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ILO-CIS Bulletin 2002/01

CIS 02-1 --- CIS 02-500

Laws, regulations, directives
Chemical data sheets and criteria documents
Training materials and practical information
Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals
   001 General safety, health and conditions of work
   002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology
   003 Industries and occupations
   004 New technologies
   005 Chemical safety
   006 Fires, explosions and major hazards
   007 Electrical safety
   008 Physical hazards
   009 Mechanical hazards, transport
   010 Biological hazards
   011 Physiology, ergonomics
   012 Stress, psychosocial factors


Laws, regulations, directives

CIS 02-1 Workplaces - Ordinance and directives on workplaces [Germany]. (German: Arbeitsstätten: Arbeitsstättenverordnung - ArbStättV - und Arbeitsstätten-Richtlinien - ASR - Stand: November 2001) Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 34th ed., 2001. 204p. Illus. Index + Diskette., ISBN 3-89701-785-7 (In German)

Internet:

This documents consists of an update of the ordinance on workplaces (CIS 75-1494) and the corresponding directives (status as of November 2001). It replaces the document analysed under CIS 98-1555. (78239)

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CIS 02-2 Consolidated text No.367/2001 of Act No.330/1996 on occupational safety and health protection at work [Slovak Republik]. (Slovak: Zákon Národnej rady Slovenskej republiky o bezpečnosti a ochrane zdravia pri práci) Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 15 Sep. 2001, No.147, p.3642-3652. (In Slovak)

Internet:
http://www.employment.gov.sk/zamestnanost/zakon_o_bezp_a_ochrane_zdravia_pri_praci.html

This is a consolidated version of the basic 1996 law on OSH (see CIS 97-1065), as modified since. The law regulates the obligations of employers concerning occupational safety and health protection, as well as modalities of collaboration between employers and workers in order to diminish risk of work accidents. It also enumerates the duties and rights of workers concerning the prevention of hazardous situations. (78360)

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CIS 02-3 Ordinance respecting instructions for the Work Environment Authority [Sweden]. (Swedish: Förordning med instruktion för Arbetsmiljöverket) Svensk författningssamling, 15 Dec. 2000, Vol.29, No.50, p.1-4. (In Swedish)

Internet:
http://www.notisum.se/rnp/sls/lag/20001211.htm

This Ordinance contains 26 sections covering the scope of authority and the assigned tasks (such as supervising legislation on work environments and working hours, following-up the evolution of work environments, circulating information, promoting collaboration between employers and workers) of Arbetsmiljöverket (Work Environment Authority), the applicability of Ordinance (No.1322 of 1955) governing public administration, the management of the Authority, the role of the Working Hours Council and its competence to handle cases under different Acts concerning working hours, handling of cases, employment rules and miscellaneous provisions. (78253)

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CIS 02-4 Ordinance No.608 of 26 June 1998 concerning the use of work equipment [Norway]. (Norwegian: Forskrift om bruk av arbeidsustyr) Norsk Lovtidend, 13 July 1998, No.11, p.781-794 + modifications. (In Norwegian)

Internet:
http://www.lovdata.no/for/sf/aa/xa-19980626-0608.html

This Ordinance brings Norwegian legislation into conformity with Directive 89/655/EEC (see CIS 90-357), as modified by 95/63/EC (see CIS 96-395). This version of the Ordinance includes the original 1998 version (CIS 99-711), with modifications introduced by Ordinance No.1421 of 14 Dec. 2000 (Norsk Lovtidend, 26 Jan. 2001, p.3237-3239). Contents of the Ordinance: introductory provisions (scope [not valid in Svalbard], definitions, delayed entry into force of certain provisions); general provisions; technical requirements of fixed and mobile work equipment; technical requirements of lifting equipment; special provisions relating to the use of work equipment; safety training; workplace inspection by qualified inspectors. (78254)

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CIS 02-5 Royal Decree No.707/2002 of 19.7.2002 approving the Regulations on the special administrative procedures leading to the setting up of the Labour and Social Security Inspectorate and for the institution of corrective measures for non-compliance with measures of prevention of ocupational hazards within the scope of State administration [Spain]. (Spanish: Real Decreto 707/2002, de 19 de julio, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento sobre el procedimiento administrativo especial de actuación de la Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social y para la imposición de medidas correctoras de incumplimientos en materia de prevención de riesgos laborales en el ámbito de la Administración General del Estado [España]) Boletín Oficial del Estado, 31 July 2002, Vol.342, No.182, p.28246-28248. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.mtas.es/insht/legislation/RD/Proce_ITSS.htm

This decree approves the regulations for the application of the provisions of Law No.31/1995 (see CIS 95-1921) to cases of non-compliance with OSH regulations in the Spanish public service. Contents: scope (public services, except for state-owned businesses and the military); initiation of proceedings; visits from the labour inspectorate; communication of corrective orders; immediate suspension of activities in case of imminent danger. (78312)

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CIS 02-6 Regulations No.156 relating to the health and safety of employees at work [Namibia]. Government Gazette of the Republic of Namibia, 1 Aug. 1997, No.1617, p.1-520 (1 vol.). (In English)

Internet:

These are the basic safety and health regulations for Namibia, issued under the authority of the Labour Act, 1992 (see CIS 98-355). Contents: rights and duties of employers; administration (incorporation of OSH standards, OSH procedures, inspection, keeping of documents); welfare and facilities of workplaces (incl. floor space, ventilation, lighting, welfare facilities, ergonomic requirements, heating and cooling, fire precautions); safety of machinery; hazardous substances (incl. a list of occupational exposure limits, and specific regulations on asbestos, lead and silica); physical hazards; medical examinations and emergency arrangements (incl. first aid); construction safety; electrical safety. Annexes. (78353)

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CIS 02-7 Safety and Health at Work - Grand-Ducal Regulations of 4 Nov. 1994 [Luxembourg]. (French: Sécurité et santé au travail - Règlements grand-ducaux du 4 novembre 1994 [Luxembourg]) Mémorial - Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg, 17 Nov. 1994, No.A-96, p.1816-1914. Illus. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.etat.lu/MS/MED_TRAV/Sante_des_travailleurs.htm

These 10 Regulations implement in Luxembourg the provisions of Framework Directive 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401) on OSH in general, and of several other, more specific directives dealing with OSH matters. Subjects covered include: work equipment; personal protective equipment; manual loading and handling; VDU work; carcinogens; biological hazards; temporary and mobile construction sites; mineral extraction through drilling; surface and underground mining. (78357)

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CIS 02-8 Regulations of 17 Apr. 2002 concerning work tasks requiring health certification [Croatia]. (Croatian: Pravilnik o poslovima na kojima radnik može raditi samo nakon prethodnog utvrđivanja zdravstvene sposobnosti) Narodne Novine, 22 May 2002, Vol.164, No.59, p.2824-2825. (In Croatian)

Internet:
http://www.nn.hr/CijeliBrojS.asp?god=2002&br=59&mid=1070#2

This regulation lists work tasks requiring health certificates, and those that are considered particularly difficult and/or hazardous to health. In annex: sample certificate forms. (78313)

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CIS 02-9 Order of 28 Rajab 1422 (16 Oct. 2001) establishing the means of implementing the provisions of Art.30 of Executive Decree No.93-120 of 15 May 1993 concerning the organization of occupational medicine [Algeria]. (French: Arrêté du 28 Rajab 1422 correspondant au 16.10.2001 fixant les modalités d'application des dispositions de l'article 30 du décret exécutif n°93-120 du 15.5.1993 relatif à l'organisation de la médecine du travail [Algérie]) Journal officiel de la République algérienne démocratique et populaire, 27 Mar. 2002, 41st Year, No.21, p.22. (In French)

Internet:

This Order implements certain provisions of Executive Decree No.93-120 (see CIS 97-1418). It specifies the minimum number of nurses that an enterprise is obliged to employ in function of the number of their workers and the level of occupational risk their workers are exposed to. (78316)

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CIS 02-10 Order of 28 Rajab 1422 (16 Oct. 2001) fixing the standards of human resources, locales and equipment of occupational medical services [Algeria]. (French: Arrêté du 28 Rajab 1422 correspondant au 16.10.2001 fixant les normes en matière de moyens humains, de locaux et d'équipement des services de médecine du travail [Algérie]) Journal officiel de la République algérienne démocratique et populaire, 27 Mar. 2002, 41st Year, No.21, p.20-21. (In French)

Internet:

This Order implements certain provisions of Executive Decree No.93-120 (see CIS 97-1418). It specifies the minimum number of occupational physicians an enterprise must employ in function of the number of its workers. It also provides basic standards in connection with nursing personnel, the nature of the locale used by industrial health services and the kind of equipment they must dispose of. (78317)

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CIS 02-11 Order of 21.12.2001 modifying the Order of 17.10.1995 concerning the evaluation of the risk of occupational accidents and diseases, and establishing the corresponding insurance premiums within the general social security scheme [France]. (French: Arrêté du 21.12.2001 modifiant l'arrêté du 17.10.1995 relatif à la tarification des risques ... et fixant les tarifs des cotisations d'accidents du travail et de maladies professionnelles des activités professionnelles relevant du régime général de la Sécurité sociale [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 28 Dec. 2001, 133rd Year, No.301, p.20911-20932. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.admi.net/jo/20011228/MESS0124411A.html

This Order establishes hazard codes in French industry by very narrow activity classification, and assigns the corresponding basic rates for workers' compensation premiums. (78359)

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CIS 02-12 Law on Industry [Austria]. (German: Gewerbeordnung 1994 (GewO 1994)) Internet document, 1994-. 116p. 4 ref. (In German)

Internet:
http://www.oegbverlag.at/Gewo1994-2001-136.pdf.

This is the framework law for the regulation of industrial activities, agriculture, forestry, mining, transportation and white-collar activities being mostly excluded from its scope. The principles of providing for obligations with regards to the safety and welfare of employees are included. The CIS copy includes all modifications till 2001. (78255)

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CIS 02-13 Diving Regulations, 2001; Incorporation of the Health and Safety Standards in the Diving Regulation, 2001 [South Africa]. Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 11 Jan. 2002, Vol.439, No.22991, p.3-27. (In English)

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Both sets of Regulations were issued under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1451). Contents of the Diving Regulations: definitions; scope; training of divers; designated medical practitioners, medical examinations and medical certificates of fitness; diving supervisors; operations manuals; control of diving operations; decompression; compression chambers and bells; plant and equipment; the Council for Diving; registration as a learner diver, a diver and a diving supervisor; withdrawal of certificates. The Incorporation of the Health and Safety Standards in the Diving Regulation includes certain South African, US, UK, German and Norwegian standards in the applicable diving safety regulations of South Africa. (78315)

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CIS 02-14 Ordinance No.2001-175 of 22.2.2001 on the transposition of Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12.6.1989 concerning the implementation of measures aimed at the improvement of the safety and health of workers at work [France]. (French: Ordonnance n°2001-175 du 22.2.2001 relative à la transposition de la directive 89/391/CEE du Conseil du 12.6.1989 concernant la mise en œuvre des mesures visant à promouvoir l'amélioration de la sécurité et de la santé des travailleurs au travail [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 24 Feb. 2001, 133rd Year, No.47, p.3022. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.adminet.com/jo/20010224/MESX0100005R.html

This Ordinance modifies the French Labour Code, introducing measures obliging employers to consult workers and/or their representatives in connection with the safety and health implications of the introduction of new technologies. The Ordinance implements into French legislation certain aspects of Directive 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401). (78320)

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CIS 02-15 Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants [UNEP]. (French: Convention de Stockholm sur les polluants organiques persistants [PNUE]) United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), International Legal Materials, May 2001, Vol.40, No.3, p.531-563 (English only). (In English, French)

Internet:
http://www.chem.unep.ch/sc/documents/convtext/convtext_en.pdf

http://www.chem.unep.ch/sc/documents/convtext/convtext_fr.pdf

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are defined as organic substances with toxic properties that resist degradation, bioaccumulate and may be transported through air, water and migratory animals. This Convention, adopted at the Stockholm Conference held 22-23 May 2001, requires signatory States to prohibit, eliminate and/or restrict the production, use, import and export of POPs falling under its scope. Stockpiles and wastes containing POPs are to be managed safely and appropriately. Signatory States also have to implement a plan to carry out its obligations under the Convention, to exchange relevant information with other States, and to promote awareness and training activities among people involved with POPs, including workers, scientists and managers. Timely and appropriate technical assistance is to be provided to developing and "transition economy" countries. In annexes: list of substances to be eliminated if possible (aldrin, chlordane, dieldrin, endrin, heptachlor, hexachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)); restricted substance (DDT); special provisions related to unintentional production of certain substances (PCDD/PCDF, hexachlorobenzene, PCBs); information and screening requirements; information on socio-economic considerations. (77939)

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CIS 02-16 Final Rule - Toxic Substances Control Test Guidelines [USA]. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Federal Register, 15 Dec. 2000, Vol.65, No.242, p.78746-78819. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.access.gpo.gov/nara/cfr/cfrhtml_00/Title_40/40cfr799_00.html

This rule establishes 17 new Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA, see CIS 89-23) health effects test guidelines. Establishment of these guidelines provides a series of standardized test procedures and is necessary to ensure enforceable test standards in test rules promulgated under section 4 of the TSCA. (78256)

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CIS 02-17 Decision (No.1232 of 2000) of the Ministry of Social and Health Care to amend the Decision of the Ministry of Labour on carcinogenic substances (No.838 of 1993) [Finland]. (Finnish: Asetus syöpäsairauden vaaraa aiheuttavista tekijöistä annetun työministeriön päätöksen 1 §:n ja liitteen muuttamisesta; Swedish: Förordning om ändring av samt bilagan till beslutet arbetsministeriets beslut om cancerframkallande agenser) Finlands författningssamling - Suomen säädöskokoelma, 29 Dec. 2000, No.174, p.3283-3285. (In Finnish, Swedish)

Internet:
http://www.finlex.fi/pdf/sk/00/vihko174.pdf

http://www.finlex.fi/linkit/fs/20001232

This decision amends the 1993 decision concerning the obligation of employers to notify workers of the presence of working methods and substances that may expose them to carcinogenic risk. In annex: updated list of carcinogenic substances, with their CAS and EC numbers. (78259)

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CIS 02-18 Decree No.2001-97 of 1 Feb. 2001 setting up the particular rules of prevention of the hazards of carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity and modifying the Labour Code [France]. (French: Décret n°2001-97 du 1er février 2001 établissant les règles particulières de prévention des risques cancérogènes, mutagènes ou toxiques pour la reproduction et modifiant le Code du travail [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 3 Feb. 2001, Year 133, No.29, p.1866-1868. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.admi.net/jo/20010203/MEST0110001D.html

This Decree takes into consideration the provisions of Directives 97/42/EC (see CIS 99-17) and 1999/38/EC (see CIS 00-1516), both modifications of the main Directive 90/394/EEC concerning carcinogenic agents in the workplace (see CIS 90-1758). Essentially, the provisions of the Labour Code relating to carcinogenic substances are extended to those related to mutagenic substances and to substances that are toxic to reproduction. Some administrative procedures are also modified. The employment of pregnant and lactating women in workplaces where they may be exposed to substances toxic to reproduction is prohibited. Exposure limits are provided for the airborne concentration of benzene (3.25mg/m3 = 1ppm) and vinyl chloride monomer (2.59mg/m3 = 1ppm) in the workplace, and the specific Decrees related to protection measures against these two substances (86-269 [see CIS 86-1021] and 80-203 [see CIS 80-1315], respectively) are repealed. (78260)

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CIS 02-19 Official Mexican Standard - Welding and cutting: Safety and health conditions [Mexico]. (Spanish: Norma Oficial Mexicana - Soldadura y corte: Condiciones de seguridad e higiene [México]) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Diario Oficial de la Federación, 8 Mar. 2001, Vol.DLXX, No.6, p.44-53. 5 ref. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.stps.gob.mx/04_sub_prevision/03_dgsht/normatividad/normas/nom-027.htm

Contents of this standard (effective: 7 May 2001): scope (all workplaces in Mexico where welding and cutting operations take place); definitions; responsibilities of employers and workers; hazard analysis; specific safety and health programmes. In annex: guide to the use of personal protective equipment. (78319)

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CIS 02-20 Decree No.2-98-975 of 28 Shawwal 1421 (23 Jan. 2001) concerning the protection of workers exposed to asbestos dust [Morocco]. (French: Décret n°2-98-975 du 28 chaoual 1421 (23 janv. 2001) relatif à la protection des travailleurs exposés aux poussières d'amiante [Maroc]) Bulletin Officiel du Royaume du Maroc, 1 Feb. 2001, 90th Year, No.4870, p.192-194. (In French)

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Contents of this Decree (effective: 22 July 2001): definitions; prohibited use (amphiboles in all work involving asbestos products; use of asbestos in spraying operations); provision for the future establishment of an exposure limit for asbestos; obligation of employers to provide protection against asbestos where there is danger of exposure; provisions concerning work clothes where asbestos is present; role of laboratories engaged in monitoring asbestos exposure levels; medical supervision; the exposure register. (78351)

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CIS 02-21 Royal Decree No.786/2001 of 6 July 2001 approving the safety regulations on fire precautions in industrial establishments [Spain]. (Spanish: Real Decreto 786/2001, de 6 de julio, por el que se aprueba el Reglamento de Seguridad contra incendios en los establecimientos industriales [España]) Boletín Oficial del Estado, 30 July 2001, Year 341, No.181. Illus. (In Spanish)

Internet:
http://www.gestion-ambiental.com/norma/ley/REAL_DECRETO_2267-2004.pdf

This decree implements fire safety regulations for industry, including those covering industrial storage establishments and vehicle repair shops and parking facilities. Contents: new site preparation, construction and start-up of new industries; periodic inspections; reporting of fires; minimum fire safety standards; responsibilities and penalties for non-compliance. In annex: classification of industrial establishments from the viewpoint of fire safety; safety codes for buildings in relation to their layout, location and level of intrinsic risk; general fire safety requirements of industrial establishments; list of relevant Spanish (UNE) standards. (78354)

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CIS 02-22 Act 470/2000 amending Act 272/1994 on the protection of the health of person, Act 152/1995, Act 130/1998 regarding the peaceful use of nuclear energy and Acts 174/1968 and 256/1994 regarding state control over work safety [Slovak Republik]. (Slovak: Zákon z 5.12.2000, ktorým sa mení a doplňa zákon ... č.272/1994 Z.z. o ochrane zdravia l'udi v znení neskorších predpisov, ...č.130/1998 Z.z. mierovom využívaní jadrovej energie ...) Zbierka zákonov slovenskej republiky, 29 Dec. 2000, No.470, p.5050-5071. (In Slovak)

Internet:
http://www.zbierka.sk/zz00/00-z470.pdf

This Law (effective: 1 Jan. 2001) defines the concept of "workplace with ionizing radiation", as well as different categories of workers working with sources of radiation. It fixes the basic health conditions and professional qualifications required of such workers. It also provides for the duties of employers and the role of government bodies concerning places with natural ionizing radiation. (78258)

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CIS 02-23 Ordinance No.2001-270 of 28 March 2001 concerning the transposition of community directives in the field of protection against ionizing radiation [France]. (French: Ordonnance n°2001-270 du 28 mars 2001 relative à la transposition de directives communautaires dans le domaine de la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants [France]) Journal officiel de la République française, 31 Mar. 2001, 133rd Year, No.77, p.5057-5061. (In French)

Internet:
http://www.admi.net/jo/20010331/MESX0100025R.html

This Ordinance integrates into French legislation certain provisions of directives 90/641/EURATOM (see CIS 94-18), 96/29/EURATOM (see CIS 96-1953) and 97/43/EURATOM. The changes are to the French Public Health Code and the Labour Code. The modifications involve definitions of exposure to ionizing radiation, responsibilities of employers and suppliers in connection with such exposure, notification and authorization procedures, training requirements, provisions for the protection of workers. (78257)

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CIS 02-24 Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 June 2002 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (vibration) [European Union]. (French: Directive 2002/44/CE du Parlement européen et du Conseil du 25 juin 2002 concernant les prescriptions minimales de sécurité et de santé relatives à l'exposition des travailleurs aux risques dus aux agents physiques (vibrations) [Union européenne]) Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 6 July 2002, Vol.45, No.L 177, p.13-19. (In English, French)

Internet:
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/en/oj/dat/2002/l_177/l_17720020706en00130019.pdf

http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/es/oj/dat/2002/l_177/l_17720020706es00130019.pdf
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/pri/fr/oj/dat/2002/l_177/l_17720020706fr00130019.pdf

This is the basic vibration directive brought in under the European framework directive concerning OSH (see CIS 89-1401). Contents: scope (all activities where workers may be exposed to vibration); definitions of hand-arm and whole-body vibration; exposure limits (hand-arm vibration: 5m/s2 for 8h daily exposure limit and 2.5m/s2 for 8h daily exposure action value; whole-body vibration: 1.15 and 0.5m/s2, respectively; at the choice of the Member States, the latter can also be given as 21 and 9.1m/s1.75, respectively); obligations of employers (risk determination and asessment, provisions aimed at avoiding and reducing exposure, information and training of workers, worker consultation and participation); miscellaneous provisions (health surveillance, derogations). (78311)

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CIS 02-25 Royal Order of 2 Apr. 2002 modifying Royal Order of 25.4.1997 concerning the protection of workers against the hazards of ionizing radiation [Belgium]. (Dutch: Koninklijk besluit tot wijziging van het koninklijk besluit van 25.4.1997 betreffende de bescherming van de werknemers tegen de risico's voortkomende uit ioniserende straling; French: Arrêté royal du 2 avril 2002 modifiant l'arrêté royal du 25.4.1997 concernant la protection des travailleurs contre les risques résultant des rayonnements ionisants [Belgique]) Moniteur belge - Belgisch Staatsblad, 20 June 2002, 172nd Year, No.207, p.28382-28393. Illus. (In Dutch, French)

Internet:
http://meta.fgov.be/pdf/pk/frkff01.pdf
http://meta.fgov.be/pdf/pk/nlkff01.pdf

This Order modifies the basic 1997 Order related to radiation protection (see CIS 97-1427). It transposes into Belgian legislation those provisions of Directive 90/641/Euratom (see CIS 94-18) on radiation protection in controlled areas that have not been transposed before. It includes matters related to: certified occupational physicians (definition, role); obligations of outside contractors; role of the Federal Agency for Nuclear Control; creation of a central dose registry for Belgium; roles of various other organisms concerning radiation safety. In annex: particulars of the Belgian Radiological Passport for Outside Workers. (78318)

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CIS 02-26 Ordinance of 31 Jan. 2001 concerning radiation protection applicable to non-medical installations that produce ionizing radiation [Switzerland]. (French: Ordonnance concernant la radioprotection applicable aux installations non médicales de production de radiations ionisantes (Ordonnance sur la radioprotection dans l'utilisation d'installations) [Suisse]; German: Verordnung über den Strahlenschutz bei nichtmedizinischen Anlagen zur Erzeugung ionisierender Strahlung; Italian: Ordinanza del 31 gennaio 2001 sulla radioprotezione applicata agli impianti generatori di radiazioni ionizzanti utilizzati a scopi non medici (Ordinanza sulla radioprotezione degli impianti)) Amtliche Sammlung des Bundesrechts - Recueil officiel des lois fédérales, 27 Mar. 2001, No.12, p.922-933. (In French, German, Italian)

Internet:
http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/as/2001/922.pdf

http://www.admin.ch/ch/f/as/2001/922.pdf

http://www.admin.ch/ch/i/rs/8/814.501.51.it.pdf

This ordinance (effective: 1 Apr. 2001) is issued in accordance with the provisions of the 1994 Ordinance on Radiation protection (see CIS 95-1573). Contents: scope of application (all non-medical installations capable of producing radiation with energy levels > 5keV, and equipment emitting parasitic radiation producing a dose of 1µSv/h at a distance of 10cm from the surface); measures concerning the safe operation of installations; layout and screening of installations; personal protection; maintenance and control. In annex: definitions; analyses of micro- and macro-structures; welding installations using electron beams. (78352)

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CIS 02-27 Council of Ministers Regulation No.384/2000 on Dangerous Equipment [Latvia]. (Latvian: Ministru kabineta noteikumi Nr. 384/2000 - Noteikumi par bīstamajām iekārtām) Latvijas Republikas Saeimas un Ministru Kabineta Ziņotājs, 21 Dec. 2000, No.24, p.15-17. (In Latvian)

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This regulation specifies the kinds of dangerous equipment to which the Law on the monitoring of dangerous equipment applies. (78252)

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CIS 02-28 Order No.434 of 24 Aug. 1994 of the President of the Council of Ministers concerning the introduction and use of extraction machines, equipment, materials, tools and devices in coal mines [Poland]. (Polish: Rozporządzenie Prezesa Rady Ministrów z dnia 24 sierpnia 1994 r. w sprawie dopuszczania do stosowania w zakładach górniczych maszyn, urządzeń i materiałów oraz środków strzałowych i sprzętu strzałowego) Dziennik Ustaw, 31 Aug. 1994, No.92, p.1734-1737. (In Polish)

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Regulation implementing provisions of the Geological and Mining Code (1994, Law No.96) relating to the safe introduction and use of machinery and equipment in coal mines. (78358)

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CIS 02-29 Regulations for Hazardous Biological Agents [South Africa]. Government Gazette - Staatskoerant, 27 Dec. 2001, Vol.438, No.22956, p.3-67. Illus. (In English)

Internet:
http://www.gov.za/gazette/regulation/2001/22956.pdf

Regulations issued under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993 (see CIS 94-1451). Contents: definitions; scope; classification of biological agents; information and training; duties of persons who might be exposed to hazardous biological agents (HBAs); risk assessment by employers or self-employed persons; monitoring exposure; medical surveillance; records; control of exposure to HBAs; personal protective equipment and facilities; maintenance of control measures, equipment and facilities; prohibitions; labelling, packaging, transporting and storage; special measures for health and veterinary isolation facilities; special measures for laboratories, animal rooms and industrial processes; disposal of HBAs. In annex: indicative list of incidents; hazardous biological agent guidelines (incl. list of bacteria, viruses and parasites with their hazard classification); precautions for workplaces (incl. table of precaution codes connected with specific infections or conditions; table presenting clinical syndromes or conditions warranting additional precautions aimed at the prevention of infection pending conformation of diagnosis); containment rules. (78314)

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Chemical data sheets and criteria documents

CIS 02-30 Magnesium (pellets). (Spanish: Magnesio (virutas)) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0701 (English version: CIS 93-386). International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Symptoms: eye irritation; cough. (77861)

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CIS 02-31 Mancozeb. (Spanish: Mancozeb) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0754. International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and skin absorption. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization. (77862)

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CIS 02-32 Maneb. (Spanish: Maneb) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0173 (English version: CIS 92-760). International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the central nervous system; prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitisation. Threshold limit value: 0.2mg/m3 (as Mn) (ACGIH 1998). (77863)

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CIS 02-33 Mecrylate. (Spanish: Mecrilato) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 1272. International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; inhalation of vapours may cause asthmatic reactions; effects may be delayed. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitization. Threshold limit value: 0.2ppm (ACGIH 1998). (77864)

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CIS 02-34 Melamine. (Spanish: Melamina) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 1154. International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure route: inhalation. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the kidneys. (77865)

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CIS 02-35 2-Mercaptoethanol. (Spanish: 2-Mercaptoetanol) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0916. International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; effects on the nervous system (convulsions, respiratory failure). (77866)

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CIS 02-36 Mercury. (Spanish: Mercurio) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0056 (English version: CIS 91-767; multilingual version: CIS 94-95). International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and skin absorption (also as vapour). Short-term exposure effects: inhalation may cause pneumonia; effects on the kidneys and the central nervous system; effects may be delayed. Long-term exposure effects: effects on the central nervous system and kidneys, resulting in emotional and psychic instability, tremor mercurialis, cognitive disturbances, speech disorders. Danger of cumulative effects. Animal tests show that this substance possibly causes toxic effects upon human reproduction. Threshold limit value: 0.025mg/m3 A4 (skin) (ACGIH 1998). (77867)

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CIS 02-37 Mesitylene. (Spanish: Mesitileno) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 1155. International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and skin absorption. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the respiratory tract; swallowing the liquid may cause aspiration into the lungs with the risk of chemical pneumonia; depression of the central nervous system. Long-term exposure effects: defats the skin; effects on the liver and blood, resulting in lesions of blood cells, anaemia, and impaired functions. Threshold limit value: 25ppm (isomer mixture) (ACGIH 1998). (77868)

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CIS 02-38 Methacrylaldehyde. (Spanish: Metacrilaldehído) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 1259. International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. (77869)

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CIS 02-39 Methyl methacrylate monomer inhibited. (Spanish: Metacrilato de metilo (inhibido)) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 0300 (English version: CIS 93-44). International Chemical Safety Card. Exposure routes: inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: prolonged or repeated contact may induce skin sensitisation; repeated or prolonged inhalation exposure may cause asthma; neurological effects. Threshold limit value: 100ppm A4 (ACGIH 1998). (77870)

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CIS 02-40 Hydroquinone. (French: Hydroquinone) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 21 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 89-1470. Synonyms: 1,4-benzenediol; p-dihydroxybenzene. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders due to the caustic effect; systemic damage with neuromuscular disorders; methaemoglobinaemia sometimes giving rise to haemolysis with jaundice, oliguria and anuria; caustic skin and eyes lesions. Chronic toxicity: ocular effects (irritation, photophobia; brown-greenish colouring of the conjunctive membranes and cornea, changes in the cornea thickness and curvature, astigmatism, diminution visual acuity) whose severity is correlated to exposure; irritative skin diseases or allergic reactions which may induce sensitization; depigmentation of the skin; dyspnoea and bronchoconstriction. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 2mg/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.604-005-00-4; Xn, R20/22, S2, S24/25, S39. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77871)

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CIS 02-41 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate. (French: Phtalate de bis(2-éthylhexyle)) Clavel T., Falcy M., Hesbert A., Jargot D., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Schneider O., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 19 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 81-1932. Synonyms: di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate; di-sec-octyl phthalate; DEHP, DOP. Acute toxicity: minor digestive disorders. Chronic toxicity: central, peripheral or autonomous neuropathy; haematological changes; carcinogen (excess lung cancer risk). Exposure limits (France): TWA = 5mg/m3. EEC number: No.204-211-0. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77872)

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CIS 02-42 Methyl isocyanate. (French: Isocyanate de méthyle) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. 9 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 81-1933. Toxicity: extremely irritating to skin and ocular and respiratory mucous membranes; skin burns which can evolve into severe necrotic lesions; pulmonary oedema; lipothymic syndrome with convulsions, with rapid recovery (inhalation over a flask). Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.05mg/m3 (0.02ppm). EEC number: No.615-001-00-7. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77873)

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CIS 02-43 Hexamethylene 1,6-diisocyanate. (French: 1,6-Diisocyanate d'hexaméthylène) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 23 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 82-412. Synonyms: HDI, 1,6-diisocyanatohexane. Acute toxicity: strong irritation of the skin and ocular and respiratory mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: contact eczema; allergic asthma with cross-sensitization to other isocyanates; hypersensitivity pneumopathia which may induce fibrosis. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.075mg/m3 or 0.01ppm; ceiling value (over 5 minutes) = 0.15mg/m3 or 0.02ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.615-011-00-1; T, R23, R36/37/38, R42/43, S26, S28, S38, S45. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77874)

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CIS 02-44 Isophorone diisocyanate. (French: Diisocyanate d'isophorone) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-828. Synonyms: IPDI; 3-isocyanatomethyl-3,5,5-trimethylcyclohexyl isocyanate; 5-isocyanato-1-(isocyanatomethyl)-1,3,3-trimethylcyclohexane. Acute toxicity: strong irritation of the skin and ocular and respiratory mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: contact eczema; allergic asthma; hypersensitivity pneumopathia; chronic bronchopulmonary diseases. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.09mg/m3 or 0.01ppm; ceiling value (over 5 minutes) = 0.18mg/m3 or 0.02ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.615-008-00-5; T, R23, R36/37/38, R42/43, S26, S28, S38, S45. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77875)

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CIS 02-45 2-Methyl-2,4-pentanediol. (French: 2-Méthyl-2,4-pentanediol) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 12 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-842. Synonyms: hexylene glycol; 2,4-dihydroxy-2-methyl pentane. Toxicity: irritation of the eyes, nose, pharynx and larynx and respiratory discomfort. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 125mg/m3 or 25ppm. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-053-00-3; Xi, R36/38. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77876)

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CIS 02-46 Sodium nitrite. (French: Nitrite de sodium) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 3p. 10 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 82-1323. Acute toxicity: headache; redness of the face; vertigo; hypotension; unconsciousness; methaemoglobinaemia; digestive disorders; possible liver and kidney damage. Chronic toxicity: hypotension; disorders of cardiac rhythm; headache; yellow colouring of teguments; in the presence of amines, gives rise to cancer-inducing nitrosamines. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77877)

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CIS 02-47 Benzyl alcohol. (French: Alcool benzylique) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. Illus. 15 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 91-33. Synonyms: phenylmethanol; α-hydroxytoluene. Acute toxicity: digestive signs; central nervous system damage; irritation of the eyes, skin and mucous membranes. Chronic toxicity: headache; vertigo; gastrointestinal disorders; irritation skin diseases. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.603-057-00-5; Xn, R20/22, S26. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77878)

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CIS 02-48 Glutaraldehyde. (French: Glutaraldéhyde) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 4p. 22 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 87-822. Synonyms: 1,5-pentanedial; glutaric aldehyde. Toxicity: splashes may cause caustic lesions of the skin and eyes; allergic eczema; headache; irritative or allergic respiratory disorders; sensitization. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.8mg/m3 or 0.2ppm. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77879)

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CIS 02-49 Bis(tributyltin) oxide. (French: Oxyde de bis(tributylétain)) Jargot D., Pillière F., Protois J.C., Reynier M., Serre P., De Ceaurriz J., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2000. 5p. Illus. 27 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 82-1608. Synonyms: TBTO; hexabutyldistannoxane. Acute toxicity: irritation of the eyes, nose and upper respiratory tract; neurological effects; in the case of skin contact, burn lesions may appear within 8 to 24 hours. Chronic toxicity: no systemic effect reported for humans. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 0.1mg Sn/m3; ceiling value = 0.2mg Sn/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.050-008-00-3; T, R25, R48/23/25, R21, R36/38, S35, S36/37/39, S45, 200-268-0. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (77880)

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CIS 02-50 1,1,1,2-Tetrachloro-2,2-difluoroethane. (Spanish: 1,1,1,2-Tetracloro-2,2-difluoroetano) Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 2002, Vol.64, No.1, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: TWA 4170mg/m3 or 500ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: narcotic effect; drowsiness; breathing difficulties; irritation of the skin and eyes in the case of contact. (78013)

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CIS 02-51 Hexachloroethane. (Spanish: Hexacloroetano) Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 2002, Vol.64, No.1, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limits: 10mg/m3 or 1ppm (OSHA); 1-10ppm (ACGIH, skin). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: eye irritation; blepharospasm; photophobia; watering of the eyes; redness of the conjunctiva. (78014)

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CIS 02-52 Isobutylmethylcarbinol. (Spanish: Carbinol isobutílico de metilo) Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 2002, Vol.64, No.2, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: TWA 100mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the skin and eyes; drowsiness; headache. (78015)

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CIS 02-53 p-Nitrochlorobenzene. (Spanish: p-Nitroclorobenceno) Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 2002, Vol.64, No.2, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: TWA 1mg/m3 (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation, ingestion and skin absorption. Toxicity: skin absorption; cyanosis; irritability; vertigo; weakness; nausea; vomiting; breathlessness; somnolence; unconsciousness. Effects may be delayed. Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause anaemia and skin rashes. (78016)

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CIS 02-54 N-Nitrosodimethylamine. (Spanish: N-Nitrosodimetilamina) Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 2002, Vol.64, No.3, 5p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: probable carcinogenic effect in humans (A3) in case of contact with skin or mucous membranes; hepatic damage. (78017)

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CIS 02-55 2-Pentanone. (Spanish: 2-Pentanona) Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 2002, Vol.64, No.3, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limits: 700mg/m3 or 200ppm (OSHA); TWA 530mg/m3 or 150ppm (NIOSH); 700mg/m3 or 200ppm and short-term exposure 875mg/m3 or 250ppm (ACGIH). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; dermatitis; headache; nausea; vertigo; disturbances of coordination and eyes. (78018)

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CIS 02-56 β-Propiolactone. (Spanish: Betapropiolactona) Noticias de seguridad, Apr. 2002, Vol.64, No.4, 5p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: 1.5mg/m3 or 0.5ppm (ACGIH). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: probable carcinogenic effect in humans (A3); irritation of the skin or blisters; possible permanent corneal opacity in case of eye contact. (78019)

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CIS 02-57 n-Propyl nitrate. (Spanish: Nitrato de n-propilo) Noticias de seguridad, Apr. 2002, Vol.64, No.4, 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

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Chemical safety information sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Exposure limit: TWA 1000mg/m3 or 25ppm (OSHA). Exposure routes: inhalation and ingestion. Toxicity: cyanosis; methaemoglobinaemia; anaemia; headache; weakness; irritability; nausea; increase of pulse rate; skin irritation and thickening. (78020)

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CIS 02-58 1-Chloro-2,3-epoxypropane. (French: 1-Chloro-2,3-époxypropane) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 18 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Synonym: chloromethyloxirane. Acute toxicity: depression of the nervous system; severe skin irritation which can give rise to skin burns; liver damage. Chronic toxicity: carcinogen (bronchial cancer, leukaemia); skin allergies. Exposure limit (France): ceiling value = 10mg/m3 (2ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78151)

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CIS 02-59 Boranes. (French: Boranes) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 15 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 83-1646. Acute toxicity: irritation of the ocular and respiratory mucous membranes; metal fume fever (diborane); neurological effects (asthenia, headache, symptoms similar to those of alcohol intoxication, muscular spasms) which may appear after 48 hours (pentaborane); reversible neurological effects (coma) (decaborane). Chronic toxicity: chronic pneumopathy (diborane); headache, asthenia, corneal opacities (pentaborane, decaborane). Exposure limits (France): TWA = diborane: 0.1mg/m3 (0.1ppm); pentaborane: 0.01mg/m3 (0.005ppm); decaborane: 0.3mg/m3 (0.05ppm). Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78152)

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CIS 02-60 Dieldrin. (French: Dieldrine) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. Illus. 19 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 83-1936. Acute toxicity: muscular spasms, followed by convulsive coma, which appear after a latency of 20min to 24 hours, with possible recurrence due to the release of the substance from substance stored in fatty tissues; hepatic and renal damage. Chronic toxicity: syndrome similar to idiopathic epilepsy; peripheral nervous system disorders; hepatic and renal damage; bronchial irritation; contact dermatitis. Exposure limit (France): TWA = 0.25mg/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.602-049-00-9; T, R25, R27, R40, R48/25, S22, S36/37, S45. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78153)

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CIS 02-61 Methanethiol; Ethanethiol; 1-Butanethiol. (French: Méthanethiol; éthanethiol; 1-butanethiol) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. Illus. 27 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 83-1937. Synonyms: methylmercaptan, ethylmercaptan, n-butylmercaptan. Acute toxicity: pulmonary irritation; nausea; diarrhoea; unconsciousness; respiratory impairment; methaemoglobinaemia or sulfhaemoglobinaemia; pulmonary oedema; transient renal damage. Chronic toxicity: irritation of the skin and of ocular and respiratory mucous membranes. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 1mg/m3 (0.5ppm) for methanethiol and ethanethiol; 1.5mg/m3 (0.5ppm) for all butanethiol isomers. EEC numbers and mandatory labelling codes: No.016-021-00-3 (methanethiol), No.016-022-00-9 (ethanethiol); F, Xn, R13, R20, S16, S25. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78154)

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CIS 02-62 Alkali metal and alkaline-earth fluorides. (French: Fluorures alcalins et alcalino-terreux) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 83-1938. Acute toxicity: digestive, neurological, cardiovascular and renal signs (inhalation); irritation of the respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; severe skin irritation which may be delayed; ocular lesions. Chronic toxicity: skeletal fluorosis; respiratory impairment chronic bronchial impairment. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 2mgF/m3 for sodium fluoride; 2,5mgF/m3 for other fluorides. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.009-004-00-7 (sodium fluoride), No.009-005-00-2 (potassium fluoride), No.056-002-00-7 (barium salts); T, R25, R32, R36/38, S22, S36, S44. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78155)

