies available on the carcinogenicity or developmental effects of 1-BP; however, one of the metabolites found in rats is propylene oxide, a known animal mutagen and carcinogen. There are currently no legally-binding exposure limits, and different manufacturers of 1-BP recommend eight-hour averages of 3, 10, 25, 50 or 100ppm. Given the present degree of understanding, it appears premature to recommend the use of this solvent given its documented animal neurotoxicity and reproductive toxicity, and the absence of data concerning its potential carcinogenicity and developmental toxicity at the embryo, the foetus and post-birth levels. (78480)

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CIS 02-859 Occupational exposure to airborne substances harmful to health. Code of practice. (French: Exposition professionnelle à des substances nocives en suspension dans l'air. Recueil de directives pratiques) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1981. 46p. Index. Price: CHF 10.00 (French); 1992. 59p. Price: THB 30.00 (Thai), ISBN 92-2-202442-7 (fr), ISBN 974-8203-05-2 (th) (In French, Thai)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0859fr.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/0
   …2-0859th.pdf

French and Thai versions of the document analysed under CIS 81-433. This code defines a set of practical measures for preventing contamination of the working environment and protecting workers against hazards due to harmful airborne substances and specifies the role of bodies and persons concerned with the prevention of contamination: competent authority, employers' and workers' organisations. It proposes a 3-point prevention programme consisting of technical measures, establishment and application of exposure limits (TLVs) and medical surveillance. (78510)

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CIS 02-860 Pesticide incidents - Report 2000/01. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 27p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 25.00. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0860.pdf

This report provides information on incidents involving pesticides investigated by the Field Operations Directorate of the Health and Safety Executive between April 2000 and Mars 2001. 170 incidents were investigated, 71 of which alleged ill health. Recent trends in the nature of the incidents and types of pesticides used are presented, and seven case studies of specific incidents are summarized. (78598)

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CIS 02-861 Analysis of dangerous substances. (German: Gefahrstoff-Analytik) Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 46. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 1998. 230p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-609-73286-5 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0861.pdf

Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for the analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: characteristics of NIOSH analytical methods for various chemicals; list of toxic substances; list of organizations qualified for conducting measurements related to the toxic substances ordinance; threshold limit values at the workplace; permissible levels of biological indicators of workplace exposure; list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances that are toxic to reproductive health; list of German technical rules for dangerous substances (TRGS). (78616)

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CIS 02-862 Evaluating and substituting dangerous substances. (German: Gefahrstoffe ermitteln und ersetzen) Rühl R., Smola T., Lechtenberg-Auffarth E., Musanke U., Hamm G., Vater U., Wehde J., Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Dec. 1999. 152p. Illus. 94 ref., ISBN 3-88383-537-4 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0862.pdf

The German technical regulations on dangerous substances (TRGS 440) specify the measures that need to be complied with concerning the handling of such substances and the implementation of hazard evaluation measures. This guide was prepared in order to assist employers in interpreting and implementing these regulations. Contents: where to find information; compiling a list of dangerous substances used in the enterprise; evaluation of substitution products (evaluating the lesser risk to health, costs of substitution); protective measures to be implemented; regulations applicable to different types of products or sectors of activity; responsibilities of manufacturers and subcontractors with respect to the handling of dangerous substances; list of organizations that can provide information. Appendices include: full text of technical regulation TRGS 440; danger symbols and R phrases; list of substances that present the least risk and new recommended substitutes; examples of the evaluation of the suitability of substitute substances; lists of dangerous substances; GISCODEs for various types of products. (78620)

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CIS 02-863 Analysis of dangerous substances. (German: Gefahrstoff-Analytik) Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 35. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 1995. 208p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-609-73295-4 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0863.pdf

Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: ISO standards for the analysis of toxic substances; VDI guidelines with respect to air protection; reducing the exposure to environmental contaminants at the place of work; guide for compiling safety data sheets; updating of the law on the safety of equipment; environmental compatibility tests; law on protection against immissions; proposals of an European Commission working group for the evaluation of hazards at the place of work; amendments to Council Regulation 2455/92/EEC (see CIS 93-1426) concerning the export and import of certain dangerous chemicals; limitations of the emissions of VOCs during the storage of motor fuel. (78626)

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CIS 02-864 Analysis of dangerous substances. (German: Gefahrstoff-Analytik) Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 36. Ergänzungslieferung, Mar. 1996. 238p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-609-73296-2 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0864.pdf

Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: overhaul of the list of analytical methods for dangerous substances; new TRK and MAK values; list of carcinogens, mutagens and substances toxic for reproductive health as defined by the Ministry of Labour. (78627)

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CIS 02-865 Ashford's dictionary of industrial chemicals. Ashford R.D., ed., Wavelength Publications Ltd., 63 Kendal Steps, St. George's Fields, London W2 2YE, United Kingdom, 2nd ed., c2001. viii, 1269p. Illus. Index. Also on CD-ROM (requires Windows 95 or later). Price: GBP 110.00 (book), GBP 230.00 (computer file) + VAT. There is also a demonstration CD, with information on chemicals with names beginning with A. For more information, consult the Internet site http://home.btclick.com/wavelength/, ISBN 0-9522674-1-1 (CD-ROM), ISBN 0-9522674-2-X (book) (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0865.pdf

This is the latest edition of Ashford's dictionary of industrial chemicals (for the previous edition, see CIS 95-253). It contains entries on over 8,000 different chemicals arranged in alphabetical order by chemical name. For each chemical, information provided includes the chemical structure and molecular weight, the CAS number, a description, alternative names, raw materials used in its manufacture, derivatives and uses. (78661)

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CIS 02-866 Second supplement to the fourth edition of the NIOSH manual of analytical methods (NMAM). Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 1998. 500p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0866.pdf

Supplement to the fourth edition of the NIOSH manual of analytical methods for monitoring exposure to toxic substances published in 1994 (see CIS 98-217). It consists of updates to the introductory chapters, analytical methods, glossary of abbreviations and index. (78670)

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CIS 02-867 Polymorphisms of detoxification enzyme genes: Influence on sister chromatid exchange induction by epoxides in cultured human lymphocytes. Bernardini S., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2002. 87p. Illus. Bibl. ref., ISBN 951-802-484-7 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0867.pdf

Cytogenetic damage, a marker of increased cancer risk, is usually assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes from people exposed to genotoxic occupational carcinogens. Similarly, in vitro test systems for genotoxicity of chemicals include analyses of cytogenetic endpoints, such as sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), in cultured human lymphocytes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of glutathione S-transferase (GST) polymorphisms on the ability of some known genotoxins to induce sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in human whole-blood lymphocyte cultures, and to determine epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity in human mononuclear leukocytes. SCE induction was investigated for several chemicals. It was found that polymorphisms of GST genes influenced the genotoxicity of 1,2-epoxy-3-butene, styrene, and trans-stilbene oxide. In vitro SCE analysis of cultured human lymphocytes appears to be a sensitive tool to detect even small genotype differences in genotoxic response. Such data may be used to predict the influence of genetic polymorphisms on genotoxic effects in exposed humans. (78787)

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CIS 02-868 Occupational diseases due to toxic substances. (French: Pathologie toxique en milieu de travail) Testud F., Editions ESKA, avenue de l'Opéra 5, 75001 Paris, France, 2nd ed., 1998. 447p. Bibl.ref. Index., ISBN 2-86911-600-4 (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0868.pdf

Aimed mainly at occupational physicians, this book provides guidance to the evaluation of hazards from toxic substances at the place of work. It is also aimed at hospital physicians providing emergency treatment for patients who have suffered acute poising from exposure to toxic industrial substances at work. It summarizes the diseases caused by the main chemicals handled in industry, handicrafts and agriculture. Uses, conditions of exposure, toxicity, effects of accidental acute poisoning and pathologies due to long-term chronic exposure to low doses are described for each substance. (78590)

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CIS 02-869 Exposure to pesticide residues on agricultural spraying equipment. Ramwell C.T., Johnson P.D., Boxall A.A.B., Rimmer D., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. vi, 50p. Illus. 6 ref. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-7176-2376-9 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0869.pdf

To assess the longer-term exposure to pesticide deposits that remain on the spraying equipment well after spraying operations have been carried out, a study was carried out at thirteen farms. Swab samples were taken from various parts of the spray equipment. In addition, cotton gloves were used to evaluate possible exposure through hand contact when entering or working in the tractor cab and during contact with the external surface of the spray equipment. There was a wide variation in the quantities of pesticides detected. Highest levels were observed on the boom, nozzles, and, to a lesser extent, the spray tank. Pesticides were detected at higher levels and more frequently on the mudguards compared to the rest of the tractor body. Quantities of pesticides measured on the cotton glove samples were reported as multiples of acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). 17% of the gloves contained levels equivalent to more than one ADI. Sampling inside the farmers' nitrile gloves detected pesticides in all cases, with one pair containing the equivalent of 17 ADIs. (78784)

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CIS 02-870 Exposure to harmful products during automobile recycling. (German: Stoffbelastungen beim Kraftfahrzeugrecycling) Auffarth J., Hebisch R., Johnen A., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. xii, 86p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: EUR 11.00., ISBN 3-89701-832-2 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0870.pdf

This study examines the exposure of workers at 13 automobile recycling facilities. Results show that during fluid draining and disassembly operations workers are exposed to fuel vapours and dust, the concentrations of which, however, remain within permissible limits. During fluid draining, the source of exposure is motor fuel (maximum exposure of 67mg/m3, namely one quarter of the exposure limit for benzene-containing gasoline), while exposure to dust is negligible. Exposure to gasoline vapour is considerably lower during disassembly operations (maximum exposure of 10mg/m3). Maximum levels of breathable and inhalable dusts are below permissible levels (0.61 and 2.6mg/m3 respectively). However, there is evidence of skin damage among workers, mainly affecting the hands, the forearms and the face. (78638)

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CIS 02-871 Asbestos: Exposure limits and measurement of airborne dust concentrations. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 7th ed., 2001. 8p. 13 ref. Price: GBP 5.00., ISBN 0-7176-2129-4 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0871.pdf

Inhalation of asbestos fibres may result in a number of diseases, including cancer. This guidance note provides asbestos exposure limits and describes how they are used. It explains when air monitoring is necessary and what can be found in laboratory reports. Contents: legislation and approved code of practice; definition of control limits and action levels, with examples of calculations; when airborne asbestos monitoring is required or not; HSC-approved meausurement method; air monitoring during asbestos removal work; selecting laboratories; information of personnel. An appendix lists the contents of air monitoring reports. (78578)

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CIS 02-872 Mercury and its inorganic divalent compounds in air. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Apr. 2002. 32p. Illus. 40 ref. Price: GBP 17.50., ISBN 0-7176-2348-3 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0872.pdf

This guidance sheet describes diffusive badge and pumped sorbent tube methods for the determination of time-weighed average concentrations of mercury and its inorganic divalent compounds in workplace air. Contents: legal requirements; health effects, safety and health precausions and exposure limits; principle and scope of the method; method performance; sampling equipment; laboratory apparatus; analytical instrumentation; sampling and sample preparation; calculations; test report. (78579)

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CIS 02-873 Toxicological assessments - General section - Appendix 5. (German: Toxikologische Bewertungen - Allgemeiner Teil - Anhang 5) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 36p. 43 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0873.pdf

This booklet contains the list of chemicals in the current inventory of the German Chemical Industry Occupational Accident Insurance Association, with comments concerning their current status with respect to toxicological assessment. Chemicals are listed in CAS number order. The list also provides the reference number attributed to the substance by the association, explains the type of published toxicological study, mentions other organizations conducting toxicological assessments (BUA, MAK, ECETOC) and describes current toxicological testing status (requested, under way, with available results). (78791)

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CIS 02-874 Synonyms, common and commercial names for published toxicological assessments. (German: Synonyme, Trivial- und Handelsnamen für die publizierten toxikologischen Bewertungen) Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie, Postfach 10 14 80, 69004 Heidelberg, Germany, June 1995. 31p. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0874.pdf

Alphabetical directory of synonyms, common names and commercial names of chemicals for which toxicological assessments have been published by the German chemical industry occupational accident insurance association. The list also provides the number attributed to each substance by the association. (78800)

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CIS 02-875 Genotoxicity and occupational activity - Genotoxicity tests. (French: Génotoxicité et activité professionnelle - Tests de génotoxicité) Kirsch-Volders M., De Boeck M., Lison D., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 9p. Illus. 29 ref.+ 4p. 18 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0875.pdf

This article presents recent advances in the understanding of genotoxicity as well as their practical implications in occupational medicine. It includes definitions of terms used in the field of geonotoxicity, a description of mechanisms of genetic damage, mutations and their effects on health, as well as a comparison of genotoxic substance detection and evaluation methods. Proposals for medical supervision and hazard evaluation programmes to be implemented by occupational physicians are included, which take practical and ethical aspects into account. A second part of the article presents and compares five genotoxicity tests widely used for bio-monitoring: comet test, sister chromatid exchange, micronucleus test, gene mutations on the HGPRT locus and study of chromosome aberrations. (78841)

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CIS 02-876 Chemical hazards and defining exposure limits. (French: Risques chimiques et détermination des valeurs limites d'exposition) Hervé-Bazin B., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 12p. 23 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0876.pdf

This article describes the principles of toxicological studies and exposure evaluation relating to dangerous chemicals. Contents: different types of hazards and classification of hazardous substances; types of toxicological studies (acute, sub-acute and chronic toxicity, regulatory aspects); chemical hazard evaluation at the workplace (detection of hazards, conditions of exposure, exposure evaluation and characterization); general aspects of chemical hazard management (prevention, precaution principle, responsibilities); occupational exposure limits (general context, definitions and purpose of exposure limits, different exposure limit systems and values, examples of implementation, meaning of exposure limits and their limitations); biological exposure limits; procedures to be followed in the absence of exposure limits. (78843)

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CIS 02-877 General principles of technical preventive measures against chemical hazards. (French: Principes généraux de la prévention technique du risque chimique) Huré P., Triolet J., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2002, No.134, 7p. 15 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0877.pdf

For enterprises using a large number of chemicals, French regulations concerning the prevention of hazards include provisions concerning the responsibilities of suppliers as well as users of chemicals. For users, preventive measures should be the result of a hazard evaluation at the place of work involving the detection, identification, quantification and evaluation based on reference systems such as that of occupational exposure limit values. Regulations also address the question of the order in which preventive measures should be implemented: training, information, substitution, collective prevention measures (collection and ventilation) and personal preventive measures. In order to be fully effective, the control of chemical hazards within the enterprise requires a combination of preventive measures to be implemented with the active support of all involved. (78844)

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CIS 02-878 BG rules - Handling of magnesium. (German: BG-Regeln - Umgang mit Magnesium) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 1999. 39p. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0878.pdf

This document reproduces the full text of guideline BGR 204 of the Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association (HVBG) concerning the handling of magnesium. Contents: scope; definitions; general provisions concerning use and processing; provisions applicable to specific operations (chip removal, shotblasting, melting and casting, cleaning and maintenance); inspection of plant and equipment. An appendix includes a list of related guidelines, rules and standards. (78621)

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CIS 02-879 LEV: General principles of a design system. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 2p. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0879.pdf

This information sheet contains guidance aimed at designers and manufacturers of woodworking machines, as well as at designers, installers and users of local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems in woodworking shops. Contents: nature of wood dust; LEV system design principles; design of fans and collection units; commissioning, inspection and maintenance of LEV systems. (78781)

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CIS 02-880 NIOSH pocket guide to chemical hazards and other databases. Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, July 2000. CD-ROM including Windows and Mackintosh versions of Netscape Communicator and Adobe Acrobat Reader. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0880.pdf

This CD-ROM is an update of the version analysed under CIS 00-822. It includes 10 databases with information on chemical hazards in the workplace and how to control them. The databases are: Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Concentrations; International Chemical Safety Cards; NIOSH Certified Equipment List; NIOSH Manual of Analytical Methods; NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards; OSHA Sampling and Analytical Methods; Recommendations for Chemical Protective Clothing; Special Medical Tests Published for OSHA Regulated Substances; Toxicologic Review of Selected Chemicals; 2000 Emergency Response Guidebook. The files are in HTML or PDF format, except for the NIOSH Certified Equipment List which is a Microsoft Access database. (78819)

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CIS 02-881 No weeds - no chemicals. Arbejdmiljøfondet, Vermundsgade 38, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1997. Video in VHS format, duration: 14 min. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0881.pdf

This videotape presents alternative methods of controlling weeds in parks, sports fields and playgrounds without using herbicides. These methods avoid the contamination of groundwater and gardening workers' exposure to chemicals. The following methods are described: flame treatment; sweeping and brushing; chippings; ground cover plants. (78789)

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CIS 02-882 Beware of pesticides. General Workers Union, Kampmannsgade 4, Box 392, 1740 København V, Denmark, 1998. Video in VHS/PAL format, duration: 14 min., ISBN 87-7359-927-1 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0882.pdf

This videotape is aimed at the managers and workers of greenhouse farms, instructing them on the safe use of pesticides. Until recently, attention was mainly focused on persons applying the pesticides. It is now recognized that persons handling agricultural products are also at risk. The video includes advice on protection against pesticide exposure. (78790)

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[ Top of page ]

006 Fires, explosions and major hazards

CIS 02-883 Survey of criticality of risk from LPG storage tanks at user-sites in North India. Gautam S.S., Saxena P.K., INDOSHNEWS, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.6, No.1, p.1-8. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0883.pdf

LPG is stored and handled in liquefied form under pressure. LPG storage systems are spreading rapidly across India. The large inventories in bottling plants and at user industries have lead to anxiety among industrial workers, the neighbouring public and government authorities. This article presents the results of a survey of the potential damage that could result from gas explosions following accidental release at a number of industrial sites in North India. (78441)

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CIS 02-884 Foam systems for fire protection in petroleum storage tanks. Chakrabarti C.S., Industrial Safety Chronicle, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.XXXI, No.4, p.57-61. Illus. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0884.pdf

Hydrocarbon storage tanks are a source of fire hazard and require elaborate fire protection systems in India to ensure safety. This article describes foam-based fire-extinguishing systems specially suited for hydrocarbon storage tanks. Contents: types of storage tanks; fire risk in storage tanks; fire protection in petroleum storage tanks; foam as an extinguishing medium; foam concentrates; selection of foam for hydrocarbon tank fires; foam application; preparation of the foam solution; generation and distribution of foam; sub-surface foam injection systems. (78457)

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CIS 02-885 Major industrial accident at the AZF site in Toulouse (I). (French: Catastrophe industrielle sur le site AZF de Toulouse (I)) Dosne R., Face au risque, Feb. 2002, No.380, p.24-28. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0885.pdf

Description of a major accident due to an explosion in a fertilizer plant in Toulouse, France, 21 September 2001, which resulted in 30 fatalities and 2200 injuries. The explosion occurred in an ammonium nitrate storage unit. The causes have not yet been established. The article covers the chronology of events during the first few hours after the accident, focussing on the efforts of emergency services, the evacuation and the sheltering of the disaster victims. (78584)

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CIS 02-886 Hot mass blasting - Safety techniques and development of a pyrotechnic system. (French: Tirs en masses chaudes - Techniques de sécurité et mise au point d'une chaîne pyrotechnique) Chaloyard G., Petit J.M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.35-47. Illus. 8 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0886.pdf

During furnace maintenance operations, it is often necessary to eliminate deposits on the inner walls before they have a chance to cool down. Explosives are generally used for this purpose. They are subjected to high temperatures since the installations are generally not shut down or are shut down for very short periods. This study was carried out for the purpose of developing an explosive and pyrotechnic system designed to prevent accidents. The experimental study enabled the development of numerous improvements with respect to the behaviour of the explosives at high temperatures, optimization of the initiation mode and stabilization of the ageing process. It resulted in the production and commercialization of a pyrotechnic system for hot mass blasting. (78837)

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CIS 02-887 Fire protection yearbook 2002. Gale M., ed., Fire Protection Association, Bastille Court, 2 Paris Garden, London SE1 8ND, United Kingdom, 2002. 335p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index. Price: GBP 25.00, ISBN 1-902790-16-2 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0887.pdf

This edition of the yearbook contains the following information: fire risk assessment in small enterprises; safety measures in small enterprises; the fire certificate and how it can be obtained; fire services in the UK (including a map of fire brigade areas and an address list of fire brigades); UK fire organizations; fire testing in Europe; sources of further information; the Fire Protection Association (FPA) and its services; major fire protection associations in other countries and at the European level; list of FPA publications, training programmes and accredited consultants: buyers' guide to fire protection equipment. 2001 edition abstracted: CIS 01-1795. (78719)

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CIS 02-888 Fire hazards. (French: Le risque incendie) Kacimi F., Guérin S., Cahier Pratique Tissot - Guide de la santé, sécurité au travail, Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France, Jan. 2002, No.10, p.1-32 (whole issue). Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0888.pdf

Contents of this safety guide on fire hazards: origins and propagation of fire (definitions, origins, propagation); consequences (on humans, on buildings); means of prevention (suppression and limitations of causes, design and construction of buildings, firefighting techniques); emergency organization (training and information of personnel, safety rules, escape and exit procedures, first aid and rescue). (78658)

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CIS 02-889 Requirements applicable to machinery and equipment aimed at avoiding explosion hazards during the machining, processing, melting and casting of magnesium. (German: Beschaffenheitsanforderungen für Maschinen und Einrichtungen zur Vermeidung von Brand- und Explosionsgefahren bei der Be- und Verarbeitung, beim Schmelzen und Gießen von Magnesium) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 1999. 25p. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0889.pdf

This document reproduces the full text of the proposed guidelines of the Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association (HVBG) concerning fire and explosion protection measures applicable to equipment and machines for the machining, melting and casting of magnesium. Contents: definitions; chip removal machines with defined tool geometry (with or without refrigerated lubricant, miscible or non-miscible with water); chip removal machines with non defined tool geometries; sanding machines; machines and rigs for foundry and casting; fire-fighting equipment; control and locking of machines. (78624)

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[ Top of page ]

007 Electrical safety

CIS 02-890 Assessment of electrical accidents in power industry. Batra P.E., Ioannides M.G., Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing, Spring 2002, Vol.12, No.2, p.151-169. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0890.pdf

This article is an assessment of the electrocutions that occurred between 1992 and 1996 to workers in the electrical utility sector in Greece. Data concerning the occupational characteristics of the injured person, the time (day of the week, time of the day) at which the accident occurred and the consequences are presented and discussed. A method for calculating the accident frequency rate per 1,000 workers, with emphasis on fatal accidents, is proposed. Also, an information system for accidents is proposed that would be capable of calculating the frequency and severity rates per workplace, per group, and per occupational category of the workers. It would also classify workers according to the occupational risks they face. (78561)

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CIS 02-891 Electrical accidents in Germany - Occupational and non-occupational electrical accidents. (German: Elektrounfälle in Deutschland - Unfälle durch Elektrizität am Arbeitsplatz und im privaten Bereich) Altmann S., Jühling J., Kieback D., Zürneck H., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 140p. Illus. 38 ref. Price: EUR 13.50., ISBN 3-89701-798-9 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0891.pdf

This report on electrical accidents in Germany covers the period from 1968 to 1999. Annual fatalities from electrical accidents decreased significantly over the period from approximately 300 to below 100. However, there was no decline in the number of non-fatal accidents. Most accidents are caused by not following safety precautions. Contents: methodology and data analysis; occupational electrical accidents (trends and breakdown of accident occurrences); fatal electrical accidents in the home, during leisure activities and at work in all German States (Länder); fatal electrical accidents in the home, during leisure activities and at work in Berlin and in the new German States. (78498)

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CIS 02-892 Avoidance of danger from overhead electric power lines. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 3rd. ed., 1997, reprinted 2001. 8p. Illus. 5 ref. Price: GBP 5.00, ISBN 0-7176-1348-8 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0892.pdf

This guidance note is a revision of the 1991 edition (see CIS 92-278). The dangers of work where there may be contact with overhead electric lines and legal obligations of those responsible for such work are outlined. The precautions to be taken at construction sites where there is or is not work or passage of plant under the lines are set out, with plans and drawings of the arrangements of barriers and access points. Precautions to be taken during blasting operations are also outlined. (78420)

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[ Top of page ]

008 Physical hazards

CIS 02-893 Special feature on heating and cooling energy. (French: Dossier énergie chaud/froid) Khémili A., Paulus-Lanckriet M., Battistoni F., Lallemand A., Ben Lakhdar M., Bel O., Banach R., Goetz F., Revue Technique Apave, 2nd quarter 2001, No.294, p.9-26. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0893.pdf

Special feature consisting of a collection of articles on the topic of industrial heating and cooling. Contents: work in view of standardization of industrial heating and cooling; new cooling fluids having both environmental protection and technical performance capabilities; numerical simulation applied to the design of complex installations; research and development needs in the area of binary-phase cooling fluids; attractiveness of treating water used in steam boilers; safety of pressure systems. (78657)

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CIS 02-894 Quantitative thermal perception thresholds relative to exposure to vibration. Nilsson T., Lundström R., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, July 2001, Vol.58, No.7, p.472-478. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0894.pdf

Thermal perception of cold, warmth, and heat pain was bilaterally determined from the thenar eminence by the method of limits in a cross section of 123 male workers exposed to vibration and 62 unexposed male workers. Perception of cold and warmth were also tested in the second digit. Personal energy equivalent exposure to vibration was measured for all subjects. Vibration was assessed separately for the left and right hand. The results indicate thermal sensory impairment related to cumulative exposure to vibration. The effect appeared at vibration levels below the current guiding standard. Quantitative sensory testing of thermal perception offers the chance to assess this specific hazard to the peripheral sensorineural system associated with hand intensive work entailing vibration. (78440)

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CIS 02-895 Impulse noise in industrial plants: Statistical distribution of levels. Żera J., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Apr.-June 2001, Vol.14, No.2, p.127-133. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0895.pdf

Impulse noise generated by industrial machines at the workplace is a cause of substantial hearing loss in workers. This article presents data on workplace impulse noise recorded in drop-forge, punch-press and machinery shops. The survey shows that in the drop-forge shop, over 90% of acoustic impulses generated by hammer strikes exceed permissible levels, while in the punch-press shop, only 10-20% of impulses generated exceed maximum permissible levels. There is a wide variety of impulse types in the machinery shop; in particular, the stamping pistol generated impulses in excess of permissible levels. Many impulses have a rise time shorter than 1ms, which could also be a factor in hearing damage. However, this area requires further study. (78447)

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CIS 02-896 Noise and accidents - Cause and effect?. (French: Bruit et accidents - cause à effet?) Floru R., Cnockaert J.C., Face au risque, Feb. 2002, No.380, p.17-19. Illus. 16 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0896.pdf

This article is a literature survey on noise as a risk factor in occupational accidents. While numerous examples suggest the existence of such a relationship, it is difficult to define the role of noise among the many factors that lead to or favour the occurrence of occupational accidents. It is nonetheless established that noise represents a safety risk factor considering its influence on the perception of alarms signals. Preventive measures should focus on the reduction of noise at the source, the design of acoustic signalling systems and protective measures that preserve the ability to hear alarms. (78583)

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CIS 02-897 NOISECHEM: A European Commission research project on the effects of exposure to noise and industrial chemicals on hearing and balance. Prasher D., Morata T., Campo P., Fechter L., Johnson A.C., Lund S.P., Pawlas K., Starck J., Sułkowski W., Śliwinska-Kowalska M., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.1, p.5-11. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0897.pdf

Exposure to multiple physical and chemical agents is common in occupational environments but criteria for workplace hazards and occupational safety in case of combined exposures are lacking. NOISECHEM is a European Commission research project examining the effects of exposure to noise and chemicals on hearing and balance. Research groups in Sweden, Finland, France, Denmark, the UK and Poland with expert guidance from research groups in the USA will examine workers and study the mechanisms of action in animals to determine the levels of risk associated with joint exposure to noise and solvents. This paper briefly outlines the project details. (78731)

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CIS 02-898 An ergonomic evaluation of job stress in a typical hot industry. Sensarma S.K., INDOSHNEWS, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.6, No.1, p.9-14. 17 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0898.pdf