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CIS 02-63 Arsenic and its inorganic compounds. (French: Arsenic et composés minéraux) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 6p. Illus. 21 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 83-1939. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders, blood pressure drop and death (ingestion, severe form); encephalopathy, cardiovascular disorders, hepatonephritis, coagulation disorders, alopecia; polyneuritis, skin disorders (ingestion, less severe forms); irritation of the skin and respiratory tract; ocular burns. Chronic toxicity: carcinogen (lung and skin cancer); skin disorders; mucous membrane damage; alopecia; sensorimotor polyneuritis; haematological effects; digestive, renal, hepatic and cardiovascular disorders. Exposure limits. TWA = USA, ACGIH 1991, arsenic and its soluble compounds: 0.2mgAs/m3; France, lead arseniate: 0.15mgPb/m3. EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.033-001-00-x (arsenic), No.033-002-00 (arsenic compounds except diarsenic trioxide); T, R23/25, S1/2, S20/21, S28, S44. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78156)

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CIS 02-64 Deltamethrin. (French: Deltaméthrine) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 15 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-405. Synonyms: (S)-α-cyano-3-phenoxybenzyl-(1R,3R)-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2- dimethyl-cyclopropane carboxylate. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; neurological disorders; irritation of the upper respiratory tact; skin projections may cause facial paresthaesia which disappears after a few hours. Chronic toxicity: neurological effects (facial paresthaesia); irritation of the upper respiratory tract. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78157)

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CIS 02-65 Polychlorinated biphenyls. (French: Polychlorobiphényles) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 5p. Illus. 23 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-406. Synonyms: chlorinated biphenyls. Toxicity: irritation; skin disorders (chloracne, pigmentation, nail discoloration, eczema); neurological disorders, hepatic disorders, skin, digestive and liver tumors; leukaemia. Exposure limits (France): TWA = 1mg/m3 (mixtures containing 42% chlorine); 0.5mg/m3 mixtures (containing 54% chlorine). EEC number and mandatory labelling codes: No.602-039-00-4; Xn, R33, S35. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78158)

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CIS 02-66 Potassium hexacyanoferrate(3-) and hexacyanoferrate(4-). (French: Hexacyanoferrate(3-) et hexacyanoferrate(4-) de potassium) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 3p. 8 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-407. Synonyms: potassium hexacyanoferrate(III), potassium ferricyanide; potassium hexacyanoferrate(II) trihydrate, potassium ferrocyanide trihydrate. Acute toxicity: digestive disorders; headache. Chronic toxicity: no specific pathologies have been observed. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78159)

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CIS 02-67 2,4,5-Trichlorophenol; 2,4,6-Trichlorophenol. (French: 2,4,5-Trichlorophénol; 2,4,6-Trichlorophénol) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, Rev.ed., CD-ROM CD 613, 2001. 4p. 22 ref. (In French)

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Chemical safety information sheet. Update of data sheet already summarized in CIS 84-408. Acute toxicity: irritation of the skin and conjunctival irritation in the case of eye splashes. Chronic toxicity: chloracne; disturbances of the hepatic functions; neuromuscular weakness; porphyria cutanea tardiva; psychological disorders; respiratory impairment; suspected carcinogenicity. Complete datasheet collection on CD-ROM analysed under CIS 01-201. (78160)

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CIS 02-68 Principles and methods for the assessment of risk from essential trace elements. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2002. xviii, 60p. Illus. 133 ref. Price: CHF 26,00 (CHF 18,20 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-157228-0 (In English)

Internet:

http://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc228.htm

The risk assessment approach described in this monograph applies only to essential trace elements (ETEs) involved in human health. It gives methods for analysing the boundaries between deficient and excess oral intakes of ETEs. It focuses on the concept of acceptable range of oral intake (AROI). Contents: introduction (purpose, criteria for essentiality of trace elements, definitions); acceptable range of oral intake; variability of human populations; effects of deficiency and excess; application of homeostatic model in human risk assessment to exposure of ETEs. (78166)

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CIS 02-69 Peracetic acid and its equilibrium solutions. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Jan. 2001. 146p. Illus. Approx. 330 ref. (In English)

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Conclusions of this criteria document: peracetic acid (PAA) (alternate name: peroxyacetic acid) and its solutions cause irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. PAA solutions are acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. Effects in experimental animals are consistent with information on human exposure effects. (78167)

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CIS 02-70 Principles for evaluating health risks to reproduction associated with exposure to chemicals. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. xxi, 187p. Illus. Approx. 325 ref. Price: CHF 42.00 (CHF 29.40 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-157225-6 (In English)

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Following a summary of human reproductive physiology, this criteria document describes the in vitro and in vivo methods used for evaluating the sexual function, fertility and developmental effects of toxic substances, and proposes strategies for evaluating the risk of reproductive toxicity. It also presents recommendations in the form of 13 points aimed at improving basic understanding of reproductive and developmental toxicity. (78211)

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CIS 02-71 Arsenic and arsenic compounds. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 2001. xxviii, 521p. Illus. Approx. 1200 ref. Price: CHF 108.00 (CHF 75.60 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-157224-8 (In English)

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Conclusions of this criteria document: arsenic and its compounds are highly toxic; the ingestion of large doses gives rise to gastro-intestinal symptoms and cardiovascular and neurological disorders that can lead to death. There is a causal relationship between exposure to arsenic, primarily by inhalation, and lung cancer. Chronic exposure to arsenic can cause severe peripheral vascular disease (blackfoot disease). Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking water increases the risk of skin, lung and bladder cancer as well as other skin anomalies. (78212)

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CIS 02-72 N,N-Dimethylformamide. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 56p. Illus. 262 ref. Price: CHF 17.00 (CHF 11.90 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153031-6 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad31.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: dimethyformamide is slightly irritant and corrosive to the eyes and skin. Occupational exposure results from dermal absorption and inhalation. The primary target is the liver, giving rise to digestive disorders and changes in hepatic enzymes. Data on carcinogenicity and genotoxicity are not convincing; available data are insufficient for the assessment of neurological and immunological effects. (78161)

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CIS 02-73 Barium and barium compounds. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 52p. 153 ref. Price: CHF 21.00 (CHF 14.70 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153033-2 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad33.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: exposure to barium and barium compounds causes effects on blood pressure (hypertension) and on the renal function. Inhalation of insoluble forms results in radiographic findings of baritosis. Data from animal studies on inhalation exposure show respiratory effects (bronchitis) and inflammatory response and granuloma formation in the lungs. (78162)

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CIS 02-74 Chlorinated naphthalenes. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 57p. Illus. 230 ref. Price: CHF 21.00 (CHF 14.70 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153034-0 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad34.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: there are 75 possible congeners of chlorinated naphthalenes. In the general population, these products accumulate in adipose tissue, liver, blood and breast milk. Occupational exposure causes severe skin reactions (chloracne) and liver damage. Other effects are: eye irritation, fatigue, headache, anaemia, haematuria, anorexia, impotence, nausea, vomiting and sometimes severe abdominal pain. Mortality studies show an excess of deaths from cirrhosis of the liver and a significantly increased mortality from all cancers, and in particular for cancer of the oesophagus. (78163)

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CIS 02-75 N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 34p. Illus. 102 ref. Price: CHF 21,00 (CHF 14,70 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153035-9 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad35.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: methylpyrrolidone is irritant to the eyes and skin and causes headache. Acute toxicity studies in rodents show low toxicity. The mutagenic potential is low. (78164)

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CIS 02-76 Methyl cyanoacrylate and ethyl cyanoacrylate. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 28p. Illus. 49 ref. Price: CHF 21.00 (CHF 14.70 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153036-7 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad36.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: methyl cyanoacrylate (MCA) and ethyl-2-cyanoacrylate (ECA) are irritant to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract and may induce asthma. (78165)

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CIS 02-77 Beryllium and beryllium compounds. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. iv, 71p. 249 ref. Price: CHF 16.00 (CHF 11.20 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-153032-4 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.who.int/ipcs/publications/cicad/en/cicad32.pdf

Conclusions of this criteria document: There is insufficient data concerning oral toxicity; the lung is the primary target of inhalation exposure to beryllium, giving rise to acute or chronic pulmonary diseases (berylliosis, chemical pneumonitis) that cause sensitization. Exposure to soluble beryllium compounds causes skin and eye irritation and can give rise to cell-mediated hypersensitivity responses. (78213)

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CIS 02-78 Toxicological profile for arsenic (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xx, 428p. Illus. Approx. 1440 ref. (In English)

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This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of arsenic is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract; skin disorders (hyperkeratosis); gastrointestinal effects; haematotoxic effects (blood-cell anomalies); cardiovascular disorders; arrhythmia; neurotoxic effects; carcinogenic effects (skin, gastrointestinal, liver, bladder, renal and lung cancer); effects on reproduction (stillbirth); genotoxic effects. (Update of CIS 96-2217). (78323)

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CIS 02-79 Toxicological profile for chromium (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 419p. Illus. Approx. 1160 ref. (In English)

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This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of chromium is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract and gastrointestinal mucosa; respiratory disorders; skin diseases (ulcers); sensitization; perforation of the nasal septum; lung cancer; haematological effects (leukocytosis, haemolytic anaemia); effects on reproduction. (Update of CIS 96-2223). (78324)

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CIS 02-80 Toxicological profile for endosulfan (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 284p. Illus. Approx. 680 ref. (In English)

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This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of endosulfan is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: neurotoxic effects (convulsions, tremor), respiratory effects (dyspnoea); genotoxic effects induced in animals. (Update of CIS 96-2214). (78325)

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CIS 02-81 Toxicological profile for ethion. Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 175p. Illus. Approx. 270 ref. (In English)

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This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of ethion is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: acetylcholinesterase inhibition; overstimulation of the parasympathetic autonomous nerve system; effects on the central nervous system. (78326)

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CIS 02-82 Toxicological profile for manganese (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 466p. Illus. Approx. 920 ref. (In English)

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This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of manganese is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract, which can lead to pneumonia; neurological effects (manganism); impairment of fertility in men. (78327)

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CIS 02-83 Toxicological profile for methylene chloride (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 271p. Illus. Approx. 810 ref. (In English)

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This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of dichloromethane chloride is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: skin irritation; chemical burns; neurotoxic effects; antifertility effects; possible carcinogenic effects. (Update of CIS 96-2228). (78328)

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CIS 02-84 Toxicological profile for toluene (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry (ATSDR), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology/Toxicology Information Branch, 1600 Clifton Road NE, E-29, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA, Sep. 2000. xix, 312p. Illus. Approx. 1210 ref. (In English)

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This profile was prepared in accordance with guidelines set by the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry and the EPA. The key literature related to the toxic effects of toluene is identified and reviewed. Contents: public health statement; health effects; chemical and physical information; production, import, use and disposal; potential for human exposure; analytical methods; regulations and advisories; glossary. Health hazards include: irritation of the respiratory tract; neurologic disorders (with possible changes in the brain); neurotoxic (narcosis) and neuropsychic effects; possible liver and kidney damage; increased risk of spontaneous abortion; alterations of the heart rhythm; embryotoxic effects. (Update of CIS 99-235). (78329)

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[ Top of page ]

Training materials and practical information

CIS 02-85 Guide to risk assessment. (French: Guide d'évaluation des risques) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., Oct. 2000. 25p. Illus. Price: EUR 5.00., ISBN 2-7389-0801-2 (In French)

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In France, the average direct cost of an occupational accident is FRF 15,000. Indirect losses, including lost work time, production losses and equipment repairs can represent a further one to three times this amount. The purpose of this safety guide is to help companies organize their approach to hazard prevention in a simple manner: identify the hazards, select the hazards to be addressed in priority, implement solutions. It includes a one-page sheet for each of 18 frequent occupational hazards, describing typical causes and suggesting solutions. Replaces CIS 01-363. (77914)

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CIS 02-86 GOSH! Gearing up to occupational safety and health systems in the European Union. Meewsen J.M., Piek P., Steijger N., Robertson S., Peer A., Benders R.J., TNO Work and Employment, P.O. Box 718, 2130 AS Hoofddorp, The Netherlands, 1999. CD-ROM. System requirements: MS Windows 95 or higher, web browser MS Internet Explorer 4.0 or higher, Netscape 4.0 or higher, word processor capable of opening MS Word 97 documents. Hardware requirements: Intel Pentium processor, 16 MB RAM, minimum 4-speed CD-ROM drive, Internet access. (In English)

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This CD-ROM contains the materials of a distance learning course delivered through the Internet, aimed at occupational safety and health professionals in the European Union (EU) applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe. The course provides a broad knowledge of the Council Directive on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health of workers at work (Council Directive 89/391/EEC of 12 June 1989 or "Framework Directive", see CIS 89-1401). Topics covered include obligations for employers and employees, risk assessment and an introduction to the development of sound safety and health policy based on the Framework Directive's basic philosophy. Assignments during the course focus on best practice in the implementation of EU Health and Safety Policy prerequisites in the participants' home countries. The basic knowledge and skills and training methods required to develop courses are also provided. An important weighting in the assessment of the participants is the design of their own training programme aimed at colleagues in their respective countries. (78290)

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CIS 02-87 Visual acuity manual. (Spanish: Manual de salud visual) Carmona R.E., Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Departamento de gestión empresarial en salud ocupacional, San José, Costa Rica, 2000. 23p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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This training booklet presents a few basic principles of eye physiology, vision problems and risks to vision. Contents: vision system; field of vision; visual ergonomics and positioning of signalling elements; refractive anomalies (myopia; hypermetropia, astigmatism, presbyopia, anisometropia); most common disorders (styes, chalazion, glaucoma, keratoconus, foreign bodies, visual acuity); symptoms requiring medical attention; measures to be taken in cases of injury (foreign bodies, chemicals, burns due to heat, strikes by objects). (78011)

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CIS 02-88 Basic emergency first aid and resuscitation. (Urdu: Ibtidāī tibbī imdād aur masnūī tanaffus) Awan S.A, ed., Centre for Improvement of Working Conditions and Environment, Township, Lahore, Pakistan, 2001. 39p. Illus. (In Urdu)

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This booklet is aimed at workers, supervisors and emergency teams at workplaces. It describes the different stages of first aid and resuscitation in case of accidents or other emergencies at the workplace. In particular, the sequences of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are described in detail. (78086)

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CIS 02-89 Welders health and safety guide. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 1999. 142p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-17402-2 (In English)

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Welding involves a wide range of safety and health hazards, including: exposure to dusts, fumes, vapours and gases; poor ergonomic working conditions; electrical hazards; falls, trips and falling objects; moving vehicles and cranes; operating machinery; arc radiation; gas cylinder leaks; heat, sparks, open flames and hot surfaces; noise; work in confined spaces. This guide outlines the safety and health aspects of welding work and presents safe working methods. Contents: basic rules of safety; maintaining safety standards; welding hazards and controls; special welding conditions; personal protective equipment; legislation; sources of additional information. (77998)

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CIS 02-90 A construction industry partnership standardized training module - Subpart C - Introduction to OSHA. Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, Washington DC, USA, 1997. Training pack containing: trainee booklet (28p. Illus.); instructor manual (53p. Illus.); 23 presentation viewgraphs. (In English)

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Contents of this training programme: definition and role of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); OSHA organization; understanding OSHA standards; OSHA compliance procedures; citations, penalties and appeals; rights and responsibilities of workers and employers. (78281)

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CIS 02-91 A construction industry partnership standardized training module - Subpart E - PPE. Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, Washington DC, USA, 1997. Training pack containing: trainee booklet (28p. Illus.); instructor manual (41p. Illus.); 21 presentation viewgraphs. (In English)

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Contents of this training programme: definitions and functions of personal protective equipment (PPE); why protection is necessary; why it is necessary to protect one's lungs; other PPEs required (neck, arms, torso); protection from falls; limitations of PPEs; hazards of PPEs; responsibilities. (78282)

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CIS 02-92 School workers health and safety guide. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 3rd ed., 2001. vii, 161p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-18378-1 (In English)

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This guide is a revised edition of an earlier document analysed under CIS 01-1009. It is aimed at workers, supervisors, teachers, principals, school board officials, and safety and health committee members in schools and other educational establishments. Its objectives are to enable persons working in schools and other educational establishments to recognize workplace hazards, prevent accident and injury by safe work practices and use of personal protective equipment, deal with accidents and emergencies and understand their duties and rights under occupational safety and health legislation. A list of addresses of government departments that can be contacted for additional information is also included. Document also available in French at CCOHS. (77991)

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CIS 02-93 Food service workers safety guide. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2002. 129p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-18801-5 (In English)

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This guide is aimed at all persons working in food preparation and service organizations such as hotels, restaurants, catering facilities and fast food establishments. It replaces an earlier edition analysed under CIS 01-1010. Its objective is to enable persons working in restaurants and related establishments to recognize workplace hazards, prevent accidents and injuries by safe work practices and use of personal protective equipment, deal with accidents and emergencies and understand their duties and rights under occupational safety and health legislation. A list of addresses of government departments that can be contacted for additional information is also included. Document also available in French at CCOHS. (77996)

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CIS 02-94 Safety representatives and safety committees. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1996. vi, 62p. Price: GBP 5.55 (GBP 40.00 for 10 copies)., ISBN 0-7176-1220-1 (In English)

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This booklet contains the Regulations on safety representatives and safety committees (see CIS 77-1193) and their amendments, the Code of Practice on safety representatives, the Code of Practice on time off for the training of safety representatives and guidance notes issued by HSC. The booklet is arranged so that the relevant code and guide reference appear alongside each regulation. The codes of practice and the guidance notes give practical guidance on the regulations. (78245)

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CIS 02-95 Indoor air quality health and safety guide. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., 1999. ix, 132p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-17932-6 (In English)

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Indoor air quality (IAQ) problems occur in buildings where chemical or biological contaminants build up to levels that can adversely affect some occupants, causing headache, nausea, fatigue, drowsiness, throat dryness, skin rashes, eye and nose irritation, loss of concentration and general malaise. Building-related illness is a recognized occupational disease. This guide outlines how to identify potential IAQ problems and to take steps towards controlling these problems. Contents: IAQ as a occupational health concern; sources of IAQ problems; recognition of IAQ problems; evaluation and control of IAQ; ventilation; evaluation and control of the indoor environment; instruments of indoor air quality assessment; regulations, standards and guidelines; legislation; sources of additional information. Document also available in French at CCOHS. (77993)

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CIS 02-96 Introduction to chemical safety. Module IV - Toxic substance effects: Session 2. Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, 31st floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, no date. 28p. Illus. (In English)

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This booklet outlines the effects of toxic substances on the health of workers. Main topics covered: some of the effects of toxic substances (irritation, damage to the central nervous system, reproductive and developmental effects, poisoning); different types of effects (external, internal, acute, chronic); precautions for limiting exposure; exercise and test on the contents of the training module. (78217)

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CIS 02-97 Introduction to chemical safety. Module IV - Identification and measurement: Session 3. Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, 31st floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, no date. 32p. Illus. (In English)

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This booklet explains how to identify and evaluate the hazards due to toxic substances. Main topics covered: development of a chemical inventory; hazard evaluation; various ways of assessing working environment contaminants (floor plans, job hazard analysis, walk-through); air sampling; threshold limit values (TLV, TWA, STEL, ceiling values); exercise and test on the contents of the training module. (78218)

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CIS 02-98 Introduction to chemical safety. Module IV - Controls: Session 4. Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, 31st floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, no date. 24p. Illus. (In English)

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This booklet explains the basic principles of the prevention of health hazards from toxic chemicals. Main topics covered: the three kinds of controls (engineering, organizational and personal); engineering controls (selection of equipment, process modifications, substitution, equipment isolation, ventilation); organizational controls (company policy, labelling and signs, training, standard work practices, preventive maintenance, housekeeping, air sampling); case studies (phenol burn, irritation from leaking containers in a confined area); exercise and test on the contents of the training module. (78219)

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CIS 02-99 Introduction to chemical safety. Module IV - Personal controls: Session 5. Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, 31st floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, no date. 24p. Illus. (In English)

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This booklet describes the hygiene explains the personal hygiene measures to be adopted when working with toxic substances, and explains the basic principles for the selection, use and maintenance of respirators. It also presents two case studies (unloading sulfur tanks and abrasive blasting), highlighting the importance of using appropriate respirators. Finally, it includes an exercise and test on the contents of the training module. (78220)

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CIS 02-100 Dealing with carcinogens in the company? Modules for education and training of occupational physicians. Elsigan G., Hien W., Jäger R., Kittel G., Müller R., Nemitz B., Salmhofer H., Weel A., ppm Forschung und Beratung, Kaplanhofstrasse 1, 4020 Linz, Austria, May 2001. Binder containing 12 training modules. 128p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Also available on CD-ROM entitled "Cancer prevention management tools", in German and English, in Microsoft Word and Adobe PDF formats. Price of the CD-ROM: EUR 20.00 (plus postage). (In English)

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This training programme is designed for occupational physicians confronted with the issue of exposure to carcinogens in the workplace. It consists of twelve modules, each representing half-a-day, one-day or two-day training sessions: resources available within the company; setting priorities; small enterprises; epidemiological methods and occupational practice within the company; risk assessment; risk communication within the enterprise; risk communication with concerned persons; health surveillance and screening; state of the art in technology and occupational medicine; cooperation within the enterprise; dealing with conflicts; quality circles for improving the quality of intervention. (78288)

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CIS 02-101 Preventing health risks from the use of pesticides in agriculture. Fait A., Iversen B., Tiramani M., Visentin S., Moroni M., He F., International Centre for Pesticide Safety, World Health Organization (WHO), 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 2001. 35p. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

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The use of pesticides may pose health risks to farm workers, often as a consequence of improper or careless handling. This booklet provides advice on how these health risks can be reduced. It gives a short introduction on pesticides and on labelling and classification systems, a description on how exposure can occur and information on related health problems, first aid and personal protective equipment. It also provides practical advice on proper working procedures for mixing, loading, application, transport, storage and disposal of pesticides and includes answers to frequently-asked questions. (78289)

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CIS 02-102 Introduction to chemical safety. Module IV - Chemical fires and explosions: Session 1. Industrial Accident Prevention Association, 2 Bloor Street West, 31st floor, Toronto, Ontario M4W 3N8, Canada, no date. 24p. Illus. (In English)

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This booklet reviews the hazards of fires and explosions due to chemicals, and describes how to prevent them or limit their consequences. Main topics covered: hazardous substances (oxidants, flammable materials, combustible materials, explosives); measures aimed at limiting the risks; proper storage; safety training of operators; inspections; emergency procedures; alarms; first aid; exercises and test on the contents of the training module. (78216)

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CIS 02-103 A construction industry partnership standardized training module - Subpart K - Electrical safety - Unit 1. Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, Washington DC, USA, 1997. Training pack containing: trainee booklet (28p. Illus.); instructor manual (52p. Illus.); 33 presentation viewgraphs. (In English)

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Contents of this training programme: introduction on electricity and electrical circuits; hazards of electricity (shock, burns, fire, explosions); safe work with electricity (temporary wiring, insulation, grounding, circuit breakers and fuses, ground fault protection, ground fault circuit interrupter); Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requirements for controlling electrical hazards in construction; extension cords. (78284)

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CIS 02-104 Noise control in industry: A basic guide. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2000. 131p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-18151-7 (In English)

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Noise is a major occupational hazard. Short-term effects include temporary hearing loss, stress and irritability. It can make verbal communications difficult, thereby leading to safety hazards. Long-term exposure can lead to permanent hearing loss. This guide provides an overview of the methods of recognizing, evaluating and controlling workplace noise exposure. It is aimed at workers, supervisors, safety representatives and occupational safety and health professionals. Topics covered include: units of noise; methods of measuring noise level and noise exposure; instruments used to measure noise; relationship between noise exposure and hearing loss; noise exposure limits; engineering methods of noise control; effectiveness of hearing protectors; basic elements of a hearing conservation programme. (77997)

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CIS 02-105 Hand-arm vibration in foundries. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. 30p. Illus. 18 ref. Price: GBP 6.00., ISBN 0-7176-1798-X (In English)

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This booklet aimed at managers, safety officers and safety representatives within the foundry industry gives guidance on how to reduce the risks of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). Main topics covered: definition of HAVS; risks factors; cost for employers; exposure control; engineering and management controls: personal protection; system design and process control; good grinding practices; selection of grinding wheels; wheel hardness; training; work organization; health surveillance. (78246)

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CIS 02-106 Cold weather workers safety guide. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., 1999. 106p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-16228-8 (In English)

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This guide for the prevention of hazards due to outdoor work in cold weather is a revised edition of the version analysed under CIS 99-768. It is aimed at workers, supervisors, safety and health representatives, and occupational safety and health professionals. Contents: elements of on-the-job safety; safety inspections; accident investigation and reporting; first aid; hazards due to cold environments; measurement of cold (including wind chill factors); dressing warmly; maintenance of cold-weather clothing; working safely on snow and ice; ice safety on frozen bodies of water; vital signs of cold injury (including prevention and treatment of frostbite, hypothermia, trench foot, white finger and carpal tunnel syndrome); cold-weather work in remote areas; general safety in outdoor work (electric safety, ladders, chain saws, compact loaders, snow throwers, shovelling and digging, manual material handling, truck start up, infectious waste); safety guidelines for the work environment; personal protective equipment; OSH legislation in Canada; sources of additional information. Document also available in French at CCOHS. (77994)

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CIS 02-107 Warehouse workers safety guide. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., 1999. 140p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-17984-9 (In English)

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This guide on safety and health in warehouses is an update of an earlier edition analysed under CIS 99-770. It is aimed at persons working in warehouses as well as at supervisors, managers, safety representatives and occupational safety and health professionals. It provides guidance on recognizing workplace hazards, preventing accidents and injury, following safe working methods, selecting and using proper personal protective equipment and understanding responsibilities under occupational safety and health legislation. Contents: maintaining high standards of safety; common hazards and safety tips; emergency preparedness; warehouses and terminals; manual handling; powered vehicles; materials storage; work environment; occupational safety and health legislation; sources of additional information. Document also available in French at CCOHS. (77995)

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CIS 02-108 A construction industry partnership standardized training module - Subpart I - Tool safety. Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, Washington DC, USA, 1997. Training pack containing: trainee booklet (28p. Illus.); instructor manual (31p. Illus.); 20 presentation viewgraphs. (In English)

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Contents of this training programme: description and function of tools used in the construction industry; most common tool-related hazards; basic requirements of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) with respect to tool safety (guards, anchoring, personal protective equipment); hand tools (sprung jaws, mushroomed head); power tools (pneumatic, fuel and hydraulic-powered tools, powder-actuated tools); abrasive tools; woodworking tools; other tools. (78283)

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CIS 02-109 A construction industry partnership standardized training module - Subpart L - Scaffold safety. Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, Washington DC, USA, 1997. Training pack containing: trainee booklet (28p. Illus.); instructor manual (40p. Illus.); 23 presentation viewgraphs. (In English)

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Contents of this training programme: description of scaffolds and their construction; hazards due to scaffolds; evaluation of scaffold safety; important scaffold parts (braces, guardrails, platforms); suspension scaffolds; aerial lifts; loads that can be supported by scaffolds; safe work on scaffolds; training requirements. (78285)

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CIS 02-110 A construction industry partnership standardized training module - Subpart M - Fall protection - Unit 1. Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, Washington DC, USA, 1997. Training pack containing: trainee booklet (28p. Illus.); instructor manual (40p. Illus.); 25 presentation viewgraphs. (In English)

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Contents of this training programme: introduction and fall protection requirements; selecting fall protection systems; guard rail systems; safety net systems; hole covers; personal fall arresting systems; alternative measures (controlled access zones, warning lines, safety monitoring systems); training requirements. (78286)

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CIS 02-111 A construction industry partnership standardized training module - Subpart X - Stairways and ladders. Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, Washington DC, USA, 1997. Training pack containing: trainee booklet (28p. Illus.); instructor manual (32p. Illus.); 22 presentation viewgraphs. (In English)

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Contents of this training programme: description of the types of stairways and ladders; common hazards of stairways and ladders; basic requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); OSHA's training requirements; OSHA's requirements for stairways; using ladders safely; OSHA's requirements for the condition of ladders. (78287)

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CIS 02-112 Office ergonomics. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 4th ed., 2001. 109p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-18457-5 (In English)

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Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are among the most commonly occurring hazards in office work. They are the result of poorly-designed workstations and inadequate job design. Two common types of WMSD are muscular strain in the neck, shoulders and back due to prolonged sitting, and injury to joints and muscles due to excessive repetitive movements. The objective of this guide is to help develop an office ergonomics programme for the prevention of WMSDs. It is aimed at managers, supervisors, safety and health representatives, persons doing office work at home and occupational health and safety professionals. Contents: ergonomic hazards at the workplace; office ergonomics programmes: ergonomic regulations, standards and guidelines; sources of additional information. Document also available in French at CCOHS. (77992)

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CIS 02-113 Ergonomic checkpoints: Practical and easy-to-implement solutions for improving safety, health and working conditions. (Estonian: Ergonoomilised soovitused: Praktilised ja lihtsad lahendused ohutuse, tervise, töötingimuste parandamiseks) International Labour Organization, Tallinna Tehnikaülikool, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallin, Estonia, 2002. 275p. Illus., ISBN 9985-59-293-X (In Estonian)

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Estonian translation of the ILO manual abstracted as CIS 96-2070. It contains 128 "checkpoints", each consisting of one page of important points to remember about an ergonomic issue (including many OSH subjects as well), grouped under the headings WHY, HOW, SOME MORE HINTS and POINTS TO REMEMBER, together with one page of illustrations. The checkpoints themselves are grouped under the following headings: materials storage and handling; hand tools; productive machine safety; improving workstation design; lighting; premises; control of hazardous substances and agents; welfare facilities; work organization. An overall ergonomic check-list, with one recommendation for each of the checkpoints, is also provided. (78130)

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CIS 02-114 Violence at the workplace - Prevention guide. Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety, 250 Main Street East, Hamilton, Ontario L8N 1H6, Canada, 2nd ed., 2001. 163p. Illus. Price: CAD 10.00 (Canada); USD 10.00 (elsewhere)., ISBN 0-660-18472-9 (In English)

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This guide is aimed at all persons concerned with workplace violence and its prevention, and particularly at individuals involved in the development and implementation of workplace violence prevention programmes. It replaces an earlier edition analysed under CIS 01-1025. Contents include: introduction and definition of workplace violence; developing a workplace violence prevention programme; methods for preventing workplace violence; responding to workplace violence; Canadian and U.S. legislation. Appendices include sample risk assessment questionnaires, inspection forms and reporting forms. Document also available in French at CCOHS. (77999)

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[ Top of page ]

Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals


001 General safety, health and conditions of work

CIS 02-115 Assessment of the protection efficiency and comfort of personal protective equipment in real conditions of use. Mayer A., Korhonen E., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.347-360. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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The lack of scientific and technical knowledge in certain complex fields have led to the adoption of European standards based on insufficiently validated tests, relying sometimes on an empirical approach. For example, personal protective equipment (PPE) which passes the tests required by the standards can nevertheless prove to be unsatisfactory when used at work. Several research investigations have already been carried out on equipment such as fall-arresting systems, protective clothing, and gloves, by several safety and health institutes in Europe. The results suggest practical solutions to improve the validity of several European test methods and to focus more on informing and training workers on the proper way of wearing PPE, in particular respiratory protective equipment and hearing protectors. (78001)

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CIS 02-116 Beyond the job exposure matrix (JEM): The task exposure matrix (TEM). Benke G., Sim M., Fritschi L., Aldred G., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.475-482. Illus. 12 ref (In English)

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The job exposure matrix (JEM) has been widely used to assign cumulative exposure to workers. In these studies, workers with the same job title and duration are usually assigned similar cumulative exposures, expressed in mg/m3-years. However, if the job is composed of multiple tasks, assigning all workers within a job the same mean exposure can lead to misclassifications. A method called the "task exposure matrix" (TEM) is presented, which reduces the variability of the JEM methodology. By summing the cumulative exposures of a worker over all the tasks worked within a job title, it is possible to address the variability of exposure within the job title, and reduce possible exposure misclassification. The construction of a TEM is outlined and its application in the primary aluminium industry is described. (78037)

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CIS 02-117 A comparison of safety practices used by managers of high and low accident rate postal delivery services. Bentley T.A., Haslam R.A., Safety Science, Feb. 2001, Vol.37, No.1, p.19-37. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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This study compared safety practices of managers of high and low accident-rate postal delivery offices, particularly with respect to slip, trip and fall accidents. Interviews were conducted with 20 Delivery Office Managers (DOMs), drawn equally from matched high- and low-accident-rate offices. DOMs from low accident rate offices appeared to have improved performance with respect to quality of safety communication, dealing with hazards reported on delivery walks, and accident investigation and remedial action. Efforts to reduce risks from severe weather were limited in both high and low accident offices. A model is described illustrating the hierarchy of factors that may affect occurrence of slip, trip and fall accidents within a large organization. The model indicates that managers' impact arises both from their attitudes and their actions. (78138)

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CIS 02-118 Advantages and limits of safety audits. (French: Intérêts et limites de l'audit de sécurité) Rousseau C., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2156-184-01, p.69-75. Illus. 27 ref. (In French)

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This article compares safety audits with other types of audits (financial, legal and social), and presents an overview of some of the key steps required during the implementation of a safety audit. The results of two studies, whose objective was to examine the practical aspects of safety audits and to highlight the advantages and limitations of these tools, are presented. Recommendations are made with respect to the design of documents used either during the safety audit or during the follow-up of proposals made as a result of the audit, so as to improve their consistency and enhance the overall credibility of the approach. (77889)

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CIS 02-119 Safety at work. Lehtinen S., Haataja I., Hinkkanen S., eds., Asian-Pacific Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, July 2001, Vol. 8, No.2, p.27-47 (whole issue). Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

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This issue consists of a collection of articles on occupational safety and health. Contents include: general considerations regarding occupational safety and health; dust removal and safety in Chinese coal mines; a computer tool for analysing the workplace thermal environment; household surveys for collecting basic information on occupational injuries; progress in occupational safety and health among Indian dock workers; developing occupational safety and health in Asia; importance of prevention. (77960)

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CIS 02-120 Why a workplace hazards sheet?. (French: Pourquoi une fiche de poste et de nuisances?) Dufourniaud T., Revue de médecine du travail, Mar.-Apr. 2001, Vol.XXVIII, No.2, p. 93-97. (In French)

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Filling in the workplace hazard sheet is the legal responsibility of employers. It needs to be prepared for each employee or trainee at establishments that are part of the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) group and at contractors working on CEA sites, whether or not they are involved in radiological activities. For each worker, it specifies working conditions, specific activities and special hazards related to the job. It also specifies the medical surveillance required in terms of the nature and frequency of medical and additional examinations, and enables decisions as to the aptitude of the worker for the given job. This information note describes the contents of the sheet, how it needs to be filled in, and by whom. An example of a workplace hazard sheet is also included. (77985)

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CIS 02-121 Consequences of the attribution of accident causes for their notification and investigation. (Spanish: Las consecuencias de las atribuciones de las causas de los accidentes para la notificación e investigación de los mismos) Meliá Navarro J.L., Chisvert Perales M.J., Pardo E., Prevención, July-Sep. 2001, No.157, p.16-30. Illus. 12 ref. (In Spanish)

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In order to plan the preventive actions needed to avoid further accidents and health hazards, safety and health professionals rely on essential elements which include information on risks, communication systems within the enterprise concerning accidents and accident investigation reports. During the collection, selection and transmission of this information, various attribution processes take place which can affect its reliability. Victims or witnesses of accidents could for example be inclined to give erroneous or conflicting information. This deviation of the information also influences attitudes towards safety and can affect the efficiency of preventive measures. This article analyses this issue from the psychological angle and presents a few guidelines for improving the quality of safety information, encouraging better attitudes towards safety and developing more effective preventive measures. (78278)

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CIS 02-122 Occupational safety and the prevention of occupational hazards. (Spanish: La seguridad industrial y la prevención de riesgos laborales) Azcoaga Bengoechea I.M., Prevención, July-Sep. 2001, No.157, p.42-64. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Industrial safety and the prevention of occupational hazards are two closely-related areas. This article analyses the importance of industrial safety for the prevention of occupational hazards and the interactions between the Law on industry and the Law on protection against occupational hazards (CIS 95-1921), as well as their respective regulations. (78280)

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CIS 02-123 Occupational health - Indian scenario. Parekh R., Industrial Safety Chronicle, July-Sep. 2000, Vol.XXXI, No.2, p.38-41. (In English)

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There are currently some 200,000 registered industrial factories in India, including more than 5000 chemical factories which together employ more than half-a-million workers. The Bhopal disaster of 1984 incited the Government to amend the Factories Act of 1948, which represents the main occupational safety and health legislation. This article presents an overview of the current occupational health situation in India as well as the amendments to the Factories Act which were adopted in 1987. (78119)

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CIS 02-124 Lack of aptitude for useful work in legal theory and practice. (Italian: L'inabilità a lavoro proficuo nella dottrina e nella giurisprudenza) Vitiello G., Difesa sociale, Sep.-Dec. 2000, Vol.79, No.5-6, p.143-148. 18 ref. (In Italian)

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The concept of unfitness for a specific job is analysed through a review of Italian doctrinal and jurisprudential contributions. It is recommended that the reference to a value of usefulness for a specific job should be considered an obsolete and a dangerous expression open to distorted interpretations for certain handicapped workers in the absence of an objective verification. (78200)

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CIS 02-125 Work-related fatalities in Australia, 1989 to 1992: An overview. Driscoll T., Mitchell R., Mandryk J., Healey S., Hendrie L., Hull B., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2001, Vol.17, No.1, p.45-66. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

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This article provides an overview of the results of a study of work-related fatalities that occurred in Australia in the four-year period between 1989 and 1992. The data were obtained primarily from coroners' files. There were 2,413 persons fatally injured while working or commuting during this period. Of these, 1,787 were injured while working (1,244 in a workplace; 543 in motor vehicle crashes on public roads) and 626 were injured commuting to or from work. The overall rate of work-related death per 100,000 persons per year was 7.5 for workers and commuters combined, and 5.5 for workers only. Another 811 non-working persons died as a result of someone else's work activity. The number and rates of death varied considerably with sex, age, industry, occupation and jurisdiction. A range of involved agencies, mechanisms and places were identified, as well as many examples of similar combinations of circumstances that led to work-related deaths. The findings should help the development of specific prevention strategies. (78113)

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CIS 02-126 Annual report 2000. Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency, 34-4 Kusan-dong, Pupyung-gu, Inchon 403-711, Republic of Korea, 2000. 68p. Illus. (In English)

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Annual report of the Korea Occupational Safety and Health Agency (KOSHA). It includes statistics of occupational accidents, fatalities and diseases, and descriptions of projects undertaken or funded by KOSHA in the following areas: support to small and medium enterprises; promotion of self-regulatory safety at workplaces; prevention of occupational diseases; prevention of accidents at construction sites; safety of dangerous machines and facilities; research and development in the field of occupational safety and health; accident prevention training; encouraging safety awareness; publications; international cooperation. (78090)

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CIS 02-127 Occupational accidents: Analysis - prevention - compensation. (French: Les accidents du travail: analyse - prévention - réparation) Gharbi M., Kahouach L., Aouadi R., Saïd A., Daly L., Ben Laïba M., SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2000, No.12, p.2-26. Illus. 13 ref. (In French)

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Contents of this review article on occupational accidents in Tunisia: definitions; classification; maintenance of accident records by the enterprise (accident investigations, analysis of occupational accidents, development of occupational accident statistics, using the occupational accident statistics); national occupational accident statistics; prevention of occupational accidents; compensation (conditions of compensation, medical certificates, temporary compensation, recovery, temporary and permanent disability, medical commissions, relapse, compensation for death). (77896)

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CIS 02-128 Insurance and occupational safety and health - An appeal, an incentive. (French: Assurance et prévention - Un appel, un encouragement) Union professionnelle des entreprises d'assurances, Maison de l'Assurance, Square de Meeûs 29, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium, 2001. 80p. Illus. (In French)

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This booklet describes the initiatives taken by insurance companies in Belgium in the field of occupational safety and health. Contents include: historical review; complementary nature of insurance and occupational safety and health; ethical, social and human aspects; economic aspects; campaigns in the area of road accident prevention, fires and trespassing, occupational safety and health (smoking, depression); example of the prevention campaign of an insurance company. (77907)

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CIS 02-129 Impact of economic incentives on costs and benefits of occupational health and safety. Pawłowska Z., Rzepecki J., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Special issue, p.71-83. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

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The most common type of economic incentive used in the field of safety and health is the experience rating of insurance premiums. The impact of this incentive on occupational safety and health (OSH) costs in the company was analysed by comparing insurance costs with other OSH costs associated with inadequate working conditions, such as accident costs borne by a company. Accident costs were estimated on the basis of research carried out in 10 companies. Insurance costs and their adjustments according to the safety and health performance in a company were calculated according to an experience-rating model developed in the Central Institute for Labour Protection of Poland. (78008)

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CIS 02-130 Occupational health and safety management in Polish enterprises implementing total quality management systems. Podgórski D., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Special issue, p.85-101. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