24 foundry plant workers were randomly selected to study the impact of occupational workload on the physiological functions during routine tasks. Environmental heat load was assessed from measurements of ambient air temperature, humidity, wind velocity and radiant heat. The physiological demand was evaluated in terms of energy cost, heart rate and oral temperature. Findings reveal that the environmental heat load in the forge shop (expressed as corrected effective temperature) was severe (32.0°C). Extreme conditions were observed at 38.9°C, well above the current permissible limit of 29.5°C for industrial work. From the consideration of the energetic workload, the jobs were rated "moderate" to "heavy", while based on the circulatory stress, they rated between "heavy" and "very heavy". Several suggestions are made for improving working conditions. (78442)

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CIS 02-899 How to assess and manage cold-related risks in northern workplaces?. Hassi J., Mäkinen T., Barents - Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, 2000, Vol.3, No.1-2, p.23-26. Illus. 5 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0899.pdf

Exposure to low temperatures at work can give rise frostbite and hypothermia. Indirect effects and effects from longer-term exposure include a reduction of mental alertness, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, and hyper-reactivity to cold, such as cold-induced urticaria, common in Finland. This article describes a European Union project aimed at developing tools for cold work risk assessment and management in order to reduce or prevent cold-related adverse effects. (78459)

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CIS 02-900 Evaluation of heat load risk during work in hot environments. (French: Evaluation du risque de contrainte thermique lors du travail en ambiances chaudes) Malchaire J., Kampmann B., Mehnert P., Gebhardt H., Piette A., Havenith G., Den Hartog E., Holmer I., Parsons K., Alfano G., Griefahn B., Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2001, Vol.XXXVIII, No.3, p.101-112. Illus. 31 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0900.pdf

The objective of this project was to coordinate the work of the main European research teams in order to develop and improve methods to assess the risks encountered during work in hot conditions. Methods and formulas were developed that take into account the dynamic effects associated with forced convection and the pumping effect associated with body movements and exercise, as well as more severe conditions in terms of radiation, humidity and different clothing. Criteria concerning the maximum increase in core temperature and the acceptable water loss, for acclimatized and non-acclimatized subjects, were reviewed and updated. These limits intend to protect 95% of the population. A strategy was developed to assess the risks in any working situation with varying conditions of the climate, of metabolic rate or of clothing. A methodology was developed for observation and analysis. The Predicted Heat Strain model developed as part of this project is presently proposed for the revision of the ISO 7933 standard. (78588)

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CIS 02-901 Deep body core temperatures in industrial workers under thermal stress. Brake D.J., Bates G.P., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.125-135. Illus. 53 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0901.pdf

A programme to continuously measure body core temperatures in 36 workers working in a hot underground mine was conducted. Miniaturized radio-transponders taken orally were used to measure temperature during the transit time in the gastrointestinal tract. Commonly recommended limits for industrial hyperthermia are 38.0°C or an increase of 1°C. The results showed that miners regularly exceeded these limits in terms of maximum deep body core temperature (average, 38.3 °C; standard deviation, 0.4°C), maximum temperature rise (1.4°C, 0.4°C), and maximum heat storage (431 kJ, 163 kJ) without reporting any symptoms of heat illness. A significant component of the observed elevated core temperatures was attributable to the normal circadian rhythm, which was measured at 0.9°C (standard deviation, 0.2°C). Evidence was found that workers "self pace" when under thermal stress. (78727)

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CIS 02-902 Empirical validation of a new heat stress index. Bates G., Miller V., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.145-153. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0902.pdf

Thermal stress is a well-recognized health hazard in the workplace. In addition to health effects, working in very hot environments can have significantly negative effects on the productivity of some industries. Defining what constitutes a safe level of thermal stress in hot working environments has been a long-standing dilemma in occupational hygiene. The current indices used to evaluate the environment are either not adequate or difficult to implement. This article describes a new heat stress index, the thermal work limit, which incorporates all needed inputs, and generates a single figure specifying a maximum work limit. Initial validation of the index demonstrates it to be simple to use, less prone to interpretive error, reliable and far superior to currently recommended indices as an indicator of thermal stress. (78771)

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CIS 02-903 Radiation accidents: Occurrence, types, consequences, medical management, and the lessons to be learned. Turai I., Veress K., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.3-14. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0903.pdf

The paper reviews radiation accidents having involved significant human exposure. Tables provide detailed information on the health consequences of the 20 major radiation accidents that occurred in the world between 1986 and 2000. During the last 57 years, there were on average seven registered accidents per year in the world. Therefore, for most physicians, the chance to meet a patient with symptoms of acute radiation injury during their entire professional career is very low. Nevertheless, each physician has to have some basic knowledge to recognize and initially respond to radiation injuries. This paper emphasizes the need to strengthen both undergraduate and postgraduate training in radiation medicine in all countries, but in particular in Central and Eastern Europe, where unauthorized possession or smuggling of radiation sources, which may result in accidental radiation injuries, is not uncommon. (78594)

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CIS 02-904 DNA damage induced by UV-C irradiation in leukocytes of Chernobyl accident clean-up workers. Arutyunyan R.M., Hovhannisyan G.G., Ghazanchyan E.G., Nersesyan A.K., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.15-21. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0904.pdf

The comet assay was used to estimate DNA damage induced by UV-C in leukocytes of 12 persons who were engaged during 1986-1987 in the clean-up of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant after the 1986 accident. Blood samples were collected in 1997, namely 10 years after the radiation exposure. Reference blood samples were obtained from 12 healthy persons of corresponding ages. Results show an increased repair capacity of DNA in leukocytes of irradiated persons exposed to UV-C, when compared with leukocytes from controls. This phenomenon is presumably due to a radio-adaptive response. There were no statistically significant differences in the spontaneous levels of DNA damage in leukocytes between the individuals in the two groups. Some hypotheses concerning adaptive response in cells of persons previously exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation are discussed. (78595)

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CIS 02-905 Occupational diseases and ionizing radiation - Diseases recognized between 1932 and 1997 in Belgium. (French: Maladies professionnelles et rayonnements ionisants - Affections reconnues de 1932 à 1997 en Belgique) Libouton P., Caroyer J.M., Buyse P., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.108-114. Illus. 18 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0905.pdf

This paper analyses the 169 cases that were recognized in Belgium as occupational diseases caused by ionizing radiation between 1932 and 1997. Most cases were haematological diseases (55.7%), 39% of which were malignant. 27 cases of radiodermatitis, eight cancers of the thyroid gland, seven cataracts, five cancers of the respiratory tract (3 of which were lung cancers) and one bone cancer were also recognized. This population consisted of 45% women and 55 % men, most of whom worked in the health care sector (68%). (78680)

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CIS 02-906 Radiation dose estimation for epidemiologic studies of flight attendants. Grajewski B., Waters M.A., Whelan E.A., Bloom T.F., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.41, No.1, p.27-37. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0906.pdf

NIOSH is currently conducting health studies of female flight attendants. Exposures of interest include cosmic radiation. However, the data needed to estimate cumulative radiation dose are not found in work histories. An algorithm was developed to generate the required input data for the Federal Aviation Administration's radiation estimation software from work histories, and an evaluation was made as to whether the effects of cumulative radiation dose could be distinguished analytically from effects of circadian rhythm disruption. Selection of a study population flying predominantly North-South flights can provide the necessary distinction between radiation and time zone crossing exposures. The method developed will be useful for exposure assessment in cabin crew studies with relatively short study periods, (e.g., reproductive health studies) for which limited fight history details are generally available. (78763)

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CIS 02-907 Development of a method for evaluating exposure to hand-transmitted vibration and whole-body vibration at the workplace. (German: Entwicklung einer Methodik zur personengebundenen Messung von Hand-Arm- und Ganzkörperschwingungen am Arbeitsplatz) Gillmeister F., Schenk T., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. xvii,185p. Illus. 60 ref. Price: EUR 17.50., ISBN 3-89701-674-5 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0907.pdf

This report describes the development of a new method for personal measurements of hand-arm vibration and whole-body vibration. Instead of the sensors being attached to the vibrating machinery or equipment, they are attached to the hands or to specific body parts of the operators, depending on the equipment used and the work postures adopted. The method enables measurements over a full working day and provides reliable evaluations of vibration exposure levels over extended periods of time. (78491)

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CIS 02-908 Determining machinery noise emission levels - Environmental corrections. (German: Geräuschemissionen von Maschinen - Umgebungskorrekturen) Otremba H.O., Hoppe G., Sehrndt G.A., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 106p. Illus. 47 ref. Price: EUR 11.50., ISBN 3-89701-778-4 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0908.pdf

This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the environmental corrections necessary when performing emission sound pressure measurements with directionally-emitting sources. A stationary van with the engine turned off but equipped with an additional sound source was used to simulate a noise-emitting machine. Different adjustments of the roof and windows were used to obtain variable directionality and evaluate angle bias. The findings are to form the basis for proposed modifications of existing emission sound pressure measurement standards and for recommendations for users of the standards. (78495)

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CIS 02-909 Study of the reliability of emission sound pressure level measurements using the 3-component intensity method. (German: Untersuchungen zur Messunsicherheit des Emissionsschalldruckpegels bestimmt durch das 3-Komponenten-Intensitäts-Verfahren) Hübner G., Gerlach A., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 77p. Illus. 22 ref. Price: EUR 11.50., ISBN 3-89701-797-0 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0909.pdf

This report describes the work carried out for the purpose of defining the conditions of application of a method for determining emission sound pressure levels based on the technique of recording three Cartesian sound intensity components. A single measurement enables the calculation of the complete sound spectra and of any frequency-weighted quantity. Over 400 acoustical situations were tested, including in rooms with K3 values of up to 14.5dB, significant background noise, composed sound sources, measurements in shadow positions and sources with high directionality. The method was found to be applicable in a wide variety of conditions and was incorporated into the ISO 11205 standard. (78497)

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CIS 02-910 ISOMAG 1.1 - Design and calculation of antivibratory damping of machinery and equipment. (German: ISOMAG 1.1 - Projektierung und Berechnung der Schwingungsisolierung von Maschinen und Geräten) Uhlig A., Schreiber U., Blochwitz T., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 232p. Illus. 30 ref. + CD-ROM. Price: EUR 21.50., ISBN 3-89701-803-9 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0910.pdf

Vibrations caused by machinery may be harmful to workers and present safety risks to equipment and buildings. This document describes ISOMAG (release 1.1), a software application for the design and calculation of antivibratory damping of machinery which takes into consideration the dynamic characteristics of the positioning of the machinery. The application helps users select appropriate vibration damping materials and place them in an optimal manner, and calculates the key values (vibration frequency characteristics, forces, displacement, speed and acceleration) while at the same time satisfying permissible levels. The user can select a German or English interface. (78636)

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CIS 02-911 Automatic setting of the glare protection level of electro-optical welding protection filters. (German: Automatische Schutzstufeneinstellung elektrooptischer Schweißerschutzfilter) Koschinski W., Schirmacher A., Sutter E., Ott G., Janßen M., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 110p. Illus. 12 ref. Price: EUR 12.00., ISBN 3-89701-403-3 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0911.pdf

Arc welding in Germany generally requires the use of shields rated between 9 and 13 (corresponding to light transmission values of between 10-4 and 10-6) to avoid glare. Such low transmission values do not allow details of the workplace to be visible before the arc is ignited. The purpose of this study was to examine the performance of shields developed by two manufacturers having the capability of changing shade according to the light intensity. Over 100 field tests were carried out, during which the shields were rated by experienced welders under various conditions of light intensity corresponding to the scale of 9 to 13. In most cases, the welders considered the resulting shades to be "correct". (78398)

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CIS 02-912 Biological effects of non-ionizing radiation. (French: Les effets biologiques des rayonnements non ionisants) Duchêne A., Joussot-Dubien J., Flammarion Médecine-Sciences, 4 rue Casimir-Delavigne, 75006 Paris, France, 2001. viii, 85p. Illus. Bibl. ref. Index. Price: EUR 12.00., ISBN 2-257-11050-1 (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0912.pdf

Non-ionizing radiation includes conventional optical and laser ultraviolet, visible and infrared radiation, radio-frequency radiation, electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of high-voltage power lines, static fields and, although differing in nature, ultrasounds. Aimed at a wide readership, this publication describes the main properties of the different types of non-ionizing radiation, as well as their biological effects and potential health hazards. Recommended exposure limits of international bodies aimed at avoiding deleterious human health effects are also included. (78477)

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CIS 02-913 Optimization of radiation protection in the control of occupational exposure. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2002. 66p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: EUR 19.00., ISBN 92-0-110302-6 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0913.pdf
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1118_scr.pdf

The principle of optimization of radiation protection stipulates that all reasonable efforts be made to reduce doses, taking social and economic factors into account. Applying this principle necessitates considerable effort in practice. This safety guide provides practical information on how to apply the optimization of radiation protection in the workplace. The emphasis is on the integration of radiation protection into the more general system of work management, the involvement of management and workers in setting up a system of radiation protection, and the implementation of such a system. (78779)

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CIS 02-914 Risks associated with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF) and intermediate frequency electromagnetic fields. (French: Risques liés aux champs électromagnétiques d'extrêmement basses fréquences (ELF) et de fréquences intermédiaires) Miro L., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2001, No.133, 8p. 12 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0914.pdf

"Extremely Low Frequency" (ELF) electromagnetic fields are for the most part the result of the transport or use of electricity. Biological effects of induced currents are reviewed, both in vivo and in vitro. Human effects resulting from clinical observations, experimental studies, epidemiological surveys and cases of active implants are discussed. The very low-, low- and medium-frequencies, termed "intermediate frequencies" are more and more widespread, both in the domestic and industrial environment. They give rise to induced currents in the human body. Despite the limited knowledge concerning the effects of these frequencies, several experimental and human studies in the area are cited. Static magnetic fields are reviewed in terms of their physical and biological and human effects. Safety standards concerning these radiations are presented and discussed. (78845)

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CIS 02-915 Risks from radiofrequency electromagnetic waves. (French: Risques liés aux ondes radioélectromagnétiques) Miro L., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2001, No.133, 8p. 12 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0915.pdf

Biophysics of the interaction between radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation and human tissues are discussed, and the concept of specific absorption flux is defined. Health hazards are evaluated, in particular that of risk to the ocular lens. Other specific effects include effects on the central nervous system, behaviour, the endocrine system and the haematopoietic system. In occupational medicine, pathologies linked to the thermogenic effect that have been highlighted during clinical observations, epidemiological surveys and cases of active implants are discussed. Work aptitude conditions for jobs involving exposure are reviewed, and the procedures to be adopted in cases of accidental acute or chronic exposure and medical supervision of personnel are described. Finally, safety standards are presented and discussed. (78846)

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CIS 02-916 Lasers and safety. (French: Laser et sécurité) Miro L., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 2001, No.133, 7p. Illus. 5 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0916.pdf

The different interaction mechanisms between laser radiation and living matter are reviewed. Skin and eye risk factors are discussed. They include physical factors related to laser emission and factors related to the physiology of eyes and skin. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standards contain provisions for the classification of lasers into seven classes according to their potential risk, as well as definitions of exposure limits. The article also covers the prevention of risks encountered during the use of lasers outdoors on in confined spaces, particularly with respect to eye protection. Medical supervision of personnel using lasers should include aptitude tests and periodic checks. Procedures to be adopted in cases of eye injury, according to the type and frequency of the laser, are summarized. A list of relevant standards and regulations is also included. (78847)

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[ Top of page ]

009 Mechanical hazards, transport

CIS 02-917 Optical barrier curtains for preventing accidents during short preparation times. (German: Lichtgitter verhindern Unfälle bei kurzen Rüstzeiten) Wesch D., Maschinenmarkt, Jan. 2002, No.1/2, p.32-33. Illus. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0917.pdf

This article describes the safety modifications made to equipment in a plastics processing enterprise. A new tilting support for moulds as well as a tilting mould enclosure unit were developed for reducing the required preparation times during product changes. To minimize the risk of being crushed during these operations, hazardous areas were protected by optical barrier curtains inclined at 30°. This inclination allows one to dispense with the horizontal barrier curtain that would normally be required to protect the operators when moving back. (78614)

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CIS 02-918 Tractor-drawn mower occupational fatalities in production agriculture, 1992-1997. Adekoya N., Journal of Agromedicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.53-62. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0918.pdf

Data on occupational fatalities while using tractor-drawn mowers in the agricultural sector in the United States from 1992-1997 were analysed. There were 126 deaths, including 32% from tractor overturns and 29% as a result of falling from the tractor or being struck by the farm equipment. The majority of workers fatally injured were self-employed (98 deaths, 77%). Fatalities were concentrated in the South (67 deaths, 53%) and the Midwest (40 deaths, 32%). The crude fatality rate was 1.0 death per 100,000 workers (crop production 1.8 deaths per 100,000 workers, livestock production 0.4 deaths per 100,000 workers). Workers 65 years and older reported the most fatalities (62 deaths, 49%), for a rate of 3.4 deaths per 100,000 workers. This analysis shows that an average of 21 workers die each year from this single work activity. Prevention strategies should address roll over protective structures (ROPS), older workers and hazard awareness. (78566)

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CIS 02-919 Injuries to loggers during skid work: An exploratory analysis of NZ forest industry injury data. Bentley T., Parker R., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2001, Vol.17, No.4, p.391-399. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0919.pdf

The highest injury rates in the New Zealand forest industry are found among loggers. While logging injuries have gradually been reducing over recent years due to the effects of increasing mechanization, the incidence of injuries occurring on skid sites has remained consistent. Data on skid site injuries held in the Forest Industry Accident Reporting Scheme were analysed to identify patterns and trends in injuries occurring on skid sites. Incidents involving "struck by" events were most common, representing 72% of all skid site injuries, and reflect the hazards associated with the close proximity and movement between vehicles, logs and people on skid site areas. Vehicles most often involved in skid site injuries were loaders, skidders and haulers. Other common events included "struck by chainsaw", most of which involved chainsaw "kickback", and slips, trips and falls on the level (23%) and from a height (23%). A number of possible measures to reduce the risk of injuries on skid sites are considered. (78813)

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CIS 02-920 Occupational accidents due to earthmoving equipment and related tasks. (French: Les accidents du travail dus au matériel et engins de terrassement et travaux connexes) Bastide J.C., Le Brech A., Travail et sécurité, Nov. 2001, No.612, p.13-16. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0920.pdf

This article presents details on occupational accidents involving earthmoving equipment in France. Between 1990 and 1999, the number of accidents was reduced almost by half. The number of accidents resulting in permanent disability fell from 331 to 141, while fatalities fell from 21 to 12. Contents: trends in the occurrence of accidents giving rise to temporary disabilities, permanent disabilities and fatalities between 1990 and 1999; accidents according to the type of equipment; location of injury; accidents by industrial sector; French and European regulations concerning the use of earthmoving equipment. (78581)

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CIS 02-921 Suffocation from panels. (French: Etouffé par des panneaux) Prévention BTP, Dec. 2001, No.36, p.27-28. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0921.pdf

Description of a fatal accident that occurred in a woodworking shop where following a loss of balance while working to handle a particle-board panel, a worker was crushed under six panels weighing 520kg. He died of suffocation within seconds. This data sheet highlights an often underestimated risk from the weight of the panels, and describes good practices with respect to their storage and handling. (78585)

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CIS 02-922 The highway accident and its victims. (French: L'accident routier et ses victimes) Tissot C., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.91-101. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0922.pdf

Between 1990 and 1997, there were approximately 6000 fatal occupational accidents in France, of which close to 2000 were road accidents involving employees in the course of their work. This article focuses on the road accidents, and contains a number of tables showing accident occurrences by type of vehicle, industrial sector, age of victims, size of company and employee level of responsibility. A typological classification occupational fatal road accidents in nine classes is proposed. (78840)

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CIS 02-923 Preventing needlesticks in emergency medical system workers. Peate W.F., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.43, No.6, p.554-557. 18 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0923.pdf

Emergency medical system (EMS) workers frequently use sharp devices in injury-prone circumstances that involve limited visibility, confined spaces, rapidly moving vehicles and uncooperative victims. This study examined the efficacy of an automatic self-retracting lancet in reducing needlestick injuries and related direct and indirect costs. Subjects were 477 active-duty EMS workers. After the introduction of a spring-loaded automatic retracting type glucometer lancet device, needlestick injuries decreased from 16 per 954 EMS worker-years to 2 per 477 EMS worker-years. The annualized cost of treatment declined from USD 8276 to USD 2068. The change to a self-retracting device decreased the number of needlestick injuries and was cost-effective with a minimal increase in device cost. (78434)

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CIS 02-924 Slips, trips and falls accidents. Chang W.R., ed., Safety Science, Oct.-Nov. 2002, Vol.40, No.7-8, p.557-714 (whole issue). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0924.pdf

This special issue is wholly-devoted to articles on slips, trips and falls. Topics covered include: research issues; heel contact dynamics during slips; friction between vulcanized rubber (footwear) and porcelain (floor tiles); effects of the slip criterion and time on friction measurements; slip resistance, thermal insulation and comfort of footwear on icy surfaces; maximum acceptable loads for pushing and pulling on floor surfaces; effect of gait speed and load-carrying on the reliability of ground reaction force measurements; slip risks in food industry workshops; movement practices on access paths of mobile machinery; age-related sensory degradation on the perception of floor slipperiness; reliability of tribometric test results. (78718)

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CIS 02-925 Machine safety and ergonomics from the user's perspective. (French: Sécurité des machines et ergonomie: le point de vue des utilisateurs; German: Machinensicherheit und Ergonomie aus der Sicht der Benutzer) Mattiuzzo C., KANBRIEF, Verein zur Förderung der Arbeitssicherheit in Europa e.V., Kommission Arbeitsschutz und Normung (KAN), Geschäftsstelle, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2002, No.2, p.14-16. Illus. 3 ref. (In English, French, German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0925.pdf

This article describes a cooperative project in Italy involving government bodies, occupational physicians and employer and employee representatives aimed at integrating the experience of machine operators for the purposes of standardization. The study was carried out in the woodworking industry, with particular emphasis on two types of machines, routers and circular saws. The objectives included developing a systematic method for recording the experience of users of these machines, to better identify the hazards and prevention possibilities, and to compile the list of suggestions aimed at improving the harmonized standards applicable to these machines. Besides making it possible to recommend improved methods of work organization, the project enabled the formulation of specific proposals for improving the harmonized standards EN 1870-1 and EN 848-1. (78612)

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CIS 02-926 The new European standard concerning safety rules for the construction and installation of passenger lifts incorporated into Italian law (D.P.R. n. 162 of 30 April 1999). (Italian: La nuova normativa comunitaria relativa alla costruzione ed installazione degli ascensori recepita in Italia con il D.P.R. n. 162 del 30 aprile 1999) Lusardi G., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2000, Vol.13, No.1, p.51-71. (In Italian)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0926.pdf

European Union directives (84/529/EEC and 86/312/EEC) on safety rules for the construction and installation of electrically operated passenger lifts and builder hoists have been incorporated into an Italian decree (D.P.R. No. 162 of 30 April 1999), which also contains the third edition of the corresponding national standards. Main contents are: purpose and scope; references; definitions; symbols and abbreviations; lift shaft; machine and pulley room; landing doors; cabin and counterweight; suspension elements, compensating elements, fall arresters; speed limiting devices, lift guides, shock absorbers, travel limiting devices; clearance between cabin and lift shaft; machinery; electrical equipment and installation; protection against electrical fault; controls; notices and instructions for use; checking; testing, test record-keeping, maintenance. Numerous appendices. (78748)

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CIS 02-927 Thorough examination and inspection of particular items of lifting equipment. Oram P., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 22p. 9 ref. + 22 annexes, approx. 240p. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2349-1 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/crr_pdf/2002/crr02429.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0927.pdf

The Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment Regulations 1998 (LOLER, see CIS 99-1428) require lifting equipment and lifting machinery to be thoroughly inspected by a competent person. They also introduced a new concept, "the scheme of thorough examination". The objective of this report is to provide specific information to assist owners, users and competent persons on meeting these new requirements. It includes a general section that can be applied to most types of equipment, supplemented by annexes that provide extra information on specific equipment. (78485)

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CIS 02-928 Physiological optimization of cut-resistant protective clothing. (German: Bekleidungsphysiologische Optimierung von Schnittschutzkleidung) Bartels V.T., Umbach K.H., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 80p. Illus. 3 ref. Price: EUR 10.00., ISBN 3-89701-404-1 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0928.pdf

Over 250,000 workers in Germany (including forestry workers, fire fighters and rescue workers) use chain saws and need to wear cut-resistant protective clothing. This type of clothing generally cannot be used for extended work periods without leading to the critical overheating of the body, particularly during the warm season and with heavy physical activity. The objective of this project was to develop thermophysiologically-optimized cut-resistant protective clothing systems. Heat transmissions were recorded for clothing made from various fabric weights, layer compositions and constructions, and clothing fabrics offering the best comfort while meeting specific technical protection requirements were identified. Skin sensitivity was also taken into account in choosing the layer of fabric in direct contact with the skin. (78399)

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CIS 02-929 European machinery safety guide. Deutsches Institut für Normung e.V. (DIN), Beuth Verlag GmbH, Germany, 16. Ergänzungslieferung, June 2002. Approx. 200 loose leafs. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0929.pdf

Update of a guide on the safety of machinery, aimed at European and German machinery manufacturers, suppliers, distributors and users. It contains current European Union and German regulations, directives and standards on machinery safety, from their design to their safe commissioning, including hazard identification and risk assessment. (78640)

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CIS 02-930 Standardization relating to the Pressure Equipment Directive. (German: Normung im Bereich der Druckgeräte-Richtlinie) Braun M., Schulz T., Verein zur Förderung der Arbeitssicherheit in Europa e.V., Kommission Arbeitsschutz und Normung (KAN), Geschäftsstelle, Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53757 Sankt Augustin, Germany, 2001. 155p. Illus. 20 ref., ISBN 3-88383-606-0 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0930.pdf

The purpose of this study was to develop an overview of the standards related to the European Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC (see CIS 98-409). A survey of expert opinion was carried out to determine the degree with which the European standards took account of German regulations, and whether there remained further needs for standardization at the European level. Based on this overview, actions required at the German level with respect to the harmonization of standards for equipment operating under pressure were determined, and are the object of recommendations. (78615)

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CIS 02-931 Investigation of accidents involving falls from low heights and draft of a recommendation for the application of differentiated measures of protection in construction work and on construction sites. (German: Untersuchung des Unfallgeschehens bei Abstürzen aus geringen Höhen und Entwurf einer Empfehlung zur Anwendung differenzierter Schutzmaßnahmen bei Bauarbeiten und auf Baustellen) Popov K., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. 222p. Illus. 59 ref. Price: EUR 18.00., ISBN 3-89701-395-9 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0931.pdf

Although falls from heights are often fatal and receive the most attention, falls from low heights (< 2m) are the most frequent and can cause serious injuries. This report presents recommendations for the prevention of falls from low heights. These recommendations are based on the results of a retrospective analysis of 5224 cases of occupational fall accidents which occurred in Germany in 1996 and 1997 in all sectors of the economy. Examples of worksites where these accidents occurred most frequently were analysed, including with the help of photographs and video recordings. Recommendations are made in the following areas: technical measures; organizational measures; personal protective equipment; motivation; safety instructions and rules; occupational medicine. (78397)

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CIS 02-932 Rope terminations - Swaged screw-bolt joints for steel wire ropes. (German: Seilendverbindungen - Bolzenverpressungen für Drahtseile) Vogel W., Wehking K.H., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 98p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: EUR 11.00., ISBN 3-89701-802-0 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0932.pdf

The objective of this study was to define the shape and size of bolts and bolt holes for swaged-terminal steel ropes used in safety critical applications, an area which is only partly addressed by existing standards. Tensile tests were carried out on ropes and swaged terminals having various constructions and parameters, including different ratios of the terminal shank diameter before and after swaging, and different swaging lengths. On the basis of the results, proposals are made with respect to the design and dimensions of swaged terminals. (78499)

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CIS 02-933 BG rules - Erection of scaffolds: Suspended platforms. (German: BG-Regeln - Gerüstbau: Hängegerüste) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, Apr. 1999. Illus. 38p. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0933.pdf