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The objective of the study was to evaluate management methods applied to improve working conditions in Polish enterprises implementing Total Quality Management TQM. The investigation was conducted in the form of interviews, which covered relevant connections between the TQM concept and occupational safety and health (OSH) systematic management rules. The results showed an overall positive impact in enterprises having adopted OSH management systems. However, many of these systems still require significant improvement in order to ensure better compliance with the existing law provisions. Elements of OSH management systems also require better integration with the overall management system of the enterprise. (78009)

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CIS 02-131 Principles for shaping working conditions according to ILO conventions and EC directives. Koradecka D., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.71-78. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

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This article discusses approaches for improving occupational safety and health in Poland, with reference to ILO and EU documents. The article reviews how the role of the state and of workers in shaping working conditions have changed over the years. The need for a coherent up-to-date national policy in this field is emphasized. Safety and the protection of the workers' health is perceived by European legislation not only in terms of workers' interests, but also from a social viewpoint, striving for general improvement of the work environment. European regulations aspire to satisfy the public interest, and directives set high levels of protection but also serve as minimum standards not infringing the possibly more stringent national regulations. They define requirements that should already be met at the planning and designing stages. (78032)

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CIS 02-132 Empowerment evaluation of worker safety and health education programs. McQuiston T.H., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.584-597. Illus. 156 ref. (In English)

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Articles for this review of workers safety and health education programmes were identified through computer database and manual searches related to intervention research and evaluation, occupational safety, health training, education, and worker participation and empowerment. After identifying empowerment as a multilevel and multidimensional concept, this review used a theoretical framework of evaluation to show how various participatory and empowering approaches can affect evaluation studies and their use. The field of occupational safety and health has the opportunity to further expand workers' involvement in their own education through the use of participatory and empowering approaches. Use of these approaches has the potential to strengthen capacities for organizational learning and improve both programme theory and practice. (78079)

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CIS 02-133 Occupational health and safety management systems: Recent Australian developments. Winder C., Gardner D., Trethewy R., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2001, Vol.17, No.1, p.67-77. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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Modern safety and health legislation is based on establishing the responsibilities of relevant parties, and requiring a systems-based approach to workplace safety and health. While legislation imposes minimal standards of compliance, some organizations are seeking to go beyond minimal compliance with the development of management systems that seek to manage safety and health issues in a systematic manner. This development is beneficial in the long term, although regulatory bodies remain unconvinced that such systems will be as effective as simple compliance with the law. Development of management standards, such as those for quality (ISO 9000) and the environment (ISO 14000), have also provided a structure for the development of systems for OSH management. Australia and New Zealand were two of the first nations to develop a guidance standard for occupational safety and health management systems, published as a joint standard (AS/NZS 4804) in 1997, followed by certification standards. (78114)

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CIS 02-134 Occupational safety and health in small and medium-sized enterprises during social and economic transformation. Koradecka D., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.3-14. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

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This article presents occupational safety and health statistics in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Poland before and after the transition in 1990 from a planned to a market economy. A considerable increase in the number of occupational diseases was recorded after 1990; however, both fatal accidents and occupational injuries decreased. The findings of a survey of employers and employees on improvements working conditions is included. Finally, the role of the Central Institute for Labour Protection in studying working conditions in SMEs is presented. (78337)

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CIS 02-135 Interactions between maintenance and operations and their effects on safety: Literature review - 3. Type, modes and phases of operator interaction. (French: Interactions maintenance-exploitation et sécurité: étude bibliographique - 3. Nature, modes et phases d'interaction des opérateurs) Grusenmeyer C., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, May 2000. 49p. Illus. 65 ref. (In French)

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Maintenance operations have long been identified as being "critical" with respect to safety. This critical aspect results not only from the nature of these activities but also from their organizational context and from interactions between maintenance and production operators. This literature study analyses the interactions between maintenance and production operators and the different elements facilitating or hindering their cooperation. Firstly, the cognitive tools of these operators (their representations, instruments and jargon) are examined and characterized. Next, the maintenance phases during which production and maintenance operators interact and their interaction modes are analysed. Finally, the consequences of the different modes of interaction and cooperation are discussed with respect to their possible incidence on safety. (77969)

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CIS 02-136 How to reduce workplace accidents. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 189p. Illus., ISBN 92-95007-42-5 (In English)

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Each year, approximately 5,500 people die in occupational accidents in the European Union. There are also more than 4.5 million accidents that result in more than three days' absence from work, amounting to a loss of 146 million working days. With the objective of strengthening the knowledge base on accident prevention, this report presents 22 successful accident-prevention approaches from the 15 European Union member states. In particular, the following hazards, industries and sectors are covered: falling overboard ships; prevention in the security industry; farm accidents; safety in the food and drink industry; falls from heights in the construction industry; preventing road accidents among highway patrol police forces; safety in the construction industry; alcohol awareness for truck drivers; hazards from dust fires and explosions; prevention in the textile and clothing industries, including avoiding needle pricks; prevention in navigable waterway transport; safety management in the steel industry. (78085)

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CIS 02-137 Accident investigation - The drivers, methods and outcomes. Henderson J., Whittington C., Wright K., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 432p. Illus. Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-2022-0 (In English)

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Proposed legislation in the United Kingdom will require employers to investigate the causes of work-related accidents and ill health. The objective of this study was to provide guidance for Health and Safety Executive (HSE) as to the support which industry may need to implement these requirements. The study involved a telephone survey (1500 cases) followed by a smaller face-to-face interview survey (100 companies). The results of the telephone survey were reported in an earlier report. This report covers the interview survey. It describes the technical approach adopted in the survey, a summary of key findings, a comparison of these findings with the output from the telephone survey and, finally, the implications of the findings for the HSE. These include the need to reinforce the links between risk assessment and accident investigation, to provide industry with additional technical support and improved access to HSE information, to provide better support for training in accident investigation, and finally to participate in improving the current legal climate. (78096)

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CIS 02-138 Design of danger signals. (German: Gestaltung von Gefahrensignalen) Malter B., Guski R., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 122p. Illus. 132 ref., ISBN 3-89701-780-6 (In German)

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This report summarizes the studies and proposals concerning the design of acoustic alarms. The alarm needs to be audible (even in the presence of disturbing noise and without giving rise to hearing disorders) and correctly interpreted without special training. Main topics covered: psycho-acoustic and cognitive aspects; audibility; perception of the seriousness and urgency of the hazard; proposed designs of various types of alarms. (78237)

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CIS 02-139 Work and health country profiles - Country profiles and national surveillance indicators in occupational health and safety. Rantanen J., Kauppinen T., Toikkanen J., Kurppa K., Lehtinen S., Leino T., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2001. 97p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-443-X (In English)

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This report presents a variety of indicators that may be used to describe the status and trends of occupational safety and health at the regional and national levels. It recommends a core set of indicators to be considered predominantly for European use, although some recommendations may be applied globally. Contents: indicators and their sources of information; recommended indicators of an occupational safety and health system, of working conditions and of occupational safety and health outcomes; example of indicators applicable to Finland. (78021)

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CIS 02-140 Annual report 2000. (French: Compte rendu de l'exercice 2000) Association d'assurance contre les accidents, Luxembourg, Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg, 2000. 55p. Illus. (In French)

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This annual report re-states the objectives and organizational structure of the Accident Insurance Association of Luxembourg by economic sector (manufacturing industry, and agriculture and forestry). It includes a survey of legislation in force in Luxembourg, as well as occupational accident statistics and financial results of the Association for the year 2000. (77899)

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CIS 02-141 Safety statistics bulletin 2000/2001. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 8p. Illus. (In English)

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Summary statistics on fatal and non-fatal injuries to workers and to members of the public, dangerous occurrences and gas safety for 2000/2001 in the United Kingdom. During this period, the total number of fatal injuries to workers is expected to increase by 34% to 295 from 220 in the previous year. This substantial rise follows a general downward trend during the 1990s. This rise affected most sectors except retail sales, which experienced a slight decrease. The non-fatal major injury rate for employees is expected to be 5% lower than the previous year. There were little changes in the rates of over-3-day injuries to workers or of dangerous occurrences. For the Safety statistics bulletin 1999/2000, see CIS 00-1294. (78087)

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CIS 02-142 Fatal occupational accidents 1998-2000 - Statistical analysis of data from a survey by German factory inspection services. (German: Tödliche Arbeitsunfälle 1998-2000 - Statistische Analyse nach einer Erhebung der Gewerbeaufsicht) Henter A., Hermanns D., Wittig P., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 96p. Illus. 4 ref., ISBN 3-89701-782-2 (In German)

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This report analyses fatal accidents having occurred in industry, arts and crafts in Germany between 1998 and 2000, excluding the mining sector and traffic accidents. The study is based on a questionnaire developed by labour inspection services and the Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin. The data are analysed by characteristics of victims (age, length of employment), enterprise, length of shift, type of activity and type of accident. A description of fatal accidents related to certain specific activities or substances is also presented. (78238)

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CIS 02-143 Workplace hazard evaluation round the country - Case studies from 26 workplaces in Denmark. (Danish: Arbejdspladsvurdering landet rundt - Berteninger fra 26 arbejdspladser in Danmark) Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1998. 36p. Illus. (In Danish)

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Case studies of workplace hazard evaluation in 26 workplaces in various economic sectors in Denmark. (77931)

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CIS 02-144 Annual report JISHA - 2000 Edition. Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association, 5-35-1, Shiba, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-014, Japan, 2000. 45p. Illus. + CD-ROM. (In English)

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This report describes the organization and functions of the Japan Industrial Safety and Health Association (JISHA) and reviews activities during the year 1999-2000. These include: promotion of OSH at small and medium size enterprises; technical services; research and surveys; total health promotion; promotion of comfortable workplaces; education and training activities; the "zero-accident" campaign; safety and health publications; international cooperation. It includes statistics on occupational accidents and diseases. Also available on CD-ROM. (77953)

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CIS 02-145 Workplace safety and health - OSHA can strengthen enforcement through improved program management. United States General Accounting Office (GAO), 441 G Street NW, Room LM, Washington, D.C. 20548, USA, Nov. 2002. ii, 35p. Price: Free for a 1st hard copy, USD 2.00 for subsequent copies. (In English)

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http://www.gao.gov/cgi-bin/getrpt?GAO-03-45

Report submitted to the US House of Representatives suggesting improvements to the functioning of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). The report is based on an evaluation of OSHA's practices, some of the findings of which are: difficulty in identifying hazardous worksites for priority inspection because of lack of data; inability by OSHA to demonstrate nationwide impact on OSH because only 31 states are covered by its strategic goals; lack of appropriate training and coordination of inspection workforce. The Report identifies several measures through which OSHA could improve its effectiveness, in particular through improving on the three areas given above. (78355)

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CIS 02-146 Jurisprudence in occupational environment, health and safety 2000/2001. (French: Jurisprudence de l'environnement, de la santé et sécurité au travail 2000/2001) Gabriel D., Editions Tissot, BP 109, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex, France, Sep. 2001. 172p. Price: FRF 275.00., ISBN 2-901806-85-6 (In French)

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This publication addresses laws, regulations and court rulings in the area of occupational environment, safety and health during the year 2000/2001. Topics covered include: civil liability of employers; criminal liability of employers; recognition of occupational diseases; prevention of occupational hazards; protection and respect of employees; environment and working environment. An important part is devoted to the topic of bullying, subject of a proposed law foreseen for adoption during the autumn of 2001. For previous edition (1999/2000), see CIS 01-1405. (77918)

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CIS 02-147 Occupational safety and health in marketing and procurement. European Agency for Safety and Health at Work, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2000. 172p. Illus. Price: EUR 9.00. Also available in German., ISBN 92-95007-01-8 (In English)

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Collection of 22 case studies of how safety and health considerations are included in marketing and procurement procedures in member states of the European Union. Each of the schemes includes one or more of the following elements: tender criteria; management systems; certifications; labels; declarations; general communication; accounts. By level of application, the schemes include: marketing at company level (5 schemes); generic marketing schemes (4); government marketing initiative (1); procurement at company level (4); generic procurement systems (6); government procurement initiatives (2). By country, the schemes are from: Austria (1), Belgium (2), Denmark (5), Finland (1), France (4), Germany (2), Netherlands (2), Sweden (2), and the United Kingdom (3). (77929)

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CIS 02-148 Information, education and communication in occupational safety and health - Safety and hygiene committees - Pluridisciplinary nature of occupational safety and health services. (French: Information, éducation et communication en sécurité et santé au travail - Comité d'hygiène et de sécurité - Pluridisciplinarité des services de santé au travail) Benghabrit D., Harourate K., Laraqui C.H., Molato A., Mounassif M., Société Marocaine d'Hygiène, de Sécurité et de Santé au Travail, Boîte postale 1072, Rabat, Morocco, 2001. 113p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In French)

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Proceedings of the 3rd national congress of the Moroccan society for occupational safety, health and hygiene held in Rabat, Morocco, 11 and 12 November 2000. Three main themes were addressed at this venue: information, education and communication in occupational safety and health; safety and hygiene committees; pluridisciplinary nature of occupational health services. Main topics presented: the French system as an example of pluridisciplinary occupational health services; occupational safety and health management at the Moroccan phosphate mining agency; occupational safety, health and hygiene, and environmental monitoring in Morocco; smoking at the place of work; child labour in small craft industries; occupational rehabilitation of handicapped workers. (77966)

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CIS 02-149 Jobs in EU micro firms. Oliveira F., European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus., ISBN 92-897-0103-X (In English)

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Micro firms are defined as firms with up to nine employees. They represent 42.7% of all European Union (EU) enterprises and 24.4% of total employment. This leaflet presents a summary of the most important findings to emerge from research and discussion activities promoted by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions on employment and the quality of work in small and medium-sized enterprises, with a particular focus on micro firms. A number of social policy recommendations are made, aimed at governments of EU Member States (78201)

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CIS 02-150 Employment and working time in Europe. Bielenski H., Bosch G., Wagner A., European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus., ISBN 92-897-0121-8 (In English)

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During 1998, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out a major survey on Employment Options of the Future across the 15 EU Member States and Norway. It involved over 30,000 telephone interviews with people aged between 16 and 64 years. The survey examined the questions of persons wanting to work, when and why. This leaflet summarizes the main findings of the survey on the subject of hours of work. Contents: actual and preferred working hours; factors determining working hours; working time in the household; actual and preferred volume of work; conclusions and social policy implications. (78202)

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CIS 02-151 Health and safety at work - The role of research. Lehtinen S., Rantanen J., eds., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2001. 29p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-423-5 (In English)

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Proceedings of a meeting held in Bangkok, Thailand, 10-13 October 2000. Contents: global analysis of conditions of work and research challenges; research results on occupational safety and health in Latin America from 1990 to 1999; needs and possibilities of developing countries, example of Thailand; risk surveys on occupational diseases and exposures in East Africa. Recommendations are made for future research in the areas of occupational health services, identification and assessment of occupational safety and health needs for prevention and promotion, and training and information. (78209)

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CIS 02-152 Strategic plan for 2001-2004. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. 99p; ii, 25p. (In English)

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Strategic plan of the HSC for 2001-2004, and summary, presenting the eight priority programmes covering hazards or sectors where improvements are needed: fall from heights; workplace transport; musculoskeletal disorders; stress; agriculture; construction; health services; slips and trips. An overview of the other programmes is also given. A summary is available as a separate booklet. (78247)

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CIS 02-153 Occupational health and safety management systems: Review and analysis of international, and regional systems; and proposals for a new international document. International Occupational Hygiene Association (IOHA), ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1998. 133p. Illus. 59 ref. (In English)

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This report analyses existing and proposed standards and documents on occupational safety and health (OSH) management systems from 15 countries and outlines differences and areas which need harmonization. It presents key elements which should be dealt with when preparing a new international standard on OSH management. (78249)

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CIS 02-154 National OHS Strategy 2002-2012 [Australia]. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC), GPO Box 1577, Canberra 2601, Australia, 2002. 9p. (In English)

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http://www.ascc.gov.au/ascc/HealthSafety/OHSstrategy/NationalOHSStrategy2002-2012.htm

This strategy was developed in order to set priorities for various government bodies and NOHSC in fostering sustainably safe and healthy work environments in Australia and to reduce significantly the number of people hurt and killed at work. More specific aims include improving the capacity of employers and workers to manage OSH more effectively, to eliminate hazards at the design stage, and to stregthen the capacity of goverment to influence OSH outcomes. (78356)

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CIS 02-155 Safety signs: Practical application. (Spanish: Señales visuales de seguridad: aplicación práctica) Pérez Guerrero A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 5p. Illus. 4 ref. (In Spanish)

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Safety signalling is an accompanying measure of the implementation of safety plans within the organization. This information note provides an example of the implementation of safety signalling in a plastics processing company. The type of signal, its position and its size need to be defined taking into account the plant layout and specific hazards, and the material from which the sign is made must resist damage from the workplace environment. The main types of safety signs and their characteristics are listed. (78266)

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CIS 02-156 Guide to personal protective equipment. (French: Guide des équipements de protection individuelle) Les éditions d'ergonomie, 46 rue Raphaël, BP 138, 13267 Marseille Cedex 08, France, 2000. 126p. Illus., ISBN 2-908191-18-0 (In French)

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After providing a brief summary of French regulations on personal protective equipment, this guide indicates, for each category of equipment (head, face and eye, hearing, hand and arm, foot and leg protection, protective clothes and protection against falls from heights), the main hazards requiring protection together with the corresponding European standards. A directory of manufacturers and distributors is also included. (78321)

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CIS 02-157 Company canteens. (French: Restauration d'entreprise) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., 1999. 30p., ISBN 2-7389-0728-8 (In French)

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This booklet presents a concise overview of the current regulations applicable to company canteens in France. Topics covered: premises (kitchens and eating areas); kitchen utensils and equipment; maintenance of the premises and equipment; fire prevention; evacuation; safety and hygiene of employees (hygiene rules, personal protective equipment, employee training, medical supervision); storage and use of foodstuffs. Appendices include a list of regulatory texts and the decree of 29 September 1997 defining the acceptable hygiene conditions applicable to canteens of schools, hospitals, pensioners' homes, charitable organizations, etc. Replaces CIS 86-823. (77962)

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CIS 02-158 Organizing safety: An essential task for every enterprise. (French: Organiser la sécurité: une tâche primordiale pour chaque entreprise; German: Die Sicherheit organisieren - eine zentrale Aufgabe für jedes Unternehmen; Italian: L'organizzazione della sicurezza - un compito di primaria importanza per ogni azienda) Wettmann O., Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 2001. 11p. Illus. (In French, German, Italian)

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Employers in Switzerland have overall legal responsibility for occupational safety and health. In particular, they are required to define processes and levels of responsibility within the enterprise aimed at accident prevention and the protection of employees' health. This booklet describes a four-step approach for developing and implementing a safety and health management system: naming safety coordinators; defining safety-related tasks; defining scope of work and responsibilities; integrating safety aspects in the internal communications of the enterprise. Tables define the responsibilities and degree of involvement of different levels of staff for each safety-related task, as well as the proposed scope of work of the safety coordinator. (77913)

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CIS 02-159 Safety training - Regulatory requirements. (French: Formation à la sécurité - Obligations réglementaires) Le Roy A., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., Mar. 2000. 24p. Index., ISBN 2-7389-0727-X (In French)

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Article L. 231-3-1 of the French Labour Code states that employers have a general responsibility with respect to the safety training of their employees. This booklet discusses the relevant legal provisions (eligible employees, implementation of the training programme, purpose and content of the safety training programme, special conditions applicable to temporary employees or employees under short-term employment contracts, funding) and presents a table of specific safety training programmes required under the employment regulations. (77961)

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CIS 02-160 Quality assurance in industrial hygiene laboratories: Standard operating procedures (SOP). (Spanish: Aseguramiento de la calidad en los laboratorios de higiene industrial: procedimientos normalizados de trabajo (PNT)) Martí Veciana A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 4p. 10 ref. (In Spanish)

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The objective of this information note is to provide guidance for developing and managing standard operating procedures (SOPs) for quality assurance in industrial hygiene laboratories. It defines the main objectives of SOPs as well as the various activities for which SOPs may be appropriate (administrative processes, use of measuring instruments, general activities carried out in the laboratory, analytical methods, emergency plans, personal protection and waste management, quality assurance) and presents the overall structure of such a document. The role of the quality assurance department in the preparation of SOPs, their approval and implementation is also described. (78263)

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CIS 02-161 Economic advantages of workplace design. (French: Approche économique lors de la conception des lieux de travail) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., July 2000. 47p. Illus., ISBN 2-7389-0930-2 (In French)

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With the help of ten practical examples, this guide highlights the economic advantages of good workplace design and layout, in particular through the integration of safety and health considerations, working conditions and work organization. Cases studied include: separation of light and heavy in-plant traffic; floors in the food industry; protection of roof edges against falls from heights; acoustic treatment of work premises; artificial lighting; maintenance of ceiling lights in high-ceiling premises; heating installations; fire protection; layout of loading platforms; natural lighting. (77915)

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CIS 02-162 Guidelines on occupational safety and health management systems - ILO-OSH 2001. (French: Principes directeurs concernant les systèmes de gestion de la sécurité et de la santé au travail - ILO-OSH 2001; Spanish: Directrices relativas a los sistemas de gestión de la seguridad y la salud en el trabajo - ILO-OSH 2001) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. 27p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: CHF 20.00., ISBN 92-2-111634-4 (En), ISBN 92-2-211634-8 (fr), ISBN 92-2-311634-1 (es) (In English, French, Spanish)

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http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/english/download/e000013.pdf

http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/spanish/download/s000013.pdf

http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/french/download/f000013.pdf

These ILO guidelines call for coherent policies to protect workers from occupational hazards. They present practical approaches and tools for assisting organizations, competent national institutions, employers, workers and other partners in establishing, implementing and improving occupational safety and health management systems, with the aim of reducing work-related injuries, ill health, diseases, incidents and deaths. At the national level, the guidelines provide for the establishment of a national framework for occupational safety and health (OSH) management systems, preferably supported by national laws and regulations. They also provide precise information on developing voluntary arrangements to strengthen compliance with regulations and standards, which, in turn, lead to continual improvement of OSH performance. At the organizational level, the guidelines encourage the integration of OSH management system elements as an important component of overall policy and management arrangements. (77930)

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CIS 02-163 Enterprise prevention release 1.0.0 - System for developing and strengthening occupational safety and health management. (Spanish: Prevéntico empresarial v. 1.0.0 - Sistema para el desarrollo y fortalecimiento de la gestión preventiva en riesgos laborales) Instituto Nacional de Seguros, Dirección de Seguros, San José, Costa Rica, 1999. CD-ROM for Pentium 100MHz (minimum requirements: Windows 95, 32MB RAM, hard disk, CD-ROM drive 24x, 60MB free space en disk) + Manual 195p. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Published by an insurance institution, this CD-ROM contains a software tool for the implementation of an occupational safety and health management system within the enterprise. The tool consists of a decision support system for selecting measures based on the risks that are specific to the enterprise, the statistical analysis of accident data including accident costs, and a general assessment of occupational hygiene measures. It generates the forms for the notification of occupational diseases and accidents. A user manual is included. (78012)

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[ Top of page ]

002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology

CIS 02-164 Outdoor work and the risk of pterygia: A case-control study. Khoo J., Saw S.M., Banerjee K., Chia S.E., Tan D., International Ophthalmology, 1998, No.22, p.293-298. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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To investigate the relationship between outdoor work and pterygium formation in Singapore, cases 61 with pterygium (49 males, mean age 54.2 years) and 125 controls (41 males, mean age 50.2 years), presenting at outpatient clinics of the Singapore National Eye Centre, underwent a face-to-face interview with a standard questionnaire. Demographic data and information on outdoor work and eye protection were collected. 38 subjects (20.4%) were outdoor workers and 148 (79.6%) were indoor workers. Outdoor workers were more likely to be smokers and alcohol drinkers with lower family income and higher sunlight and dust exposure than indoor workers. The crude odds ratio for pterygium in outdoor workers was 7.0. The adjusted odds ratio was 4.2. Efforts should be undertaken to educate outdoor workers to wear proper equipment to protect their eyes against excessive sunlight. (78124)

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CIS 02-165 Diagnostic methods and classification of work-related Raynaud's phenomenon. (French: Méthodes diagnostiques et classification du phénomène de Raynaud d'origine professionnelle) Noël B., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.187-193. 52 ref. (In French)

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The diagnosis of occupational Raynaud's phenomenon is essentially based on history and clinical examination. Three types of vascular disorders are reported: digital organic microangiopathy, vasospastic phenomena and arterial thrombosis of the upper extremities. Nailfold capillary microscopy, arterial echo-Doppler or ultrasonic duplex examination, cold testing with plethysmographic digital blood pressure determination, chronothermography, cutaneous microcirculatory assessment with laser-Doppler or pharmacological tests and electro-neuro-physiological methods are presented. These tests are useful for the screening of early asymptomatic lesions and for the type and severity determination of the vascular involvement. An alternative classification to the 1986 Stockholm classification is proposed for vibration disease. (77975)

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CIS 02-166 Criteria for recognizing occupational diseases. (French: Critères de reconnaissance des maladies professionnelles) Choudat D., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, June 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.223-236. Illus. 17 ref. (In French)

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In France, the government and representatives of employers and workers establish together the criteria for eligibility to compensation, taking into account current scientific knowledge and uncertainty factors. If all these criteria are met, the disease of a worker is automatically recognized as an occupational disease. When all criteria are not fulfilled, the regional committees for the recognition of occupational diseases (French acronym CRRMP) are required to estimate the relationship between the habitual exposure and the occurrence of the disease. The decisions of the CRRMP are implicitly based on attributable risk fraction and probability of causality. The advantages and disadvantages of the current system are discussed. It presents a good compromise between uncertainty and equity. However, it requires constant refining and improvement by the government, representatives of employers and workers and the CRRMP. (77976)

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CIS 02-167 Glossary of statistical and epidemiological terms. (French: Glossaire statistique et épidémiologique) Leclerc A., Lellouch J., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.127, 15p. 10 ref. (In French)

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Glossary of approximately 130 statistical terms used in epidemiological studies, with comprehensive definitions. A lexicon giving the French equivalent of frequently-used English terms is also included. (77980)

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CIS 02-168 Reporting, recognition and compensation of occupational respiratory diseases. (French: Déclaration, reconnaissance, indemnisation des maladies respiratoires professionnelles) Choudat D., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.8, p.536-544. 15 ref. (In French)

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Current procedures for compensation for victims of occupational diseases in France are complex. Legislation has been progressively adapted as knowledge has improved and agreements have been reached between social partners. The reporting procedure is theoretically simple: the patient can report solely on the basis of a suspected occupational origin of the disease. Knowledge concerning the occupational cause of the disease is obtained either by presumption if all the medical and administrative criteria defined in the appropriate lists are met, or by the regional occupational diseases commission if certain administrative criteria are lacking or if the disease is severe. This recognition can lead to compensation and health care benefits within certain limits. Certain specific conditions due to inhalation of mineral or metallic particles or special situations concerning the different sections of the national health care insurance are discussed. (77987)

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CIS 02-169 Risk of pancreatic cancer and occupational exposures in Spain. Alguacil J., Kauppinen T., Porta M., Partanen T., Malats N., Kogevinas M., Benavides F.G., Obiols J., Bernal F., Rifa J., Carrato A., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.391-403. 72 ref. (In English)

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Cases of pancreatic cancer and controls among hospital patients free of pancreatic cancer were identified during their stay in hospital. Occupational history was obtained by direct interviews with the patients. Occupational exposures to 22 suspected carcinogens associated with pancreatic cancer in previous studies were evaluated. Increased odds ratios (OR) were apparent in all pesticide groups, highest for arsenical pesticides (OR = 3.4) and "other pesticides" (OR = 3.17). ORs were also higher for high-intensity exposure to aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments. ORs above 3 were observed for pesticides, benzo(a)pyrene, lead, volatile sulfur compounds, and sedentary work. Results lend support to the hypothesis of an association between exposure to some pesticides and pancreatic cancer. Suggestive increases in risk from aniline derivatives, dyes and organic pigments, and benzo(a)pyrene also deserve further study. (78040)

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CIS 02-170 Occupation and small bowel adenocarcinoma: A European case-control study. Kaerlev L., Teglbjaerg P.S., Sabroe S., Kolstad H.A., Ahrens W., Eriksson M., Llopis González A., Guénel P., Hardell L., Launoy G., Merler E., Merletti F., Maorales Suárez-Varela M.M., Stang A., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.57, No.11, p.760-766. 30 ref. (In English)

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To study the aetiology of small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA), a European multi-centre case-control study was conducted in 1995-7. Cases aged 35-69 years with SBA were recruited. After histological examination, 107 cases and 3915 controls were accepted, of which 79 cases, 579 colon cancer controls, and 2070 population controls were interviewed. The strongest industrial risk factors for SBA taking account of an exposure lag of 10 years were dry cleaning, manufacturing of workwear, mixed farming (women), and manufacturing of motor vehicles (men). A significantly increased risk of SBA (odds ratio (OR)) was found among men employed as building caretakers (OR 6.7), and women employed as housekeepers (OR 2.2); general farm labourers (OR 4.7); dockers (OR 2.9); dry cleaners or launderers (OR 4.1) and textile workers (sewers or embroiders, OR 2.6). Among welders, people performing semi-automatic arc welding were identified as a high risk group (OR 5.0). (78047)

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CIS 02-171 A case-control study of the relationship between the risk of colon cancer in men and exposures to occupational agents. Goldberg M.S., Parent M.E., Siemiatycki J., Désy M., Nadon L., Richardson L., Lakhani R., Latreille B, Valois M.F., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.531-546. 99 ref. (In English)

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A population-based case-control study was conducted to explore associations between occupational circumstances and several cancer sites, including the colon. 497 male patients with a confirmed diagnosis of colon cancer, 1514 controls with cancers at other sites, and 533 population-based controls were interviewed. Detailed job histories and relevant potential confounding variables were obtained, and the job histories were translated by a team of chemists and industrial hygienists into a history of occupational exposures. There was reasonable evidence of an association between colon cancer and occupation for men employed in nine industry groups (adjusted odds ranging from 1.1 to 1.6 per 10-year increase in duration of employment), and in 12 job groups (OR varying from 1.1 to 1.7). In addition, evidence of increased risks by increasing level of exposures to 21 occupational agents was found, the most significant being polystyrene, polyurethanes, coke dust, mineral oils and polyacrylates. (78051)

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CIS 02-172 Occupational categories at risk for Parkinson's disease. Kirkey K.L., Cole Johnson C., Rybicki B.A., Peterson E.L., Kortsha G.X., Gorell J.M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.564-571. 21 ref. (In English)

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The aetiology of Parkinson's disease (PD) is considered to have a strong environmental component, but relatively few studies have investigated the potential association between occupation and the disease. In a population-based case-control study, comprehensive occupational histories from all study participants, including 144 case and 464 control subjects, were collected. Statistical analysis revealed that working in an agricultural occupation increased estimated PD risk (OR = 1.74). In contrast, a history of ever working in a service occupation was negatively associated with PD risk (OR = 0.69). Adjusted odds ratios for all non-service occupational and industrial categories were similar and working in a service occupation was the only significant inverse predictor of PD risk. Future investigations focussing on lifestyle factors and environmental exposures within the agricultural and service occupational categories are warranted. (78052)

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CIS 02-173 Occupational exposures and cancers of the endometrium and cervix uteri in Finland. Weiderpass E., Pukkala E., Vasama-Neuvonen K., Kauppinen T., Vainio H., Paakkulainen H., Boffetta P., Partanen T., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.572-580. 42 ref. (In English)

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An exploratory study was conducted in Finland to assess the role of occupational exposures on incidence rates of cancers of the endometrium and cervix uteri. Occupational risk factors for endometrial and cervical cancers were explored in a 25-year follow-up of 413,877 female workers born between 1906 and 1945 identified through the 1970 population census of Finland. Job titles in census records were converted to exposures of 31 occupational agents through a job-exposure matrix. Poisson regression models estimated relative risks for each agent, standardized for birth sub-cohort, follow-up period, and socio-economic status. It was found that endometrial cancer (2,833 cases) was associated with exposure to animal dust and sedentary work. Cervical cancer (1,101 cases) was associated with exposure to aliphatic and cyclo-aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated hydrocarbons, silica dust, and wood dust. (78053)

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CIS 02-174 What is the most cost-effective way to identify silica problem worksites?. Rosenmann K.D., Hogan A., Reilly M.J., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.629-635. 7 ref. (In English)

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State-based surveillance systems to identify cases of silicosis have been developed to target worksite interventions to reduce the incidence of silicosis. Using data from the Michigan silicosis surveillance system, an analysis was conducted to determine the most cost-effective way to identify problem worksites. The initial reporting source of all 470 confirmed cases of silicosis reported to the Michigan surveillance system from 1989 to 1995 was identified. The cost of identifying confirmed cases, worksites, problem worksites, silica problem worksites and the number of current silica-exposed workers was determined for four reporting sources: hospitals, physicians, workers' compensation records and death certificates. It was found that using hospital reports was the most cost-effective way to identify cases (USD 143), worksites (USD 313), and problem worksites (USD 454). Using hospital discharge records was the most cost-effective approach to identify individuals with silicosis as well as worksites with problems. (78059)

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CIS 02-175 The impact of occupational injury on injured worker and family: Outcomes of upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders in Maryland workers. Keogh J.P., Nuwayhid I., Gordon J.L., Gucer P., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.498-506. 26 ref. (In English)

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A total of 537 workers claiming compensation for upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (UECTD) were identified and studied in order to assess their health, functional impairment and family outcome. A telephone questionnaire was used to elicit symptom prevalence, functional impairment, depressive symptoms and employment status. One to four years post-claim, respondents reported persistent symptoms severe enough to interfere with work (53%), home and recreation activities (64%) and sleep (44%). Only 64% of responses to the activities of daily living scale items indicated "normal" function. Job loss was reported by 38% of respondents, and depressive symptoms by 31%. Work-related UECTDs result in persisting symptoms and difficulty in performing simple activities of daily living, impacting home life even more than work. (78071)

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CIS 02-176 Risk factors for neck and shoulder disorders: A nested case-control study covering a 24-year period. Fredriksson K., Alfredsson L., Bildt Thorbjörnsson C., Punnett L., Toomingas A., Torgén M., Kilbom Å., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.516-528. 64 ref. (In English)

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In 1969, a study of risk factors for neck and shoulder disorders was conducted on 2,579 participants in the Stockholm area. Those in the youngest subset were asked to participate in a re-examination in 1993. Of 783 eligible subjects (42-59 years of age in 1993), 484 responded. Cases of neck and shoulder disorders were defined by past sick leave or medical attention or recent symptoms, depending on available information. For each of the 271 cases, two controls matched by age and gender were selected. Among women mainly psychosocial factors and among men mainly physical factors were associated with neck and shoulder disorders. The only risk indicator common to both genders was repetitive hand work (odds ratio of approximately 1.5). The impact on neck and shoulder disorders from separate factors was moderate but combinations of physical and psychosocial factors, as well as of work-related and non-work-related factors, produced relative risks above 2. (78073)

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CIS 02-177 Mortality from six work-related cancers among African Americans and Latinos. Loomis D., Schulz M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.565-575. 70 ref. (In English)

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To describe the occurrence of potentially work-related cancers among African American and Hispanic workers in the United States, an epidemiologic study based on death certificate data from 21 states during 1985-1992 was conducted. Proportionate mortality ratios (PMRs) were computed for various cancers using the mortality data and population counts from the 1990 census. Proportionate mortality was generally low for both groups, but African Americans had higher than expected mortality rates for leukaemia and cancers of the lung, nasal cavity and peritoneum. Industry-specific analyses indicate excess leukaemia among African American men in the rubber industry (PMR 2.08), Hispanic men in the textile (PMR 2.31) and wood industries (PMR 2.03), and Hispanic women in the chemical industry (PMR 2.18). Excess cancer of the pleura and peritoneum was observed among workers with a variety of occupations involving exposure to asbestos. (78077)

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CIS 02-178 Relation between work and myopia in Singapore women. Saw S.M., Chia S.E., Chew S.J, Optometry and Vision Science, 1999, Vol.76, No.6, p.393-396. 17 ref. (In English)

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The relationship between occupational activities and the onset as well as worsening of myopia among women was investigated. Information on working status, the number of hours of close-up work activity and the existence and degree of myopia was obtained by face-to-face interviews with 374 women. In addition, a sub-sample of 84 women was interviewed over the telephone. The adjusted odds ratio for myopia in working women was 1.9 and the adjusted odds ratio for high myopia (> -6.0 D) was 1.6. Women who were working also had higher rates of adult-onset myopia, odds ratio 4.4, and a later age of cessation of myopia than nonworking women. The study shows that work was related to myopia in Singapore women. However, work may be a surrogate for other risk factors, close-up work activities such as reading, writing, and computer use. (78123)

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CIS 02-179 Respiratory symptoms, bronchial reactivity and occupational exposure to oak and beech dust. (French: Symptômes respiratoires, réactivité bronchique et exposition professionnelle aux poussières de chêne et de hêtre) Bohadana A.B., Massin N., Wild P., Toamain J.P., Engel S., Goutet P., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.83, p.241-248. 33 ref. (In French)

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The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between levels of cumulative exposure to wood dust on one hand, and respiratory symptoms and onset of bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) among oak and beech wood workers on the other. 114 men working in furniture manufacture exposed to wood dust were selected to participate in the study, together with 14 non-exposed controls and 200 "historical" controls, for whom data from earlier studies were available. Dust concentrations were measured in working air by personal sampling. Lung functions and bronchial hyperreactivity were tested, and medical history data were collected by means of a questionnaire. Results show what exposure levels are generally high, largely exceeding the average exposure limits of 1mg/m3 applied in France and proposed by the ACGIH. Among subjects exposed to oak and beech dust, the prevalence of laryngeal irritation and metacholine BHR increase rapidly with cumulative exposure. (78303)

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CIS 02-180 Genetic susceptibility and occupational exposure. (French: Susceptibilités génétiques et expositions professionnelles) Benhamou S., Demenais F., Dupret J.M., Haguenoer J.M., Leszkowicz A., Stucker I., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.83, p.249-258. Illus. (In French)

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This literature survey of the importance of genetic factors in the individual susceptibility to diseases caused by exposure at the workplace, in particular asthma and cancer, is based on scientific data available during the first half of the year 2000. Approximately 300 articles were reviewed. Contents include: enzymes of the metabolism of chemical carcinogenic chemicals, and their genetic polymorphisms; metabolism of the most common carcinogenic chemicals; polymorphisms of xenobiotic enzymes and tobacco-related cancers; gene-environment interactions in cancers caused by occupational factors; susceptibility factors for asthma. (78304)

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CIS 02-181 Backache and back belts. (French: Lombalgie et ceinture lombaire) Meyer J.P., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.84, p.349-362. Illus. 107 ref. (In French)

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The frequency with which low back pain occurs and the recognition of its more severe forms such as acute crural pain or sciatica among warehousemen or drivers may result in the adoption of personal protection methods based on back belts. In occupational settings however, the effectiveness of back belts is not proven. Nonetheless, requests for using back belts as a means of prevention or their spontaneous use by workers are frequent. The objective of this literature review was to address questions on the use of back belts and to provide practical guidance. Contents include: effects of back belts; back belts as a means of low back pain prevention; use of back belts; role of occupational physicians. (78306)

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CIS 02-182 Prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders at workplaces in the People's Republic of China. Bao S., Winkel J., Shahnavaz H., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.557-574. 36 ref. (In English)

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This paper presents two musculoskeletal disorders questionnaire surveys in 10 different Chinese occupational groups. Data collected from 1,603 workers using a modified Nordic musculoskeletal disorders symptom questionnaire showed that the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders, particularly in the low back and shoulder-neck regions, was high at many Chinese workplaces. Significant differences existed between occupational groups. Assembly workers usually had higher neck-shoulder complaints compared to workers in most other occupations. However, the nature of assembly seemed also to influence the prevalence rate. Workers at a cassette recorder and a TV set assembly plant appeared to have more neck complaints compared with a group of thermos flask assemblers. (78336)

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CIS 02-183 Occupation and leukemia: A population-based case-control study in Iowa and Minnesota. Blair A., Zheng T., Linos A., Stewart P.A., Zhang Y.W., Cantor K.P., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.3-14. 57 ref. (In English)

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A population-based case-control study (513 cases and 1,087 controls) was conducted in Iowa and Minnesota to evaluate the association between various occupations, industries, and occupational exposures and leukaemia risk. A lifetime occupational history and other risk factor information were collected through in-person interviews, and a job-exposure matrix was used to assess possible risks associated with specific exposures. A significantly increased risk of leukaemia was observed among agricultural service industries and among nursing and healthcare workers. Janitors, cleaners, and light truck drivers also experienced increased risk. Those employed in plumbing, heating and air conditioning industries, and sales of nondurable goods (such as paints and varnishes) had an increased risk. Printers, painters, and workers in the food and metal industries had a non significantly increased risk of leukaemia. Analyses by specific exposures and histology of leukaemia showed that risk of leukaemia associated with occupational or industrial exposures may vary by histological type of the disease. (78341)