This document reproduces the full text of guideline BGR 174 of the Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association (HVBG) concerning the installation of suspended platforms. Contents: scope; definitions; general provisions; proof of need; types of scaffolds; scaffold dimensions; technical safety requirements; standard suspended platform specifications; erecting and use instructions; erection, dismantling, modifications; panels that need to be affixed to scaffolds during the time when construction work is in effect; inspection of the scaffolding by the erector and the user. Appendices include an example of an inspection report, requirements for suspending chains, related guidelines, rules and standards. (78625)

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CIS 02-934 Safety systems - Two-hand control devices. (French: Composants de sécurité - Dispositifs de commande bimanuelle) Marsot J., Travail et sécurité, Dec. 2001, No.613, 4p. Insert. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.inrs.fr/produits/publications.pdf/ed97.pdf
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0934.pdf

Two-hand control devices allow dangerous equipment to be controlled while protecting the safety of operators. Contents of this safety data sheet: safety requirements; regulatory framework; choice of appropriate devices; installation recommendations. (78832)

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CIS 02-935 Circular saw benches and dimension saws. (French: Scies circulaires à table ou à format) Kuntz P., Otter B., Trivin J.Y., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.69-88. Illus. 17 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0935.pdf

Aimed at company owners, managers and supervisors, this technical safety data sheet analyses the risks of working at circular saw benches and dimension saws and proposes ways of preventing them. Contents: uses of the saws; terminology; description; purchasing conditions, acceptance, laying out and installation of machinery; operation of machinery; practical guidance on the workplace and machinery preparation, use and maintenance. Replaces CIS 87-1081. (78839)

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CIS 02-936 Technical guidance on the safe use of lifting equipment offshore. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. iv, 72p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2100-6 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0936.pdf

This guide is aimed at persons involved in the supply, operation and control of lifting equipment used in the offshore environment. Its purpose is to assist them in the safe operation of this equipment and in complying with legal requirements, in particular with the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998 (PUWER 98, see CIS 99-1429) and the Lifting Operations and Lifting Equipment regulations 1998 (LOLER 98, see CIS 99-1428). Contents: general considerations on the selection and operation of equipment; types of offshore lifting equipment; equipment for lifting people; drilling equipment; guidance on compliance with LULER and POWER. (78662)

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CIS 02-937 BG rules - Protection against falls during the erection and operation of overhead electrical power lines. (German: BG-Regeln - Schutz gegen Absturz beim Bau und Betrieb von Freileitungen) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburgerstrasse 449, 50939 Köln, Germany, 1999. 15p. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0937.pdf

This document reproduces the full text of guideline BGR 148 of the Mutual Occupational Accident Insurance Association (HVBG) concerning the protection against falls during the building and operation of overhead electrical power lines. Contents: scope; definitions; general provisions; provisions applicable to climbing up pylons and working on overhead electrical power lines (medical examinations of aptitude, fall arresters, suspended platforms, work nacelles); rescue measures; inspections before starting work (platforms, fall arresters, access ways). An appendix includes a list of related guidelines, rules and standards. (78622)

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[ Top of page ]

010 Biological hazards

CIS 02-938 Sampling and analysis of airborne endotoxins - A literature survey. (French: Echantillonnage et analyse des endotoxines dans l'air - Etude bibliographique) Greff-Mirguet G., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 2nd Quarter 2002, No.187, Note No.2170-187-02, p.73-87. Illus. 84 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0938.pdf

Risks to health from airborne bacteria and moulds are known. However, although numerous studies have attempted to estimate the level of exposure to endotoxins in various sectors of occupational activity, dose-effect relationships could not be established. Furthermore, results of tests carried out by different laboratories often show a poor correlation. The variety of techniques used both with respect to sampling and analytical methods explain this dispersion of results to a large degree. This literature survey highlighted the fact that different practices coexist during each step of the sampling and analysis of endotoxins in air. The adoption of a future European standard should impose uniform sampling and analytical techniques, enabling inter-laboratory comparisons, better assessments of the true levels of exposure to endotoxins in all sectors of activity and more accurate evaluations of dose-response relationships. (78673)

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CIS 02-939 Occupational risk of Lyme disease: An epidemiological review. Piacentino J.D., Schwartz B.S., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.59, No.2, p.75-84. 64 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0939.pdf

Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease in the United States. Since the early 1980s, a large body of literature has evaluated the occupational risk of Lyme disease. The availability of a new vaccine to prevent Lyme disease makes it necessary for occupational health professionals to make decisions regarding the risk of the disease among certain categories of employees. (78387)

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CIS 02-940 Sero-prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi among Flemish forestry workers. (Dutch: Seroprevalentie van Borrelia burgorferi bij Vlaamse bosarbeiders) Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 2001, Vol.XXXVIII, No.3, p.113-118. 28 ref. (In Dutch)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0940.pdf

The number of registered cases of Lyme disease has been increasing each year in Belgium. To evaluate the impact of Lyme disease among forest workers, a sero-prevalence study was conducted in 1996, involving 261 employees of the forestry department of the Flemish community. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi responsible for Lyme disease. The frequency of tick bites in the past year and the extent of self-reported symptoms of employees Lyme disease were also noted. It was found that 9% of the investigated population had a positive serology (IgM or lgG antibodies measured by ELISA and immunofluorescence) for B. burgdorferi.The forestry workers reported an average of 17 tick bites per year. The highest levels were reported in the provinces of Limburg, Antwerp and Flemish Brabant. 13% of the employees retrospectively reported a skin rash which resembled erythema chronicum migrans (ECM). This study showed that the risk of Lyme disease is real and correlates with the high degree of exposure. (78589)

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CIS 02-941 Are guards in the penitentiary system of the Canton of Vaud at risk of occupational exposure to blood-transmissible diseases?. (French: Les surveillants travaillant dans le système pénitentiaire vaudois sont-ils soumis à un risque d'exposition professionnelle à une maladie transmissible par le sang?) Scherrer Y., Boillat M.A., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.83-91. Illus. 26 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0941.pdf

Prison staff is at risk of blood-transmissible diseases given the nature of the of inmate population they are confronted with, in particular in the course of searches, acts of violence and accidents. The objective of this study conducted in a Swiss canton was to characterize the real and perceived risk of occupational blood-transmissible diseases in this occupation. Hepatitis B (HB) was used as an indicator of blood transmissible diseases, and HB serology of all employees (n = 248) was determined. Furthermore, a questionnaire was addressed to all employees. 19% of the warders had been wounded during searches in cells and 8.2% when searching inmates. One third of the guards had been at least once in contact with the blood of a prisoner. However, no increases in the number of seroconversions were observed. Finally, risk perception remains intense, concerning 73% of the guards and 20% of the remaining staff. (78677)

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CIS 02-942 Leptospirosis vaccine - Pharmacosurveillance survey carried out among doctors who administer the vaccination. (French: Vaccin leptospires - Enquête de pharmacosurveillance auprès des médecins vaccinateurs) Pouliquen P., Catilina P., Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.2, p.83-88. Illus. 18 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0942.pdf

Leptosirosis consists of a bacterial infection which may be particularly serious and possibly fatal. It is transmitted to man by rats, through sludge or contaminated water, and is recognized as an occupational disease. The main risk populations include workers in waste disposal, waste water treatment, roadwork, maintenance and inspection of sewers, and analytical laboratories. This article presents the results of a survey of occupational physicians, aimed at establishing current practices in medical inspection, frequency rates of leptospirosis and the effectiveness of vaccination. Preventive vaccination is shown to be a useful way of fighting leptospirosis. (78684)

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CIS 02-943 Cost-utility analysis of hepatitis A prevention among health-care workers in Israel. Chodick G., Lerman Y., Wood F., Aloni H., Peled T., Ashkenazi S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.109-115. 30 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0943.pdf

This study was conducted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different strategies of preventing hepatitis A (HA) among physicians, nurses and paramedical staff. The strategies compared were passive immunization during a hepatitis A outbreak, systematic mass vaccination of all workers, and screening for antibodies to HA virus followed by vaccination of non-immune employees. An epidemiological model was used to predict the prevented number of HA cases. The lowest cost per prevented HA case (USD 6240) was achieved by screening prior to vaccination among 18- to 39-year-old physicians and paramedical workers, and the highest (USD 61,858) by mass vaccination of nurses over 39 years of age. Taking USD 60,000 as a limit cost per saved quality-adjusted life year, selective vaccination for physicians and for paramedical workers is proposed. Mass vaccination of all health care workers, aside from nurses over 40 years of age, becomes cost-effective once the active HA vaccine price is reduced to USD 23. (78726)

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CIS 02-944 One-year study of occupational human immunodeficiency virus postexposure prophylaxis. Garb J.R., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2002, Vol.44, No.3, p.265-270. 14 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0944.pdf

A 12-month experience with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in a specialized medical care centre in the United States was evaluated for timeliness of treatment and adherence to treatment recommendations. 46 health care workers were started on HIV PEP. Risk status of the source patient, rather than type of exposure, was a significant determinant for both initiating and completing treatment. Of those exposed to HIV-positive sources, 79% completed the full 28 days of therapy. Only 22% of all health care workers who started PEP discontinued treatment because of adverse effects. The mean time from exposure to first dose of PEP was one hour and 46 minutes. The use of a defined treatment protocol, with supporting educational material and immediately-available PEP medication is an effective way of managing HIV exposures. (78736)

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CIS 02-945 Common zoonoses in agriculture. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Feb. 2002. 6p. 3 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0945.pdf

This data sheet describes United Kingdom legal requirements for the control of the risk of zoonoses in humans, and provides guidance on precautions: occupational hygiene practices when working with livestock; use of personal protective equipment; provision of separate washing and eating facilities for farm visitors. Symptoms, treatment and control of some common zoonoses are outlined. Replaces CIS 01-883. (78782)

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[ Top of page ]

011 Physiology, ergonomics

CIS 02-946 Short term influence of mechanical factors on regional musculoskeletal pain: A study of new workers from 12 occupational groups. Nahit E.S., Macfarlane G.J., Pritchard C.M., Cherry N.M., Silman A.J., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, June 2001, Vol.58, No.6, p.374-381. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0946.pdf

To determine the influence of short-term exposure to mechanical factors on regional musculoskeletal pain, information was collected by questionnaire from newly employed workers of 12 occupational groups. Subjects indicated on a blank body manikin any pain which had occurred during the past month and had lasted more than 1 day. 1081 subjects were recruited to the study. 261 (24%) reported low back pain, 221 (20%) shoulder pain, 93 (9%) wrist or forearm pain, and 222 (21%) knee pain. Carrying weights of more than 23kg on one shoulder was the factor which was most strongly associated with low back pain (OR 2.4), shoulder pain (OR 3.1) and knee pain (OR 3.5), whereas forearm pain was most strongly associated with repetitive movements of the wrists (OR 1.8). Bending forwards in an uncomfortable position for at least 15 minutes was associated with shoulder pain (OR 1.6) and kneeling for at least 15 minutes was associated with knee pain (OR 1.8). Exposure to mechanical factors was most strongly associated with pain at multiple sites rather than with pains in individual regions. (78532)

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CIS 02-947 Risk factors for back pain among male farmers: Analysis of Iowa Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance Study. Park H., Sprince N.L., Whitten P.S., Burmeister L.F., Zwerling C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.646-654. Illus. 38 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0947.pdf

Back pain causes considerable morbidity, disability and economic loss among workers. Farmers handle heavy objects, often in awkward postures. However, the prevalence of back pain among farmers and the risk factors associated with back pain are not well known. This study assesses the frequency of risk factors for back pain among 287 Iowa male farmers. Using a mail questionnaire, data on potential risk factors for back pain were collected between 1992 and 1994, and surveyed eighteen months later for the occurrence of back pain as the outcome measure. It was found that 31% of farmers reported having daily back pain for a week or more during the past 12 months compared to 18.5% in the general working population. Using a multiple logistic regression model, two factors associated with back pain were highlighted: 45-59 years of age (OR = 2.13) and having a non-agricultural job as the major occupation (OR = 2.02). (78711)

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CIS 02-948 Risk of shoulder tendinitis in relation to shoulder loads in monotonous repetitive work. Frost P., Bonde J.P.E., Mikkelsen S., Andersen J.H., Fallentin N., Kaergaard A., Thomsen J.F., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.41, No.1, p.11-18. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0948.pdf

To evaluate the hypothesis that shoulder loads in repetitive work might contribute to the occurrence of shoulder tendinitis, a cross-sectional study was carried out involving 1961 workers in repetitive work and 782 controls. Shoulder loads were quantified at task level and measures of exposures were assigned based on task distribution. Shoulder tendinitis was defined on the basis of symptoms and clinical criteria. The prevalence of shoulder tendinitis was higher among exposed workers (adjusted OR 3.1). Neither the frequency of movements nor the lack of micro-pauses in shoulder flexion were related to disease prevalence. Increasing force requirements increased risk slightly (OR 1.6). The results indicate that workers with repetitive tasks have increased risk of shoulder tendinitis, which partially can be attributed to force requirements. (78762)

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CIS 02-949 Wrist musculoskeletal disorders - Direct and indirect influence of psychological and organizational factors. (French: Troubles musculosquelettiques des poignets - Influence directe ou indirecte des facteurs psychologiques et organisationnels) Malchaire J.B., Roquelaure Y., Cock N.A., Piette A.G., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 4th Quarter 2001, No.185, p.23-33. 52 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0949.pdf

In order to highlight the possible role of psychological, organizational and stress factors on wrist musculoskeletal (MS) complaints, 133 women operators assigned to repetitive tasks were subjected to a general questionnaire on their medical history, to a questionnaire on the efforts, positions and repetitiveness of their work and finally to a series of questionnaires on psychological, organizational and stress factors. Results show high levels of prevalence of wrist MS complaints (47%) for jobs considered to be of high risk. Multivariate analysis reveals a positive relationship with smoking and certain types of effort, and a negative relationship with leisure activities and the length of work breaks. Positive or negative perception of psychological and organizational factors shows an important association (OR = 3.57). The study clearly demonstrates the multi-factorial aspect of MS complaints and highlights the need for a holistic approach to working conditions that includes psychosocial aspects. (78836)

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CIS 02-950 Ergonomics in agriculture: Commentary and literature review. Schuman S.H., Journal of Agromedicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.7-16. 41 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0950.pdf

Review of published literature on the topic of ergonomics in agriculture, including musculoskeletal disorders, ergonomic improvements and ergonomic interventions. (78563)

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CIS 02-951 Priority risk factors for back injury in agricultural field work: Vineyard ergonomics. Meyers J.M., Miles J.A., Faucett J., Janowitz I., Tejeda D.G., Weber E., Smith R., Garcia L., Journal of Agromedicine, 2001, Vol.8, No.1, p.37-52. 49 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0951.pdf

Data from injury report logs from three California vineyards identified 29 cases of reported musculoskeletal diseases (MSDs) and 435 lost workdays in a working population of 194 in a 30-month period. 20 of these involved backstrain. High risk job tasks were identified by the employers and through the analysis of injury reports and the ergonomics risk factor checklist survey. These three data groups resulted in the identification of high priority tasks, including hand harvest work, hand pruning, and weeding using shovels. The most important risk factors for back injury in these jobs were repetitive lifting of heavy loads, repetitive exertion of force by the trunk and upper extremities, and repetitive or sustained awkward postures of the trunk (including full stoop and twisting with loads). (78565)

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CIS 02-952 Carpal tunnel syndrome caused by vine pruning. (French: Syndromes du canal carpien déclenchés par la taille de la vigne) Matray D., Larbre J.P., Teisseire C., Thibaudier J.M., Dupupet J.L., Bergeret A., Vial C., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.92-95. 8 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0952.pdf

In this study involving 150 randomly-selected vineyard workers in France called in for an occupational medicine examination, 20% presented a unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the dominant hand triggered by pruning of vines. This syndrome disappeared within a month of cessation of this activity. Recurrence of CTS was observed each pruning season among 80% of the workers. Such a pathology appears to affect predisposed subjects. It is advised to use electric shears to prevent this recurring problem. (78678)

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CIS 02-953 Reducing the energy cost of dragging sheep during sheep shearing. Payne W., Culvenor J., Lawrance M., Harvey J., Cowley S., Stuart D., Williams R., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Apr. 2002, Vol.18, No.2, p.173-179. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0953.pdf

The task of dragging sheep into position for shearing has been reported by shearers as the most physically demanding and one of the highest injury risk aspects of shearing, particularly with regard to back injury. This study aimed to identify which of the currently used drag paths induced the lowest energy consumption and risk of injury. The drag path with the lowest work economy (oxygen cost per sheep dragged per minute) and highest injury risk is used by left-handed shearers who are shearing from a workstation which is designed for right-handed shearers. Significantly, there were no observable differences in the work economy of the two drag paths which were used most frequently and which involved the lowest injury risk. These data have been used in advocating the adoption of simple shearing shed design solutions to assist in the control of injury risk and energy expenditure in the wool industry. (78774)

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CIS 02-954 Shoulder disorders and postural stress in automobile assembly work. Punnett L., Fine L.J., Keyserling W.M., Herrin G.D., Chaffin D.B., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.283-291. Illus. 42 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0954.pdf

A case-control study was conducted in an automobile assembly plant. The cases were 79 workers who reported shoulder pain and met symptom criteria in an interview. More than one-half also had positive findings in a physical examination. The 124 controls were randomly selected workers free of shoulder disorders. For each participant, the job was analysed for postural and biomechanical demands by an analyst blinded to case-referent status. 41% of the subjects flexed or abducted the right arm "severely" (above 90°) during the job cycle, and 35% did so with the left arm. Shoulder disorders were associated with severe flexion or abduction of the left (odds ratio (OR) 3.2) and the right (OR 2.3) shoulder. The risk increased as the proportion of the work cycle exposed increased. The findings support the conclusion that severe shoulder flexion or abduction, especially for 10% or more of the work cycle, is predictive of chronic or recurrent shoulder disorders. (78501)

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CIS 02-955 A posture and load sampling approach to determining low-back pain risk in occupational settings. Neumann W.P., Wells R.P., Norman R.W., Frank J., Shannon H., Kerr M.S., OUBPS Working Group (Ontario Universities Back Pain Study), International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.65-77. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0955.pdf

Physiological risk factors for low-back pain were studied in the motor vehicle manufacturing industry in Canada sampling specific workloads and postures (involving spinal compressions, hands flexions) associated with reported back-ache. The approach appears useful in providing information in order to reduce the risk of injury musculoskeletal injury. (78741)

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CIS 02-956 Physical workload during manual and mechanical deboning of poultry. Juul-Kristensen B., Fallentin N., Hansson G.Å., Madeleine P., Andersen J.H., Ekdahl C., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2002, Vol.29, No.2, p.107-115. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0956.pdf

The physical workload involved in mechanical versus manual deboning of poultry was studied with respect to force requirements, work postures and repetitive movements of the hand. 13 healthy women were studied during manual and mechanical deboning using electromyography (EMG), force recordings, observer based force ratings and electrogoniometers. In general, the introduction of new technology had only marginal effects on the risk factors associated with work related musculoskeletal disorders during poultry processing. Mechanical deboning moderately reduced peak forces, but the muscular activity remained high, and in addition higher levels of acceleration and repetition rates were introduced. Observer-based estimations of the hand forces correlated in these work tasks well with the mean peak EMG level of the relevant muscles. (78419)

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CIS 02-957 Predictive validity of the strain index in turkey processing. Knox K., Moore J.S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2001, Vol.43, No.5, p.451-462. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0957.pdf

The Strain Index is a job analysis method for determining if workers are exposed to the risk of developing distal upper extremity disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the predictive validity of the Strain Index in a turkey processing plant. Investigators analysed the right and left sides of workers in 28 jobs using the Strain Index and classified them as "hazardous" or "safe" based on the Strain Index score. Subsequently, OSHA 200 reporting data were used to ascertain the occurrence of distal upper extremity disorders retrospectively. If at least one such disorder had occurred on the right or left side during the previous 3 years, that side was classified as "positive." If no such disorder was reported during the previous 3 years, that side was classified as "negative." Evidence of association between the hazard classifications and the morbidity classifications for the 56 sides and the 28 jobs were evaluated. The validity of the Strain Index was confirmed by the observations. (78536)

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CIS 02-958 Ergonomic interventions for the furniture manufacturing industry. Part I - Lift assist devices. Mirka G.A., Smith C., Shivers C., Taylor J., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, May 2002, Vol.29, No.5, p.263-273. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0958.pdf

The objectives of this intervention research project were to develop and evaluate engineering controls for the reduction of low back injury risk in workers in the furniture manufacturing industry. An analysis of injury and illness records and survey data identified upholsterers and workers in the machine room as two occupations within the industry at elevated risk for low back injury. A detailed ergonomic evaluation of the activities performed by these workers was performed and the high risk subtasks involving high physical workloads and awkward postures were identified. Engineering interventions were developed and evaluated in the laboratory to document the reduction of exposure to these stressors. These interventions included a height-adjustable workbench for upholstery workers and a machine-room lift. They enabled reductions in physical workload and awkward postures. The machine-room lift also had a positive impact on the time necessary to complete the task. See also CIS 02-959. (78776)

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CIS 02-959 Ergonomic interventions for the furniture manufacturing industry. Part II - Handtools. Mirka G.A., Smith C., Shivers C., Taylor J., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, May 2002, Vol.29, No.5, p.275-287. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0959.pdf

Analysis of OSHA Form 200 data (notification of occupational diseases) and surveys of furniture industry workers revealed that upholsterers, workers who use sanders and workers who use spray guns are at higher levels of risk of upper extremity injury illness than the rest of the working population. An on-site ergonomic analysis of these three jobs was performed, highlighting a number of risk factors (repetitive work, high grip forces, ulnar wrist deviations and wrist flexion). Engineering interventions in the form of new or modified hand tools were then evaluated in the laboratory to assess their effectiveness in reducing exposure to these risk factors. Each of these modified tools and methods was compared with the standard methods typically used in industry. The results show that most of the intended beneficial effects were realized, with significant reductions in hand muscle activities, ulnar deviations and wrist flexions. See also CIS 02-958. (78777)

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CIS 02-960 Biomechanical analysis among book replacement library clerks. (French: Analyse biomécanique chez les commis au reclassement des documents d'une bibliothèque) Blackburn P., Girard M., Lagassé P.P., Travail et santé, Dec. 2001, Vol.17, No.4, p.24-26. 7 réf. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0960.pdf

A task analysis was conducted on library clerks responsible for book replacement at a university library. Forces and moments of force at the shoulder, hip and knee joints were assessed via a biomechanical analysis conducted to determine the impact of these tasks on the musculoskeletal system. A video camera along with a human biomechanical analysis software were used to conduct this analysis. The results indicate that replacing a book in the horizontal plane is the most frequently executed task on a daily basis. Furthermore, the tasks in which books are replaced at a height located between the shoulders and the trunk is the most efficient for the musculoskeletal system, whereas those in which books are replaced at a height located below the pelvis are the most soliciting from a biomechanical point of view. (78582)

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CIS 02-961 Why does low back pain continue to be so frequent among women health care workers in private institutions in Ile-de-France?. (French: Pourquoi les lombalgies sont-elles toujours aussi fréquentes chez les femmes travaillant en milieu de soins dans les établissements privés de l'Ile-de-France?) Alcouffe J., Fabin C., Fau-Prudhomot P., Manillier P., Montéléon P.Y., Pignerol S., Vedrenne F., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.17-28. 27 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0961.pdf

This epidemiological survey was carried out in order to study the frequency of low back pain among women working in the health care sector in the region of Paris (France). Two sets of data were collected in consecutive years. A standardized questionnaire was sent in 1999 and 2000 to a random sample of workers. Of the 1964 usable responses, similar levels of backache occurrences in the previous twelve months were found (68.8% and 67.2%). Six factors were found to correlate with backaches: believing having strenuous postures (odds ratio (OR) 2.45); feeling stressed (OR 1.92); not having the possibility to do quality work (OR 1.60); having more than 20 years of seniority (OR 1.59); not regularly practicing a sport activity (OR 1.37); not putting into practice the training received with respect to work movements and postures (OR 1.36). Among the 320 women having participated in both surveys, the incidence rate of low back pain was 22.9%, with causal factors being strenuous postures and not having the possibility to do quality work. (78682)

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CIS 02-962 Test-retest reliability of the upper extremity questionnaire among keyboard operators. Salerno D.F., Franzblau A., Armstrong T.J., Werner R.A., Becker M.P., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.655-666. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0962.pdf

The purpose of this research was to evaluate the reliability of the self-administered Upper Extremity Questionnaire used in epidemiological studies. A two-part assessment was conducted among 138 keyboard operators. Test-retest reliability was analysed using various statistical evaluation tools. Logistic regression models were used to test the effect of demographic and work-related factors on reliability. It was found that the reliability of items on the Upper Extremity Questionnaire was generally good to excellent. Reports of symptom severity and interference with work were less stable. Demographic and work-related factors were not statistically significant in modelling the variation in reliability. Repeated use of the questionnaire with similar results suggests that the findings are applicable to a larger working population. (78712)

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CIS 02-963 Evaluation of occupational hazards associated with physical workload in the food retail sector. (Spanish: Evaluación de los riesgos laborales asociados a la carga física en el sector comercio-alimentación) Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.17, p.17-21. Illus. 4 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0963.pdf

This evaluation of musculoskeletal diseases associated with physical workload in the food retail sector was aimed at identifying the main risk factors. 66 jobs in ten representative enterprises in this sector were studied in order to establish the hazards associated with physical workload for each of the analysed tasks and to make a number of recommendations. It was found that close to 80% of the tasks analysed present a high risk of injury or musculoskeletal disorders of the neck and shoulders, and close to half of the tasks present high risks for the hand and wrist. 35% of the manual handling tasks present unacceptable levels injury risks for the lumbar region. The results of the study are published in the form of a report and a training videotape. (78826)

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CIS 02-964 Comparing performance on a simulated 12 hour shift rotation in young and older subjects. Reid K., Dawson D., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 2001, Vol.58, No.1, p.58-62. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0964.pdf

In order to compare the performances of younger and older workers in a simulated 12-hour shift rotation, two groups of 16 subjects each were studied, one with a mean age of 21.2 years, the other with a mean age of 43.9 years. Subjects were studied for six consecutive days and completed a simulated 12-hour shift rotation consisting of two 12-hour day shifts (0700-1900), followed by two 12-hour night shifts (1900-0700). During the work period, subjects completed a computer-administered neuro-behavioural performance task every hour. Performance for the older subjects was consistently lower than for the younger subjects. There was a significant difference in performance across the shift between older and younger subjects. There was a significant change in performance across the shifts in the older subjects, such that performance significantly increased across the day shifts and decreased across the nightshifts. By contrast, the younger subjects were able to maintain performance across both day shifts and the second nightshift. (78370)

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CIS 02-965 External lumbar supports: Used as personal protective equipment for low back pain prevention. Milanese S., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 2001, Vol.17, No.5, p.515-520. 32 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0965.pdf

The use of external lumbar supports (ELS), in the form of lumbar corsets or back braces, as personal protective equipment (PPE) for the risk control of low back pain has increased in popularity in industries involving significant manual handling demands. Despite the widespread acceptance of PPE for the control of other hazards (for example noise-induced hearing loss, eye injuries, etc.), published literature on rehabilitation is not unanimous regarding advantages of using ELS as PPE for low back pain. This article explores the issues reported in the literature associated with the use of an ELS, and recommends that the implementation of ELS becomes part of a comprehensive preventive strategy. (78416)

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CIS 02-966 Musculoskeletal disorder worker compensation costs and injuries before and after an office ergonomics program. Lewis R.J., Krawiec M., Confer E., Agopsowicz D., Crandall E., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2002, Vol.29, No.2, p.95-99. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0966.pdf

To study the effectiveness of an office ergonomics training programme for video display terminal (VDT) users, workers' compensation costs and injury rates for VDT-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) were examined before and after implementation of training at two company locations. A greater number of claims were filed in the post-intervention (n=18) versus the pre-intervention period (n=12), but the average cost per claim was considerably reduced (USD 1553 and USD 15,141 respectively). This reduced cost per claim is consistent with the programme's emphasis on seeking early treatment for MSD-related symptoms. The average injury rate also was reduced in the post-intervention versus pre-intervention period (6.94 versus 16.8 per 1000 employees respectively). These results suggest that office ergonomic interventions may be effective in reducing the MSD-related workers' compensation costs and injury rates. (78417)