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CIS 02-184 Availability and quality of industry and occupation information in the Massachusetts Cancer Registry. Levy J., Brooks D., Davis L., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.98-106. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

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Industry and occupation (I/O) data from state cancer registries can be useful in generating and evaluating hypotheses about occupational cancer risks. The quality of these data is uncertain. Medical records on 1,020 cases from the Massachusetts Cancer Registry (MCR) were reviewed. The presence and details of I/O data from this dedicated record review (DRR) were compared with routine reporting to the MCR in order to evaluate the potential to increase the availability of I/O data. Results show that when compared to routine reporting, the DRR increased the percentage of codable I/O data from 63.6 to 80.4%. The DRR also provided more detail in existing codes in 15.4% of cases. Nearly one-third (32%) of records that had some improvement in I/O information with a dedicated review, which indicates considerable opportunity to improve the utility of this resource. (78349)

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CIS 02-185 Contact dermatitis due to hardy primula species and their cultivars. Aplin C.G., Lovell C.R., Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2001, Vol.44, No.1, p.23-29. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

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It is widely believed that of all the Primula species to cause allergic contact dermatitis, P. obconica is the most likely culprit, particularly in Northern Europe. Other species are rarely implicated, probably as a consequence of under-reporting. Moreover, cutaneous reactions to other hardy Primula species and cultivars are milder and may be associated with a state of tolerance after repeated handling. 462 questionnaires were sent out to Auricula and Primula growers and 316 replies were returned with data on 320 growers. 84 out of a total of 320 (26.25%) attributed a cutaneous reaction to Primula species, whereas 236 (73.75%) reported no reaction. Of the 84 who reported reactions, 48 suspected P. auricula, 34 P. obconica, 10 P. vulgaris, 5 P. allionii, 3 P. marginata and 2 P. forrestii. 19 believed that they had reacted to 2 or more species of Primula. The study suggests that Primula species other than P. obconica may elicit dermatitis more frequently than previously recorded. (78139)

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CIS 02-186 Recall of reproductive history in agricultural workers. Petrelli G., Figà-Talamanca I., Taggi F., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.265-271. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

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The relationship between reproductive damage and occupational and environmental toxic substances has been investigated in retrospective epidemiological studies by means of time to pregnancy. This measure has been validated in several studies conducted on working populations, in particular among women. This paper attempts to evaluate the agreement between recalls of the husband and wife on reproductive history among agricultural workers. The study was carried out in an agricultural area of central Italy and involved 164 farmers, aged 20-55, licensed to handle pesticides, and their wives. Detailed data on reproductive history were collected by personal interview. Subsequently the farmers' wives were interviewed by telephone. On the basis of the results, it can reasonably be affirmed that the male's recall can be considered as acceptable to study the reproductive history in this agricultural population. (78148)

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CIS 02-187 Interstitial lung fibrosis among coal miners. (French: Fibrose interstitielle pulmonaire chez le mineur de charbon) Marquet M., Legrand C., Furon D., Archives des maladies professionnelles, Nov. 2000, Vol.61, No.7, p.485-490. Illus. 13 ref. (In French)

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The retired miners of the Nord-Pas-de-Calais coal fields with pneumoconiosis have been regularly followed up for twenty years in the context of a post-occupational medical surveillance program. These medical observations revealed an unusually-high number of cases of interstitial lung fibrosis evolving independently from pneumoconiosis. This larger study of 7,770 coal workers confirmed the high incidence of such cases (close to 1%) and allowed to validate the diagnostic approach based on commonly-practiced screening examinations (clinical examination, radiological examination and respiratory function testing). Results raise the issue of the acceptance of the occupational origin of this coal workers pathology, and suggest that special attention be paid to other occupational exposures to dust with free silica. (77986)

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CIS 02-188 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis in a metal-working environment. Hodgson M.J., Bracker A., Yang C., Storey E., Jarvis B.J., Milton D., Lummus Z., Bernstein D., Cole S., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.616-628. 53 ref. (In English)

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Following an outbreak of lung disease among workers in a metal-working plant, a study was conducted involving the clinical examination of patients, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of the outbreak plant and two control plant areas (with and without metal-working fluids (MWF) exposures), an industrial hygiene survey with laboratory characterization of microbial flora, and immunological investigations. 39 (79.6%) patients described symptoms consistent with work-related lung disease, and 8 received other diagnoses. Sixteen had hypersensitivity pneumonitis confirmed on biopsy. Mean decrements in lung forced expiratory volume in 1s and forced vital capacity from before to after work were similar in the 16 biopsy-confirmed cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis and the 19 symptomatic patients without biopsies. Three sources of water-based aerosols were identified that grew similar microbial flora, but antibody testing did not identify a specific single organism. Endotoxin levels were similar in the outbreak and the MWF control plant. (78058)

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CIS 02-189 Oesophageal cancer and occupational exposure to rubber: A nested case-control study. Li K., Yu S., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.355-359. 16 ref (In English)

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In this study, the data of nine cases of oesophageal cancer deaths among workers at a rubber plant during 1973-1995 and 36 controls matched for sex and age were analysed. Oesophageal cancer risks for exposure to rubber were assessed, unadjusted and adjusted for non-occupational factors by conditional logistic regression. In grouped analysis, odds ratios (ORs) for oesophageal cancer were found to be 2.67 for compounding workers and 1.40 for assembly workers. No excess risks were found in the remaining three departments. The results indicate that a one-year change in the compounding department was associated with a 4% increment in the OR. When adjusted for serum cholesterol level, a 6% increase (OR) was observed. Significant associations between risk for oesophageal cancer and specific exposures or processes within the rubber plant were not found. The slight excess risk for oesophageal cancer in the rubber plant may be related to exposure to dusts and solvents. (78039)

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CIS 02-190 Study of low back pain at a Paris retailer of consumer electronics and media publications. (French: Etude des lombalgies dans une entreprise parisienne de distribution de produits électroniques "grand public" et culturels) Binet-Mageau M., Alcouffe J., Sauvagère J., Montéléon M.P.Y., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.2, p.179-184. 7 ref. (In French)

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Back pain was studied in a among workers of a large consumer electronics and media publications retail chain. The questionnaire-based epidemiological survey was conducted by the occupational physician during regular annual checks between 1 October 1999 and 30 September 2000. The sample consisted of 377 workers (222 men et 155 women). The prevalence of back pain during the 12 months studied was 36.6%, without differences between men and women. In most cases, it consisted of simple backache, only 2.4% of workers being affected by severe back pain (with sciatic pain). Risk factors included strenuous postures during work and high occupational or non-occupational workloads. The occupational physician appeared to be a better judge than the worker of the level of physical workload. (77882)

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CIS 02-191 Epidemiology of occupational injuries and illnesses in a university population: A focus on age and gender differences. Saleh S.S., Fuortes L., Vaughn T., Bauer E.P., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.581-586. 20 ref. (In English)

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The incidence, nature, and cause of awarded workers' compensation claims for occupational injuries and illnesses at a large state university were evaluated. Rates and types of injury were compared across age and gender. Rates of injury varied over twofold with age, with those 16-25 having the lowest rates of injury and those 36-45 having the highest rates. Claim rates were 1.36-fold higher for women than for men. Women had higher rates for injury resulting from lifting, falling, noxious exposures, repetitive motion, and carpal tunnel syndrome. Similarly, women had significantly higher rates of claims for pain, sprains, bruises, burns, concussion, and inhalation injury, but lower rates of cuts, ligament injury, and jammed joints. (78054)

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CIS 02-192 Respiratory function in active firefighters. Mustajbegovic J., Zuskin E., Schachter E.N., Kern J., Vrcic-Keglevic M., Heimer S., Vitale K., Nada T., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.55-62. 41 ref. (In English)

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The health effects of firefighting on respiratory function were investigated in a group of 128 active firefighters and 88 non-exposed control workers. Significantly higher prevalences of dyspnoea, nasal catarrh, sinusitis, and hoarseness were recorded in firefighters. A high prevalence of acute symptoms experienced during and after fire extinguishing was also observed. Eye and throat irritation as well as headache were prominent. A logistic regression analysis of chronic respiratory symptoms demonstrated that odds ratios were significant for both duration of work exposure and for smoking. Lung function testing demonstrated a decrease in FEF75 in relation to predicted suggesting obstructive changes in the smaller airways. A regression analysis of ventilatory capacity tests indicated a positive relationship of forced vital capacity with length of employment, 1s forced expiratory volume as well as FEF50 were related to smoking, and FEF75 was related to both smoking and length of employment. (78345)

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CIS 02-193 Disability management of low back injuries by employer-retained physicians: Ratings and costs. Chibnall J.T., Tait R.C., Merys S.C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.529-538. Illus. 53 ref. (In English)

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Data from employers' occupational physician files and public court records were examined for 184 workers having claimed compensation for low back injuries. Statistical analysis was used to predict ratings, costs, and settlement duration from medical, functional, social, and situational variables. Diagnosis, surgery, pain, rating year, and treating clinic predicted impairment ratings from employer-retained physicians. Diagnosis, surgery, tests ordered, legal representation, and impairment rating predicted disability ratings at the administrative law judge level. Diagnosis, tests, and impairment rating predicted costs. In conclusion, social and situational parameters influence disability management among employer-retained physicians, while functional variables have little impact. (78074)

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CIS 02-194 The security mandate; duties and responsibilities of safety and health professionals: The role of the competent physician. (Italian: Il debito di sicurezza; compiti e responsabilità delle figure professionali ricostruiti in un'ipotesi tipica: il medico competente) Federici A., Difesa sociale, Sep.-Dec. 2000, Vol.79, No.5-6, p.33-66. 60 ref. (In Italian)

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Comment on law (Italian Law 626/94, see CIS 96-1531) and on the variety of responsibilities entrusted to occupational physicians responsible for plant health services. Roles of safety and health committees and of employers' organizations are also discussed. (78199)

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CIS 02-195 Modelling the cardiac profile of jobs. (French: Pour une modélisation des profils cardiaques des postes) Meunier P., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.4, p.409-416. Illus. 14 ref. (In French)

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The cardiac strain indices for 18 jobs published in the context of job strenuousness studies using comparable methodologies were collected and analysed. For each of these jobs, the relative cardiac cost (RCC) was calculated and a modelling of the heart rate profiles as a function of the average and peak RCC values was made. Limit value definition of average and peak cardiac cost for cardiac strain at work is proposed. (78299)

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CIS 02-196 Work and ageing of the population on the threshold of the new millennium. (Italian: Il lavoro e l'invecchiamento della popolazione del nuovo millennio) Foschi F., Barbini N., Difesa sociale, May-Aug. 2000, Vol.79, No.3-4, p.141-152. Illus. 26 ref. (In Italian)

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An outline is presented of the current relationship between ageing and work in Italy, with emphasis on the problems of age-linked differences in vocational selection. Relevant parts of Italian legislation and directives by international organizations are also reviewed and a proposed questionnaire-based epidemiological research project is described. (77940)

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CIS 02-197 Multidisciplinary model of occupational health services. Medical and non-medical aspects of occupational health. Kopias J.A., International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.23-28. 13 ref. (In English)

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Since 1950, the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have had a common definition of occupational health. As a consequence of this definition, the purpose of occupational health has been redefined as the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations, the prevention of health impairment caused by working conditions, the protection of workers from risk resulting from factors adverse to health and the placement and maintenance of workers in occupational environment adapted to their physiological and psychological capabilities. It is recommended that workers be protected against disease and injury arising out of their employment, and that occupational health services should be available for all. This article discusses current trends in occupational health, with emphasis on its growing multidisciplinary aspects. (78031)

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CIS 02-198 National occupational health service policies and programs for workers in small-scale industries in China. Zhi S., Sheng W., Levine S.P., AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.842-849. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

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A survey in 30 counties in China in 1990 showed that 82.69% of rural industrial enterprises had at least one type of occupational hazard in their work environments. Workers engaged in at least one type of hazardous working environment accounted for 33.91% of the blue-collar workers. Physical examinations were performed for seven types of occupational diseases: silicosis, coal worker's pneumoconiosis, asbestosis, chronic lead poisoning, benzene analogs poisoning, chronic chromium poisoning, and noise-induced hearing loss. The total detectable rate of the seven types of occupational diseases was 4.4% among those workers. In addition, 11% had illnesses suspected of being (though not proven to be) caused by occupational exposures. Most rural industrial enterprises do not provide basic occupational health services. The coverage of five routine occupational health service activities provided for rural industrial enterprises were very limited, from 1.4 to 36%. (78044)

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CIS 02-199 Some recent developments and concerns in occupational health. Phoon W.H., Singapore Medical Journal, 1999, Vol.40, No.11, p.672-674. 25 ref. (In English)

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Occupational health concerns the interface between health and work and how one affects the other. With the changing nature of work, occupational health has to respond to these changes. New developments bring new challenges and concerns which occupational health has to address in order to protect and promote worker's health. This paper discusses the main current areas of focus of occupational health research: psychosocial factors and mental health; chemical hazards, allergy and endocrine modulators; effects of work on reproductive health; musculoskeletal disorders; susceptibility and gene-environment interplay. (78129)

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CIS 02-200 Globalization and occupational health: A perspective from southern Africa. Loewenson R., Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2001, Vol.79, No.9, p.863-868. 26 ref. (In English)

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Increased world trade tends to marginalize countries with weak economies. This paper examines the impact of globalization on employment trends and occupational health in southern Africa. While the share of world trade with the world's poorest countries has decreased, workers in these countries increasingly find themselves in insecure, poor-quality jobs, sometimes involving technologies which are obsolete or banned in industrialized countries. The occupational illnesses which result are generally less visible and not adequately recognized as a problem in low-income countries. Even outside the workplace, people can be affected through, for example, work-related environmental pollution and poor living conditions. In order to reduce the adverse effects of global trade reforms on occupational health, stronger social protection measures must be built into production and trade activities, including improved recognition, prevention, and management of work-related ill-health. Furthermore, the success of production and trade systems should be judged on how well they satisfy both economic growth and population health. (78250)

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CIS 02-201 Occupational cancer - Detection, reporting and compensation. (French: Cancers d'origine professionnelle - Comment les repérer, les déclarer, les faire reconnaître, les faire indemniser) Ligue nationale contre le cancer, 14 rue Corvisart, 75013 Paris, France, 2001. 29p. (In French)

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Contents of this booklet describing the compensation system for occupational cancers in France: introduction and general considerations on occupational cancers; reporting procedures; occupational activities having possibly given rise to exposures to agents known to cause lung cancer, mesothelioma, ear, nose and throat cancer, leukaemia and lymphoma, skin and bladder cancer, as well as the corresponding compensation systems; addresses of occupational pathology services by French region. (77901)

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CIS 02-202 Leukaemia and lymphoma - detection, reporting and compensation. (French: Leucémies et lymphomes - Comment les repérer, les déclarer, les faire reconnaître, les faire indemniser) Ligue nationale contre le cancer, 14 rue Corvisart, 75013 Paris, France, 2001. 15p. (In French)

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Contents of this booklet describing the compensation system for occupational leukaemia and lymphoma in France: introduction and general considerations on occupational cancers; reporting procedures; occupational activities having possibly given rise to exposures to agents known to cause leukaemia and lymphoma (ionizing radiation, arsenic, benzene, ethylene oxide), as well as the corresponding compensation systems. It duplicates the section of the general booklet on the compensation of occupational cancers in France (see CIS 02-201) applicable specifically to leukaemia and lymphoma. (77902)

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CIS 02-203 Bladder cancer - Detection, reporting and compensation. (French: Cancers de la vessie - Comment les repérer, les déclarer, les faire reconnaître, les faire indemniser) Ligue nationale contre le cancer, 14 rue Corvisart, 75013 Paris, France, 2001. 13p. (In French)

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Contents of this booklet describing the compensation system for occupational bladder cancer in France: introduction and general considerations on occupational cancers; reporting procedures; occupational activities having possibly given rise to exposures to agents known to cause bladder cancer (aromatic amines, tars, soot, coal combustion products - in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) as well as the corresponding compensation systems. It duplicates the section of the general booklet on the compensation of occupational cancers in France (see CIS 02-201) applicable specifically to bladder cancer. (77903)

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CIS 02-204 Skin cancer - Detection, reporting and compensation. (French: Cancers de la peau - Comment les repérer, les déclarer, les faire reconnaître, les faire indemniser) Ligue nationale contre le cancer, 14 rue Corvisart, 75013 Paris, France, 2001. 13p. (In French)

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Contents of this booklet describing the compensation system for occupational skin cancer in France: introduction and general considerations on occupational cancers; reporting procedures; occupational activities having possibly given rise to exposures to agents known to cause skin cancer (arsenic, tars, coal combustion products, crude oil-derived mineral oils, ionizing radiation) as well as the corresponding compensation systems. It duplicates the section of the general booklet on the compensation of occupational cancers in France (see CIS 02-201) applicable specifically to skin cancer. (77904)

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CIS 02-205 Lung cancer - Pleural cancer (mesothelioma) - Detection, reporting and compensation. (French: Cancers du poumon - Cancers de la plèvre (mésothéliomes) - Comment les repérer, les déclarer, les faire reconnaître, les faire indemniser) Ligue nationale contre le cancer, 14 rue Corvisart, 75013 Paris, France, 2001. 21p. (In French)

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Contents of this booklet describing the compensation system for occupational lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma in France: introduction and general considerations on occupational cancers; reporting procedures; occupational activities having possibly given rise to exposures to agents known to cause lung cancer (asbestos, arsenic, bis-chloromethyl ether, sulfuric acid fog and smoke, chromium compounds, tars, soot, nickel compounds, iron oxide, radioactive dust or smoke, silica, cobalt dust in association with tungsten carbide) as well as the corresponding compensation systems. It duplicates the section of the general booklet on the compensation of occupational cancers in France (see CIS 02-201) applicable specifically to lung cancer. (77905)

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CIS 02-206 ENT cancers (nose, facial sinus, larynx) - Detection, reporting, compensation. (French: Cancers ORL (nez et sinus de la face, larynx) - Comment les repérer, les déclarer, les faire reconnaître, les faire indemniser) Ligue nationale contre le cancer, 14 rue Corvisart, 75013 Paris, France, 2001. 13p. (In French)

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Contents of this booklet describing the compensation system for occupational ENT (nasal, facial sinus and laryngeal) cancers in France: introduction and general considerations on occupational cancers; reporting procedures; occupational activities having possibly given rise to exposures to agents known to cause ENT cancers (wood dust, vapour or smoke of certain nickel compounds, asbestos dust, sulfuric acid fog or smoke) as well as the corresponding compensation systems. It duplicates the section of the general booklet on the compensation of occupational cancers in France (see CIS 02-201) applicable specifically to ENT cancer. (77906)

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CIS 02-207 The workplace and cardiovascular disease. Schnall P.L., Belkić K., Landsbergis P., Baker D., eds., Occupational Medicine - State of the Art Reviews, Hanley & Belfus Inc., 210 South 13th Street, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA, 2000. xi, 334p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 39.00., ISBN 1-56053-325-0 (In English)

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Collection of articles and short communications on the workplace and cardiovascular disease (CVD) published in the journal Occupational Medicine during the year 2000. (78091)

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CIS 02-208 Asthma in the workplace. Bernstein I.L., Chan-Yeung M., Malo J.L., Bernstein D.I., eds., Marcel Dekker, Inc., 270 Madison Ave., New York, NY 10016, USA and Marcel Dekker AG, Hutgasse 4, Postfach 812, 4001 Basel, Switzerland (www.dekker.com), 2nd ed. (rev. and expanded), 1999. xix, 742p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 235.00., ISBN 0-8247-1963-8 (In English)

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Second edition of the manual abstracted as CIS 93-779. It is organized into four main sections: Section I covers general considerations including definitions and classification of asthma, historical background, epidemiology, genetic aspects, pathophysiology, animal models of the disease, and its natural history. Section II covers assessment and management (clinical aspects, immunological evaluation, non-specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness, physiological assessment by serial measurement of lung function, occupational challenge tests, environmental monitoring of protein aeroallergens and other chemical agents, medico-legal and compensation aspects, evaluation of impairment/disability and surveillance and prevention). Section III provides detailed information on specific disease entities covering a variety of aetiological agents. Section IV contains compendia including a comprehensive list of the major protein and chemical inducers of occupational asthma, relevant information from the US National Occupational Exposure Survey, and a description of a national online information system on occupational asthma in France. (78251)

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CIS 02-209 Epidemiology of skin and respiratory diseases among hairdressers. Leino T., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2001. 124p. Illus. 287 ref., ISBN 951-802-413-8 (In English)

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Results of five epidemiologic studies of skin and respiratory disorders among hairdressers are presented. The studies focused on the working conditions in salons, the perceived health of the hairdressers, the prevalence, incidence and risk of skin and respiratory symptoms and diseases among hairdressers, and the risk and causes of leaving the profession. Physical conditions and chemicals in the ambient air were measured in 20 hairdressing salons. Health data were obtained by questionnaire, phone interviews and medical examinations. It was found that hairdressing salons meet Finnish indoor air criteria. High peak concentrations of certain chemicals during hair treatments cause discomfort and ill health to hairdressers and should be controlled, for example with local exhaust ventilation. Hairdressers have an increased risk of developing asthma and chronic bronchitis. Ammonium persulfate caused most of the occupational skin and respiratory diseases. (78095)

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CIS 02-210 Occupational disease compensation fund - 1999 Annual Report. (Dutch: Fonds voor de beroepsziekten - Jaarverslag 1999; French: Fonds des maladies professionnelles - Rapport annuel 1999) Fonds des maladies professionnelles, Avenue de l'Astronomie 1, 1210 Brussel, Belgium, 1999. v, 178p. Illus. (In Dutch, French)

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Contents of this annual report: administrative structure of the Belgian occupational diseases insurance fund; claims for compensation for occupational diseases (by diagnosis, sex, nationality, age, industrial sector and profession); compensation of occupational diseases (in the private and public sectors); prevention of occupational diseases; tables of financial and statistical data. (77920)

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CIS 02-211 Occupational diseases in Finland in 1999. Karjalainen A., Aalto L., Jolanki R., Keskinen H., Mäkinen I., Savela A., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2001. 59p. Illus., ISBN 951-802-398-0 (In English)

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This report presents the statistics of occupational diseases in Finland. A first part provides an overall picture of the incidence an occupational diseases in 1999 and the trend since 1990, with specific data for hearing loss, repetitive strain injuries, allergic respiratory diseases, skin diseases, asbestos-induced diseases and cancers. A second part consists of statistical tables which describe in greater detail the occurrence of occupational diseases in Finland in 1999 by age, sex, industry and occupation; cases of allergic skin and respiratory diseases are analysed by cause and diagnosis; finally, diseases are expressed according to their EU classification. (78084)

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CIS 02-212 Survey of the quality and effectiveness of occupational health services in the European Union, Norway and Switzerland. Hämäläinen R.M., Husman K., Räsänen K., Westerholm P., Rantanen J., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2001. ii, 273p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-436-7 (In English)

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The objective of the survey was to compare national occupational safety and health (OSH) systems. Data were collected by means of questionnaires and interviews from ministries, research institutes, professional organizations, insurance companies, trade unions and employers' organizations. Aspects investigated include: legislation; regulations; national policies; financing of OSH services; occupational health services at the national and enterprise levels; education and training; qualifications of OSH personnel; role of central and regional government; role of research institutes; OSH quality management systems. (78083)

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CIS 02-213 Good industrial health practice - A guide for planning and follow-up of occupational health services. Taskinen H., ed., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2001. 194p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-333-6 (In English)

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In Finland, legislation on occupational health services (OHS) was recently amended to include requirements for systematic goal-oriented OHS, of "Good Occupational Health Practice" and quality assurance. This publication consists of guidelines for complying with these new requirements, developing practical tools for the implementation of OHS and promoting good occupational health practice. It contains chapters on the background and principles of OHS, as well as on the practical aspects of OHS activities. (78093)

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CIS 02-214 Toxic hazards and occupational diseases related to the soldering of metals. (French: Risques toxiques et pathologies professionnelles liés au soudage métallique) Thaon I., Guillemin M., Gonzalez M., Cantineau A., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 9p. Illus. 59 ref. (In French)

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Many workers are involved in soldering activities, either full-time or occasionally. Soldering methods vary considerably, whether they are automated or manual. The composition of the soldering fumes varies as a function of the method used, the metals to be soldered and their possible coatings. Among the diseases observed, respiratory diseases (asthma, Brooks' syndrome, chronic obstructive bronchitis, siderosis) represent an important part. The role of soldering fumes in the occurrence of broncho-pulmonary cancers is the object of discussion concerning the possible confounding factors of smoking and exposure to asbestos. As a consequence, preventive measures involve using the least hazardous soldering method, collecting the smoke and avoiding work in confined spaces. (77950)

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CIS 02-215 Chronic occupational disorders of the lumbar spine. (French: Affections professionnelles chroniques du rachis lombaire) Guillon F., El-Khatib A., Boissier M.C., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2001, No.130, 5p. Illus. 24 ref. (In French)

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Crural pain and lumbosciatica caused by disc herniation are recognized as being occupational diseases warranting compensation. Conditions of work liable to result in risk include the manual handling of heavy loads and whole-body vibration, in particular from vehicles and trucks. Although not mentioned in the compensation tables, the driving of buses, rail vehicles and helicopters, as well as repetitive flexions and rotations of the trunk also result in risk. By avoiding the occurrence of initial back symptoms, technical preventive measures and regular and standardised medical supervision can help avoid the progression towards chronic forms of certain common acute back disorders. (77941)

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CIS 02-216 Occupational asthma with and without latency. (French: Asthme professionnel avec et sans période de latence) Malo J.L., Gautrin D., Lemière C., Cartier A., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2001, No.130, 7p. Illus. 78 ref. (In French)

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There are two types of occupational asthma (OA): OA with latency necessary for sensitization, the most commonly encountered form, and OA without latency, also called the bronchial irritation syndrome (BIS), which occurs following single or multiple inhalation accidents where the worker develops asthmatic symptoms with persistent bronchial hyperactivity. Clinical investigation of OA with latency follows a series of tests based on decision charts. Among the various predisposition factors, atopy alone favours the emergence of OA to high molecular-weight substances (proteins), even after an end to the exposure, particularly if the exposure occurred over long periods and workers were not removed soon enough from the source of exposure upon the appearance of symptoms. The use of anti-inflammatory agents improves the outcome. BIS is caused by inhalation of irritant substances at high levels of concentration. This type of exposure gives rise to asthmatic symptoms and persistent bronchial hyperactivity. (77942)

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CIS 02-217 Method of data collection on the health effects of occupational hazards. (French: Mode de recueil des effets sur la santé en épidémiologie des risques professionnels) Lasfargues G., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 7p. 57 ref. (In French)

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The method of collecting information on the health effects of occupational hazards depends on the nature of the health effect observed, its latency and the methodology of the study undertaken. Various modes of collection are described, including active collection by means of questionnaires, assessment scales, recording of clinical symptoms or diseases through medical examination and standardized clinical tests, the use of early clinical, functional or biological markers, and the recording of morbidity and mortality from usable sources of data. Examples of information collection methods for the study of selected diseases are provided, including neurobehavioural disorders, mental health, respiratory diseases and cumulative trauma disorders of the upper extremities. The mode of collection of health effect information has an influence on the quality of the study with respect to its results, conclusions and suggested future preventive actions. (77944)

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CIS 02-218 Mode of collecting data on health effects during epidemiological studies on occupational safety and health. (French: Mode de recueil des effets sur la santé en épidémiologie des risques professionnels) Lasfargues G., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 1999, No.125, 7p. 57 ref. (In French)

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The preferred mode of collecting epidemiological data on the health effects of occupational hazards depends on the type of the health effect being followed and its latency, as well as the research methodology. Various modes of data collection are described: active collection by means of questionnaires, evaluation scales, recording of pathologies or clinical symptoms during medical examination and standardized clinical tests, collection of morbidity and mortality data from useable sources. Examples of modes of data collection are given for selected diseases: neurobehavioural disorders, mental health, respiratory diseases, repetitive strain injury. Use of a suited mode of data collection strongly determines the reliability of the data, and can influence the conclusions of the study and the corresponding occupational safety and health action plans. (77968)

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CIS 02-219 Practical implementation of epidemiological studies in occupational settings. (French: Réalisation pratique des études épidémiologiques en milieu professionnel) Bergeret A., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.127, 6p. 14 ref. (In French)

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Epidemiological studies carried out by occupational physicians within the enterprise are becoming more and more frequent. This article provides guidance to help them implement such studies. It is important to ask the right questions from the outset, then formulate an objective. The requirements in terms of statistical tools and technical feasibility need to be considered before preparing the detailed protocol. Once written, this protocol becomes the central thread for the practical implementation of the study. The article addresses regulatory and contractual issues. Recommendations on good epidemiological practice are provided, which should help practitioners in their discussions with other parties, and in particular with the enterprise. The importance of publishing the results is emphasized. (77979)

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CIS 02-220 Occupational diseases - Guide to using tables of the general and agricultural compensation systems (update September 2000). (French: Les maladies professionnelles - Guide d'accès aux tableaux du régime général et du régime agricole de la sécurité sociale (mise à jour septembre 2000)) Abadia G., Delemotte B., Delépine A., Guillemy N., Leprince A., De Montgolfier C., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., 2000. 340p., ISBN 2-7389-0800-4 (In French)

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Update of tables listing occupational diseases officially recognized in France and their applicable compensation. The guide includes a two-way classification table, by symptoms or diseases on one hand, and by harmful agent or work situation, on the other. Contents: definition of an occupational disease; provisions of the social security law applicable to occupational diseases; diseases; causative agents; occupational health tables, including the description of the disease, the waiting period before compensation and an indicative list of occupational activities that could give rise to the disease. Appendices cover the compensation of occupational exposure to HIV, the additional compensation system and post-occupational follow-up. (77971)

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CIS 02-221 Sanitary facilities in enterprises - Main legal aspects. (French: Installations sanitaires des entreprises - Aide-mémoire juridique) Soudry C., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 3rd ed., 1999. 18p., ISBN 2-35599-984-7 (In French)

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This booklet presents a concise overview of the current regulations applicable to sanitary premises at the place of work in France. Contents include: provisions applicable to all workplaces, and those concerning changing rooms, washbasins, toilets, the accessibility for handicapped persons, lighting, ventilation and heating; additional provisions covering specific industries or activities such as construction work, insalubrious or dirty work, working in the presence of biological, chemical or radiological hazards, activities requiring a high level of hygiene (canteens, food and drink industry, pharmaceutical industry); provisions applicable to specific types of premises (housing of workers, medical services, health care institutions). An appendix includes texts and citations of relevant sections of the Labour Code. Replaces CIS 96-396. (77964)

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CIS 02-222 Occupational diseases. Compensation system - Main legal aspects. (French: Les maladies professionnelles. Régime général - Aide-mémoire juridique) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 1st ed., 2000. 69p., ISBN 2-7389-0795-4 (In French)

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This booklet presents a concise overview of the current regulations applicable to occupational disease compensation in France. Contents include: conditions governing the recognition of the occupational nature of diseases; responsibilities of employer and employees; role of medical practitioners; lists of recognized occupational diseases. Appendices include forms for medical certification, occupational disease declaration by the physician, declaration by the employee to the health insurance and the employer's declaration, as well as extracts of relevant sections of the Social Security Code. (77965)

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[ Top of page ]

003 Industries and occupations

CIS 02-223 Employees of frozen-food departments. (French: Employé de magasin de surgelés) Alcouffe J., Hays G., Mzabi M., Reffet H., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.4, p.401-407. + Insert 2p. Illus. 7 ref. (In French)

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The sale of frozen foods has grown rapidly during the last decades, and there are now shops specialized in these products. Various jobs and their constraints are described. The physical workload is high, resulting in a "quite heavy" to "heavy" classification for these jobs. Thermal stress is lower than generally imagined, and are mostly limited to the hands. The mental workload is not negligible. The article makes several recommendations for improving working conditions. It also contains (as an insert) an information sheet on working in frozen-food shops, whose contents include: definition and characteristics of the occupation; description of activities (workplaces, tools and equipment, products and work procedures, movements and postures, personal protective equipment); risks and stresses of the job (connected with the environment, the equipment, the products used, the working hours, the physical and mental workload); occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards (collective, personal, OSH measures); regulations applicable in France. (78298)

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CIS 02-224 Pathological risks incurred by urban police forces and their prevention. (Italian: Rischi patologia e prevenzione dei vigili urbani) Tomei Fr., Ortolani B., Renzoni S., Pascalizi N., Riservato R., Marcellini L., De Sio S., Marinucci F., Tomao E., Baccolo T.P., Anzelmo V., Iosue M., Tomei F., Paolucci M., Ruffino M.G., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.12-24. Illus. 49 ref. (In Italian)

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In this review the hazards that urban police forces in Italy are exposed to are evaluated. Atmospheric pollution is considered first among the risk factors of this generally outdoor work, focusing on respiratory systems diseases. Other consequences mentioned include immunotoxic effects, and those depending on continuous noise, neoplasms, cardiovascular disorders and stress factors. (78194)

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CIS 02-225 Australian farmers' perceptions of farm health and safety hazards. Sandall J., Cooksey R., Reeve I., Kaine G., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1999, Vol.15, No.5, p.449-464. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

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In terms of occupational injuries and fatalities, farming is one of the three most dangerous occupations in Australia. On average, approximately 250 people are killed on Australian farms annually, while approximately 1,250 people are seriously injured. In terms of workers compensation payouts, the cost of farm injuries to the Australian farming industry has been estimated to amount to AUD 400m every year. In recent years, considerable resources have been directed at investigating the nature and scale of occupational health and safety problems among farmers. As a result of this work, the need to develop health and safety programmes that are suited to the unique working conditions of farmers has been recognised. In this article, a multidimensional psychometric approach is used to illustrate how an understanding of farmers' perceptions of the risks associated with health and safety hazards might contribute to the development of such programmes. (78101)

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CIS 02-226 Managing farm safety: The key in future risk management on farms. Calver R., McGrath A., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1999, Vol.15, No.5, p.465-470. 13 ref. (In English)

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The agricultural industry is constantly facing changes which produce a level of economic and psychological uncertainty for farmers. Occupational safety and health training is necessary to eliminate or minimize risks which may be faced in a changing environment. The Victorian Farmers Federation (VFF) in Australia has successfully developed strategies to reduce the level of uncertainty and produce cultural change among Victorian farmers. The VFF is principally working to raise farm safety awareness and put in place practical risk management systems through the Managing Farm Safety programme, codes of practice, Farm Safety Action Groups, the Farmsafe Alliance and Farmsafe Victoria. The strategic direction is, however, guided by the risk management principles underlying the Managing Farm Safety programme. The overall endeavour is to educate farmers in the principles of risk management. Through practical risk management strategies, farmers and their families can avoid the emotional and economic costs of death, injury and loss of productivity. (78102)

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CIS 02-227 Assignment of work involving farm tractors to children on North American farms. Marlenga B., Pickett W., Berg R.L., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.15-22. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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Children are at high risk for tractor-related injury. The North American Guidelines for Children's Agricultural Tasks (NAGCAT) provide recommendations for the assignment of tractor work. This analysis describes tractor-related jobs assigned to farm children and compares them to NAGCAT. A descriptive analysis was conducted of baseline data collected by telephone interview. The study population consisted of 1,138 children who worked on 498 North American farms. A total of 2,389 farm jobs were reported and 456 (19.1%) involved operation of farm tractors. Leading types of tractor jobs were identified. Modest, yet important, percentages of children were assigned tractor work before the minimum ages recommended by NAGCAT. Children on farms are involved in tractor work at a young age and some are involved in jobs that they are unlikely to have the developmental abilities to perform. (78342)

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CIS 02-228 Severe farm injuries among New York farmers. Hwang S.A., Gomez M.I., Stark A.D., Lowery St. John T., May J.J., Hallman E.M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.32-41. 20 ref. (In English)

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Data from the telephone interview portion of the New York State Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance were used to study the incidence and predictors of severe farm injury. 1,706 participants completed two telephone interviews in which they reported all injuries over a 12-month period. 9% of participants reported at least one severe farm injury. Using logistic regression the significant risk factors for sustaining at least one severe farm injury are younger age, the presence of hearing loss or joint trouble, working more hours per day, being the owner/operator of the farm, and being from a farm with higher gross sales. There needs to be continuing education of all farmers as to the risks of injury. However, when resources are limited, it is recommended that injury education and interventions in this farming population should target younger farmers, those who work longer hours, owner/operators, farmers from higher gross sales farms, with special attention to farmers who have physical impairments. (78344)

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CIS 02-229 Asthma and other respiratory symptoms in New Zealand pine processing sawmill workers. Douwes J., McLean D., Slater T., Pearce N., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.608-615. 30 ref. (In English)

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To study respiratory symptoms in pine sawmill workers, a respiratory health questionnaire was administered to 772 subjects and the association between symptoms and job-title-based exposure was studied. Asthma in exposed workers (18%) was more common than in the general population (12.1%, adjusted OR=1.6). Asthma was also more common in the low exposure group (15.6%) and high exposure groups (high exposure to "green dust", 20.4%, and high exposure to "dry dust", 18.8%), than in the non-exposed workers (9.2%). Adjusted odds ratios were 1.9, 2.7 and 2.1, respectively. Adjusted odds ratios for symptoms of cough were 2.7 for the low, 5.2 for the high "green dust" and 3.3 for the high "dry dust" exposure groups. Moreover, eye and nose irritations were significantly more prevalent in the exposure groups. (78057)

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CIS 02-230 Mining industry: Hazards and their prevention. (French: Secteur minier: risques et prévention) Daly L., Nouaigui H., Kahouach L., Rammeh H., Ben Laïba M., SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Jan. 2001, No.16, p.2-23. Illus. (In French)

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Contents of this review article on occupational safety and heath in the mining industry in Tunisia: mining companies; harmful exposures encountered in the mining sector (darkness and vision problems, heat and heat load, humidity, ventilation, dust, vibration, physical workload, mental workload); occupational diseases (pneumoconiosis, silicosis, other diseases); occupational accidents (landslides, transport accidents, slips and falls, explosions, manual handling, hand tools, other hazards); preventive measures; compensation. (77894)

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CIS 02-231 The challenges for mining health and safety regulators in the 21st century. Mitchell D., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2001, Vol.17, No.1, p.23-30. (In English)

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Review of current trends in the regulation of health and safety in mining around the world. Trying to predict what changes the future might bring in the longer term is contrasted with the higher degree of certainty obtained from extrapolating current trends 5 to 10 years into the future. (78111)

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CIS 02-232 Occupational health services in Indian mines. Sishodiya P.K., Arora R.L., Industrial Safety Chronicle, July-Sep. 2000, Vol.XXXI, No.2, p.45-49. (In English)

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India has a unique blend of big and small, manual and mechanized, opencast and underground mines. The Indian mining industry can be categorized into three broad sectors: coal, other minerals and oil. This article describes current legislation, and present the results of a survey aimed at verifying the degree with which the laws and recommendations of the Conference on Safety in mines are applied. The Conference had recommended the creation of occupational health services in each mining company, medical surveillance of workers and the implementation of measures aimed at limiting dust and noise levels. Based on the results of the survey, further recommendations are made for improving occupational health services. (78120)

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CIS 02-233 Construction industry: A priority sector for occupational safety and health. (French: Le secteur des bâtiments et des travaux publics: une priorité à la prévention) Sassi M., Kahouach L., Gharbi M., Soltani C., Ben Massour H., Ben Laïba M., SST - Santé et Sécurité au Travail, Apr. 2001, No.17, p.2-19. Illus. 15 ref. (In French)

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Contents of this review article on occupational safety and health in the construction sector in Tunisia: employment statistics; economic importance of the sector; occupational hazards; occupational diseases (damage to the skin, respiratory system and lungs, musculoskeletal diseases, hearing loss); legislation; organization of construction sites; earthmoving equipment; electrical hazards; personal protective equipment. (77895)

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CIS 02-234 Respiratory symptoms and lung function in workers in heavy and highway construction: A cross-sectional study. Oliver L.C., Miracle-McMahill H., Littman A.B., Oakes J.M., Gaita R.R., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.73-86. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