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CIS 02-967 Characteristics of manual lifting activities in the patients with low-back pain. Lin Y.H., Chen C.S., Chen W.J., Cheng C.K., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2002, Vol.29, No.2, p.101-106. 11 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0967.pdf

The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the task variables of a lifting job and low-back pain. 191 subjects were recruited from an orthopedic or rehabilitation outpatient clinic. An interview questionnaire was administered to collect information regarding work activities involving manual lifting. The characteristics of the manual lifting that were significant in patients with low-back pain were determined to be experience, object weight, carrying distance, lifting height, frequency, and activities with pulling or pushing. This research can be used to provide direction for ergonomists in the modification of jobs for workers who perform manual lifting. (78418)

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CIS 02-968 A field comparison of neck and shoulder postures in symptomatic and asymptomatic office workers. Szeto G.P.Y., Straker L., Raine S., Applied Ergonomics, Jan. 2002, Vol.33, No.1, p.75-84. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0968.pdf

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the head, neck and shoulder postures of female office workers with and without symptoms in these regions. The two groups reported significantly different discomfort scores across five trials repeated during a working day. Results of video capture and two-dimensional motion analysis showed increased head tilt and neck flexion postures in the symptomatic subjects compared to the asymptomatic subjects. Symptomatic subjects also tended to have more protracted acromions. All subjects demonstrated an approximately 10% increase in forward head posture from their relaxed sitting postures when working with the computer display, but there were no significant changes in posture as a result of time-at-work. (78446)

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CIS 02-969 A method of ergonomic workplace evaluation for assessing occupational risks at workplaces. Grzybowski W., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.2, p.223-237. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0969.pdf

New trends are discussed in workplace analysis. A method is presented for ergonomic workplace evaluation based on 14 criteria grouped into four categories of strenuousness: the physical working environment; physical strain factors; psychological strain factors; technological and organizational factors. The method is a response to demands from industry for tools supporting occupational risk assessment. Benefits of applying the method in occupational safety management systems are presented. (78453)

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CIS 02-970 Physically demanding work and inadequate sleep, pain medication use, and absenteeism in registered nurses. Trinkoff A.M., Storr C.L., Lipscomb J.A., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.43, No.4, p.355-363. 33 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0970.pdf

Pain and fatigue are early indicators of musculoskeletal strain. This study examined associations among eight physical demands and inadequate sleep, pain medication use, and absenteeism in 3727 working registered nurses. Among the demands, awkward head and arm postures were associated with each outcome (inadequate sleep: odds ratio (OR) 1.96; pain medication OR, 1.65; absenteeism OR, 1.60). A dose-response relationship was present; as the number of demands increased, the likelihood of each outcome increased. Odds ratios for eight demands versus no demands were as follows: inadequate sleep (OR 5.88), pain medication (OR 3.30), and absenteeism (OR 2.13). Adjustment using multiple logistic regression for lifestyle, demographics, and work schedule did little to alter the findings. Interventions to promote nurses' health should limit the physical demands of the work. (78515)

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CIS 02-971 Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery from work with different physical and mental demands. Sluiter J.K., Frings-Dresen M.H.W., van der Beek A.J., Meijman T.F., Heisterkamp S.H., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Aug. 2000, Vol.26, No.4, p.306-316. Illus. 39 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0971.pdf

Neuroendocrine reactivity and recovery were studied by measuring the urinary excretion of adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol during and after three workdays and during and after two consecutive days off. The fifth day, or second day off, was considered baseline. The assessment was made in 60 Dutch male workers divided into three groups according to the mental, physical, and combined mental and physical demands of their work. Differences in main or interaction effects with time of day were found between the workers in combined mental and physical work and the two other groups of workers for cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline excretion. In addition, the baseline levels of the 3 hormones were higher in the workers with combined mental and physical work. Unfavourable effects on cortisol and adrenaline reactivity or recovery was found for workers with combined mental and physical demands when compared with workers doing mainly mental or mainly physical work. The results of the present study are in accordance with the cognitive activation theory and the allostatic load model. (78503)

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CIS 02-972 Organisational downsizing and musculoskeletal problems in employees: A prospective study. Kivimäki M., Vahtera J., Ferrie J.E., Hemingway H., Pentti J., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.58, No.12, p.811-817. 49 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0972.pdf

764 municipal employees were studied before and after an organizational downsizing carried out between 1991 and 1993 in Finland. The outcome measures were self reports of severity and sites of musculoskeletal pain at the end of 1993 and medically certified musculoskeletal sickness absence for 1993-5. After adjustment for age, sex, and income, the odds ratio (OR) for severe musculoskeletal pain between major and minor downsizing and the corresponding rate ratios for musculoskeletal sickness absence were 2.59 and 5.50, respectively. The largest contribution from changes in work characteristics and health related behaviour to the association between downsizing and musculoskeletal problems was from increases in physical demands, particularly in women and low income employees. Additional contributory factors were skill restrictions (relative to musculoskeletal pain) and job insecurity. The results were little different when analyses were confined to initially healthy participants. (78818)

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CIS 02-973 Work, inequality and musculoskeletal health. Woods V., Buckle P., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. 87p. Illus. 188 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2312-2 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0973.pdf

This literature review examines the relationship between certain work factors, inequality and musculoskeletal disease. Workplace factors considered included social support, access to health information and education at work, job security, status of work, income, level of education, age, sex and ethnicity. A clear relationship was observed for most inequality factors. Although older age appears to be a risk factor for musculoskeletal disease, it is generally also strongly correlated with years spent on the job, and further work would be necessary to establish the effect of age in the absence of confounding factors. Women appear to be more at risk than men. Finally, it was not possible to highlight any effects of ethnicity. (78783)

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CIS 02-974 Development of a method for measuring the interior dimensions of safety shoes. (German: Entwicklung einer Methode zur Vermessung des Innenraumes von Sicherheitsschuhen) Mattil K., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 48p. Illus. 1 ref. Price: EUR 8.00., ISBN 3-89701-828-4 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0974.pdf

For safety shoes to be accepted by users, they have to be well adapted to the foot. The inside of the shoe must comply with anatomic requirements resulting from different foot morphologies. BAUA, the German Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, has specified the shape of the shoe sole that satisfies these anatomic requirements, as well as a system for measuring different foot widths that manufacturers have to implement even though they retain a certain margin for the design of different models. A method that enables the measurement of the interior dimensions of shoes is therefore required. This report describes such a method based on a tool developed at the institute. (78633)

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CIS 02-975 Call centre design - Planning and layout of call centres based on occupational safety and health science. (German: Callcenter-Design - arbeitswissenschaftliche Planung und Gestaltung von Callcentern) Sust C.A., Lorenz D., Schleif H.D., Schubert P., Utsch A., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 228p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: EUR 18.50., ISBN 3-89701-829-2 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0975.pdf

The objective of this research project was to analyse the layout of call centres in Germany from the standpoint of occupational safety and health. Based on interviews of experts and responses to more than 1000 questionnaires addressed to centre managers, it was possible to classify the call centres into one of four types. Seven representative enterprises were then selected for in-depth ergonomic evaluation. A standardized questionnaire was sent to 144 operators and 12 supervisors. Noise, lighting and environmental measurements were also carried out. Several stress factors were identified (low control, poor acoustic and environmental conditions). Recommendations were made in the areas of work organization, work-time schedules, tools and working conditions. environment measurements. Two proposed call centre layouts are presented. A knowledge databank based on the information received for this project is available for downloading from the site www.baua.de . (78632)

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CIS 02-976 Assessment of elastomeric floor coverings in workplaces requiring a standing work posture. (German: Beurteilung elastischer Bodenbeläge an Steharbeitsplätzen) Kirchberg S., Kittelmann M., Reyhl H., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 100p. Illus. 20 ref. Price: EUR 11.50., ISBN 3-89701-719-9 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0976.pdf

In order to reduce the musculoskeletal load on workers, elastomeric floor coverings have frequently been adopted in workplaces requiring a standing work posture. However, there are currently no specific criteria for their development or selection. This project involved measurements of elasticity, compressive loads of the feet and vertical ground forces for a number of floor covering materials and constructions. Findings enabled the definition of design criteria for producers and selection criteria for users. (78494)

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[ Top of page ]

012 Stress, psychosocial factors

CIS 02-977 Frontotemporal dementia revealed during work. (French: Démences frontotemporales relevées dans le milieu professionnel) Thomas Antérion C., Thomas Antérion P., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Nov. 2001, Vol.62, No.7, p.564-569. 16 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0977.pdf

Diagnosis criteria of frontotemporal dementia have been defined recently. The first manifestations of this form of dementia appear around the age of 50. The early symptoms are behavioural disorders associated with the primary degeneration of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes. Patients may be apathetic or highly agitated. Cognitive disorders indicative of frontal lobe dysfunction appear initially in the form of speech difficulties, slowing of response initiation, economy of mental effort, perseverance or distractibility. This article presents three cases of patients for which the first symptoms appeared at the workplace. They presented apathic and motivational symptoms, pseudomaniac behaviour or pseudo-depressed state and organizational and sequencing failure. It is important to be aware of these characteristic symptoms in order to limit accidents and to recognize the presence of this pathological condition. (78655)

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CIS 02-978 Stress and depressive state among sales representatives - Job-health relationship - Cross-sectional survey (1998). (French: Stress et état dépressif chez les professionnels de la vente - Relations santé - travail - Enquête transversale (1998)) Royfe M.H., Tichadou P., Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2000, Vol.XXVII, No.2, p.89-91. 18 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0978.pdf

This cross-sectional study on stress levels and depressive symptoms involved 220 sales representatives and 220 controls in non-sales occupations. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire enabling the quantification of the levels of anxiety and depression, a questionnaire on occupational activities and a medical examination. Results showed that 35% of the sales representatives suffered from anxiety, and 8% exhibited occasionally severe depressive symptoms. Among controls, the level of anxiety was lower by 15 points and no serious depressive symptoms were observed. However, the study did not enable the identification of specific causal factors. (78685)

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CIS 02-979 Robbery characteristics and employee injuries in convenience stores. Faulkner K.A., Landsittel D.P., Hendricks S.A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 2001, Vol.40, No.6, p.703-709. 19 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0979.pdf

Convenience store employees are at risk of injuries related to robberies. A prospective cohort study of 460 convenience store robberies was conducted from 1 February 1995 to 30 September 1996 to highlight possible associations between injury, robbery circumstances and work environments. Data sources included police reports, employee interviews, store evaluations and relevant census data. Injury risk was found to be strongly associated with the following factors: employee resistance, robberies without firearms or money taken, daytime and merchandise robberies, stores with limited escape routes and no cash limit policy or drop safe, older clerks, surrounding areas with lower valued buildings, less expensive rent, more vacant structures, and younger residents. Numerous inter-correlations between these characteristics were identified. Employee training, store procedures and store layout designs are important factors to consider for reducing robbery-related injuries. (78717)

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CIS 02-980 Work stress in aging police officers. Gershon R.R.M., Lin S., Li X., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Feb. 2002, Vol.44, No.2, p.160-167. 54 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0980.pdf

To study the impact of psychosocial work stress on the health and well-being of aging workers, work stress, coping strategies and stress-related health outcomes were assessed and characterized in a sample of 105 police officers aged 50 years and older. The most important risk factors associated with perceived work stress were maladaptive coping behaviours such as excessive drinking or problem gambling (odds ratio (OR), 4.95) exposure to critical incidents such as shootings (OR 3.84), anxiety (OR 6.84), depression (OR 9.27), somatization (OR 5.74), posttraumatic stress symptoms (OR 2.89), symptoms of "burnout" (OR 5.93), chronic back pain (OR 3.55), alcohol abuse (OR 3.24) and inappropriately aggressive behaviour (OR 4.00). These data suggest that older workers in high-stress jobs may be at increased risk for work stress-related health problems, especially if they rely on risky health behaviours to cope with stress. (78729)

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CIS 02-981 Effects of change strategy and top-management involvement on quality of working life and economic results. Ingelgård A., Norrgren F., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Feb. 2001, Vol.27, No.2, p.93-105. Illus. 37 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0981.pdf

The results of this study indicate that changes concerning ergonomics may be enhanced by including a learning strategy which involves employees in work organization, thus giving them an influence on the implementation of the change process. This approach might lead to promising outcomes in terms of quality of working life and economic output related to a learning strategy for change. (78743)

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CIS 02-982 International business travel: Impact on families and travellers. Espino C.M., Sundstrom S.M., Frick H.L., Jacobs M., Peters M., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, May 2002, Vol.59, No.5, p.309-322. 20 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0982.pdf

To assess the impact of international business travel on travellers and their families, a questionnaire survey was conducted among spouses and staff of the World Bank. Half the spouse sample (n=533) and almost 75% of the staff sample (n=102) reported high or very high stress due to business travel. Female spouses, those with children, and younger spouses reported greater stress. The survey also allowed the gaining of further insight into how business travel affects families, and how families cope. Lengthy and frequent travel and frequent changes in travel dates affect many spouses and children (particularly young children) negatively and the strain on families contributes significantly to the stress staff feel about their travel. Policies or management practices that take into consideration family activities and give staff greater leeway in controlling and refusing travel may help relieve stress. (78569)

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CIS 02-983 The impact of behavioral health risks on worker absenteeism. Serxner S.A., Gold D.B., Bultman K.K., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Apr. 2001, Vol.43, No.4, p.347-354. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0983.pdf

The relationship between behavioural health risks and worker absenteeism was investigated. Data on absenteeism and on 10 behavioural health risk areas were collected from 35,451 employees. Analyses examined whether higher health risks are associated with higher absenteeism, and whether a reduction in health risks translates into a reduction in absenteeism. Results revealed that a significant relationship existed between health risks and absenteeism in 8 of the 10 risk areas examined. Individuals who are at risk are more likely to be absent than individuals at low risk. Additional analyses revealed that individuals who reduce their risks in the areas of mental health, stress, and back are absent less often than individuals who remain at risk. These findings suggest that absenteeism, and the costs associated with it, may be controlled by health promotion programmes and the reduction of health risks. (78514)