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Respiratory symptoms and lung function were examined in labourers, tunnel workers (TWs) and operating engineers (OEs) in highway and tunnel construction. Data were obtained on 389 unionized workers: 186 labourers, 45 TWs, and 158 OEs. Prevalence of asthma was 13 and 11.4% for labourers and operating engineers, respectively, and of symptomatic chronic bronchitis, 6.5 and 1.9%, respectively. Odds ratios (OR) for undiagnosed asthma were significantly elevated in TWs compared to OEs, and marginally elevated for chronic bronchitis. Inverse relationships were observed between duration of membership of the union, and risk for asthma and chronic bronchitis. Asthma predicted lower FEV1. TWs, labourers, and OEs in highway construction are at increased risk for asthma. TWs also appear to be at increased risk for chronic bronchitis. The data suggest that symptomatic workers are self-selecting out of their trade. Asthma was associated with lower lung function in those affected. (78347)

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CIS 02-235 Analysis of injuries and diseases among Australian seafarers. Patel A., Wickramatillake H., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.79-86. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

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The aim of this retrospective study was to examine and analyse the morbidity pattern of Australian merchant seafarers between 1986 and 1996 in comparison with those patterns demonstrated in European studies and with the general Australian population for the years 1989 and 1995. Australian merchant seafarers had more injuries in 1995 than the general population with a Morbidity Ratio (MR) of 1.3 but had a lower disease incidence. There were also relatively high rates of respiratory, digestive and musculoskeletal system diseases, similar to those demonstrated in European studies. These rates could be due to the lifestyle on board and/or the work performed. (78070)

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CIS 02-236 Mortality by cause among workers of a refinery in Rome. (Italian: Mortalità per causa dei lavoratori della raffineria di Roma) Lo Presti E., Sperati A., Rapiti E., Di Domenicantonio R., Forastiere F., Perucci C.A., Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.327-337. 52 ref. (In Italian)

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Mortality was evaluated among blue-collar and white-collar workers employed in an oil refinery plant in Rome (Italy). Age- and sex-adjusted comparison was made with mortality data for the general population of the Lazio region. 682 subjects were followed up since their employment in the plant up to July 1999 and for analyses of selected cancer sites. There were 94 deaths (100.8 expected) among blue-collar and 16 deaths (31.7 expected) among white-collar workers. There was a significant increase in the number of deaths due to cancer of the lung and the bladder and from tumours of the brain. The lower mortality from cardiovascular disease (SMR 0.60 for blue-collar and 0.18 among white-collar workers) indicates the presence of a strong "healthy worker effect". (77934)

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CIS 02-237 Petrochemical exposures and menstrual disturbances. Thurston S.W., Ryan L., Christiani D.C., Snow R., Carlson J., You L., Cui S., Ma G., Wang L., Huang Y., Xu X., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.555-564. Illus. 45 ref. (In English)

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An exploratory, cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted to examine the effects of benzene exposure on menstrual problems. The study was based on a survey administered to more than 3,000 women working in a large petrochemical complex in Beijing, China. An abnormal menstrual cycle length (AMCL), defined as an average menstrual cycle length of greater than 35 days or less than 21 days, was the major factor observed. After 7 years of benzene exposure, the adjusted odds ratio of having AMCL, for each additional 5 years of exposure was 1.71. Feeling stressed at work was also an important predictor. This study suggests a significant association of benzene exposure and perceived stress with menstrual disturbance. (78076)

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CIS 02-238 Respiratory symptoms among crab processing workers in Alaska: Epidemiological and environmental assessment. Ortega H.G., Daroowalla F., Petsonk E.L., Lewis D., Berardinelli S., Jones W., Kreiss K., Wiessman D.N., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.598-607. 20 ref. (In English)

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To study possible respiratory symptoms and specific IgE responses among crab processing workers, 107 workers at a crab processing facility completed a survey both at the beginning and end of the processing season. The surveys included standardized symptom questionnaires, spirometry, and serological testing, as well as measurement of workplace airborne crab allergens and microscopic analysis of aerosolized materials. Over the crab processing season, asthma-like symptoms developed in 26% of study participants and bronchitic symptoms in 19%. Only 9% of those with new asthma-like symptoms were IgE-sensitized to crab at the end of the season. Among the crab processing jobs, butchering and degilling workers had the highest incidence of respiratory symptoms. Both personal and process-related factors appear to affect the development of respiratory symptoms in crab processing workers. (78056)

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CIS 02-239 Health care utilization and workplace interventions for neck and upper limb problems among newspaper workers. Swift M.B., Cole D.C., Beaton D.E., Manno M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.43, No.3, p.265-275. Illus. 34 ref. (In English)

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Data on the use of various therapeutic interventions among working populations at risk for musculoskeletal disorders are rare, despite the need for such information in assessing adherence to best practices. Using the results of a cross-sectional survey of newspaper workers who reported neck and upper limb pain or discomfort (n = 309), a wide range of clinical and workplace interventions are described. Information, education, exercises, and physical treatments were the most common interventions, and work changes were less prevalent. Those with more frequent, longer-duration, and/or more severe symptoms more commonly reported visits to physiotherapists and health practitioners at work and use of physical treatments, medications, and orthopaedic devices. (78109)

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CIS 02-240 Recommendations for hairdressers. (French: Recommandations pour les métiers de la coiffure) Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.2, p.185-187. (In French)

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Contents of this guidance note aimed at the hairdressing occupation: hand protection (protective creams, gloves), protection of the back and the musculoskeletal system (shoes, support stockings, weight of hairdryers, avoiding wrist flexions and repetitive movements); protective clothing; instruments and products (allergies, ergonomics, cleaning); actions to be undertaken in the event of accidents (splashes in eyes, cuts); recommended vaccinations (tetanus). (77883)

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CIS 02-241 Occupations in the field of photography. (French: Les métiers de la photographie) Boulanger G., Juhen M., Roux F., Bergaut F., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.2, p.171-179. + 2p. Insert. Illus. 9 ref. (In French)

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Review article on conditions of work and occupational safety and health in the field of photography. Today, the chemical hazards are under control as a result of automation of the various phases of the process and of the use of ready-to-use pre-mixed formulations. Automatic developing units and "minilabs" limit the exposure of workers to dangerous substances and have greatly reduced occupational diseases. However, there are still some risks involved in the preparation and filling of baths, as well as in maintenance operations. Occupational safety and health prevention measures need to take into account the conditions of work in industrial labs or photo-shops that mostly belong to chain stores, and to concentrate on compliance with procedures and training of personnel. Digital photography presents risks related to postural and constraints from working at screens. The main data are summarized on an occupational data sheet: (as insert): characteristics of the occupation; description of activities: risks and stresses of the job; occupational diseases and accidents; prevention of hazards; regulations. (77893)

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CIS 02-242 Cancer mortality patterns among hairdressers and barbers in 24 US States, 1984 to 1995. Lamba A.B., Ward M.H., Weeks J.L., Dosemeci M., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.43, No.3, p.250-258. 89 ref. (In English)

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Cancer mortality patterns among hairdressers and barbers were evaluated from 7.2 million death certificates in 24 states from 1984 to 1995. Of the 38,721 deaths among white and black hairdressers and barbers of both sexes, 9495 were from malignant neoplasms. Mortality odds ratios were significantly elevated for all malignant neoplasms, lung cancer, and all lymphatic and haemopoietic cancers among black and white female hairdressers. Female hairdressers had significant excess mortality from cancers of the stomach, colon, pancreas, breast, and bladder and from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and lymphoid leukaemia. White male hairdressers had significantly elevated mortality from non-melanoma skin cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Black and white male barbers had significantly elevated mortality from stomach and pharyngeal cancer, respectively. A significant deficit in mortality from all neoplasms and cancers of the pancreas, lung, and prostate was noted for white male barbers. (78108)

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CIS 02-243 Housekeeping assistance: A little-known occupation. (French: Une profession méconnue: aide-ménagère) Burel A., Gonzales F., Baron R., Dewitte J.D., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.379-388. Illus. 4 ref. (In French)

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Whereas publications have already been devoted to the occupation of nursing auxiliary, far less attention has been paid to that of domestic helpers. A study was undertaken to describe the working conditions, and the prevalence of bone and joint disorders and/or psychological problems among domestic helpers. The survey was conducted within the framework of a domestic helpers' association in the area around the French city of Brest. It also focussed on persons benefitting from domestic help. From the results of the survey, some preventive approaches are proposed in order to avoid difficult situations arising from the sometimes very close bonds between the women who work as domestic helpers and the persons in their care. (78291)

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CIS 02-244 Assessment of ski-lift operators' deficiencies and incapacities (data from an epidemiological study of 3910 subjects). (French: Evaluation des déficiences et incapacités dans la profession des remontées mécaniques (à partir d'une étude épidémiologique conduite chez 3910 salariés)) de Gaudemaris R., Jalbert M., Barnavol B., Flores J.L., Artières P., Isnard E., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.29-39. 17 ref. (In French)

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Health problems in professional ski-lift operators were investigated by means of cross-sectional epidemiological study carried out on a representative sample of 3910 workers. Health problems were sought by a standardized clinical examination and incapacity for work by individualized questionnaire centred on the principal work tasks. Statistical analysis showed that the size or altitude of the resort did not affect the type of health problem or work problem. Multivariate analysis enabled the identification of three groups of workers assigned to maintenance tasks, a first group of 1192 subjects with no incapacity and the remaining 406 (2 groups) with health problems and work incapacities. A logistic regression examined the contributory factors appearing in these incapacitated groups. Among these subjects aged over 30, age was not a major factor and the link between health problems such as osteoarticular problems or cardiovascular problems and incapacity for work was weak. The strongest links were with activities where preventive measures could be useful, such as pylon work, important displacements or long workdays. (78297)

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CIS 02-245 Preliminary medical report about the arduous work of art restorers. (Italian: Rapporto medico preliminare sull'attività di lavoro usurante dei restauratori) Carraro A., Spampinato F.L., Difesa sociale, Jan.-Apr. 2000, Vol.79, No.1-2, p.167-175. 18 ref. (In Italian)

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Review of the arduous conditions of work of restorers, who might be exposed to a range of chemical hazards and biocides. These workers, who usually work with their hands, tend to lack suitable personal protective equipment and are not always aware of the different risk factors to which they are exposed. (78198)

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CIS 02-246 Evaluation of safety orientation and training programs for reducing injuries in the plumbing and pipefitting industry. Kinn S., Khuder S.A., Bisesi M.S., Wooley S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Dec. 2000, Vol.42, No.12, p.1142-1147. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

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The effectiveness of employee orientation and training in reducing injuries among plumbers and pipe fitters was studied. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration's occupational injury data and safety and training records for six plumbing and pipefitting employers were examined. During the period 1996 to 1998, 133 injuries were recorded during 2,541,432 working hours. The most common types of injuries were cuts, lacerations and abrasions, the majority resulting from workers being struck by objects. The injury rate was significantly higher for small companies and companies working longer hours. 75% of workers received an orientation on injury prevention. Among workers who received a safety orientation, only 3.4% experienced injuries, compared with 11.1% of workers without an orientation. Proper safety orientation and training could significantly reduce the risks for occupational injuries in construction workers. (78061)

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CIS 02-247 Study of accidental injuries of the upper limb in a prison population. (French: Etude des accidents de travail touchant le membre supérieur en milieu pénitentiaire) Alléry J.P., Telmon N., Blanc A., Lefebvre V., Rougé D., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.425-427. Illus. 1 ref. (In French)

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Numerous accidental injuries of the upper limb occur in prisons. The aim of this study was to analyse the past history of the working prisoners for whom an upper-limb injury was, and to analyse the type of lesions and their physical consequences. Among a study population of 350 working prisoners, 54 work-related accidents occurred during the year 1998, of which 41 involved the upper extremities. 25 of the 41 victims participated in the study. Most of the injuries were minor, without after-effects and consisted of wounds, superficial burns and bruises. However, there were also 2 cases of amputations of the 3rd phalanx and 3 fractures (of the arm, wrist and thumb). (78294)

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CIS 02-248 Minesafe 1998 - Identifying key health issues for the next millennium: The role of occupational health professionals. Mastromatteo E., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.25-35. 3 ref. (In English)

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This article reviews current occupational health issues in mining, including cancer risks, diesel engine emissions, the status of quartz as a carcinogen, the concept of dust overload of the lungs, radon in relation to cancer and pneumoconiosis, asthma from exposure to platinum, neurological diseases and metals, and two infectious hazards, tuberculosis and AIDS. The review also deals with new approaches to risk assessment and risk management, international standardization, the application of evidence-based science to occupational health, and the need to characterize work exposure information in a standard way to link with epidemiological studies in risk assessment and to provide better input for the establishment of threshold limit values. The review presents recommendations for further consideration by the mining community. (78066)

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CIS 02-249 Fatal injuries in farming, forestry and horticulture 2000-2001. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. vi, 55p. Illus. (In English)

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This is a report on the 53 reportable fatal injuries that occurred in the agricultural sector (comprising farming, forestry, horticulture and associated industries) in the United Kingdom from April 2000 to March 2001. Statistical data are given by region, by main activity in the agricultural sector and by accident cause. Short descriptions of each fatal accident are provided. An analysis of the trend of fatal injuries for the period 1995/96 to 2000/01 and case studies showing what went wrong and how the accident could have been avoided are presented. Previous report: see CIS 01-456. (78022)

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CIS 02-250 Establishing effective communications and participation in the construction sector. Lancaster R.J., McAllister I., Alder A., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. viii, 200p. Illus. 65 ref. Price: GBP 35.00., ISBN 0-7176-2147-2 (In English)

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Effective communication and workforce involvement are recognized as critical to safety and health management. The complex structure of the construction industry, together with long chains of command, extensive use of sub-contractors and the prevalence of short-term projects can present challenges to establishing such practices. Conducted in two parts (a project involving field work and a literature review), the objective of this study was to ascertain the extent of communication and workforce participation in safety and health in the construction sector and to identify, through case studies, how these can be planned and implemented to improve safety and health performance. It was found that, although organizations do not always have effective communication and involvement approaches in place, the benefits of doing so are widely recognized. The characteristics of effective approaches and the process of implementing them are highlighted. (77921)

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CIS 02-251 Occupational safety and health issues during selective demolition and dismantling aimed at the re-use of materials. (German: Präventive Berücksichtigung des Arbeits- und Gesundheitsschutzes beim Selektiven Abbruch und verwendungsorientierten Rückbau) Wangler O., Opitz J., Röbenack K.D., Steinmetzger R., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1999. xiv, 295p. Illus. 51 ref., ISBN 3-89701-287-1 (In German)

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Selective demolition and dismantling aimed at the re-use of materials is an increasingly-used approach to demolition. However, it presents an increased risk of accidents and accident severity. An analysis of 4000 accidents having occurred during demolition work was carried out, with the objective of establishing the most hazardous type of work, processes and products. Preventive measures aimed at improving safety are proposed. Several information sheets and check lists offering guidance for the planning and preparation of the demolition work are also included. (78177)

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CIS 02-252 Guide to safety in the performing arts. (French: Mémento de la sécurité dans le spectacle vivant) Conseil National de la Scénographie, CRAM de l'Ile de France, 17/19 Av. de Flandre, 75014 Paris, France, 1999. 64p. Illus. (In French)

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This safety guide presents the requirements aimed at improving the safety and health of all persons participating in the creation or presentation of performances. It lists the main hazards linked to such activities and presents an approach enabling the person responsible for safety at the theatre or in the performing group to implement simple measures. Certain technical recommendations applicable to the design and installation of settings are also presented, even though the are not the object of current legal requirements in France. (77990)

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CIS 02-253 Worker deaths in confined spaces - A summary of surveillance findings and investigative case reports. Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Jan. 1994. ix, 273p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

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This publication provides information on the incidence of fatal occupational injury within confined spaces from 1980 to 1989 in the United States and presents 70 case reports which are divided into two main categories: atmospheric hazards including fatal accidents involving fires or explosions, inert gases or asphyxiants, oxygen deficient air, solvents, and toxic gases, and physical hazards involving engulfment, falls, electrocution, and drowning. Recommendations for improved safety are made for each case. (78248)

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CIS 02-254 You employ temporary workers - What you need to know for their safety. (French: Vous avez recours à des intérimaires - Ce qu'il faut savoir pour leur sécurité) CRAM des Pays de la Loire, 2 place de Bretagne, BP 93405, 44034 Nantes cedex 1, France, no date. 8 p. Illus. (In French)

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Temporary workers are often employed to compensate for the inability to recruit labour. These workers are unfamiliar with the enterprise and are therefore at greater risk of occupational accidents and diseases than regular employees. In 1998, temporary workers were victims of 70 occupational accidents per million hours worked, while the comparable rate for all employees was 25. Contents of this booklet aimed at employers of temporary workers: accident statistics; checklists when employing temporary workers; summary of applicable legislation; training of workers for hazardous jobs; forbidden work; medical supervision; change of work; right of refusal; reporting of occupational accidents. (77898)

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CIS 02-255 Safety and health in agricultural work. (French: Sécurité et hygiène dans les travaux agricoles; Spanish: Seguridad y salud en la agricultura) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1965. viii, 132p. Price: CHF 7.00; USD 1.75. Index. (In English, French, Spanish)

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This code of practice covers 26 topics related to safety and health in agricultural work. Main topics: farm premises (buildings, pits, cellars and silos); fire protection; machinery, tools and engines; land clearance and soil and crop preparation; animals; dangerous substances; manual handling; personal protective equipment; hygiene; first aid and medical surveillance; reporting of occupational accidents and diseases. (78242)

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CIS 02-256 Safety and health in building and civil engineering work. (French: Sécurité et hygiène dans les travaux du bâtiment et les travaux publics; Spanish: Seguridad y salud en la construcción y en la ingeniería civil) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1972. xii, 386p. Price: CHF 27.50. Index., ISBN 92-2-200974-6 (fr), ISBN 92-2-300974-X (es) (In English, French, Spanish)

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This Code of practice covers 42 topics retaled to safety and health in building and civil engineering. Main topics: workplaces and equipment; scaffolds, ladders and stairs; lifting appliances; railways, road and similar transport; construction equipment; electricity; blasting; concrete work; other buiding operations; excavations; underground construction; work in compressed atmosphere; work clothes and personal protective equipment; hygiene and welfare; medical supervision. (78241)

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CIS 02-257 Evaluation of occupational hazards in slaughterhouses - Guide to self-evaluation in cattle and swine rearing. (French: Evaluation des risques professionnels en abattoir - Guide d'autodiagnostic en bouverie-porcherie) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 2001. 71p. Illus., ISBN 2-7389-0809-8 (In French)

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The high level of occupational accidents and the growing occurrence of occupational diseases in the meat sector has lead to an industry-wide approach to evaluate occupational hazards, in order to implement improvements in working conditions, safety and health. The purpose of this guide is to enable enterprises in the meat sector to conduct a self-evaluation of the hazards and to implement corrective measures. The following aspects are covered through examples, questions and checklists: how to identify critical hazards; analysing critical hazards and searching for solutions; developing and implementing a safety and health plan within the enterprise. (77916)

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CIS 02-258 Temporary work [France]. (French: Le travail temporaire [France]) Le Roy A., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 2001. 36p., ISBN 2-7389-0952-3 (In French)

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Synthesis of safety and hygiene regulations applicable to temporary workers. Contents: principle of equality of treatment between temporary and permanent workers in the fields of hygiene, occupational safety and health, access to collective equipment and to occupational health services; prohibited work; safety training; compensation of occupational accidents and diseases. (77910)

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CIS 02-259 Regulations on technical standards for electromechanical apparatus used in beauty parlours. (Italian: Regolamento recante norme tecniche per apparecchi elettromeccanici per uso estetico) Amicucci G.L., Papale A., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.107-114. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In Italian)

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Comment on the Italian Law (Law No.1 of 4 Jan. 1990) regulating the diversified occupational activities of aestheticians. Risks linked to the use of cosmetics and electromechanical equipment in beauty parlours are listed together with health hazards prevention measures to be adopted. (78197)

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[ Top of page ]

004 New technologies

CIS 02-260 What you need to know: Work with visual display units - What are the health concerns?. Ho S.F., Singapore Medical Journal, 1999, Vol.40, No.9, p.612-613. 6 ref. (In English)

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The use of VDUs at the workplace has become very widespread. This paper presents the main health hazard-related issues concerning VDUs, which include: radiation emission which causes adverse pregnancy outcomes, electrostatic and electromagnetic fields which may result in skin rashes, cataracts and visual complaints, photosensitive epilepsy, musculoskeletal disorders and stress-related complaints. The need for a multidisciplinary approach is highlighted, and guidelines for a suitable workstation and work environment, good work technique, work schedules and medical surveillance are outlined. (78128)

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CIS 02-261 Computer terminal work and the benefit of microbreaks. McLean L., Tingley M., Scott R.N., Rickards J., Applied Ergonomics, June 2001, Vol.32, No.3, p.225-237. Illus. 35 ref. (In English)

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Microbreaks are scheduled rest breaks taken to prevent the onset or progression of cumulative trauma disorders in the computerized workstation environment. The benefit of microbreaks by investigating myoelectric signal (MES) behaviour, perceived discomfort, and worker productivity while individuals performed their usual keying work were examined. Participants (all women) provided data from working sessions where they took no breaks, and from working sessions where they took microbreaks at their own discretion (control), microbreaks at 20min intervals, and microbreaks at 40min intervals. Four main muscle areas were studied: the cervical extensors, the lumbar erector spinae, the upper trapezius/supraspinatus, and the wrist and finger extensors. It was determined that microbreaks had a positive effect on reducing discomfort in all areas studied during computer terminal work, particularly when breaks were taken at 20min intervals. Microbreaks showed no evidence of a detrimental effect on worker productivity. (78110)

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CIS 02-262 Computer usage with cold hands: An experiment with pointing devices. Blomkvist A.C., Gard G., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.429-450. Illus. 38 ref. (In English)

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Computers are occasionally used outdoors and in connection with cold store work. Cold hands and fingers can limit data input, as studied here. Six input devices, including trackballs, pens, and a mouse were tested by 19 participants in a screen target acquisition task with two target sizes under two experimental conditions, i.e. with a warm and with a cold right hand. Data measured were acquisition times, number of errors, participant's preferences, and observed handling of the devices. Effects of device, target size, and temperature were significant. Learning and attempts to improve handgrip were confirmed. Large-enough targets, a thick pen, and a mouse make computer work practicable in the cold. Direct visual feedback shortened acquisition times by half a second. (78331)

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CIS 02-263 Safety implications of industrial uses of internet technology. English M., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 37p. Illus. 41 ref. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-7176-2268-1 (In English)

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This report examines the safety and health issues associated with the use of the internet and internet-related technologies in industry for process control. The technology to allow connection of manufacturing and control systems to the internet is readily available, but there is no evidence that adequate consideration has been given to the security and stability of these devices and systems. There are also disadvantages in exposing internal systems (business or control) to the outside world. The quality of publicized safety-related data varies, and is potentially dangerous. Network integrity is paramount in any internet-based system that is used for control and automation, where a breach could have serious safety repercussions. It is concluded that internet technology raises no fundamentally-new safety issues, but safety and security measures need to the thoroughly addressed. (77924)

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[ Top of page ]

005 Chemical safety

CIS 02-264 An evaluation of industrial ventilation branch screening methods for obstructions in working exhaust systems. Booth D.W., Guffey S.E., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.401-410. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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Methods in identifying obstructed branches in industrial ventilation systems are divided into two categories: pressure comparisons and pressure ratio comparisons. The first compares measured static pressures with the corresponding design static pressures or previously measured pressures. The second compares the ratios of two measured pressures. Data were collected from 6 industrial ventilation systems. Each one was tested for naturally occurring or deliberately inserted obstructions. The pressure ratio method was substantially superior for the detection of obstructions. (78181)

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CIS 02-265 Particle emission characteristics of filter-equipped vacuum cleaners. Trakumas S., Willeke K., Grinshpun S.A., Reponen T., Mainelis G., Friedman W., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.482-493. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

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Report of a study of household vacuum cleaners concerning their collection efficiency immediately after new high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters have been installed. Low-cost household vacuum cleaners equipped with such a final HEPA filter were found to have initial filtration efficiencies comparable to those of industrial vacuum cleaners equipped with a HEPA filter. For extensive cleaning efforts and for cleaning of wet surfaces industrial vacuum cleaners may have an advantage. (78191)

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CIS 02-266 Performance of electronic flow rate meters used for calibration of air sampling pumps. Middendorf P.J., MacIntosh D.L., Tow L.V., Williams P.L., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.472-476. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

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This study compared the traditional bubble burette meter with electronic flow meters used for the calibration of air sampling pumps. Results indicated that the standard bubble burette method is more variable than the electronic rate flow meters. (78189)

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CIS 02-267 Plan for the removal of asbestos-containing friable materials - Analysis by the occupational physician. (French: Plan de retrait de matériaux friables contenant de l'amiante - Analyse par le médecin du travail) Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.82, p.115-123. Illus. 8 ref. (In French)

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Article 23, Section 4, of French Decree No.96-98 of 7 February 1996 (see CIS 96-404) on the protection of workers against hazards due to the inhaling of asbestos dust requires that all asbestos-removal work be submitted to the opinion of the industrial physician. A working group of company physicians was set up in order to share their experiences and to propose a method for analysing the various elements of the asbestos-removal plan which require the attention of industrial physicians. The objective is to help the company physicians reach a reasoned opinion on the aspects of the removal plan that are of particular concern to them, knowing that the plan is also submitted to the hygiene and safety committees, or in their absence, to workers' representatives. One month prior to the start of work, this plan is communicated to the labour inspection and occupational health authorities for the approval of technical aspects. (77981)

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CIS 02-268 Accelerated silicosis in workers exposed to agate dust in Guangzhou, China. Jiang C.Q., Xiao L.W., Lam T.H., Xie N.W., Zhu C.Q., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.87-91. 10 ref. (In English)

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An investigation of a small private agate mill was prompted by an agate worker who presented with silicosis in Guangzhou, China, in December 1998. The work processes and records of dust measurements of the mill were examined. The mean total dust concentrations ranged from 3.0 to 9.9mg/m3; 86-88% of the particles' diameter was smaller than 5.0µm. Free SiO2 content measured from agate samples was 90.5%. 32 men involved in processing agate stone were examined. The mean age was 29.8 ± 4.9 years and the mean duration of exposure was 3.5 ± 1.7 years. Occupational history was obtained and X-ray chest and lung function examinations were carried out. 15 (47%) were diagnosed with accelerated silicosis. Up to September 1999, three died from respiratory failure and five were in critical condition. (78348)

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CIS 02-269 Air sampling at the chest and ear as representative of the breathing zone. Guffey S.E., Flanagan M.E., van Belle G., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.416-427. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

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Tracer gas concentrations were measured on a 60%-sized mannequin, which was holding a sulfur hexafluoride source at waist height while standing in a wind tunnel. Samplers were placed at the mannequin's mouth, in front of the ear and at three chest locations at lapel level. Simultaneous 15-min time-weighted average samples were taken with sampling pumps. Concentrations at all sampling locations when the mannequin faced to the front and side were less than a tenth of the levels measured at the nose, when the mannequin faced downstream. Different flow orientations and velocities affected the ratios of concentrations. At the back orientation, the chest sampler provided lower overestimates of measurements at higher velocities than at lower values. Results showed significant differences between concentrations at the nose and lapel. These findings should be interpreted with caution, because a dense tracer gas and an unheated not breathing mannequin were used. (78183)

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CIS 02-270 Applying resins in confined spaces during construction work - Highlighting of exposures and proposals for prevention measures. (French: Application de résines en espaces confinés dans l'activité BTP - Mise en évidence des expositions et propositions de moyens de prévention) Brugnot C., Beauté C., Hasni-Pichard H., Lauzier F., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2152-184-01, p.5-23. Illus. 34 ref. (In French)

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To satisfy growing technical and aesthetic requirements, synthetic resins used in surface coatings (of floors, vessels, piping, etc.) contain an increasing variety of chemicals. The potential hazards from handling and applying these resins are a subject of concern, as confirmed by field evaluations of the working environment and biological monitoring at 9 construction sites in the Ile-de-France region. To limit these hazards, it is recommended that all parties (formulators, equipment manufacturers and suppliers) work together. This first study enabled the highlighting of the problems, and would need to be followed by long-term evaluations involving pluridisciplinary teams. (77885)

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CIS 02-271 Trichloramine stripping in swimming pool buffer tanks - Study of various gas/liquid contact systems. (French: Strippage de la trichloramine dans les bacs tampons des piscines - Etude de différents contacteurs gaz/liquide) Gérardin F., Muller-Rodriguez N., Quenis B., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2153-184-01, p.25-36. Illus. 5 ref. (In French)

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The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of four gas/liquid contactors. These systems can be adapted to the buffer tanks of public swimming pools to extract, by stripping, the trichloramine present in re-circulated water of pools. Work was carried out on a pilot scale, enabling several parameters to be varied. The results confirmed the satisfactory levels of extraction that were found during full-scale trials, where up over 60% reductions in concentration of atmospheric trichloramine achieved, and enabled the determination of the design parameters for each system. An example of design calculations for these four systems for a typical buffer tank is included. (77886)

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CIS 02-272 Biological exposure indices. (French: Indices biologiques d'exposition) Schneider O., Brondeau M.T., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2154-184-01, p.39-54. (In French)

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Biological exposure indices consist of reference values corresponding either to the concentrations of a chemical or its metabolites in biological fluids or exhaled air, or to a biological response to a chemical. These indices represent a means of evaluating the exposure of workers to chemicals, and should be considered as a supplemental indicator to the values of exposure limits in air. This review article provides definitions of biological indices proposed by American hygienists of the AGCIH (BEI) and German hygienists of the DFG (BAT); it discusses their advantages and limitations, and includes a summary table of accepted values. (77887)

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CIS 02-273 Biological monitoring of employees exposed to 4,4'-methylene-bis-(2-ortho-chloraniline) (MOCA). (French: Surveillance biologique des salariés exposés à la 4,4'-méthylène-bis-(2-chloroaniline) (MOCA)) Robert A., Ducos P., Francin J.M., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Hygiène et sécurité du travail, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.184, Note No.2155-184-01, p.57-67. Illus. 53 ref. (In French)

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4,4'-methylene-bis-(2-orthochloroaniline) (MOCA) falls within IARC's category 2A (probable carcinogen). An analytical procedure for determining urinary MOCA is presented, and its relevance to industrial conditions involving polyurethane resins is discussed. Results of 103 end-of-shift urine analyses of 40 workers employed in four French manufacturing companies show that the current situation remains one of concern, average and peak excretions during three consecutive working days reaching 356 and 570µg/L respectively. The highest urinary MOCA excretions were observed among operators in daily contact with crystalline MOCA (mixers) or in occasional contact (maintenance workers). The analysis of MOCA on urines acidified by addition of sulfamic acid is more reliable than the analysis of free MOCA on non-acidified urines; it is also easier than the analysis of total MOCA obtained from hydrolysed urines. A limit value of 20µg/L of MOCA in end-of-shift urines appears to be a reasonable objective, and could be the basis of a proposed French recommended limit. (77888)

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CIS 02-274 Occupational exposures and male fertility: Results of an Italian multicentre study in exposed populations. (Italian: Esposizioni occupazionali e fertilità maschile: Risultati di uno studio italiano multicentrico tra popolazioni esposte) Petrelli G., Lauria L., Figà-Talamanca I., Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.307-313. Illus. 26 ref. (In Italian)

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Report on a study on the fertility of couples where the men were occupationally exposed to three different kinds of toxic substances with effects on reproduction. Fertility was evaluated during the time that elapsed between attempting and achieving the first pregnancy of the couples. Data were collected from 153 workers of a mint (exposed to metal and solvents), 322 agricultural workers licensed to handle pesticides and 127 greenhouse workers, as well as from comparable non-unexposed groups of workers. Results suggest that workers exposed to metals, solvents and the agricultural and greenhouse workers exposed to pesticides experienced a delay in conception at the time of their wives' first pregnancy, although the delay was statistically significant (OR=2.4; 95% CI=1.2-5.1) only for greenhouse workers with heavy exposure (>100hrs of application time per year) to pesticides. (77932)

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CIS 02-275 Job fitness definition of workers exposed to biological risks in a health care environment: Considerations in light of a case report. (Italian: Il giudizio di idoneità lavorativa di lavoratori esposti a rischio biologico in ambiente sanitario: considerazioni alla luce di un caso clinico) Porru S., Carta A., Placidi D., Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.345-352. 20 ref. (In Italian)

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Report of the case of a young female nurse in the haematology department of an Italian hospital, who was in charge of preparing and administering antineoplastic drugs. She was suffering from membranous glomerulonephritis and was being treated with immunosuppressant agents. The risk assessment showed that the preparation and administration of the antineoplastic drugs was not safely performed and she showed moderate leucopenia. This worker was judged unfit for work involving high risk of exposure to potentially harmful pharmaceutical agents. The case provided the opportunity for underlining the role of the occupational physician in detecting potentially harmful cases of exposure. (77936)

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CIS 02-276 Occupational and environmental risks related to activities of diagnostic laboratories and their prevention. Cytogenetic and environmental mutagenicity tests. (Italian: Rischio e prevenzione occupazionale e ambientale correlato [sic] alle attività dei laboratori diagnostici. Test citogenetici e di mutagenesi ambientale) Leoni V., Petyx M., Rossini A., Urso M., Materazzo F., Ensabella F., Vitali M., Fabiani L., Giuliani A.R., Testa A., Ranaldi R., De Marco A., Owczarek M., De Simone L., Guidotti M., Serva M., Prevenzione oggi, 2000, Vol.12, No.4, p.35-112. Illus. Bibl. ref. (In Italian)

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A report on a survey to gather information on types, numbers and techniques of diagnostic analysis and on the collection of waste products in two Italian hospitals. Cytogenetic tests were carried out on 50 exposed workers in the laboratories of these hospitals and on 50 controls. Altogether approximately 150 diagnostic techniques were recorded, together with about 300 reagents used in these procedures and classified according their toxicity and risk potential. Mutagenicity and cytogenicity tests were also carried out for the same substances. Of the reagents recorded, 40% can produce burns, 28% are toxic by inhalation or ingestion, 12% are flammable and 4% are carcinogenic. Among the waste products, the most harmful were those coming from microbiological and enzyme tests. Cytogenetic tests proved their usefulness as aspecific indicators of increased risk of harmful exposures. As useful outcomes of the study, the preparation of two questionnaires should also be noted: one on the analytical methods and substances used and the wastes produced by laboratories, the other on the identification of exposed and non-exposed subjects for epidemiological surveys. (77938)

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CIS 02-277 Poisoning induced by the substitution of halogenated hydrocarbons - Literature review. (French: Intoxications liées à la substitution des hydrocarbures halogénés - Revue de la littérature) Testud F., Martin J.C., Descotes J., Conso F., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, June 2000, Vol.61, No.4, p.278-281. 16 ref. (In French)

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The Montreal Protocol of 1996 called for the elimination of certain halogenated hydrocarbons, namely chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), due to their detrimental effects on the environment, including ozone layer depletion and global warming. However, these substitution products have been responsible in recent years for a number of poisonings, including fatal poisonings. This article reviews cases reported in literature on poisonings from CFC substitutes, and concludes that it is necessary to improve our understanding of the hazards associated with these chemicals. (77977)

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CIS 02-278 Herbicides. (French: Herbicides) Pontal P.G., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.127, 10p. 57 ref. (In French)

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Herbicides represent roughly 50% of the pesticides used in agriculture. The effect most frequently observed in animal studies is hepatic enzyme induction, possibly associated with hepatoxicity at high doses. Apart from accidental poisoning or suicides, the most common findings in human studies are allergic or irritant skin effects. Despite numerous epidemiological studies attempting to establish a link between exposure to pesticides and cancers or reproductive disorders, there were no conclusive findings. Herbicide contamination can occur during their manufacture, in agricultural operations or at the consumer level, due to the possible existence of residues or metabolites in treated plants. For each contamination path and for each product or formulation, specific rules indicate the acceptable exposure limits, conditions of use and labelling requirements. (77978)

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CIS 02-279 Exposure to benzene among automobile repair shop mechanics and tank-truck drivers. (French: L'exposition au benzène des mécaniciens et des citernistes) Javelaud B., Vian L., Molé R., Allain P., Allemand B., André B., Barbier F., Churet A.M., Dupuis J.C., Galand M., Millet F., Talmon J., Touron C., Vaissière M., Vechambre D., Vieules M., Viver D., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.82, p.125-131. 21 ref. (In French)

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Unleaded fuel contains benzene, the haematological toxicity of which is well documented. Consequently, it was decided to conduct a study of occupational exposure among automobile repair shop mechanics and tank-truck drivers. A survey was carried out in April 1995 with the purpose of identifying occupational factors which represent sources of exposure to benzene, and to derive corresponding prevention measures. 66 automobile repair shop mechanics, 34 tank-truck drivers and 28 controls answered questionnaires; atmospheric sampling, urinary trans,trans-muconic acid determinations and blood analyses were also carried out. Results show that 6.1% of the mechanics and 33% of the tank-truck drivers are exposed to levels above the 0.3ppm limit proposed by the ACGIH, and that 3% of the mechanics and 12% of the tank-truck drivers are exposed to more than 1ppm. (77982)

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CIS 02-280 Assessment of the pulmonary toxicity of inhaled gases and particles with physicochemical methods. Sosnowski T.R., Podgórski A., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.431-447. Illus. 37 ref. (In English)

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Physicochemical techniques used for evaluating the pulmonary surfactant (PS) quality are discussed as methods useful in accessing the toxicity of inhaled gases and particles. Two standard devices, the Langmuir-Wilhelmy film balance and the pulsating bubble apparatus are presented in detail, and the measured results of interaction between sulfuric acid and 2 models of PS material are analysed. The evident decrease in surface activity of the pulmonary surfactant after its contact with the acid at concentrations approaching 0.001M may be considered as an indicator of adverse effect, which can result in several health problems. The approach presented can be used as a method of assessing pulmonary toxicity of any substance present in breathing air. (78005)

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CIS 02-281 Polish system of assessing occupational risk posed by chemical compounds. Pośniak M., Skowroń J., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Special issue, p.103-109. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

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According to the Polish Labour Code, employers are legally obliged to provide workers with information about occupational safety and health hazards. Maximum allowable concentrations (MAC) and the results of determining chemicals in workplace air are used for assessing occupational exposure and risk. A computer-assisted system, "STER", developed in the Central Institute for Labour Protection is described; it helps to analyse all the information to identify the hazards, to assess the risk and to identify and document all actions that should be taken. (78010)

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CIS 02-282 Potential exposure of amateurs (consumers) through painting wood preservative and antifoulant preparations. Garrod A.N.I., Guiver R., Rimmer D.A., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.421-426. 8 ref. (In English)

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This article presents data for work patterns, inhalation and potential dermal exposure for amateurs painting wood preservatives to garden structures, and antifoulants to leisure boats. The results are quoted as rates of in-use product deposition or time-weighted inhaled product concentrations. Inhalation exposure was detected in about 40% of the surveys, being about 100 times higher for wood preservatives. The maximum airborne wood preservative concentration was 8.03mg/m3, measured over the period of painting. Regarding potential dermal exposure, the processes are only broadly comparable. Most of the data appear to fall into relatively narrow distributions, with median values around 5mg/min (for preservatives) and around 16mg/min (for antifoulants). About half of the deposit on clothing was found to occur below the waist. The data comparing gloved and bare hand working indicate that even simple gloves offer a degree of protection for skin. (78033)

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CIS 02-283 A survey of exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions in the workplace. Groves J., Cain J.R., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.435-447. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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Forty sites were visited during a survey of exposures to diesel engine exhaust gas emissions. Personal exposure to gaseous components and background levels, respirable dust, elemental carbon, organic carbon and total carbon were measured and details of control systems were recorded. The results show a wide spread in exposure patterns reflecting the different work practices, job categories and control methods. However, sites where fork-lift trucks were in use consistently produced the highest exposures. The survey results suggest that the measurement of elemental carbon could be used as an indicator of exposure to diesel engine exhaust emissions. (78034)

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CIS 02-284 Lip lead as an alternative measure for lead exposure assessment of lead battery assembly workers. Hwang Y.H., Chao K.Y., Chang C.W., Hsiao F.T., Chang H.L., Han H.Z., AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.825-831. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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Air lead, lead loadings on workers' sleeves, gloves, hands, cheeks, and lips, and blood lead were determined in 96 workers from a lead battery plant in Taiwan. A questionnaire also was administered on work history, suspected exogenous lead sources, and personal behaviour and activities. Total air lead at different sub-areas ranged from 0.070 to 0.159mg/m3. Respirable air lead level for different subgroups of workers varied from 0.009 to 0.032mg/m3, whereas those of the blood lead level ranged from 22.4 to 44.5µg/dL. The heaviest lead loadings were found for plate-processing workers (66.4 on gloves, 0.80 on cheeks, and 0.79µg/cm2 on bare-hands after washing). Blood lead level was significantly correlated with lead levels in air, lead loadings on lips, and bare hands after washing. Regression analysis shows that only lip lead can be used as an alternative index of lead exposure through ingestion. (78042)

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CIS 02-285 Hydrocarbon solvent exposure data: Compilation and analysis of the literature. Caldwell D.J., Armstrong T.W., Barone N.J., Suder J.A., Evans M.J., AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.881-894. Illus. 99 ref. (In English)

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An occupational exposure database for hydrocarbon solvent end-use applications was constructed from the published literature. The database provides exposure assessment information for such purposes as regulatory risk assessments, and identification of applications in which limited exposure data are available. Methods used to identify and evaluate published solvent exposure data are described along with more detailed analysis of worker exposure to hydrocarbon solvents in three major end-use applications: painting and coating, printing and adhesives. Solvent exposures were evaluated against current ACGIH threshold limit values (TLVs). Limited quantitative data are available prior to 1970. In general, reported hydrocarbon solvent exposures decreased fourfold from 1960 to 1998. (78045)

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CIS 02-286 The tax incentive scheme for chemical hazards control. Tan K.T., National University of Singapore, Chemical and Process Engineering Centre News, Aug. 1999, p.1-4. (In English)

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A tax incentive scheme for chemical hazard control was introduced in 1999. The objective is to assist companies to partially defray the costs of implementing engineering measures to control hazards. This document describes the criteria to qualify for this tax incentive. It is hoped that companies shall make use of the scheme as they will not only comply with the law but also achieve higher occupational health standards for better protection of the workers against chemical hazards. (78125)

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CIS 02-287 Application of a fibrous electrostatic filter for treatment of diesel exhaust. Ciach T., Sosnowski T.R., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.321-333. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

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This paper presents results of investigations of a novel method for diesel exhaust filtration in a fibrous filter supplemented by the external electrostatic field (FEF), which may be used to eliminate the occupational hazard near sources of diesel emission. The research reported in this article follows an earlier preliminary basic study of soot removal in such systems, and is focused on the construction and testing of a prototype technical-scale FEF device. The results suggest a strong relation between applied voltage and filtration efficiency of the system and demonstrate the influence of aerosol pre-charging on the efficiency, which can be more than 95%. (78142)

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CIS 02-288 Induction of DNA and cytogenic damage in lymphocytes of Polish workers exposed to pesticides. Cebulska-Wasilewska A., Wierzewska A., Dyga W., Drąg Z., Siffel C., Horváth M., Au W., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.272-287. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

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This paper presents preliminary data from the Polish subgroup of a joint research program (Greece, Hungary, Poland, and Spain) investigating the relationship between exposure to agrochemicals and the induction of genotoxicity in human cells. Blood samples were collected from male donors (50 persons in a reference group and 50 persons in a group occupationally exposed to pesticides). The collected samples were analysed for the induction of DNA strand breaks and of chromosome damage. Analysis of the data from the interviews revealed that the occupationally exposed group showed significantly higher frequency of some health problems (cardiovascular disorders, kidney, neurological and dermatological problems, infections). The exposed group also had higher levels of DNA damage and sister chromatid exchanges compared to the reference group. It was also found that cigarette smoking played an important role influencing the biomarker response. Although the farmers in Poland have been using safety devices when handling pesticides, more rigorous procedures need to be employed. (78149)

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CIS 02-289 HPRT mutation frequencies in benzene-exposed oil refinery workers during an eleven-year-long follow-up study. Major J., Jakab M.G., Tompa A., Central European Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.288-299. Illus. 45 ref. (In English)

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Mutation and variant frequencies (VF) of the hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) loci of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of 43 occupationally benzene-exposed, 30-40-year-old workers with increased chromosome aberration frequencies were investigated by autoradiography in an eleven-year-long follow-up study in order to assess the cancer risk. Data were compared to those of 87 age-matched controls. Ambient air benzene concentrations were measured with gas chromatography. Compared to the controls, the values of the labelling indices in PBLs of the exposed donors were decreased indicating a reduced response to lectine stimulation in the genotoxicologically compromised cells. In the years 1992-1993, the mean hprt VFs of the exposed workers were significantly higher than those of the controls, but not in the previous or subsequent years. The distribution of the individual VFs also indicated exposure-related increases in the years 1991-1993. The data indicate that occupational exposure to benzene can increase the cell mutation frequencies. (78150)

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CIS 02-290 Worker exposure to aromatic volatile organic compounds in dry cleaning stores. Jo W.K., Kim S.H., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.466-471. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

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Results of a study of workers' exposure to aromatic compounds and tetrachloroethylene, contained in four different commercial solvents. For benzene and toluene, there was no significant difference among the indoor air concentrations of the four products. For ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, and o-xylene, the air concentrations were significantly higher in stores using 3 of these solvents than in those using a mixture of tetrachloroethylene. Similar results were obtained in breath concentrations measured prior to and immediately after work. The results indicate that dry cleaning workers working with aromatic compounds have higher exposures than those working with tetrachloroethylene. No difference was observed in the health effects of these exposures. (78188)

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CIS 02-291 Royal Decree 374/2001 - A new legal instrument for evaluating the exposure to chemicals. (Spanish: Real Decreto 374/2001 - Un nuevo espacio legal para la valoración de la exposición a agentes químicos) Laborda Grima R., Prevención, July-Sep. 2001, No.157, p.32-40. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Spanish Royal Decree 374/2001 (see CIS 01-964) concerning the protection of workers' health and safety from chemicals at the place of work came into effect on 5 May 2001. It transposes Council Directive 98/24/EC (see CIS 98-1094) into national legislation. This article comments on the new provisions of this decree, in particular the definition of several concepts, the responsibilities of employers (hazard evaluation, prevention of hazards due to chemicals, specific protection and prevention measures, medical supervision, measures in cases of accidents or emergencies, prohibited substances, information and training of personnel) and limit values established for inorganic lead and its derivates in air and blood. (78279)

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CIS 02-292 Lead genetic susceptibility: A general review. (French: Biosusceptibilité au plomb: revue générale) Leleu B., Shirali P., Haguenoer J.M., Furon D., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 29 ref. (In French)

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The effects of lead on the human organism have long been known. In particular, lead is recognized as a cause of secondary porphyria resulting from haeme synthesis inhibition. There is considerable inter-individual variation in the response to lead exposure. These differences are likely to be mediated, in part, by genetic factors. δ-Aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) is among the first enzymes affected by lead, and its inhibition is quite specific. This enzyme is polymorphic and is responsible for three different phenotypes. ALAD is encoded by a single gene on the q34 region of chromosome 9, with two co-dominant alleles. During the last two decades, various investigators have studied this polymorphism and its possible influence on the toxicity of lead. This article consists of a review of the research conducted in this field. (78295)

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CIS 02-293 Brooks syndrome - Irritant-induced asthma. (French: Syndrome de Brooks - Asthmes induits par les irritants) Rosenberg N., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 2nd Quarter 2000, No.82, p.153-158. 49 ref. (In French)

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The Brooks syndrome was originally defined as asthma occurring after a single high level of exposure to an irritant, without a latency period. Currently, the preferred term is "irritant-induced asthma". This article reviews the physiopathology of this syndrome, its prevalence, substances that cause it to occur, its diagnosis in an occupational setting and confirmation in a specialized medical establishment, its evolution and compensation entitlements. (77983)

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CIS 02-294 Pathologies related to disinfectants and detergents in hospitals. (French: Pathologie en rapport avec les produits désinfectants et détergents en milieu hospitalier) Verdun-Esquer C., Laplace V., Brochard P., Ducombs G., Geniaux M., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.8, p.588-596. 54 ref. (In French)

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Disinfectants and detergents are widely used in hospitals. Their composition is complex. This article is a review of diseases diagnosed in persons producing, handling or using these products. Irritant and allergic effects are possible on skin and mucous membranes. A wide variety of chemicals is involved. Collaboration between the hospital departments responsible for occupational medicine, hospital hygiene and the dispensary is necessary to improve knowledge and to control the risks due to the use of these products. (77988)

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CIS 02-295 Copper exposure and metal fume fever: Lack of evidence for a causal relationship. Borak J., Cohen H., Hethmon T.A., AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.832-836. 52 ref. (In English)

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A systematic literature search was made on the topic of possible adverse health effects of inhalation exposure to copper fume and dust. Seven reports published over the past 88 years were identified that contain original human data and claim to document that exposure to copper dust or fume caused metal fume fever (MFF) or an MFF-like syndrome. Insufficient evidence was found to conclude that exposures to copper dust and copper fume cause MFF. Limitations included absence of exposure measurements, atypical symptoms and complaints, and lack of consistency among types of work associated with symptoms. Given the extensive use of copper in many industries and operations, it is evident that if copper-induced MFF does occur, it is a rare event. (78043)

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CIS 02-296 Laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers and occupational exposure to formaldehyde and various dusts: A case-control study in France. Laforest L., Luce D., Goldberg P., Bégin D., Guérin M., Demers P.A., Brugère J., Leclerc A., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.57, No.11, p.767-773. 51 ref. (In English)

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To assess possible associations between occupational exposures and squamous cell carcinomas of the larynx and hypopharynx, a case-control study was carried out on 201 cases with hypopharyngeal cancers, 296 cases with laryngeal cancers and 296 controls (patients with other tumour sites). Detailed information on smoking, alcohol consumption, and lifetime occupational history was collected. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, leather dust, wood dust, flour dust, coal dust, silica dust and textile dust was assessed with a job exposure matrix. Hypopharyngeal cancer was found to be associated with exposure to coal dust (odds ratio (OR) 2.31), with a significant rise in risk with probability and level of exposure. Exposure to coal dust was also associated with an increased risk of laryngeal cancer (OR 1.67). A significant relation, limited to hypopharyngeal cancer, was found with the probability of exposure to formaldehyde, with a fourfold risk for the highest category (OR 3.78). (78048)

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CIS 02-297 Historical cohort study of 10,109 men in the North American vinyl chloride industry, 1942-72: Update of cancer mortality to 31 December 1995. Mundt K.A., Dell L.D., Austin R.P., Luippold R.S., Noess R., Bigelow C., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.57, No.11, p.774-781. Illus. 45 ref. (In English)

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To update and assess mortality from neoplasms among 10,109 men employed in a job exposed to vinyl chloride for at least one year between 1942 and 1972 at one of 37 North American factories, standardized mortality ratio (SMR) analyses were conducted, overall and stratified by several work related variables. 895 of 3191 deaths (28%) were from malignant neoplasms, 505 since the previous update to the end of 1982. Mortality from all causes showed a deficit (SMR 83), whereas mortality from all cancers was similar to state referent rates. Mortality from cancers of the liver and biliary tract was clearly increased (SMR 359). Modest excesses of brain cancer (SMR 142) and cancer of connective and soft tissue (SMR 270) were found. (78049)

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CIS 02-298 Occupational contact allergy to (meth)acrylates. Geukens S., Goosens A., Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2001, Vol.44, No.3, p.153-159. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

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Among 13,833 patients suspected of contact dermatitis examined during the years 1978-1999, occupational contact allergy to acrylates and methacrylates was diagnosed in 31 patients. The three most common sensitizers were ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (17 positive patch tests), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (14 positive tests) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (6 positive tests). The aim of this report was to identify the occupations and industries responsible for occupational sensitization to acrylates and methacrylates. 14 of the 31 patients worked in the dental sector, where acrylate- or methacrylate-containing dental prostheses and dental composites would appear to be mainly responsible for allergy to acrylates and methacrylates. An increase in skin problems related to the growing use of acrylates or methacrylates is clearly shown by the data. (78062)

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CIS 02-299 Contact allergy due to disperse blue 106 and disperse blue 124 in German and Austrian patients, 1995 to 1999. Uter W., Geier J, Lessmann H., Hausen B.M., Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2001, Vol.44, No.3, p.173-177. 19 ref. (In English)

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Between 1995 and 1999, 1,986 patients were tested with a textile dye series containing Disperse Blue (DB) 106 and 124, and since 1997 also with a mix of both. 86 patients (4.3%) reacted positively to DB 106 and/or DB 124; with good concordance between the 2 allergens, and the single allergens and the mix. In contrast, the concordance between DB 106 and p-phenylenediamine, as well as between DB 124 and p-aminoazobenzene, was poor. Some 70% of positive reactions to DB 106 and DB 124 were clinically relevant. Furthermore, a significant increase in the proportion of DB 106/124-positive patients among those tested was found from 1995 to 1999. Hence, DB 106 and DB 124 are important allergens deserving close monitoring. The use of a mix of DB 106 and DB 124 seems justified in view of the close chemical similarity of the compounds. If possible, the presence of these allergens in individual textiles should be checked with thin-layer or column chromatography. (78064)

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CIS 02-300 Wearing test with two different types of latex gloves with and without the use of a skin protection cream. Allmers H., Contact Dermatitis, Jan. 2001, Vol.44, No.1, p.30-33. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

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Among 72 subjects reporting symptoms indicating Type I hypersensitivity reactions to natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, 44 (60%) had a positive prick test to NRL. They underwent wearing tests using 2 types of NRL gloves with high and low allergen contents. Gloves with a high allergen content caused positive skin reactions in 47% of SPT-positive subjects. After application of a skin protection cream, the frequency of positive skin responses in wearing tests decreased to 30% in prick-test-positive subjects. The gloves with low allergen caused hypersensitivity with and without skin protection cream in 2 cases (5%) of the prick-test-positive. No prick-test-negative subjects showed any urticaria during the glove-wearing test. The study demonstrates that high allergen contents in latex gloves frequently elicit skin responses in NRL-sensitized subjects. Hand skin cream may hamper the uptake of allergens from gloves, thus decreasing allergic reactions. (78140)

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CIS 02-301 Peripheral neuropathy in workers exposed to nitromethane. Page E.H., Pajeau A.K., Arnold T.C., Fincher A.R., Goddard M.J., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.107-113. 33 ref. (In English)

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Two workers from a headlight subassembly plant developed severe peripheral neuropathy. These workers had extensive, but brief (1-2 months), dermal and inhalation exposure to nitromethane, a solvent. Environmental sampling was performed for nitromethane and ethyl cyanoacrylate. Medical records, including electrodiagnostic studies, were reviewed. Literature on nitromethane, ethyl cyanoacrylate, and other exposures in the workplace was reviewed. Electromyography and nerve conduction studies performed on these patients were consistent with a severe, axonal neuropathy. No aetiology was discovered despite an extensive medical evaluation. Environmental sampling revealed exposure to nitromethane at the threshold limit value. The history of acute onset of severe peripheral neuropathy temporally associated with exposure to nitromethane is suggestive of a toxic neuropathy. While it cannot be definitively concluded that these two workers developed peripheral neuropathy secondary to exposures at work, occupational exposure to nitromethane appears to be the most likely aetiology. (78350)

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CIS 02-302 Modern methods of mask maintenance - A new cost-effective process for cleaning and disinfecting of protective masks. (German: Moderne Maskenwartung - Ein neues kostengünstiges Verfahren für die Reinigung und Desinfektion von Atemschutzmasken) Besser G., Werner W., Drägerheft, Dec. 1999, No.370, p.26-34. Illus. (In German)

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Masks used by firefighters or rescue workers need to be regularly cleaned and disinfected. A new process for the maintenance of these masks is described. After an initial cursory wash, the masks are placed in protective bags, and washed and disinfected in a single operation in a programmable industrial machine. Besides being economical, this process avoids in most cases the need to dismantle the mask before washing. (78172)

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CIS 02-303 Carbon tetrachloride replacement compounds for organic vapour air-purifying respirator cartridge and activated carbon testing - A review. Moyer E.S., Smith S.J., Wood G.O., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.494-507. Illus. 46 ref. (In English)

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A review about substitutes for carbon tetrachloride in measuring activated carbon activity (adsorption capacity) or organic vapour air-purifying respirator cartridge breakthrough times. Different criteria have already been established by USA, in the European Union and in Japan. None meet all the need criteria and are not endorsed. (78192)

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CIS 02-304 Management of environmental risks: Key factor in enterprise decision-making. (Spanish: Gestión de los riesgos medioambientales: factor clave en las decisiones empresariales) Arévalo Fernández T., Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol.21, No.84, p.31-37. Illus. (In Spanish)

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Environmental impact is increasingly taken into consideration by enterprises. Before any major decisions, environmental criteria are analysed and evaluated. Consequently, environmental management must be recognized as being an essential element of company expansion policy. In this article, a tool for managing the risks to the environment, ranking them by importance and classifying them is presented. It assists decision-making required for avoiding or eliminating environmental hazards. The economic aspects of environmental risk management with respect to the remediation of polluted sites must also be taken into consideration. (78276)

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CIS 02-305 Use of pesticides and clinical symptoms among children working in cotton fields in Aplahoué (Republic of Benin). (French: Utilisation de pesticides et symptômes cliniques chez les enfants travaillant dans les champs de coton à Aplahoué (République du Bénin)) Fayomi B., Affedjou B., Affognon A., Toko I., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.2, p.147-154. 17 ref. (In French)

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In Benin, children are involved in the protective treatment of cotton alongside adults. Consequently, they handle organophosphorus and pyrethroid insecticides. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in 1999 in the sub-prefecture of Aplahoué, situated in the southern part of the country. It highlighted the fact that during spraying, more than half the children did not take wind direction into account. They exhibited skin, neurological and respiratory clinical symptoms. On experiencing these symptoms, more than a third of the children resort to self-medication with dangerous products. With the use of pesticides, the issue of child labour takes a critical dimension in Benin. It is therefore urgent to take appropriate steps to put an end to this practice. (77891)

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CIS 02-306 Acute Lannate® poisoning in the agricultural sector. (French: Intoxications aiguës par le Lannate® en milieu agricole) Testud F., Gingomard M.A., de Larquier A., Abdelmalek Y., Thibaudier J.M., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.170-176. 23 ref. (In French)

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28 occupational poisonings involving Lannate® recorded in France since 1991 are reported. The active constituent is methomyl, a powerful anticholinesterasic carbamate insecticide. Along with available toxicological data on methomyl, these cases confirm risk factors that are usually observed in connection with pesticide handling: summertime, prolonged spraying, inadequacy or absence of protective devices, and spraying while facing the wind. It appears that intoxication following skin penetration was largely underestimated, by both crop sprayers and the manufacturer, although this is a recognized route of poisoning for organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Preventive measures to decrease the incidence of these poisonings are proposed. (77974)

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CIS 02-307 General evaluation of risk associated with the use of pesticides and other chemical substances on animal breeding and plant production farms. Pomorska K., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.449-457. 17 ref. (In English)

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The general characteristics of chemical risk on farms in Poland are presented. The paper describes the risk associated with the natural occurrence of chemicals (such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide) in the process of animal breeding and the risk connected with the use of artificial fertilizers and pesticides. Pesticides are briefly described taking into consideration toxicity classes and toxic effects. Exposure to pesticides is presented for individual methods and related activities. Finally, the risk of exposure to pesticides in orchards and greenhouses is discussed. (78006)

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CIS 02-308 Time trends of occupational pesticide-related injuries in Costa Rica, 1982-1992. Wesseling C., Hogstedt C., Fernandez P., Ahlbom A., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.1-6. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

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To evaluate time trends of occupational pesticide-related injuries in Costa Rica, accidents reported among wage-earning workers during the months of June of the years 1982, 1987, and 1992 were analysed. The overall incidence rates were 1.8, 2.7, and 2.5 per 1,000 agricultural workers, respectively. Rates among female workers increased (3.1, 3.7, 5.4) and were elevated as compared with male workers (1.7, 2.6, 2.3). The trend for topical lesions was upgoing (1.2, 1.4, 2.1), consistent with an increased use of fungicides and lack of safety measures for pesticides with low acute toxicity. Systemic poisonings peaked in 1987 (0.6, 1.2, 0.5), declining in 1992 with increased use of biologic pest control and pyrethroid insecticides less toxic than cholinesterase inhibitors, and improved safety during nematocide applications on banana plantations. (78104)

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CIS 02-309 Occupational exposure to airborne mercury during gold mining operations near El Callao, Venezuela. Drake P.L., Rojas M., Reh C.M., Mueller C.A., Jenkins F.M., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.74, No.3, p.206-212. Illus. 35 ref. (In English)

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The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted a cross-sectional study during gold mining operations near El Callao, Venezuela to assess mercury exposures and mercury-related micro-damage to the kidneys. Mercury was used to remove gold by forming a mercury-gold amalgam. The gold was purified either by heating the amalgam in the open with a propane torch or by using a small retort. 38 workers participated in this study. Mercury exposure was monitored by sampling air from the workers' breathing zones. These air samples were used to calculate time-weighted average (TWA) mercury exposure concentrations. Results showed that 20% of the TWA airborne mercury exposure measurements were above the NIOSH recommended exposure limit of 50µg/m3, and 26% exceeded the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists Threshold Limit Value of 25µg/m3. Recommendations were made for improving retort design, for ventilation in gold shops, for medical surveillance and for educational programs. (78116)

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CIS 02-310 Dust and gas exposure in tunnel construction work. Bakke B., Stewart P., Ulvestad B., Eduard W., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.457-465. Illus. 34 ref. (In English)

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Exposures to dust and gases were measured among tunnelling workers, divided into seven occupational groups. Outdoor tunnel workers were included as a low-exposed control group. The highest exposures to total dust and respirable dust were found for the shotcreters, shaft drillers and tunnel-boring machine workers. The latter two groups had the highest exposures to respired alpha-quartz, but had lower exposure to nitrogen dioxide. Shaft drillers had the highest exposure to oil mists, generated mainly from pneumatic drilling. (78187)

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CIS 02-311 Assessment of benzene exposure among car mechanics. (French: Evaluation de l'exposition au benzène chez les mécaniciens automobiles) Wendling J.M., Heid L., Gonzalez M., Mirabel D., Wirrmann C., Lenoble H., Zorgnotti M., Barbier M., Machacek A., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, May 2000, Vol.61, No.3, p.162-169. 21 ref. (In French)

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The level of exposure to benzene was evaluated among 56 car mechanics. Urinary trans-trans muconic acid analysis was performed before and after the shift among workers who carried out tasks involving exposure to gasoline (changing the fuel filter, and working on the carburettor or tank). Subjects were given a questionnaire related to both medical and work issues. It was found that exposure at the end of the shift (0.35mg/g creatinine) was significantly higher than before the start of work (0.14mg/g creatinine). However, this level is moderate and corresponds to an atmospheric concentration of benzene of 0.5 to 0.6ppm. Changing the filter, the most frequent task, involved the least exposure. However, the average exposure level was found to be significantly higher during winter than in summer. Certain working procedures, such as soaking parts in gasoline, cleaning by blowing through parts, not using the degreasing fountain and onychophagia resulted in higher levels of exposure. The observations confirm literature reports indicating that car mechanics tend to use less and less gasoline to clean parts and wash their hands. The study confirms that car mechanics are exposed to moderate levels of benzene. Measures to further reduce exposure levels are proposed. (77973)

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CIS 02-312 Hand eczema in metalworker trainees - An analysis of risk factors. Berndt U., Hinnen U., Iliev D., Elsner P., Contact Dermatitis, Dec. 2000, Vol.43, No.6, p.327-332. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

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The present study, as part of PROMETES (Swiss Prospective Metal Worker Eczema Study), was performed to examine risk factors for the development of occupational hand dermatitis in metal-worker trainees. Since this disease is very common, a high standard of preventive measures is necessary, especially for persons with an endogenous disposition for the development of eczema. Within the cohort of 201 healthy young men, 47 (23%) showed at least mild signs of hand eczema at within the 2.5 year observation period. Various occupational and domestic exposures, skin protection behaviour, regeneration time, and smoking habits, as well as atopic disposition, were studied with regard to their influence on the skin condition of the metalworker trainees. The important risk factors for the development of hand eczema included atopic disposition, mechanical factors as possible irritants to the epidermal barrier, and an insufficient amount of skin recovery time, supporting a cumulative sub-irritant effect on the skin, possibly leading to irritant contact dermatitis. (78050)

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CIS 02-313 Subclinical immunologic and physiologic responses in hexamethylene diisocyanate-exposed auto body shop workers. Redlich C.A., Stowe M.H., Wisnewski A.V., Eisen E.A., Karol M.H., Lemus R., Holm C.T., Chung J.S., Sparer J., Liu Y., Woskie S.R., Appiah-Pippim J., Gore R., Cullen M.R., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 2001, Vol.39, No.6, p.587-597. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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Diisocyanates are potent sensitizing agents and a frequently identified cause of occupational asthma. A cross-sectional field epidemiologic study was conducted to characterize the effects of hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) exposures on auto body shop workers. Data on the 75 subjects enrolled in the study were collected by questionnaire and physiological testing. No overt cases of clinically apparent diisocyanate asthma were identified based on spirometry, methacholine challenge, peak flows, and symptoms. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation was present in 30% of HDI-exposed workers and HDI-specific IgG in 34% of HDI-exposed workers, but they were not associated. HDI-specific IgE was detected in two workers. HDI-specific lymphocyte proliferation, increased methacholine responsiveness, and symptoms of chest tightness and shortness of breath were more common in the most heavily HDI-exposed workers, the painters. These findings demonstrate the presence of HDI-specific immune responses in a large proportion of healthy HDI-exposed workers. (78055)

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CIS 02-314 Incidence of work-related hand eczema during apprenticeship: First results of a prospective cohort study in the car industry. Funke U., Faratsch M., Diepgen T.L., Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2001, Vol.44, No.3, p.166-172. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

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A total of 2078 apprentices in the Audi automobile company in Germany were investigated at the start of their apprenticeship and systematically followed up over a 3-year period for occupational contact dermatitis. The 1-year cumulative incidence of hand eczema was 9.2% in metalworkers, 8.8% in other blue-collar workers, and 4.6% in white-collar apprentices, while the 3-year cumulative incidence was 15.3%, 14.1% and 6.9% respectively. Among women, the cumulative incidence was higher than in men (1-year incidence 10.1% versus 8.3%; 3-year incidence 16.1% versus 13.6%). In some occupations, such as in cooks, tool mechanics, milling cutters and painters, the incidence was significantly higher than expected. Within the first six months of apprenticeship, there was a particularly high rate of hand eczema, which then declined and remained steady at a lower rate over the 2nd and the 3rd years. Suggested preventive measures include reducing exposures and offering special medical advice to high-risk groups. (78063)

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CIS 02-315 Efficacy of serial medical surveillance for chronic beryllium disease in a beryllium machining plant. Newman L.S., Mroz M.M., Maier L.A., Daniloff E.M., Balkissoon R., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.43, No.3, p.231-237. 20 ref. (In English)

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There is limited information on the use of the blood beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) at regular intervals in medical surveillance. Employees of a beryllium machining plant were screened with the BeLPT biennially, and new employees were screened within 3 months of hire. Of 235 employees screened from 1995 to 1997, a total of 15 (6.4 %) had confirmed abnormal BeLPT results indicating beryllium sensitization; nine of these employees were diagnosed with chronic beryllium disease. Four of the 15 cases were diagnosed within 3 months of first exposure. When 187 of the 235 employees participated in biennial screening in 1997 to 1999, seven more had developed beryllium sensitization or chronic beryllium disease, increasing the overall rate to 9.4 % (22 of 235). The blood BeLPT should be used serially in beryllium disease surveillance to capture new or missed cases of sensitization and disease. (78106)

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CIS 02-316 Beryllium particulate exposure and disease relations in a beryllium machining plant. Kelleher P.C., Martyny J.W., Mroz M.M., Maier L.A., Ruttenber A.J., Young D.A., Newman L.S., Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Mar. 2001, Vol.43, No.3, p.238-249. Illus. 36 ref. (In English)

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The relationship between exposure to beryllium and beryllium sensitization (BeS) and chronic beryllium disease (CBD) was examined in workers in a beryllium machining plant. 20 workers with BeS or CBD (cases) were compared with 206 worker-controls. Cases were more likely to have worked as machinists (odds ratio=4.4) than controls. The median cumulative exposure was 2.9µg/m3-years in the cases versus 1.2µg/m3-years in controls for total exposure, and 1.7µg/m3-years in the cases versus 0.5µg/m3-years in the controls for exposure to particles <6µm in diameter. Odds ratios were 2.4 for the intermediate exposure group and 1.2 for the high-exposure group compared with the low-exposure group. The median lifetime-weighted (LTW) exposure was 0.25µg/m3 in both groups. The median LTW exposure to particles <6µm was 0.20µg/m3 for cases and 0.14µg/m3 for controls. None of the 22 workers with LTW exposure <0.02µg/m3 had BeS or CBD. Twelve workers in the case group had LTW exposures >0.20. (78107)

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CIS 02-317 Numerical simulations to determine the most appropriate welding and ventilation conditions in small enclosed workspaces. Shibata N., Tanaka M., Ojima J., Iwasaki T., Industrial Health, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.356-365. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

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To improve arc welding working conditions in a small enclosed workspace, numerical simulations were conducted to find the most appropriate welding currents, hood position and flow rates. Distributions of airflow vectors and fume concentrations were calculated for two hood opening positions: one faced a welder's breathing zone, the other a contaminant source. It was predicted that a hood opening facing a breathing zone remarkably lowered the fume concentration in the breathing zone compared with that facing a contaminant source. The reliability was confirmed in CO2 arc welding experiments in the enclosed workspace by using a welding robot. In addition, the number of blowholes in welds, examined with X-ray, decreased with the increase in the welding current and with the decrease in the exhaust flow rate. These results showed that the fume concentration near welder's breathing zone and the number of blowholes could be reduced by appropriate selection of the welding current and hood position. (78131)

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CIS 02-318 Blood pressure, left ventricular mass, and lead exposure in battery manufacturing workers. Tepper A., Mueller C., Singal M., Sagar K., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.63-72. 31 ref. (In English)

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Although debate about the relationship between lead and blood pressure has focused on low environmental lead levels, industrial exposure remains a concern. The blood pressure and left ventricular mass (LVM) in 108 battery manufacturing workers was measured, and the cumulative and historic average measures of blood lead were calculated. It was found that diastolic pressure increased with increasing lead levels, with a significant 5mmHg difference in mean pressure between the highest and lowest cumulative exposure levels. Diastolic pressure increased with the log of cumulative lead. Both hypertension (defined as currently medicated or systolic > 160mmHg or diastolic > 95mmHg) and LVM increased non-significantly with increasing lead exposure. In conclusion, a small effect of blood lead on diastolic blood pressure, particularly for a cumulative measure of exposure was found, but there was no convincing evidence of associations between lead and other blood-pressure-related outcomes. (78346)

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CIS 02-319 Lead exposure among workers renovating a previously deleaded bridge: Comparisons of trades, work tasks. Johnson J.C., Reynolds S.J., Fuortes L.J., Clarke W.R., AIHA Journal, Nov.-Dec. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.815-819. 22 ref. (In English)

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Lead exposures were evaluated at a bridge renovation site. Although the bridge had been previously de-leaded, old layers of leaded paint were still present on some sections. Ironworkers performing metal torch cutting had the highest exposures (188µg/m3), followed by clean-up and paint-removal workers. Respirators were generally worn by workers with the greatest exposures; however, labourers performing clean-up operations had exposures of 43µg/m3 and often wore no respiratory protection. Wipe samples revealed that almost all contractor vehicles were contaminated. Heavy equipment operators with low airborne lead exposure had the highest levels of surface contamination in personal vehicles (3600µg/m2). Labourers cleaning structural steel with compressed air and ironworkers exposed to lead fumes from cutting had the highest concentrations of lead dust on clothing (mean 4766µg/m2). (78041)

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CIS 02-320 Working conditions at asbestos-removal sites - Sector 2 friable materials. (French: Conditions de travail des opérateurs dans les chantiers de désamiantage - Secteur 2 matériaux friables) Beaumont D., Lauzier F., Le Bâcle C, Marchand C., Roos F., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.84, p.389-404. Illus. 4 ref. (In French)

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This article is a report on a cross-sectional study conducted by questionnaire by industrial physicians among operators at 45 asbestos removal sites. The objectives were to better understand working conditions, and to better evaluate the hazardous and strenuous nature of work at these sites so as to come up with recommendations with respect to work time schedules. The use of personal protective equipment, and in particular of impermeable overalls results in high thermal loads. It is therefore necessary to provide for rest times and to limit the hours of work. (78308)

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CIS 02-321 Evaluation of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, benzene, toluene and xylenes in workers in an oil-burning power plant. (Italian: Valutazione dell'esposizione ad idrocarburi policiclici aromatici ed a benzene, toluene e xileni di lavoratori di una centrale termoelettrica che utilizza olio combustibile denso) Carrer P., Maroni M., Cavallo D., Visentin S., Cecchetti G., Mangani F., Piovano G., Iachetta R., Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.314-326. 32 ref. (In Italian)

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An evaluation of personal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX) in workers of an oil-burning power plant. The control group consisted of office workers at the same power plant. Altogether 29 exposed workers and 10 controls were studied, for a total of 84 days of monitoring. Personal environmental exposure to PAHs was very low. All workers showed very low levels of dermal exposure to PAHs. The study confirmed the effectiveness of existing protective measures. (77933)

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CIS 02-322 Trends in exposure to inhalable particulate and dermal contamination in the rubber manufacturing industry: Effectiveness of control measures implemented over a nine-year period. Vermeulen R., de Hartog J., Swuste P., Kromhout H., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Aug. 2000, Vol.44, No.5, p.343-354. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

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Exposure to inhalable particulates and dermal exposure to cyclohexane soluble matter (CSM) were evaluated in seven rubber manufacturing companies in The Netherlands in 1988 and 1997. The identified exposure trends were used to study the effectiveness of control measures implemented over a nine-year period. Inhalable particulate exposure was measured with a PAS6 sampling unit. Dermal exposure was assessed by means of a dermal pad sampler worn at the lower wrist. Changes in working organization and control measures taken after 1988 were identified based on discussions with plant management and two walk-through surveys performed in 1994 and 1997. Comparison of the exposure levels between 1988 and 1997 revealed a reduction rate of 5.7 and 6.7% per year for inhalable particulate and dermal exposure, respectively, showing the success of the efforts undertaken to improve working conditions in the rubber manufacturing industry. (78038)

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CIS 02-323 Changes in cellular immunity among workers occupationally exposed to styrene in a plastics lamination plant. Tulinska J., Dusinska M., Jahnova E., Liskova A., Kuricova M., Vodicka P., Vodickova L., Sulcova M., Fuortes L., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.576-583. 20 ref. (In English)

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Immune and haematological parameters were examined in 29 hand laminators and sprayers exposed to styrene for an average of 14 years and in 19 unexposed controls. The workers were located in a production area with an average area airborne styrene level of 139.5mg/m3. Mean concentration of styrene in the blood of exposed workers was 945.7µg/L and the mean styrene in exhaled air was 38.8µg/L. Parameters of internal and external exposure, immune function assays, immunoglobulins and haematology were evaluated in exposed and non-exposed populations. Styrene concentrations in both blood and exhaled air were associated with decreased percentage of large granular lymphocytes. These results suggest immune alterations of cell-mediated immune response of T-lymphocytes and imbalance in leucocyte subsets in peripheral blood of workers exposed to styrene. (78078)

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CIS 02-324 Gas alarm systems - Planning and design. (German: Gaswarnanlagen - Planung und Auslegung) Jessel W., Drägerheft, Dec. 1999, No.370, p.2-6. Illus. (In German)

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In chemical plants, electrochemical sensors are commonly used for monitoring toxic gases in the lower ppm range. Infrared and calorimetric sensors are used for monitoring flammable gases in concentrations below the lower explosive limit. The sensors are connected with alarm systems which trigger preventive actions such as closing valves, cooling hot surfaces or inerting ducts. The variables which need to be known when designing gas monitoring systems are described. They include the locations where gases might leak, the types of gases and quantities that might escape, the number of gas sensors, the type of gas sensors, the monitoring method such as spot, area and fence monitoring, the calibration method and the limits at which countermeasures are triggered. (78171)

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CIS 02-325 A study on dust emission, particle size distribution and formaldehyde concentration during machining of medium density fibreboard. Chung K.Y.K., Cuthbert R.J., Revell G.S., Wassel S.G., Summers N., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.455-466. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

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The aim of this study was to characterise the quantity, particle size distribution and morphology of dust created during the machining of medium density fibreboard (MDF). Four types of MDF boards were evaluated, including a "zero-formaldehyde" board that contains isocyanate-based resin. Natural softwood (pine) and hardwood (oak) were included for comparison purposes. Results show that dusts generated by machining MDF are comparable in terms of particle size distribution and morphology with that generated by machining hardwood or softwood. The quantity of dust generated during sanding is higher for MDF compared with either hardwood or softwood. However, for sawing there is no significant difference between MDF and natural woods. Free formaldehyde in the air was less than 0.17mg/m3 during machining of the class B (higher formaldehyde potential) MDF board. There was no measurable isocyanate in the dust generated from the boards. (78036)

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CIS 02-326 Survey of symptoms, respiratory function, and immunology and their relation to glutaraldehyde and other occupational exposures among endoscopy nursing staff. Vyas A., Pickering C.A.C., Oldham L.A., Francis H.C., Fletcher A.M., Merrett T., McL Niven R., Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.57, No.11, p.752-759. 47 ref. (In English)

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348 current endoscopy nurses from 59 endoscopy units within the United Kingdom and 18 ex-employees (who had left their job for health reasons) were surveyed. Symptom questionnaires, end of session spirometry, peak flow diaries, skin prick tests to latex and common aeroallergens, and measurements of total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and IgE specific to glutaraldehyde (GA) and latex were performed. Exposure measurements included personal airborne biocide sampling for peak (during biocide changeover) and background (endoscopy room, excluding biocide changeover) concentrations. A significant level of symptoms were reported in the absence of objective evidence of the physiological changes associated with asthma. Ex-employees and current workers with work-related symptoms warrant further study to elucidate the cause and mechanisms for their symptoms. (78046)

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CIS 02-327 Occupational allergic contact dermatitis in hairdressers due to glutaraldehyde. Kieć-Świerczyńska M., Kręcisz B., Contact Dermatitis, Mar. 2001, Vol.44, No.3, p.185-186. 10 ref. (In English)

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Two cases of female hairdressers allergic to glutaraldehyde are described. A non atopic 26-year-old woman developed erythema with papules on the hands and face after 4 months' work in a hairdressing salon. She used glutaraldehyde-containing disinfectants for scissors, combs and hairbrushes. A 46-year-old woman worked for 28 years as a hairdresser. She reported dyspnoea, cough attacks and rhinostenosis. For 8 years, she had episodes of erythema with papules on the hands and face, accompanied by pruritus. The disinfectants used contained glutaraldehyde, glyoxal and quaternary ammonium compounds. Patch tests were done with the standard series, the hairdressers series and with 0.2% glutaraldehyde. Both patients reacted positively to glutaraldehyde, which should now be looked for in hairdressers. (78065)

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CIS 02-328 Acute health effects common during graffiti removal. Langworth S., Anundi H., Friis L., Johanson G., Lind M.L., Södermman E., Åkesson B.A., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.74, No.3, p.213-218. 17 ref. (In English)

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To identify possible health effects caused by cleaning agents used in graffiti removal, the exposure to organic solvents was assessed in 38 graffiti removers working 8-h shifts in the Stockholm underground system by active air sampling, biological monitoring, interviews and a questionnaire. Health effects were registered by physical examinations, portable spirometers and self-administered questionnaires. The prevalence of symptoms was compared with 49 controls working at the underground depots and 177 population controls. The 8-h time-weighted average exposures (TWA) were less than 20% of the Swedish permissible exposure limit value (PEL) for all solvents. However, the graffiti removers reported significantly higher prevalence of fatigue, headache and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. To prevent adverse health effects, workers should be informed about the health risks, use of the most hazardous chemicals should be restricted, good working practices should be used and the use of personal protective equipment should be encouraged. (78117)

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CIS 02-329 Latex symptoms and sensitization in health care workers. Larese Filon F., Bosco A., Fiorito A., Negro C., Barbina P., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.74, No.3, p.219-223. Illus. 38 ref. (In English)

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This study evaluated the prevalence of latex-related symptoms and sensitisation among 1,165 health care workers in Trieste hospitals by means of a questionnaire, a medical examination, skin prick tests and IgE-specific evaluation. Glove-related symptoms were noticed on 17.2% of the nurses, the majority of symptoms being mild dermatitis with itching and erythema. Symptoms suggestive of IgE-mediated latex allergy were found in 51 subjects; 35 complained of contact urticaria and 16 of asthma and/or rhinitis. The resulting symptoms were significantly related to skin prick tests that were positive to latex (odds ratio (OR) = 11.89), to personal atopy (OR = 2.15), to familiar atopy (OR = 2.12), to skin prick test positivity to related fruit (OR = 2.01) but not to prick test positivity to common inhalant allergens (OR = 1.00). Symptoms increased as a direct function of the time-usage of latex gloves and were more prevalent in operating room staff. (78118)