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CIS 02-984 Quantitative assessment of stress within a workers' population in the regions of Haute and Basse-Normandie. (French: Evaluation quantitative du stress dans une population de salariés des régions Haute et Basse-Normandie) Chini B., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Nov. 2001, Vol.62, No.7, p.536-545. Illus. 31 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0984.pdf

A questionnaire survey was carried out in collaboration with occupational physicians to evaluate the stress level of 253 workers, using an analogical visual scale marked with qualitative indications. The objective of the study was also to highlight the symptoms showing the best correlation to stress among a list of 20 items. It was found that the occurrence of stress is frequent, around one worker in four rating their level of stress as being high or very high. Stress also influences absenteeism and consumption of psychotropic drugs. However, no significant relationship was found with age, sex or smoking. (78654)

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CIS 02-985 Epidemiological data of workplace harassment from an investigation by occupational physicians in the PACA administrative region - A victim profile?. (French: Données épidémiologiques des situations de mobbing au travail d'après une enquête effectuée auprès des médecins du travail de la région PACA - Un profil type du salarié harcelé?) Chiaroni J., Chiaroni P., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Apr. 2001, Vol.62, No.2, p.96-107. Illus. 17 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0985.pdf

Data for this study on mobbing were collected in the form of responses to a standardized questionnaire submitted by 292 occupational physicians responsible for over 600,000 workers in the PACA (Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur) region of France. There were 517 reported cases of mobbing, corresponding to an overall rate of 0.84 per 1000 employees, 0.80 per 1000 in the private sector and 1.45 per 1000 in the public sector. All the sectors are concerned, but trade, services and health care and social work were particularly affected. The victims were more likely to be women, aged mostly between 45 and 54. The consequences of mobbing on health are systematic, and are characterized in particular by psychiatric complications. The consequences for victims' aptitudes and employability are disastrous. (78679)

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CIS 02-986 Theoretical assumptions and psychometric characteristics of the sense of personal control at work questionnaire. Dudek B., Merecz D., Makowska Z., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 2002, Vol.15, No.1, p.29-36. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0986.pdf

Personal control is an important determinant of stress experienced at work. This variable is taken into account in different models of stress, and its role in the relationship between stress and stress effects has been studied in many research projects. This paper presents an instrument that has been developed to assess personal control, entitled the "Sense of Personal Control at Work" (SPCW) questionnaire, and discussed the following issues: theoretical assumptions behind the SPCW questionnaire; origins of SPCW questionnaire; results of an empirical study on psychometric characteristics of the SPCW questionnaire. A group of 160 police officers participated in the study; the SPCW questionnaire was administered twice with a 2-week interval. The study provided adequate evidence to support the usefulness of the tool as a measuring instrument. (78733)

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CIS 02-987 The leadership factor. Burton J., Accident Prevention, Jan.-Feb. 2002, Vol.49, No.1, p.22-26. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0987.pdf

Workplace stressors can cause numerous health problems including back pain, heart problems, vulnerability to infections, mental health problems and behavioural problems, such as excessive aggressiveness. These problems can also cause higher levels of risk of occupational injuries. Stress has also been linked to certain cancers. Examples of workplace stressors include work overload and time pressure, lack of control over one's work, lack of training to do the job, too little or too much responsibility, ambiguity in job responsibility, lack of status rewards, discrimination or harassment, poor communication, neglect of legal and safety obligations and the lack of understanding for the need to balance professional and personal interests. This article discusses the importance of leadership and management responsibilities with respect to minimizing psychosocial hazards caused by workplace stressors, and mentions some of the changes in organizational culture, practices and style that can reduce the exposure to these hazards. (78739)

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CIS 02-988 Psychosocial job factors and return-to-work after compensated low back injury: A disability phase-specific analysis. Krause N., Dasinger L.K., Deegan L.J., Rudolph L., Brand R.J., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.374-392. 81 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0988.pdf

This study examines retrospectively the impact of psychosocial job factors on time to return-to-work during both the acute and the sub-acute and chronic disability phases in a cohort of 433 low back pain (LBP) compensation claimants in the state of California (USA). During the 1-4 years of follow-up, it was found that high physical and psychological job demands and low supervisory support were each associated with about 20% lower return-to-work rates during all disability phases. High job control, especially control over work and rest periods, is associated with over 30% higher return-to-work rates, but only during the sub-acute and chronic disability phase starting 30 days after the injury. Job satisfaction and coworker support were unrelated to time to return-to-work. Duration of work disability was associated with psychosocial job factors independent of injury severity and physical workload. (78755)

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CIS 02-989 Study of smoking behavior in asbestos workers. Osinubi O.Y.O., Afilaka A.A., Doucette J., Golden A., Soriano T., Rovner E., Anselm E., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Jan. 2002, Vol.41, No.1, p.62-69. 27 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0989.pdf

A cross-sectional survey of 214 asbestos workers was initiated to determine the prevalence of smoking and their readiness to quit smoking. The study involved 61 never smokers (28.5%), 118 ex-smokers (55.1%), and 35 current smokers (16.4%). Reasons for smoking cessation in ex-smokers included perception of ill-health (51 %) and knowledge of smoking-asbestos hazards (3.4%). Stage of change of current smokers revealed: pre-contemplation (26.5%), contemplation (35%), preparation (29%), and action (8.8%). Current smokers had the highest prevalence of small airway obstruction on spirometry. A detailed smoking history during medical surveillance activities will enable the occupational physician to identify asbestos workers who have difficulty quitting and to develop a system in which such individuals can be referred to comprehensive smoking cessation programs. (78765)

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CIS 02-990 Suicide and occupation in New Zealand. Langley J., Stephenson S., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Aug. 2001, Vol.17, No.4, p.363-370. 14 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0990.pdf

The popular press in New Zealand has suggested that certain occupations have elevated rates of suicide. These claims have largely been based on anecdotal evidence and limited overseas research. The aim of the study was to determine the rates of suicide by occupational groups for the period 1991 to 1996. Crude and adjusted (for sex and age) rates for occupations were estimated and classified according to the New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations, at various levels of specificity. The results identified some occupational groups with high numbers and rates of suicide, in particular among manual craft and trade workers and agriculture and fishery workers. (78812)

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CIS 02-991 Evaluation of occupational hazards and psychosocial factors. (Spanish: Evaluación de los riesgos laborales y factores psicosociales) Niño Escalante J., Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 2002, Vol.22, No.85, p.25-35. Illus. 8 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0991.pdf

Psychosocial factors need to be taken into account in work management and organizational objectives aimed at improving working conditions, productivity and workers' satisfaction. This article outlines the methodology for evaluating psychosocial factors. It is based on an analysis of working conditions likely to give rise to hazards. Examples of psychosocial risk factors include mental workload, having responsibilities, organizational factors and the means at one's disposal, ambiguity and conflicting roles, social support, hours of work and intrinsic and extrinsic activity. Statistical analysis of absenteeism and health effects of the evaluated hazards, as well as surveys of working conditions and individual or group discussions enable the highlighting of hazard inductors. As a result of this analysis, practical proposals can be made for improving working conditions. (78823)

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CIS 02-992 Risk perception: A psychosocial approach of the work environment. (Spanish: Percepción de riesgo: una aproximación psicosocial al ámbito laboral) Alonso Morillejo E., Pozo Muños C, Martínez López J.J., Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.18, p.16-20. Illus. 23 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0992.pdf

Starting from a definition of risk that takes account of subjective evaluation, namely the worker's perception of the hazard which influences his or her behaviour, this article highlights the importance of psychosocial factors and reviews several theories on behaviour when confronted with risk. Besides cognitive aspects, prevention programmes aimed at modifying the risky behaviour of workers should take account of several psychosocial factors that can alter risk perception, in particular attitudes, established behavioural norms and peer pressure. (78829)

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CIS 02-993 The legal answer to psychological harassment at work, or "mobbing". (Spanish: La respuesta jurídico legal ante el acoso moral en el trabajo o "mobbing") Velázquez M., Prevención, trabajo y salud, 2002, No.17, p.27-38. Illus. 15 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0993.pdf

After providing a definition of bullying and its psychosocial effects, this article proceeds to describe the responsibilities of employers and the rights of employees under the provisions of the Spanish law on the prevention of occupational hazards (see CIS 01-601). It distinguished between two types of bullying, "bossiness" (persecution by a supervisor or manager) and "mobbing" (persecution by peers). The various actions that persecuted persons can undertake are described: notifying labour inspection, legal action (under criminal, civil or administrative law) or notifying social security (recognition of the health consequences of bullying as an occupational disease). (78827)

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CIS 02-994 Legal solutions for resolving cases of bullying at work. (French: Les possibilités juridiques de résolution de cas de harcèlement moral au travail) Soula M.C., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2002, Vol.42, No.1, p.7-16. 5 ref. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0994.pdf

Contents of this article on the legal aspects of bullying at work in France: definition and diagnosis; applicable legal principles (principle of loyalty and execution in good faith, respect of human dignity); legal instruments of labour law (prevention principle, protection of individual rights, right of warning and of refusal to work, protection of workers' health); legal instruments of social security law (occupational accidents and diseases caused by bullying); code of ethics; groups of persons involved in occupational safety and health, and in particular the role of occupational physicians; preventive actions within the enterprise. (78681)

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CIS 02-995 Social and economic impacts of workplace illness and injury: Current and future directions for research. Boden L.I., Biddle E.A., Spieler E.A., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.398-402. 36 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0995.pdf

On 13-15 June 1999, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) hosted a conference in Denver (Colorado) on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury. This conference brought together researchers to discuss future directions for research on the social and economic consequences of workplace illnesses and injuries and on research concerning occupational health services. This article reviews the papers presented during this conference, grouped under the following headings: workers' costs of workplace illnesses and injuries; employers' costs of occupational illnesses and injuries; improving our understanding of return-to-work; utilization of workers' compensation; adequacy of workers' compensation benefits; methodological and data issues. (78756)

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CIS 02-996 The social consequences of occupational injuries and illnesses. Dembe A.E., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 2001, Vol.40, No.4, p.403-417. Illus. 101 ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0996.pdf

Most outcome studies of occupational injuries and illnesses focus on direct economic costs and duration of work disability and only rarely on the broader social consequences of work-related disorders or their impacts on injured workers' families, coworkers, and community. This literature survey examines a wide range of social consequences and proposes a conceptual framework. Complex and multi-factorial relationships are described whereby occupational injuries and illnesses produce a variety of social consequences involving filing and administration of workers' compensation insurance claims, medical care experiences, domestic function and activities of daily living, psychological and behavioural responses, stress, vocational function, rehabilitation and return to work, and equity and social justice. A research agenda is proposed for guiding future investigations in this field. This paper was presented at a conference on the social and economic consequences of workplace illness and injury (held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 13-15 June 1999). (78757)

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CIS 02-997 Regulation of actions and safety-critical work situations in maintenance tasks. (German: Handlungsregulation und sicherheitskritische Arbeitssituationen in der Instandhaltung) Hemmann E., Merboth H., Richter P., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 126p. Illus. 103 ref. Price: EUR 13.00., ISBN 3-89701-766-0 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0997.pdf

In this project on work psychology, components of action-regulating mechanisms in safety-critical maintenance tasks were investigated in a field study. Eighteen maintenance workers involved in two different maintenance activities were observed. Analysis of the mental representations of task-related critical incidents revealed that more difficult task demands were characterized by a higher level of anticipated safety risks. In practice, however, more risk situations occurred during the performance of tasks with more restrictive demands. The differences identified between expected risks in complex tasks and observed risks in routine tasks can form the basis for defining preventive safety measures. Finally, observed differences between experts and novices can form the basis for defining training programmes. (78493)

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CIS 02-998 Stress in industry - Causes, effects and prevention. (Japanese: Shokuba ni okeru sutoresu - Sono gen'in to eikyō to jobōhō) Levi L., International Labour Office (ILO), Kenkō Tairyoku-zukuri Jigyō Zaidan, 105 Tōkyō-to, Minato-ku, Tora-no-mon 34, Mori-biru, Japan, 1985. 94p. 144 ref. (In Japanese)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0998.pdf

Japanese version of the document analysed under CIS 85-885. Contents: definition and symptoms; stress factors in industry (impact of noise, automation, environmental factors, physical and psychosocial stressors); individuals who are vulnerable to stress; prevention and treatment; principles of prevention of stress-related diseases. (78551)

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CIS 02-999 Effective teamworking: Reducing the psychosocial risks. Parker S.K., Williams H.M., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Nov. 2001. viii, 132p. Illus. 127 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2149-9 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-0999.pdf

Companies are increasingly adopting team working methods as a means of achieving greater organizational flexibility. Other potential benefits include reduced costs of supervision, shorter lead times, more innovation, more effective decision-making, better customer service and enhanced employee morale. In practice, however, working in a team may have positive or negative effects on the employees' well-being. The effects of team working on well-being depend on a number of organizational, design, strategic, individual and implementation factors. By paying due attention to these factors, employers can make choices that enrich employees' work characteristics and promote mental health at work. (78599)

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CIS 02-1000 Report on mobbing: Current situation in the Federal Republic of Germany. (German: Der Mobbing-Report. Repräsentativstudie für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) Meschkutat B., Stackelbeck M., Langenhoff G., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2002. 159p. Illus. 30 ref. Price: EUR 15.00., ISBN 3-89701-822-5 (In German)

Internet:
http://www.ilo.org/intranet/english/protection/safework/cis/database/orig/2002/02-1000.pdf

This report presents the results of a study on bullying at the workplace from a survey of a population-based sample of 4396 persons, of whom 535 claimed to have been subjected to bullying. It discusses the frequency of bullying as a function of age and sex, occupation or sector of employment, company size and employee status. During the study period, 2.7% of the working population was affected by this problem and the survey highlighted the fact that one worker in nine (11.3%) was subjected to bullying at least once in the course of his or her working life. Women are more affected than men (3.5% versus 2.0%). Among workers under the age of 25, the frequency rate is 3.7%, and it reaches 4.4% for young workers without qualifications and apprentices. (78635)

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Page generated from the CISDOC database. Date: 26.05.20.