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CIS 02-330 Organotin compounds in textiles used in clothing. (German: Organische Zinnverbindungen in Bekleidungstextilien) Barrot R., Ergo-Med, Sep.-Oct. 2000, Vol.24, No.5, p.212-216. 15 ref. (In German)

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Organotin compounds are used as a textile additive to protect against moulds and bacteria and to repel water, oil and dirt. Tributyltin and dialkyltin compounds were found in literature studies to cause reversible skin irritations in humans depending on the extent and length of contact. In addition, there are reports of neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects of some of the organotin compounds. The World Health Organization has found that for tributyltin compounds, a daily intake dose of 250ng/kg body mass was tolerable. On this basis, and considering the measured levels of organotin compounds in textiles as well as the extent of exposure into account, no health risks were found to exist for the sales personnel in shops selling textiles which contain organotin compounds. (78230)

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CIS 02-331 Thoracic sampling of fibres. Jones A.D., Aitken R.J., Armbruster L., Byrne P., Fabriès J.F., Kauffer E., Liden G., Lumens M., Maynard A., Riediger G., Sahle W., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. xii, 231p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 25.00., ISBN 0-7176-2047-6 (In English)

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"Thoracic" aerodynamic size selection sampling should collect respirable fibres while excluding coarse irrelevant material that impedes counting by microscopy. Of the four commercial samplers tested, two satisfied the thoracic convention, while the other two over-sampled (relative to the convention) particles with aerodynamic diameters >10µm. With isometric particles, the filter deposit appeared uniform for two of the samplers. However, two samplers (with cyclone separators) showed localized high concentrations near the centre of the filter for coarser particles. In workplace trials, thoracic samplers agreed well with cowled samplers for respirable fibres. Predictably, they gave slightly lower concentrations for non-respirable fibres. Counting was marginally quicker for the thoracic samples, supporting the supposition that thoracic sampling would facilitate counting. Thoracic samplers are recommended for sampling fibres whenever there is a high concentration of coarse material. (78100)

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CIS 02-332 Safe work with fibre-based materials. (German: Sicherer Umgang mit Fasermaterialen) VDI Verlag GmbH, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1998. 427p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-18-091417-3 (In German)

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Papers presented at a seminar on the safety of fibre-based materials held at Ottobrun, Germany, from 1 to 3 September 1998. Main topics covered: results of research on health effects of fibre-based materials; classification of fibre-based materials as harmful materials; requirements with which producers need to comply; threshold limit values; new methods for measuring the concentration of fibre suspensions and dusts; asbestos; dusts emitted by mineral wool; glass fibres; protection of workers during the handling of fibre-based materials. (78176)

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CIS 02-333 Technical ventilation measures for protection against solvent vapours in the silk-screen printing industry. (German: Lufttechnische Massnahmen zum Schutz vor Lösemitteldämpfen in Siebdruckereien) Görner B., Karl M., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 65p. Illus. 23 ref., ISBN 3-89701-691-5 (In German)

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Silk-screen printing processes involve solvents which are present in printing inks, cleaning products and additives. In order to limit the exposure of workers to these harmful substances, appropriate technical measures need to be taken to improve ventilation. A study was conducted on this subject in eight printing shops, where the diffusion of solvent vapours and ventilation parameters were determined for the purpose of developing guidelines. On the basis of the results obtained as well as on the measures already implemented for preventing solvent emissions, a number of recommendations are made for applying these ventilation measures in practice. (78232)

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CIS 02-334 Health hazard evaluations: Issues related to occupational exposure to lead - 1994 to 1999. Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Mar. 2001. vi, 18p. 13 ref. (In English)

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The Health Hazards and Technical Assistance (HETA) programme responds to requests from employers, employees, employee representatives and governmental agencies for a Health Hazard Evaluation (HHE) of the workplace to determine if chemical, physical, biological or other agents are hazardous to workers. This document presents summaries of 31 HHEs related to lead that were completed between 1994 and 1999. The HHE requests originated from a variety of workplaces, including secondary lead smelters, battery manufacturers, structural steel painting sites, shipyards, and firing ranges. (77956)

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CIS 02-335 IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Some industrial chemicals. World Health Organization (WHO), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland; International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 08, France, 2000. iv, 563p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index., ISBN 92-832-1277-0 (In English)

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This monograph presents the views and expert opinions of an IARC working group which met in Lyon, France, 15-22 February 2000. 16 industrial organic chemicals were reviewed: three were rated 2A (probably carcinogenic to humans), five were rated 2B (possibly carcinogenic to humans) and eight were classified 3 (not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans). For each chemical, the following aspects are covered: exposure data; studies of cancer in humans; studies of cancer in experimental animals; other data relevant to an evaluation of carcinogenicity and its mechanisms; summary of reported data and evaluation. (78092)

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CIS 02-336 Risk assessment in marine environments. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Dec. 2001. 140p. Illus. 192 ref. (In English)

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This report proposes a framework for marine risk assessment. Main topics covered: distribution of chemical pollutants in marine environments; degradation; determination of exposure concentrations (PEC, PNEC); bioaccumulation; ecotoxicity; risk characterization; proposed approach to extend the EU Technical guidance document to the marine environment; research recommendations. (78169)

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CIS 02-337 The use of T25 estimates and alternative methods in the regulatory risk assessment of non-threshold carcinogens in the European Union. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Jan. 2002. 35p. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

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In the European Union, new and existing chemical substances are required to undergo a regulatory risk assessment and where the hazard of carcinogenicity exists, this should be taken into account. A simplified method for this assessment, the T25 estimation, has been proposed for estimating carcinogenic potency from the results of animal experiments, which estimates the dose of carcinogen that will produce cancer in 25% of the animals that would not have developed cancer spontaneously. A human HT25 is the derived. This document discusses this proposal and other alternative methods. (78170)

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CIS 02-338 Analysis of hazardous substances. (German: Gefahrstoff-Analytik) Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 44. Ergänzungslieferung, Mar. 1998. 215p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-609-73284-9 (In German)

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Update of the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: OSHA method for analysing organic chemicals; monitoring the implementation of regulations applicable to LPG; products which cause sensitization; principles for evaluating the human and environmental hazards of the products: threshold limit values of chemical, physical and biological agents; air quality; control of major hazards. (78175)

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CIS 02-339 Asphalt fume exposures during the manufacture of asphalt roofing products - Current practices for reducing exposures. Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Aug. 2001. xi, 36p. Illus. 49 ref. (In English)

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This document is the result of a collaborative effort of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) with various industry groups and workers' unions to reduce worker exposures to asphalt fumes during the manufacture of asphalt roofing insulation products. It describes the manufacturing process, highlights steps in the process with the potential for asphalt fume exposure, and identifies current engineering control methods and work practices used to reduce exposures. It suggests areas of research for further reducing asphalt fume exposures during the manufacture of asphalt roofing products. (78207)

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CIS 02-340 Proceedings of the subregional workshop on identification and management of dioxins/furans and PCBs. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), UNEP Chemicals, International Environmental House, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, 2000. iv, 387p. Illus. (In English)

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Papers presented at a workshop on the identification of dioxins, furans and PCBs held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, 24-28 July 2000. The aims of the workshop were to develop action plans and strategies for reducing or eliminating the releases of these chemicals, to identify regional needs and to plan cooperation and future actions in preparation of the future convention on persistent organic chemicals (POPs). The current state of negotiations concerning the global POP treaty was also addressed. (78214)

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CIS 02-341 Proceedings of the subregional workshop on identification and management of PCBs and dioxins/furans. Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), UNEP Chemicals, International Environmental House, 11-13 chemin des Anémones, 1219 Châtelaine, Genève, Switzerland, 2001. 332p. Illus. (In English)

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Papers presented at a workshop on the identification and management of PCBs, dioxins and furans held in La Habana, Cuba, 23-26 April 2001. The workshop examined the current international situation concerning persistent organic chemicals (POPs), PCBs, dioxins and furans. Other topics addressed: developing inventories for these products; classification of PCBs; storage of PCBs; technologies for treating and eliminating PCBs; experience in managing PCBs; techniques aimed at reducing emissions of furans and dioxins; Basle Convention and other legal aspects. (78215)

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CIS 02-342 Analysis of dangerous substances. (German: Gefahrstoff-Analytik) Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft AG & Co. KG, Rudolf-Diesel-Str. 3, 86899 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 57. Ergänzungslieferung, Nov. 2001. 248p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-609-19407-3 (In German)

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Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and anti-pollution laws, and for analysis of process gases (CIS 90-955). Main topics covered: addition of a new chapter on the quality of indoor air; analytical laboratories accredited under the provisions of the dangerous substances order; classification and labelling of substances, preparation and products; example of certification of the fumigation of goods holds; formaldehyde disinfection of premises; limit values for substances that are carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic to the reproductive system; methods for the determination of airborne biological substances; European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No.761/2001 of 19 March 2001, enabling the participation of voluntary organizations in a community system of environmental management and audit system (EMAS). (78231)

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CIS 02-343 Occupational exposure limits for chemicals in Spain. 2001-2002. (Spanish: Límites de exposición profesional para agentes químicos en España. 2001-2002) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. 163p. 9 ref., ISBN 84-7425-590-2 (In Spanish)

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This publication lists the occupational exposure limits for chemicals adopted in Spain. Several lists are presented: main list, which provides EINECS and CAS numbers as well as one-day and short-term exposure limits for each substance; classification of carcinogens and mutagens; exposure limits specified for carcinogens and mutagens; chemicals for which exposure limits are currently being revised; biological limit values adopted for chemicals, including the biological marker to be measured and the time at which the samples need to be collected; list of chemicals classified by CAS number. (78271)

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CIS 02-344 Quality of indoor air. (Spanish: Calidad de aire interior) Bartual Sánchez J., Bereguer Subils M.J., Bernal Domínguez F., Freixa Blanxart A., Guardino Solá X., Hernández Calleja A., Martí Solé M.C., Rosell Farrás M.G., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 2001. vi, 200p. Illus. 43 ref., ISBN 84-7425-597-X (In Spanish)

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Persons living in industrialized countries spend 60 to 80% of their time in enclosed areas. Consequently, the questions of quality of indoor air and associated health problems are becoming more and more important. This document presents the state of current knowledge in this area. Contents: general concepts (thermal comfort, air quality criteria, contamination sources); odours; chemical contaminants; radon; cigarette smoke and passive smoking; biological contaminants; ventilation of premises; example of analysis of an indoor air quality problem. (78272)

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CIS 02-345 BaP-years. (German: BaP-Jahre) Blome O., ed., Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften (HVBG), Alte Heerstrasse 111, 53754 Sankt Augustin, Germany, Oct. 1999. 132p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index., ISBN 3-88383-503-X (In German)

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Lung cancer caused by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is recognized as an occupational disease in Germany on condition that claimants can demonstrate a cumulative exposure of at least 100µg/m3 x years of benzo[a]pyrene (or benzo[a]pyrene years). This report provides insurance institutions with guidelines on the probable PAH exposure at workplaces for the purpose of establishing the occupational case history. Based on data from recent studies and from literature, tables provide estimated exposure levels by occupation, task and historical period. (77955)

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CIS 02-346 Oxidant and asbestos fiber induced toxicity in human lung cells. Ollikainen T., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2001. 71p. Illus. 31 ref., ISBN 951-802-424-3 (In English)

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Malignant mesothelioma is generally asociated with a history of occupational exposure to asbestos fibres. However, although the exact mechanisms by which asbestos causes mesothelioma are not clearly understood, it is hypothesized that oxidants play a major role in the pathogenesis of this disease. In this study, cell and DNA damage, oxidant generation, apoptosis and roles of antioxidant enzymes and DNA repair enzyme were investigated in cell cultures after exposures to oxidants and fibres. It was found that H2O2 and menadione are potent inducers of cell and DNA damage. The depletion of glutathione enhanced fibre-induced DNA toxicity in vitro suggesting that oxidants have a role in fibre-induced carcinogenesis. Furthermore, it was shown that crocidolite fibres cause DNA damage indicating the major role of asbestos fibres in the transformation of normal into malignant cells. (78094)

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CIS 02-347 New advances in radiology and screening of asbestos-related diseases. Tossavainen A., Lehtinen S., Huuskonen M., Rantanen J., eds., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2000. 89p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-355-7 (In English)

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Proceedings of an expert meeting held in Espoo, Finland, 9-11 February 2000. Topics presented: up-date of the Helsinki Criteria for individual attribution of asbestos exposure and lung cancer risk factors; recommendations of the French Consensus Meeting; screening and surveillance of workers exposed to asbestos, including specific experiences in Japan, Germany and Finland; epidemiological trends for asbestos-related cancers; lung cancer screening using computed tomography (CT) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT); correlations of radiological and pathological characteristics of asbestosis; CT and HRCT classifications for pneumoconiosis and occupational chest disease. (78208)

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CIS 02-348 Exposure, sensitization and allergy to industrial enzymes. Vanhanen M., Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Publication Office, Topeliuksenkatu 41 a A, 00250 Helsinki, Finland, 2001. 118p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 951-802-453-7 (In English)

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The production and use of industrial enzymes has increased markedly in the past few decades. Cases of respiratory allergies to powdered microbial enzymes have existed since the 1960's in the detergents industry. Since the 1980s allergies have appeared in other industries, in particular in bakeries. Finland has emerged as a leading producer of industrial enzymes. This report presents studies conducted in Finland during 1992-1997 in which exposure and allergy to enzymes were assessed in enzyme production and in the major user-industries including the bakery, detergent and animal-feed sectors. (78210)

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CIS 02-349 Development of a method for testing the resistance of protective gloves to pricks from cannula used in medicine. (German: Entwicklung einer Prüfmethode zur Bestimmung der Stichfestigkeit von Schutzhandschuhen gegenüber medizinischen Kanülen) Macheleidt M., Windel A., Mehlem P., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 87p. Illus. 6 ref., ISBN 3-89701-725-3 (In German)

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A new method for measuring the resistance of protective gloves to puncturing from cannula or needles used in medicine has been developed. It allows the evaluation of glove piercing resistance under conditions close to those encountered in practice in a reliable manner. This document also presents the contents of a proposed new testing standard. (78235)

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CIS 02-350 ACTA Crop protection index 2000. (French: Index phytosanitaire ACTA 2000) Association de coordination technique agricole, 149 rue de Bercy, 75595 Paris Cedex 12, France, 36th ed., 2000. 644p. Illus. Index. Price: FRF 160.00 (VAT included)., ISBN 2-85794-184-6 (In French)

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Alphabetical listing of approx. 2600 insecticides, acaricides, fungicides, nematocides, herbicides and rodenticides commercially sold in France. For each active substance, the analytical section provides information on its toxicity, uses, conditions of use, distributor, international formulation code and concentrations. A list of authorized substances by crop and application and an alphabetic listing by trade name and active constituent are included. (78322)

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CIS 02-351 Products and processes for the repair of sewers, with a special emphasis on waterproof mortars based on acrylamide. (German: Produkte und Verfahren zur Sanierung von Abwasserkanälen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung acrylamidhaltiger Andichtungsmörtel) Lühr H.P., Grunder H.T., Stein D., Körkemeyer K., Borchardt B., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. ix, 98p. Illus. 10 ref., ISBN 3-89701-042-9 (In German)

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This study consists of two parts. The first describes nine processes for repairing sewers using different techniques (repair, resin injection, coating, applying a liner). The second part covers six processes in more detail. The exposure hazards linked to each step of the processes and to the various products used are listed, and the preventive measures are discussed. Many processes involve the use of reactive or volatile substances which require protective measures for the workers. A single process used mortars based on acrylamide which is a carcinogen, but its content level is relatively low. (78178)

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CIS 02-352 Wine filtration and diatomaceous earths. (French: Filtration des vins et terres à diatomées) Le Dû M., Ferrand C., Tesson M., CRAM des Pays de la Loire, 2 place de Bretagne, BP 93405, 44034 Nantes, France, 2000. 105p. Illus.34 ref. (In French)

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This report on the hazards linked to the exposure to crystalline silica contained in diatomaceous earths used in wine filtration is based on published literature, medical records and regulatory texts. In addition, earth samples were analysed, consumption of diatomaceous earths in wineries were recorded, and workplaces were observed. The conclusions are that the risk is moderate. Several recommendations are made in the areas of exposure evaluation, limitation of exposure an medical supervision. (77908)

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CIS 02-353 Chemical hazards in the ceramics industry. (French: Le risque chimique dans la céramique) Cransac M.C., Filloux J.C., Matez T., Serizay B., Centre Interservices de Santé et de Médecine du travail en Entreprise (CISME), 31 rue de Médéric, 75832 Paris Cédex 17, France, 1993. 126p. Illus., ISBN 2-85525-323-3 (In French)

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This report provides a list the chemicals used and occupational diseases encountered in the ceramics industry in Limoges in 1992. It also presents a table listing the various clinical syndromes observed by causal chemical, as well as the corresponding activities in the ceramics industry where these exposures are encountered. (77989)

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CIS 02-354 Development of a methodology to design and evaluate effective risk messages - Electroplating case study. Petts J., McAlpine S., Homan J., Sadhra S., Pattison H., McRae S., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2002. viii, 109p. Illus. 46 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2245-2 (In English)

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This report presents the findings of an application of the mental-models approach to the design and testing of risk information. This approach focuses on the beliefs and knowledge of workers compared to experts in order to identify deficiencies in knowledge and to design more effective risk information. The study focussed on small firms in the electroplating sector, and involved questionnaires, workshops and structured interviews. It was found that the level of understanding of the chemical risks associated with electroplating was generally good. However, mental-models approach enabled the design of new risk messages, where the information was presented in the form of practical advice expressed in simple language. These risk messages proved effective in raising awareness of the long-term risks posed by chemicals used in the electroplating industry. (77923)

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CIS 02-355 Controlling exposure to stonemasonry dust. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. iv, 72p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: GBP 10.95., ISBN 0-7176-1760-2 (In English)

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By breathing stone dust, stonemasons can suffer from diseases such as pneumoconiosis, silicosis and lung cancer. This guidance is aimed at employers of stonemasons, managers in the stoneworking business, suppliers of cut stone, stone tool manufacturers and suppliers, and stone dust control equipment manufacturers. It describes health risks and how dust exposure occurs. It also provides guidance on how to control dust exposure and on occupational health surveillance. Appendices include occupational exposure limits and methods of exposure evaluation. (78089)

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CIS 02-356 Occupational exposure to man-made fibres. (Italian: Esposizione occupazionale a fibre minerali artificiali) Corrao C.R.N., Ottaviani G., Federici F., Linguiti G., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.49-61. Illus. 44 ref. (In Italian)

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Data sheet on man-made fibres including: classification, physical and chemical characteristics, uses, occupational exposure, the relative durability of different fibre types and general prevention criteria. (78196)

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CIS 02-357 Work plans for removing or maintaining of asbestos-containing materials. (Spanish: Planes de trabajo para operaciones de retirada o mantenimiento de materiales con amianto) Calleja i Villa A., Hernández i Carrascosa S., Freixa Blanxart A., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 4p. Illus. 10 ref. (In Spanish)

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The exposure of workers to asbestos is regulated. This information note describes the legal framework for the protection of workers against exposure to asbestos, and addresses more specifically the factors to be taken into consideration when planning the removal or maintenance of materials containing asbestos. These factors are to be included in the work plan that needs to be approved by the authorities before beginning the work. (78270)

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CIS 02-358 Practical ventilation guide - 2. Ventilation of surface treatment vats and tanks. (French: Guide pratique de ventilation - 2. Cuves de traitement de surface) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 6th ed., Sep. 2001. 23p. Illus. 12 ref., ISBN 2-7389-0625-7 (In French)

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This study is intended as a guide and reference document for the design and monitoring of installations for collecting or diluting the pollutants emitted by surface treatment vats and tanks. It applies to all chemical or electrolytic processes in which the parts to be treated are immersed in liquids (excluding solvent degreasing processes, processes using salt or molten-metal baths and organic coating processes in general). Contents include: hazard evaluation; collection systems; flowrate calculations; design of the ventilation network. Appendices: classification of surface treatment processes and general design data for ventilation systems. Replaces CIS 82-400. (77900)

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CIS 02-359 Ventilation of workplaces. (French: Aération et assainissement des lieux de travail) Le Roy A., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 2nd ed., 1999. 36p. 19 ref., ISBN 2-85599-583-3 (In French)

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This booklet presents a concise overview of the current regulations applicable to workplace ventilation in France. Topics covered: specific rules covering various types of premises (premises with non-specific or specific pollution, amenities, smoking and non-smoking areas); rules concerning the design of all equipment (air filtration, thermal environment, noise level) which the owners of the premises must comply with; regular maintenance and control of equipment; special ventilation requirements (work in confined spaces, work exposed to noxious emissions, underground work, scouring, polishing or sanding, exposure to biological agents, exposure to asbestos). The appendix contains texts of relevant regulations. (77963)

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CIS 02-360 Remediation of polluted industrial sites - Prevention of occupational hazards. (French: Réhabilitation de sites industriels pollués - Prévention des risques professionnels) Héry M., Mouton C., Falcy M., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 4p. 5 ref. (In French)

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For industrial hygienists, the remediation of polluted industrial sites is a complex activity. Indeed, workers may be exposed to a wide range of hazards during earthmoving construction work, in particular due to the use of equipment that can cause accidents and the risk of being buried, the presence of chemicals (with poisoning, fire, and explosion hazards), the use of noisy and vibrating equipment, etc. A systematic organization of the work and prevention measures is therefore necessary. Among other considerations, it must be based on a detailed risk assessment. (77945)

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CIS 02-361 Barium. (French: Baryum) Dally S., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 3p. 28 ref. (In French)

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There are numerous barium compounds the toxicity of which is largely a function of their solubility. For this reason, barium oxide, nitrate and chloride are the most toxic. Barium salts are used in a variety of industrial applications. Barium sulfate, which is insoluble, is still occasionally used as a contrasting agent in radiology. Soluble barium salts are rapidly absorbed and eliminated. They are toxic for the heart and the nervous system. In cases of acute poisoning, digestive disorders are observed, but heart disorders are the most frequent, including harmful effects on excitability and conduction, aggravated by hypokalaemia that is a characteristic of barium poisoning. Oral administration of magnesium sulfate enables the precipitation of soluble barium salts. (77946)

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CIS 02-362 Cadmium. (French: Cadmium) Vergoustraete V., Bernard A., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 5p. 46 ref. (In French)

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Cadmium is a by-product of the zinc and lead industries, metals to which it is closely associated in nature. The wide variety of industrial applications have facilitated its environmental dispersion. It has a very high half-life and accumulates in the body. The inhalation for a brief period of high concentrations of cadmium smoke or dust damages the respiratory tract, a condition not to be confused with metal fume fever. In cases of chronic exposure to moderate concentrations, the target organs are the kidneys. Recently, it has been suggested that cadmium could be responsible for bone lesions among moderately-exposed subjects. Cadmium is generally considered to be a lung carcinogen. The diagnosis of cadmium poisoning is based on medical history, a search for tubular proteinuria and the evidence of excessive levels of the metal in blood and/or urine. In France, the compensation of diseases caused by cadmium or its compounds is regulated. (77947)

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CIS 02-363 Toxicity of tin and its compounds. (French: Toxicité de l'étain et de ses dérivés) Dewitte J.D., Choucroun P., Sawicki B., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 4p. Illus. 16 ref. (In French)

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Tin is used in industry, as well as in veterinary and medical applications. It forms many inorganic or organometallic compounds. Organotin compounds are highly toxic to bacteria, algae, fungi and phyto- and zooplankton. For this reason, they are widely used in anti-fouling marine paints. However, these compounds appear to present a hazard to aquatic life, notably by disrupting the endocrine system. Their use has been severely curtailed by the 76/769/EEC directive. Cases of food poisoning have been described in human pathology. Concerning the respiratory system, a case of stannosis, a specific form of pneumoconiosis, is described. Skin and respiratory irritation symptoms are also well known. Finally, a case of neurotoxicity is reported in connection with exposure to organotin compounds. Metallic tin is not subject to any specific regulations, and the handling of its compounds is not subject to any specific medical surveillance requirement. (77948)

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CIS 02-364 Vanadium. (French: Vanadium) Testud F., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 3rd Quarter 2001, No.132, 6p. 43 ref. (In French)

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Vanadium is used in the manufacture of hard alloys with iron, catalysts and pigments. It has no known physiological role in humans. The exposure of the general population is very low; it results from the consumption of food and from atmospheric pollution in the vicinity of coal- and fuel-oil-fired power stations. Overall, the acute toxicity of metallic vanadium and its salts is low to moderate, a consequence of their low, particularly oral, biodisponibility. Most of the toxic effects of the metal and its salts due to occupational factors occur in manufacturing industries or during the cleaning of burners in power stations. The inhalation of fine vanadium pentoxide dusts gives rise to irritative respiratory disorders, characterized by the presence of bronchospasms and the possible persistence of a reactive bronchial dysfunction. The long-term risk is one of onset of asthma as a result of persistent bronchial hyperactivity. Urinary determinations enable the assessment of the degree of contamination of workers and the focussing of prevention activities. (77949)

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CIS 02-365 Advantages and limitations of atmospheric sampling and biological exposure indicators. (French: Places et limites des prélèvements atmosphériques et des indicateurs biologiques d'exposition) Maître A., Stoklov M., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 4th Quarter 1999, No.125, 8p. 55 ref. (In French)

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The measurement of levels of exposure to toxic substances exposure is increasingly practiced in industry. Its objective is to identify groups of persons at risk for purposes of implementing safety and hygiene improvements and preventive medical supervision programmes. Working atmosphere monitoring is widely used in industrial hygiene, but it requires a strict design and the installation of sampling equipment. Also, it only takes into account lung absorption, and the exposure estimation is made on the basis of external concentrations without regard for the individual physiological or pathological factors of the subjects. Exposure evaluation based on biological monitoring is simple to use and correlated better with the effective dose, taking all modes of absorption into account. (77967)

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CIS 02-366 List of threshold limit values in air for substances with carcinogenic or mutagenic effects or toxicity to reproduction. (German: Verzeichnis von Luftgrenzwerten und krebserzeugenden, erbgutverändernden oder fortpflanzungsgefährdenden Stoffen) Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 165p. 18 ref. + Diskette., ISBN 3-89701-781-4 (In German)

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This booklet provides a list of harmful substances, their threshold limit values in air and their classification with respect to carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and toxicity for reproduction. CAS, European EINECS and ELINCS registry numbers are also provided. This list contains all the substances of technical rules TRGS 900 and TSGS 905 of Appendix I of the Council Directive 67/548/EEC (CIS 87-1162). Replaces CIS 00-813. (78240)

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CIS 02-367 Organophosphorus pesticides (I): General aspects and toxicokinetics. (Spanish: Plaguicidas organofosforados (I): aspectos generales y toxicocinética) Obiols Quinto J., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. Illus. 11 ref. (In Spanish)

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Main topics covered in this information note on organophosphorus pesticides: major chemical properties; groups of persons potentially exposed; routes of exposure (skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion); effectiveness of protective clothing; exposure levels in various agricultural tasks; toxicokinetics, including induced muscarinic and nicotinic effects; main urinary metabolites (see also CIS 02-368). (78267)

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CIS 02-368 Organophosphorus pesticides (II): Toxicodynamics and biological monitoring. (Spanish: Plaguicidas organofosforados (II): toxicodinamia y control biológico) Obiols Quinto J., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. (In Spanish)

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This information note covers the main symptoms of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning (muscarinic effects, nicotinic effects and effects on the central nervous system), as well as biological markers of exposure to these chemicals. It describes the acute (immediate and delayed) and chronic toxic effects, as well as permanent effects on the central nervous system. Plasmatic and erythrocytic cholinesterase inhibition, and the urinary detection of dialkylphosphates, are the most favoured methods for biological monitoring. However, there is currently no uniform method for these analyses. Sampling and the time of sample collection are important to ensure reliable data (see also CIS 02-367). (78268)

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CIS 02-369 Carcinogenic chemicals: Substances and preparations covered by Directive 90/394/EEC. (Spanish: Productos químicos carcinógenos: sustancias y preparados sometidos a la Directiva 90/394/CEE) Bartual Sánchez J., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 10p. 3 ref. (In Spanish)

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The directive 90/394/EEC on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to carcinogens at work (CIS 90-1758) has been amended by directives 97/42/EC (CIS 99-17) and 1999/38/EC (CIS 00-1516). European Union member states had to transpose these new provisions into their respective legislations by 27 June 2000. The new definition of carcinogens includes mutagens. The reference to Community legislation on classification, packaging and labelling is maintained. This information note explains the changes having come into effect and includes a list of category 1 and 2 carcinogens (see also CIS 98-1684). (78269)

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CIS 02-370 Metal working fluids (MWFs) - Exposure assessment document. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2000. v, 84p. Illus. 10 ref. Price: GBP 7.50., ISBN 0-7176-1797-1 (In English)

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This exposure assessment document contains the results of a study on occupational exposure to metal working fluids (MWFs). Measurements were made at 31 sites where MWFs are used. Oil mist, water-mix concentrate mist and bacteriological tests were performed and airborne endotoxins determined. Results obtained for total bacteria levels indicate that at many sites (21 of 33), MWFs management is not correct. The study demonstrates that mineral oil MWF mist can be controlled to less than 3mgm-3 8-hr TWA and water-mix MWF to less than 1mgm-3 8-hr TWA. (78330)

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CIS 02-371 Respiratory diseases due to asbestos. (French: Pathologies respiratoires de l'amiante) De Vuyst P., Dumortier P., Thimpont J., Gevenois P.A., Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale, Toxicologie-Pathologie professionnelle, 1st Quarter 2001, No.130, 11p. Illus. 148 ref. (In French)

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Diseases caused by asbestos concern not only occupational physicians, but also general practitioners and lung specialists. Indeed, risks are no longer confined to manufacturing sites but extend to thousands of individuals having worked with asbestos (often without being aware of the fact) or having lived in buildings insulated with this material. Improvements in working conditions have lead to a reduced incidence of severe lung fibrosis in favour of less-invalidating pleural lesions associated with lower cumulative, but more frequent exposures. Persons suffering from asbestos-related diseases rarely die from respiratory insufficiency, but from delayed neoplasic complications such as mesothelioma or bronchial cancer, occurring mostly after cessation of occupational activity. Progress in tomodensitometric imaging and in exposure assessment through the mineralogical analysis of lung tissue have resulted in improved approaches in the diagnosis of diseases linked to these fibres. (77943)

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CIS 02-372 Human acute intoxication from monochloroacetic acid: Proposals for therapy. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. Van Nieuwenhuyse 4, Bte. 6, 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Nov. 2001. 71p. Illus. 107 ref. (In English)

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Monochloroacetic acid (MCAA) is an industrial chemical used mainly for carboxylation reactions. Symptoms of intoxication are delayed and include vomiting, nervous system disturbances, central nervous system depression and coma as well as cadiovascular effects. Contents of this report on therapy for acute intoxication: experience with accidental human acute intoxications; biochemical and pathophysiological mechanisms; experimental studies supporting the skin decontamination recommendations; antidotes previously investigated in experimental studies; efficacy and safety of dichloroacetate and phenobarbitone treatments; proposal for clinical management of MCAA systemic intoxication. (78168)

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CIS 02-373 Occupational skin diseases caused by cutting fluids. (French: Dermatoses professionnelles aux fluides de coupe) Crepy M.N., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.83, p.295-304. 61 ref. (In French)

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Cutting fluids are in widespread use for lubrication and cooling during machining operations. The most common occupational skin diseases caused by cutting fluids include dermatitis from contact with aqueous fluids, whose use is growing. Contents of this practical data sheet aimed at occupational physicians: classification; composition; effects on skin; epidemiology; diagnosis at workplace; confirmation of diagnosis in specialised medical institutions; prognosis; prevention and treatment; compensation of occupational diseases caused by exposure to cutting fluids. (78305)

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CIS 02-374 Occupational asthma from disinfectants used in hospitals. (French: Asthme professionnel dû aux désinfectants employés en milieu hospitalier) Rosenberg N., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4rth Quarter 2000, No.84, p.435-443. 50 ref. (In French)

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Contents of this data sheet on occupational allergies and chest diseases caused by disinfectants used in hospitals: physiopathology; prevalence; diagnosis at the place of work; confirmation of diagnosis in a specialised medical institution; evolution; prevention; compensation of occupational diseases. (78310)

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CIS 02-375 Guide to the prevention and suppression of dust in mining, tunnelling and quarrying. (French: Guide pour la prévention et la suppression des poussières dans les mines, les galeries et les carrières; Spanish: Guía para la prevención y eliminación del polvo en la minería, construcción de túneles y trabajo en canteras) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1965. xviii, 421p. Illus. Price: CHF 20.00; USD 5.00. Index. (In English, French, Spanish)

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In all mining countries throughout the world, silicosis and pneumoconiosis still constitute two of the most severe and costly occupational health problems which industry has to face. The object of this manual is to indicate which operations in mining, tunnelling and quarrying are likely to give rise to airborne dust, and to describe the ways in which the concentrations may be determined and how they may be eliminated or reduced. Descriptions of technical measures for dust prevention are also included. (78243)

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CIS 02-376 Safety in the use of synthetic vitreous fibre insulation wools (glass wool, rock wool, slag wool). (French: Sécurité dans l'utilisation des laines isolantes en fibres vitreuses synthétiques (laine de verre, laine de roche et laine de laitier); Spanish: Seguridad en la utilización de las lanas aislantes de fibra vítrea sintética (lana de vidrio, lana mineral de roca y lana mineral de escorias)) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. x, 71p. Index. Price: CHF 20.00., ISBN 92-2-111629-8 (En), ISBN 92-2-211629-1 (fr), ISBN 92-2-311629-5 (es) (In English, French, Spanish)

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http://www.ilo.org/public/libdoc/ilo/2001/101B09_64_arab.pdf

http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/english/download/e000007.pdf

http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/spanish/download/s000007.pdf

http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cops/french/download/f000007.pdf

The use of synthetic fibre insulation wools in construction is increasingly widespread. This ILO code of practice sets out the general duties of manufacturers, suppliers, specifiers, employers, workers and competent authorities, all of whom have a role to play in maintaining the safety of the entire life cycle of the process, from production to waste management and disposal. The code covers preventive and protective measures, information, education and training, and surveillance of the working environment and workers' health. It addresses the hazards arising from the product (insulation fibres, binders and other materials) in real-life situations, and contains useful appendices on classification systems, exposure data and risk assessment. (77951)

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CIS 02-377 Prevention of glutaraldehyde exposure in hospitals. (Spanish: Prevención de la exposición a glutaraldehído en hospitales) Rosell Farrás M.G., Guardino Solà X., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. 11 ref. (In Spanish)

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Following an introduction defining the physical and chemical characteristics of glutaraldehyde, listing its applications in a hospital environment (in the sterilization of endoscopy instruments, for the cleaning of zones having a high risk of infection, as a fixation agent in histopathology, as a radiographic developer and in the treatment of warts) and describing its effects on health, this information note presents various methods for measuring the concentrations of this substance in ambient air. The procedures to be followed for limiting exposure, as well as the personal protective equipment required (gloves, aprons, safety spectacles, face masks and half-mask respirators) are described. The classifications of various concentrations of glutaraldehyde solutions used in hospitals, as well as the corresponding risk phrases are also mentioned. In Spain, the short-term exposure limit is 0.05ppm for 15 minutes. (78261)

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[ Top of page ]

006 Fires, explosions and major hazards

CIS 02-378 Explosions and fires of fork-lift trucks powered by liquefied gas. (German: Explosionen und Brände bei flüssiggasbetriebenen Gabelstaplern) Fischer K.H., Brandschutz, Nov. 2000, Vol. 54, No.11, p.986-990. Illus. (In German)

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Investigations of fires and explosions in the food industry in Germany involving LPG-powered fork-lift trucks identified the cause to be the faulty design of the carburettor pressure-regulating valve. As a consequence, the manufacturer changed the valve design; however this did not prevent the pressure build-up during short operations of the fork-lift trucks, considered to be the actual cause of the explosions and fires. This article describes the preventive measures as well as other design changes for avoiding these types of accidents. (78227)

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CIS 02-379 Comments and considerations on the new regulation on fire safety at industrial sites. (Spanish: Comentarios y reflexiones acerca del nuevo Reglamento de seguridad contra incendios en los establecimientos industriales) Rodríguez Herrerías J., García Mozos E., Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol.21, No.84, p.9-17. Illus. (In Spanish)

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This article analyses in detail the contents of the new Spanish regulation on fire safety at industrial sites approved by the Royal Decree 786/2001 (see CIS 02-21). This regulation has been developed in a "horizontal" manner so as to define the conditions for fire safety in all Spanish enterprises, including SMEs, which were until now not subject to any regulations. (78274)

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CIS 02-380 Survey: "Safety against fires in the enterprise. 2000". (Spanish: Encuesta: "Seguridad contra incendios en la empresa. 2000") Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol.21, No.84, p.19-29. Illus. (In Spanish)

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The purpose of this survey was to understand how enterprises manage fire hazards, the extent of training of personnel in fire safety, the type of installations available for fire fighting and the frequency with which these installations are maintained. A 101-item questionnaire was addressed to 1200 selected enterprises in all fields of activity. Results are presented in 10 tables. Only 4% of the enterprises have a fire service, and for the majority (55%), the management of fire hazards is the responsibility of the occupational safety and health services. There is a notable tendency towards automation of technical detection installations rather than towards using surveillance services. In 98% of the enterprises, maintenance is carried out by accredited companies. Finally, 90% of the enterprises surveyed have personal protection plans and 94% provide training to their personnel so that they can intervene in the event of a fire. (78275)

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CIS 02-381 Control of fugitive emission losses in the chemical and petroleum industries. Tan K.T., National University of Singapore, Chemical and Process Engineering Centre News, Oct. 1999, p.1-4. (In English)

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Valves, pressure relief devices and flanges are the major common sources of fugitive emissions. This paper provides some examples of engineering measures and technological innovations to control and abate the common sources of leaks from chemical processing plants, petrochemical complex and refineries. (78126)

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CIS 02-382 Industrial emergency response training: An assessment of long-term impact of a union-based program. Fernandez J.A., Daltuva J.A., Robins T.G., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.598-605. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

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The long-term impact of the United Automobile Workers' (UAW) Industrial Emergency Response Training on health and safety conditions and practices in plants is described. Two strategies are combined in this 24-hour training: the use of peer (worker) trainers and a participant-centred approach, the Small Group Activity Method (SGAM). Impact was assessed through a telephone survey of 67 trainees conducted on average 16.8 months post-training. 74% of trainees reported using at least one of the provided written training manuals. Of those reporting an accident in their facility after training, 88% said it was handled differently because of training. Participants report that peer trainers are more knowledgeable and communicate better than do other types of trainers; they also reported that SGAM made training more applicable to their workplace and 98.5% liked the methods used. (78080)

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CIS 02-383 New requirements for the transport of explosives by road - A comparison of GB Explosives Transport Regulations and ADR 2001. Smith T., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. 35p. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-7176-2097-2 (In English)

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United Kingdom regulations on the transport of dangerous goods are to be replaced by a single regulation adopting the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR) to be entitled the Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road and Rail Regulations (CDGRR). This paper compares the existing regulations for the United Kingdom explosives sector with the draft text of ADR 2001 in order to highlight areas of differences likely to have an impact on industry in the United Kingdom. (78029)

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CIS 02-384 Development of a model for predicting the efficiency of protective measures against explosions in smoke chambers. (German: Entwicklung eines Prognoseverfahrens zur Abschätzung der Wirksamkeit von Schutzmassnahmen gegen Explosionen am Raucherzeuger) Waschinski D., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1997. 189p. Illus. 33 ref., ISBN 3-89701-006-2 (In German)

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Smoking is among the traditional processes for preparing food. Smoke results from the incomplete combustion of wood or other vegetable matter as a result of insufficient oxygen. Control of smoke chambers is subject to mandatory controls to ensure that there is never any formation of explosive mixtures. These controls require numerous smoke chamber feed and exhaust flow measurements. The objective of this monograph is to study the possibility of documenting the safety of the chamber through a single measurement. A mode of calculation was developed, which allows the estimation of the volumes of smoke chamber feed and exhaust air, limiting the need for measurement to the single value of global air flux volume. (78179)

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CIS 02-385 Best practice for risk based inspection as a part of plant integrity management. Wintle J.B., Kenzie B.W., Amphlett G.J., Smalley S., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. viii, 114p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 30.00., ISBN 0-7176-2090-5 (In English)

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This report discusses the best practice for the application of Risk Based Inspection (RBI) for the inspection of pressure equipment and systems that are subject to the requirements for in-service examination under the Pressure Systems Safety Regulations 2000 (PSSR). It can also apply to equipment and systems containing hazardous materials that are inspected as a means to comply with the Control of Major Accident Hazards Regulations (COMAH, see CIS 00-24). The report considers the application, data requirements, team competences, inspection plan (including NDT techniques and reliability) and overall management of the RBI process. An audit tool is given in the Appendices order to assist the evaluation the RBI process. This contains a flow diagram followed by a series of questions and a commentary relating to each stage, outlining the proposed best practice. (78027)

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CIS 02-386 Assessing the safety of staffing arrangements for process operations in the chemical and allied industries. Brabazon P., Conlin H., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. viii, 196p. Illus. 21 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2044-1 (In English)

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It is observed that a number of chemical sites are taking steps to reduce staffing levels in their operating teams. There is a concern that such reductions could impact the ability of a site to control abnormal and emergency conditions and may also have a negative effect on staff performance through an impact on workload and fatigue. A method been developed that can be used by organizations to highlight when too few staff are being used to control a process. It allows responsible persons to benchmark the management of staffing arrangements. The method has been tested, and from the comments of those participating, it is judged that it brings staffing issues into the open, is practical, useable and intelligible to managers and inspectors, and is resistant to the manipulation of its output. (78099)

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CIS 02-387 Performance indicators for the assessment of emergency preparedness in major accident hazards. Larken J., Shannon H., Strutt J.E., Jones B.J., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. 114p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2038-7 (In English)

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This report proposes a framework model of emergency management and applies it to the development of performance indicators for the assessment of emergency preparedness in industries exposed to major accident hazards. The research involved visiting 11 major accident hazard sites in the UK. Data to evaluate site preparedness for dealing with accidents were collected through detailed interviews. At each site, emergency exercises were observed and assessed. The information collected was used to compare site preparedness and subsequent performance in emergency exercises. Six features were found to be particularly representative of quality of practical performance: senior management commitment; emergency philosophy; emergency management team structure; information management system; exercise regime; and several specific features of team preparedness (continuity in membership of emergency teams, training in command and control, competence assurance of emergency managers and professional coaching of teams during exercises). (78098)

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CIS 02-388 Ordinance on major-accident hazards with the Seveso II Directive - Comments, texts, documentation. (German: Störfall-Verordnung mit Seveso-II-Richtlinie - Kommentar, Texte, Materialien) Uth H.J., Bundesanzeiger Verlag mbH, Köln, Germany, 3rd ed., 2001. 337p. Illus., ISBN 3-88784-989-2 (In German)

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This publication consists of a comment on the various provisions of the German ordinance of major hazards, as well as on the provisions of the Seveso II Directive that have not been transposed into this ordinance. The amendments of the 5th and 9th ordinances applying the German law on the protection against immissions are also commented; the full texts are included in appendices. Also included in appendices are the texts of the regulations in application of the Ordinance on major hazards, the 96/82/EC Directive of the Council on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances (see CIS 97-1079) and the ordinance applying the European Directives on the control of major-accident hazards involving dangerous substances. (78180)

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CIS 02-389 Fire prevention at the workplace [France]. (French: Prévention des incendies sur les lieux de travail [France]) Ménard A., Petit J.M., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris cedex 14, France, 2000. 27p. Illus. 13 ref., ISBN 2-7389-0829-2 (In French)

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Synthesis of safety and hygiene regulations applicable to fire prevention at the workplace. Contents: provisions applicable equally to workplaces used for the fist time and to existing workplaces; rules applicable to new buildings (responsibilities of owners); provisions applicable to existing workplaces (responsibilities of management). These provisions apply in particular to relocations, heating of work premises, buildings where flammable materials are stored or handled, smoke evacuation, fire prevention and firefighting. (77909)

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CIS 02-390 Safety valves: Failure modes and reliability. (Spanish: Válvulas de seguridad: modos de fallo y fiabilidad) Turmo Sierra E., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 5p. 1 ref. (In Spanish)

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Safety valves are elements whose purpose is to protect plant and equipment, and whose failure is a factor in major chemical accidents. Contents of this information note: most frequent modes of failure and their causes; confinement methods that would improve the reliability of manufacturing systems; cases of accidents caused by safety valve failures; data on the reliability of various types of safety valves (see also CIS 02-391). (78264)

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CIS 02-391 Safety valves: Selection. (Spanish: Válvulas de seguridad: selección) Turmo Sierra E., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 8p. Illus. 4 ref. (In Spanish)

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The objective of this information note is to provide guidance for the selection of safety valves. Contents include: various types of safety valve, their advantages and disadvantages; criteria for selecting the most appropriate valve type; decision tree for the selection of either a rupture disk or a safety valve (see also CIS 02-390, CIS 99-1318 et CIS 99-1320). (78265)

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CIS 02-392 Hot work on vehicle wheels. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. (In English)

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This Information note describes the explosion hazards associated with the application of heat to the steel parts of a vehicle wheel to which a tyre is attached. It is stressed that under no circumstances should hot work such as welding or cutting be carried out on any wheel to which a tyre is fitted. Replaces CIS 93-293. (77925)

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[ Top of page ]

007 Electrical safety

CIS 02-393 The influence of the ageing of low-voltage power lines on the conservation of their electrical and mechanical properties. (Italian: Influenza dell'invecchiamento nella conservazione delle caratteristiche elettriche e meccaniche dei cavi impiegati in bassa tensione) Platania G., Amicucci G.L., Di Lollo L., Minervini C., Ranieri D., Scarana M., Di Bartolomeo R., Fedeli W.A., Prevenzione oggi, 2000, Vol.12, No.4, p.3-25. Illus. 21 ref. (In Italian)

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Power lines are subject to ageing and physical stress due to heat, and to chemical and mechanical agents. The outer casing gradually loses its elasticity and becomes frail leaving the conductors exposed and raising the risk of insulation loss and direct contact, the latter being a particular safety risk. This study undertook an investigation into some of the causes of such deteriorations. Only a cable laid in a way to be mechanically protected may continue to meet electric insulation requirements for many years. If the same cable is used in equipment having moving parts it will be subjected to casing losses, expecially if no measures are adopted to allow sufficient heat dissipation. (77937)

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008 Physical hazards

CIS 02-394 Vibration of dental handpieces. Rytkönen E., Sorainen E., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.477-481. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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The vibration of new and used dental hand pieces was tested in three directions during idling. Work was simulated by drilling on plastic plate. An analysis was performed of the weighted vibration and the total acceleration of high-frequency vibration ("ultra vibration"). Neither the water and air injection nor the grip force of fingers had any significant effect on the vibration level. The weighted accelerations were well below hazardous levels. The vibration spectra of the hand pieces contained powerful vibration at high frequencies, but the effects of this ultra vibration and exposure during work are not well known. (78190)

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CIS 02-395 A study of the noise hazard to employees in local discotheques. Lee L.T., Singapore Medical Journal, 1999, Vol.40, No.9, p.571-574. 26 ref. (In English)

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the noise hazard of employees exposed to amplified music in discotheques. Personal noise dosimetry was carried out on 40 employees (disc jockeys, bartenders, waiters, cashiers and security officers) of 5 discotheques. Audiometric examination results of another 46 employees were compared with 37 subjects from a non-exposed matched control group. The range of exposure to noise level above 85dBA for the employees was 3.6 to 6.9 hours with a mean of 5.1 hours. The discotheque group had statistically significant higher prevalence (41.9%) of early hearing loss compared to the control group (13.5%). A higher proportion of employees in the older age group (above 30 years old) and working longer (above 1 year) suffered from hearing loss. A significant proportion of the discotheque study subjects (21%) also complained of recurrent tinnitus compared to 2.7% in the control group. The younger workers (< 30 years) and those with shorter exposure duration (< 1 year) appeared to complain of tinnitus more. (78122)

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CIS 02-396 Recent developments on industrial noise control in Singapore. Tan K.T., Singapore Institution of Safety Officers News, 1999, No.2, p.1-3. (In English)

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Noise is one of the main health hazards in industry. In Singapore, efforts have been made at the national level to control noise and prevent noise-induced deafness. This paper presents the Factories (Noise) Regulations introduced in 1997 and other noise promotional activities, such as the tax incentive scheme for noise hazard control, the noise control award scheme, guidelines on industrial noise control and hearing conservation, training courses, conferences, seminars and workshops aimed at raising awareness of noise hazards, and noise level monitoring in factories. (78127)

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CIS 02-397 Thermal perception threshold testing for the evaluation of small sensory nerve fiber injury in patients with hand-arm vibration syndrome. Toibana N., Sakakibara H., Hirata M., Kondo T., Toyoshima H., Industrial Health, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.366-371. 22 ref. (In English)

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To investigate whether thermal perception threshold testing could replace pain threshold testing in the evaluation of small sensory nerve fibre injury in vibration-induced neuropathy, vibration, pain, and thermal (warm and cold) perception thresholds were examined on both middle fingers of 50 patients with hand-arm vibration syndrome and 29 healthy controls of similar age. Thermal (warm and cold) thresholds as well as vibration and pain thresholds were significantly more deteriorated among the patients than in the controls. Thermal thresholds were significantly correlated with pain thresholds, and the sensitivity of the thermal threshold testing tended to be greater than that of the pain threshold testing. The present findings indicate that thermal threshold testing for warm and cold perception can be a useful substitute for pain threshold testing to examine small nerve fibre injury in vibration-induced neuropathy. (78132)

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CIS 02-398 The effects of hearing protectors on auditory localization: Evidence from audio-visual target acquisition. Bolia R.S., McKinley R.L., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.309-319. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

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Response times (RT) in an audio-visual target acquisition task were collected from three participants while wearing either circumaural earmuffs, foam earplugs, or no hearing protection at all. Analyses revealed that participants took significantly longer to locate and identify an audio-visual target in both hearing protector conditions than they did in the unoccluded condition, suggesting a disturbance of the clues used by listeners to localize sounds in space. RTs were significantly faster in both hearing protector conditions than in a non-audio control condition, indicating that auditory localization was not completely disrupted. Results are discussed in terms of safety issues involved with wearing hearing protectors in an occupational environment. (78141)

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CIS 02-399 Predictors of hearing loss in New York farmers. Hwang S.A., Gomez M.I., Sobotova L., Stark A.D., May J.J., Hallman E.M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, July 2001, Vol.40, No.1, p.23-31. 29 ref. (In English)

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Data from the telephone interview portion of the New York Farm Family Health and Hazard Surveillance were used to study self-reported hearing loss in New York farmers. 1,622 persons completed the hearing loss and noise exposure interview. Hearing loss was defined as at least some trouble hearing in one or both ears. Predictors of hearing loss were determined using logistic regression. 22% of participants reported hearing loss. From the logistic regression, significant confounders are age, sex, being from a livestock farm, and loss of consciousness due to head trauma. Significant noise exposures are more hours of lifetime exposure to noisy farm equipment and having had a noisy non farm job, with or without hearing protection. In conclusion, farm noise exposure is a serious risk to the hearing of this population. Although use of hearing protection should be encouraged, replacing and modifying farm equipment to decrease noise at the source should be the first priority. (78343)

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CIS 02-400 Prediction of duration limited exposure for participants wearing chemical protective clothing in the cold. Rissanen S., Rintamäki H., Holmér I., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.451-461. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

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The suitability of the IREQ (insulation required) index for predicting the thermal responses of six participants wearing chemical protective clothing was tested at -20 and -25°C. IREQ was used to calculate the duration-limited exposure (DLE). Measured DLE correlated well with the predicted DLE. In exposures exceeding 40min, however, the predicted DLE tended to be 10-20min too short compared to the measured DLE. During short exposures, the prediction was 5-20min too long. IREQ overestimated the cold strain in participants wearing chemical protective clothing during cold exposures longer than 40min. Nevertheless, the predicted DLE never exceeded measured times; consequently, the prediction was always safe from the occupational point of view. (78332)

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CIS 02-401 Evaluation of the risk of occupational exposure to non-ionizing radiation in the metallurgical working environment. (Italian: Valutazione del rischio per esposizione professionale a radiazioni non ionizzanti nell'ambiente lavorativo di una azienda metalmeccanica) Bianchi N., Marasi G., Bagaglio A., Medicina del lavoro, Sep.-Oct. 2001, Vol.92, No.5, p.338-344. 11 ref. (In Italian)

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In the metal engineering industry there are risks related to non-ionizing radiation emitted by various pieces of work equipment. It is essential to measure and record personal doses of exposure. Information and training of personnel and the specific observation of critical groups of workers are also of fundamental importance. The following kinds of exposure are treated in detail: static electromagnetic fields; extremely low-frequency radiation; radiofrequency and microwave radiation. (77935)

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CIS 02-402 Predicting the ultraviolet radiation distribution in a room with multilouvered germicidal fixtures. Rudnick S.N., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.434-445. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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A relatively inexpensive method to reduce transmission of airborne infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis, consists in irradiating the upper part of a room with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. To obtain a protection of workers in the lower part of a room from radiation, multilouvered UV germicidal fixtures, producing a horizontal beam, are used. In this article, a model is developed to predict the UV fluence rate at any location in the upper room for such fixtures and also total UV power emitted by the same. (78185)

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CIS 02-403 Radon - An irradiating subject: Data and facts by the pathologist. (German: Radon - ein strahlendes Thema: Daten und Fakten des Pathologen) Wiethege T., Wesch H., Müller K.M., Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten, Dec. 2000, Vol.26, No.12, p.617-624. Illus. 20 ref. (In German)

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The aim of this study was assess the risk for the development of tumors induced by natural radiation sources such as radon. The preliminary results from a total of 17,466 autopsies performed on uranium miners of the former German Democratic Republic reveal that lung cancer mortality was significantly higher than in the normal population. Among miners who died between 1957 and 1965, a high rate of deaths due to small-cell carcinoma was observed. This rate dropped steadily between 1965 and 1990. Determinations of uranium, silica and arsenic in pulmonary tissue yielded high concentrations in some cases. The final results, including the assessment of the relationship between radon exposure and lung cancer mortality, are not yet available and will be published later. (78224)

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CIS 02-404 Radon at the workplace. (German: Radon am Arbeitsplatz) Aspek W., Atemwegs- und Lungenkrankheiten, Dec. 2000, Vol.26, No.12, p.631-633. (In German)

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The Austrian Workers' Compensation Board (AUVA) conducts measurements of radon and radon daughters in enterprises. This paper presents the results of measurements carried out in the mining industry as well as in power stations and other enterprises. Among the 16 mining companies where measurements were performed, half had doses higher than the current threshold limit value (0.3WL). In these enterprises the workplace ventilation needs to be improved. (78225)

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CIS 02-405 Heat exposure study in the workplace in a glass manufacturing unit in India. Srivastava A., Kumar R., Joseph E., Kumar A., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, Sep. 2000, Vol.44, No.6, p.449-453. Illus. 3 ref. (In English)

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The heat exposure of workers in coastal areas of tropical countries such as India can have important consequences on productivity and product quality. The hot climate exacerbates the heat exposure close to sources like furnaces. In the present study, heat exposure to workers in glass manufacturing units in a coastal region of India have been assessed. The Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT), the Corrected Effective Temperature (CET) and Mean Radiant Temperature (MRT) were measured. The WBGT values much exceeded the threshold limit values recommended by the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Recommendations are made with respect to work and rest periods for hot workplaces suited to tropical conditions. Certain aspects of the AGCIH standard also need to be adapted to suit tropical conditions. (78035)

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CIS 02-406 Occupational exposure to noise and hearing difficulties in Great Britain. Palmer K.T., Coggon D., Syddall H., Pannett B., Griffin M.J., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2001. vi, 61p. Illus. 48 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2087-5 (In English)

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To determine the prevalence of self-reported hearing difficulties and tinnitus in working-aged people from the general population, and to estimate the risks from occupational exposure to noise, a questionnaire was mailed to 21,201 subjects of working age selected at random and 993 subjects from the British armed services. Information was collected on years of employment in a noisy job, and whether the respondent wore a hearing aid, had difficulty in hearing conversation, or had persistent tinnitus over the past year. 2% of subjects reported severe hearing difficulties. In men, the prevalence of this outcome rose steeply with age, from below 1% in those aged 16-24 years to 8% in those aged 55-64. The pattern was similar in women, but with severe hearing loss being only about half as prevalent in the oldest age band. In both sexes, after adjustment for age, the risk of severe hearing difficulty and persistent tinnitus rose with years spent in a noisy job. (78025)

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CIS 02-407 Occupational exposure to noise: Evaluation, prevention and control. Goelzer B., Hansen C.H., Sehrndt G.A., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, eds., Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 336p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. CD-ROM readable on an HTML browser., ISBN 3-89701-721-0 (In English)

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This publication is intended for occupational hygienists and safety and health personnel. It provides an overview of the evaluation, prevention and control of exposure to noise at the workplace, with a view to protecting workers against the risk of noise-induced hearing loss. Contents include: fundamentals of acoustics; anatomy and physiology of the ear and hearing; ear pathologies; exposure criteria and occupational exposure levels; noise sources; sound measuring instruments; approaches for conducting noise survey; audiometry; hazard prevention and control programmes; design aspects of noise control; personal protection; training; work practices; medical supervision; international standards. (78082)

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CIS 02-408 Building competence in radiation protection and the safe use of radiation sources. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Wagramerstrasse 5, P.O. Box 100, 1400 Wien, Austria, 2001. 37p. 16 ref., ISBN 92-0-100701-9 (In English)

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http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1108_scr.pdf
http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/Pub1108f_web.pdf

This guidance document aimed at national regulatory agencies addresses training in radiation protection and safety aspects related to nuclear technologies. In particular, it covers the aspects of the categories of persons to be trained, the requirements for education, training and experience for each category, the process of qualification and authorization of responsible persons and proposed national strategies to be implemented for building these competencies. (78081)

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CIS 02-409 Noise reduction at band re-saws. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. (In English)

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The noise generated by band re-saws (typically over 85dB(A)) can be reduced by maintaining the machine and blade in good condition. Factors affecting the blade vibration level (the main source of noise) are listed along with advice on how the difference in noise levels when cutting and when idling can be used as a good indicator of the condition and adjustment of the machine and blade. Replaces CIS 91-515. (77926)

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009 Mechanical hazards, transport

CIS 02-410 The influence of knife dullness on poultry processing operator exertions and the effectiveness of periodic knife steeling. Szabo R.L., Radwin R.G., Henderson C.J., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.428-433. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

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Two meat-cleaning jobs in a poultry-processing plant were studied. Hand knife dullness was quantified using a novel apparatus for a controlled dynamic load at the knife handle. A model for knife dulling and reconditioning was developed and the corresponding increase in force was predicted for various cutting and reconditioning frequencies. This method may be used in meat processing plants for determining effective reconditioning schedules, reducing exertions which may be associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. (78184)

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CIS 02-411 Guidelines on the supply of personal protective equipment during the use of hand knives. (Italian: Linee guida per l'individuazione degli indumenti di protezione contro i rischi meccanici nell'uso di coltelli a mano) Cortis L., Gori E., Fogli d'informazione ISPESL, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.14, No.1, p.37-48. Illus. (In Italian)

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Guide to Italian guidelines for the selection of protective gloves, aprons and other personal equipment against the risks of hand knives. (78195)

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CIS 02-412 Impact resistance of materials for guards on cutting machine tools - Requirements in future European safety standards. Mewes D., Trapp R.P., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.507-520. Illus. 8 ref. (In English)

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Guards on machine tools are meant to protect operators from injuries caused by tools, workpieces, and fragments ejected from the working zone. This article presents the impact resistance requirements for machine tool guards according to European safety standards. Based on these standards, the impact resistance of various guard materials were determined. Polycarbonate proves to be a suitable material for vision panels because of its high energy absorption capacity. The impact resistance of 8-mm thick polycarbonate is roughly equal to that of a 3-mm thick steel sheet. The limited ageing stability, however, makes it necessary to protect polycarbonate against cutting oils by means of additional panels on both sides. (78334)

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CIS 02-413 Safety specialists, taking the lead in safety - Considerations relating to problems of work at heights. (Spanish: El técnico de prevención, buque insignia de la seguridad - Una visión sobre los problemas derivados del trabajo en altura) Masciarelli García D., Martínez Pascual J.R., Hernando Felipe J., Mapfre seguridad, 4th Quarter 2001, Vol.21, No.84, p.3-7. Illus. (In Spanish)

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In view of the large number of occupational accidents due to falls from heights, a company decided to design a training program on work at heights aimed at safety specialists. Indeed, for selecting the appropriate equipment to be used by workers, safety specialists need to be aware of all existing equipment available on the market as well as their specific characteristics. Several courses are proposed, ranging from eight hours to seven days. They include theoretical aspects and practical exercises in true work situations, enabling safety specialists to get familiarised with the use of equipment. Participants receive a certificate issued by a body accredited by the IRSST. (78273)

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CIS 02-414 An investigation of manual handling in Victorian health education programs. Kilgariff C., Best M., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Oct. 1999, Vol.15, No.5, p.475-481. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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The incidence of manual handling injuries in nurses and other carers is high. Therefore, consideration needs to be given to the quality and quantity of manual handling training occurring at teaching institutions to ensure maximum protection of these employees as they enter the workforce. This study used a questionnaire to investigate the amount and type of manual handling and occupational safety and health (OSH) training which is being taught in health care courses in Victoria. The results indicated that there were inadequate practical and theoretical hours allocated to manual handling and patient handling skills, and inadequate OSH education. Recommendations from the study include: an increase in both the practical and theoretical hours of manual handling education in nursing courses; assessment of the manual handling and transfer skills components of the curriculum; and inclusion of OSH and risk assessment in all undergraduate health care courses. (78103)

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CIS 02-415 Is ambulance-driving life-threatening?. (German: Ist Rettungswagenfahren lebensgefährlich?) Pietschmann H., Brandschutz, Jan. 2001, Vol.55, No.1, p.48-51. Illus. (In German)

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A study in Germany has found that ambulances have a four-fold risk of being involved in a traffic accident causing injuries and an eight-fold risk of accidents with severe injuries during the time they benefit from traffic priority in an emergency. An outline of the possibilities of designing ambulances to avoid injuries is provided. Equipping the ambulances according to the standard DIN EN 1789 greatly enhances the safety of patients and personnel in ambulances. In particular, the standard requires that all movable or portable equipment such as respirators, defibrillators and chests be secured. The difficulties of converting standard vans into ambulances are discussed. (78228)

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CIS 02-416 Acceptance of the wearing of safety shoes at work. (French: Acceptation en entreprise du port de chaussures de sécurité) Rolin D., Nousbaum M., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.84, p.371-387. Illus. (In French)

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Foot injuries represent an important part of all occupational accidents (6.7% during 1998 in France). To prevent their occurrence, it is necessary to implement collective protective measures, often completed with a requirement for wearing safety shoes. This requirement is sometimes not well accepted by the workers, and can give rise to conflicts. There are a wide variety of causes for refusal, including allergies, poor comfort or poor aesthetics. In order to better understand these issues, a one-year survey was carried out in 1997 among 310 workers of four companies where the use of safety shoes was required. At the same time, 16 medical consultations involving difficulties in using safety shoes at a centre for occupational diseases were identified and analysed. Several practical proposals for increasing the acceptance and use of safety shoes among workers are included. (78307)

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CIS 02-417 Improving the safety of workers in the vicinity of mobile plant. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. viii, 99p. Illus. 42 ref. Price: GBP 30.00., ISBN 0-7176-2071-9 (In English)

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The objective of this work was to investigate possible approaches and technologies to improve the safety of pedestrians around mobile equipment, focussing on three industry sectors: underground mining, surface mineral extraction and warehousing and materials handling. A selective review was undertaken of problems and incidents having occurred in these sectors. Aspects investigated included vehicle ergonomics and visual task analysis, aids to improve reversing and sight lines, direct body detection techniques, conventional transponder (RFID) and VLF magnetic dipole detection technologies. A proof-of-concept personnel detection scheme was developed, based on a low frequency magnetic field. Field tests found the system to be acceptable, in both surface and underground workplaces, providing a wide uniform field of coverage and detection around all sides of the mobile equipment. Alternative worker protection systems from the US and Canada are compared with the proposed system. (78024)

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CIS 02-418 Second evaluation of the Manual Handling Operations Regulations (1992) and guidance. Lancaster R., Jacobson Maher C., Alder A., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. x, 154p. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2041-7 (In English)

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In the United Kingdom, it is estimated that over 600,000 people suffer each year from work-related musculoskeletal disorders caused by manual handling. Manual handling is also responsible for a large number of occupational accidents. The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (MHOR) (CIS 93-36) were introduced on 1 January 1993. A first evaluation study of their impact was conducted in 1996 (CIS 97-2043). However, since their introduction, they appear to have had only a minor effect on the number of reported accidents. This second evaluation study was commissioned to follow-up on the continuing impact of MHOR since 1996, to explore the reasons for their having an inconsistent effect on compliance, and to update the assessment of their economic impact. The study involved interviews with professionals and national bodies as well as managers, employees and safety representatives. The findings clearly show that awareness and compliance are much lower in SMEs than in larger organizations. Several recommendations are made to improve compliance with MHOR, particularly in SMEs. (78097)

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CIS 02-419 Climbing on and descending from stairways safely: Ergonomical, psychological and technical aspects. (German: Sicheres Begehen von Treppen: ergonomische, psychologische und technische Aspekte) Fischer H., Weissgerber B., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 168p. Illus. 46 réf. Index., ISBN 3-89701-724-5 (In German)

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This report addresses the issue of designing safe stairways by taking a holistic approach, starting from an analysis of human body motion. In stairways, the rhythm of movements is adapted to the parameters detected when starting to climb. The causes of disruptions in movement regulation and the derived design principles for stairway safety are analysed from the standpoints of building parameters, environmental conditions and perception. Anti-slip properties of stairs, particularly of stair edges, also represent important safety criteria. Different formulae for calculating climb rates are presented and compared, and their importance for the safety of stairways is discussed. A chapter is also devoted to stairways that are part of emergency escape routes. (78236)

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CIS 02-420 Safe working methods with top-handled chainsaws. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. vi, 62p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-7176-2249-5 (In English)

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This report presents the results a of research project carried out to identify safe working methods when working with top-handled chainsaws. These chainsaws are fundamentally different from conventional ones in that they can be operated with one hand. This report identifies safe working methods for using top-handled chainsaws in all situations in which forestry workers may expect to operate. In circumstances where one-handed operation is desirable, the methods and techniques described in this report will enable the operations to be carried out with the minimum of risk of injury to the operator. (77922)

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CIS 02-421 Industrial rope access - Investigation into items of personal protective equipment. Long A., Lyon M., Lyon G., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Aug. 2001. iv, 159p. Illus. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2091-3 (In English)

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Rope access refers to climbing or descending by means of a rope. This report investigates items of equipment used for work at height through rope access in industry and arboriculture. The investigation comprises tests and evaluations of ropes and attachments, including rope adjustment devices such as back-up devices, ascenders and descenders. Evaluations include discussions on how rope access and work-positioning may be effected using devices aimed at minimising or eliminating falls. Reference is made to existing and draft European and British standards. (78028)

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CIS 02-422 IDAR® - A risk assessment approach in the context of the "Machinery" directive. (French: IDAR® - Une méthode d'analyse des risques dans le cadre de la directive "Machines") Dequaire-Falconnet E., Meleton L., CETIM, Centre Technique des Industries Mécaniques, 52 avenue Félix-Louat, B.P. 80067, 60304 Senlis Cedex, France, Apr. 2001. xiv, 164p. Illus., ISBN 2-85400-512-0 (In French)

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Many European directives, in particular the "Machinery" directive 98/37/EC (see CIS 99-29), require manufacturers to conduct a risk assessment with respect to the safety and health of users of the machinery. The risk assessment method IDAR® is presented. It analyses the activities of the operators for each phase of the life cycle of the equipment. This guide shows how to use this easy-to-implement method, and it includes advice and practical examples. Appendices include the full text of the "Machinery" directive and a list of relevant European and ISO standards. (77919)

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CIS 02-423 Investigation into the safety related aspects of coast control on pedestrian operated industrial trucks. Balderstone R.J., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. vi, 17p. Illus. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-7176-2089-1 (In English)

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Coast control is a means of stopping powered pallet trucks by releasing the steering tiller instead of applying brakes. It is widely used in the United States on pedestrian-operated power trucks. This report is based on the observations made at seven industrial sites using these types of power trucks. It describes the types of truck currently using coast control, the types of loads they commonly carry and where they are used. It discusses recommended and actual operating procedures, floor conditions, safeguards employed (including interlocks) and coast distances. It compares the findings with the Essential Health and Safety Requirements of the Safety of Machinery Directive (98/37/EC, see CIS 99-29). (78026)

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CIS 02-424 Check list - Milling machines. (French: Liste de contrôle - Outils de fraisage; German: Checkliste - Kelhwerkzeuge; Italian: Lista di controllo - Frese) Suva, Gesundheitsschutz, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, no date. 7p. Illus. (In French, German, Italian)

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From 1 January 1999, all new milling machines in Switzerland have to comply with the requirements of the standard "Machine-tools for the woodworking industry" (SN EN 847-1). Aimed at company owners and managers, the objective of this checklist is to allow them to ensure that milling tools fulfil technical and safety specifications and that they are properly used. (77911)

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CIS 02-425 Enhanced safety through the use of Suva protective devices. (French: Une sécurité accrue grâce aux dispositifs de protection Suva; German: Mehr Sicherheit mit Suva-Schutzeinrichtungen; Italian: Più sicurezza con i dispositivi di protezione Suva) Suva, Bereich Sicherheitsprodukte, Postfach, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, no date. 2p. Illus. (In French, German, Italian)

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This leaflet provides short descriptions of guards or safety devices offering protection against mechanical hazards in moulding, cutting or machining workshops that can be obtained through Suva, including price indications. (77912)

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CIS 02-426 Building safer highway work zones: Measures to prevent worker injuries from vehicles and equipment. Pratt S.G., Fosbroke D.E., Marsh S.M., Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Apr. 2001. ix, 71p. 77 ref. (In English)

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Highway and street workers are at risk of fatal and serious non fatal injury when working in the vicinity of passing motorists, construction vehicles and equipment. This document summarizes the data from current literature on highway safety, analysis of worker fatalities in the highway and street construction industry and workshop discussions on the measures that could be taken by employers, equipment manufacturers, government bodies and research agencies to reduce or eliminate these hazards. It lists interventions which can be implemented according to specific situations. A total of 29 fatality cases are analysed and measures to prevent future occurrences are provided. (78060)

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CIS 02-427 Prevention injuries and deaths from falls during construction and maintenance of telecommunication towers. Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, July 2001. 10p. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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The increasing use of wireless communications services has resulted in the construction of numerous telecommunication towers to support transmitting devices. It is estimated that there are currently at least 75,000 telecommunication towers in the United States, and that more than 1000 are erected each year. Between 1993 and 1998, 118 deaths occurred in the United States during construction and maintenance work on these towers. Contents of this safety guide on the prevention of falls during work on telecommunication towers: description of the various types of towers; data on fatalities; current standards; five case reports of fatal fall accidents; recommendations aimed at employers, tower owners and operators, and workers. (78000)

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CIS 02-428 Safety in the use of narrow band saws. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, June 2001. 4p. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

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This information note gives practical guidance on safe working practices when using narrow band-saws (blades ≤50mm in width). General guidance is given on machine guarding, machine setting and operation, power feeding, cleaning and maintenance, tool selection and training along with specific guidance for particular operations. Replaces CIS 95-1516. (77927)

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CIS 02-429 Rotary knife wood turning lathes: Safeguarding and reducing risks to health. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. 4p. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

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Aimed at manufacturers, suppliers and users, this information sheet provides guidance on safeguarding and reducing noise and dust emissions at rotary knife wood turning lathes. Contents: applicable laws and regulations; types of machines; accidents; hazards and risks; guarding of new and existing machines; noise; wood dust and chippings; cutter ejection hazards; training and work practices. Replaces CIS 98-1488. (77928)

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010 Biological hazards

CIS 02-430 Comparative study of the HAV seroprevalence among water purification station workers, sewage workers and administration workers. (French: Enquête comparative de séro-prévalence de l'hépatite A entre les professionnels d'une station d'épuration, de l'assainissement et administratifs) Benbirk E., Tiberguent A., Dômont A., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Feb. 2000, Vol.61, No.1, p.7-28. Illus. 51 ref. (In French)

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An HAV seroprevalence study was conducted among 390 water-purification station workers, 201 sewage workers, and 643 non-occupationally exposed administrative workers. All workers were male, with similar age and socio-educational characteristics. After correcting for age, the rate of hepatitis A seroconversion for all populations was about 69%. Occupational exposure to sludge and sewage were the most important transmission risk factors for hepatitis A. Water-purification station workers exposed to soiled earth polluted with sludge were subject to major risk of hepatitis A transmission with an odds ratio of 1.85. For sewage workers, contact with floating corpses appeared to be an increasing occupational risk for hepatitis A, with an odds ratio of 1.59. A multivariate analysis was also performed to determine the characteristics of the exposed groups and evidence certain patterns of hepatitis A exposure. Vaccination against hepatitis A appears to be the best way to fight against this biological risk, although hygiene and safety measures must not be overlooked. (78296)

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CIS 02-431 HIV/AIDS in the South African mining industry: Health and safety implications. La Grange M., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 2001, Vol.17, No.1, p.31-37. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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As the global HIV/AIDS epidemic continues unabated, South Africa is experiencing a rapid spread of the virus. The mining industry, in spite of having recognized the risks of the epidemic at an early stage, suffers greatly from the full impact of this disease. In addition to the socio-economic implications of the disease, it has significant consequences for occupational safety and health (impact of the disease on workers' performance, fatalistic or suicidal attitudes, risk of contagion). (78112)

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CIS 02-432 Risk factors for Nipah virus infection among abattoir workers in Singapore. Chew M.H.L., Arguin P.M., Shay D.K., Rollin P.E., Shieh.W.J., Zaki S.R., Rota P.A., Ling A.E., Ksiazek T.G., Chew S.K., Anderson L.J., Journal of Infectious Diseases, 2000, No.181, p.1760-1763. 14 ref. (In English)

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During 10-19 March 1999, 11 workers in one of two Singapore abattoirs developed Nipah-virus-associated encephalitis or pneumonia, resulting in one death. A case-control study was conducted to determine occupational risk factors for infection. Case patients were workers from the affected abattoir who had anti-Nipah IgM antibodies; control subjects were randomly selected workers from the same abattoir who tested negative for anti-Nipah IgM. All 13 case patients versus 26 (63%) of 41 control subjects reported contact with live pigs. No unusual illnesses among pigs processed during February-March were reported. Contact with live pigs appeared to be the most important risk factor for human Nipah virus infection. In the other abattoir where no case was reported, the use of face shields increased among eviscerators 3-4 months before the outbreak. Direct contact with live, potentially infected pigs should be minimized to prevent transmission of this potentially fatal zoonosis to humans. (78121)

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CIS 02-433 Amaranth - A new allergen in bakeries. (German: Amaranth - ein neues Bäckerallergen) Bossert J., Wahl R., Allergologie, Sep. 2000, Vol.23, No.9, p.448-454. Illus. 19 ref. (In German)

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Cutaneous and serological tests performed on four male and one female bakery employee with severe allergic symptoms provided evidence of type I sensitization to amaranth (pigweed) whose seeds are crushed and used in biological bakery products. Even though exposure of the five bakery employees to amaranth was mainly indirect and occurred only twice per week, the allergic reactions included severe asthma attacks and anaphylaxis symptoms aside from irritations of the mucous membrane of the nose and eye irritations. Thus, amaranth is considered to be a strong allergen. (78229)

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CIS 02-434 Analysis of airborne fungi in a bakery: Allergic risks. (French: Analyse de la flore fongique aérienne d'un fournil: risques allergiques) Hédoire C., Mandin D., Wattez A., Delépine A., Teyssier-Cotte C., Chaumont J.P., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.423-424. Illus. 9 ref. (In French)

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Airborne fungi are well known allergens in bakeries. Monthly samplings during one year in a bakery showed high concentrations of indoor fungi, mainly Cladosporium, a suspected allergen. The presence of this genus in the working area constitutes a risk factor of allergies for workers. (78293)

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CIS 02-435 Risk of transmission of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent to workers in the meat industry. (French: Risque de transmission de l'agent de l'encéphalopathie spongiforme bovine aux travailleurs de la filière viande de boucherie) Le Bâcle C., Balty I., Leprince A., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 4th Quarter 2000, No.84, p.415-434. (In French)

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The evaluation of the risk of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) to workers in the meat industry and the management of this risk is a concern common to government authorities, health insurance institutions, workers, trade unions and management. Faced with the rapid progress in scientific data, which however still leave wide areas of uncertainty, the Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) felt it was appropriate to take stock of the current situation with respect to the risks of transmission of BSE and other zoonoses to workers in the meat industry. This form of assistance is part of the INRS mission. Presented in the form of answers to questions listed beforehand by the bodies representing the various interested parties, this report takes into account scientific knowledge, the epidemiological situation and the regulatory framework prevailing in May 2000. (78309)

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CIS 02-436 Risks of infection in medical laboratories. (French: Risques infectieux dans les laboratoires d'analyses médicales) Touche F., Fleury L., Berlie C., Domart M., Pernet M., Leprince A., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.83, p.233-239. (In French)

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Despite the fact that each day, a large number of potentially contaminating samples are handled in medical laboratories, data on the risks of infection are still scanty. A first study was conducted in 1996 in 26 medical laboratories belonging to five hospitals, with the objective of collecting the basic data necessary for hazard evaluation (see CIS 98-954). The study carried out two years later in the same laboratories enabled the assessment of trends with respect to approaches and risk perception. It includes a description of the laboratories, a retrospective inventory of infectious diseases and injuries involving blood exposure and a survey on the perception of the risks of infection. Results highlight favourable trends with respect to facilities, equipment and procedures. (78302)

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CIS 02-437 Falls of ground risks in coal mines face roadways. Kent L., Bigby D., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, Sep. 2001. viii, 69p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2101-4 (In English)

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To address the risk of ground collapse in roadways of underground coal mines due to failures of roof and face reinforcement, rib behaviour and failure mechanisms were studied with the aid of numerical modelling. The model was then used to assess the effectiveness of various reinforcement systems. A new type of extensometer for rib deformation monitoring was investigated to overcome the current problems with existing instrumentation. The risk assessment technique was developed and used successfully at three sites, providing an objective method for determining rib stability and associated falls of ground risks. A variety of rib reinforcement systems were tested in the laboratory encapsulation to assess their performance with respect to rib failure mechanisms. In conclusion, the risk assessment technique was successfully applied to roadways to indicate stability risks associated with face retreat. (78030)

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CIS 02-438 The management, design and operation of microbiological containment laboratories. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, 2001. iv, 72p. lllus. 61 ref. Price: GBP 9.50., ISBN 0-7176-2034-4 (In English)

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The implementation of EC Biological Agents Directive (90/679/EC, see CIS 91-29) via the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994 and 1999 (COSHH, see CIS 95-19 and CIS 00-620) introduced legal requirements applicable to all types of laboratories. This guidance concentrates on legal requirements under COSHH applicable to work with biological agents in microbial containment laboratories. Contents include: safety and health management in microbial containment laboratories; general principles of design and operation of microbial containment laboratories; principal requirements for containment level 2 and level 3 laboratories. (78088)

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CIS 02-439 Global programme on HIV/AIDS and the world of work. (French: Programme mondial sur le VIH/SIDA et le monde du travail; Spanish: Programa mundial sobre el VIH/SIDA y el mundo laboral) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 2001. Folder with 4 leaflets and 1 booklet (8p. + vii, 32p. 79 ref.)., ISBN 92-2-112561-0 (en), ISBN 92-2-212561-4 (fr), ISBN 92-2-312561-8 (es) (In English, French, Spanish)

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Folder containing 4 leaflets, including a message from the Director-General of the ILO and two copies (one pocket-sized) of "An ILO code of practice on HIV/AIDS and the world of work". This code of practice provides guidelines to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in the world of work in the context of the promotion of decent work. The guidelines cover: prevention of HIV/AIDS; management and mitigation of the impact of HIV/AIDS and the world of work; care and support of workers infected and affected by HIV/AIDS; elimination of stigma and discrimination on the basis of real or perceived HIV status. (78244)

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011 Physiology, ergonomics

CIS 02-440 Workplace layout for seated manual handling tasks: An electromyography study. Kothiyal K., Kayis B., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 2001, Vol.27, No.1, p.19-32. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

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To determine the effect of varying magnitude of load and work rate on muscular strain in seated manual handling tasks performed with one hand and the effect of direction of movement on muscular strain, 10 subjects (males and females) performed the task of moving weights from an outward position to a point closer to the body midline. Subject used the dominant hand to perform the task and handled weights of magnitude 1 and 2kg at the work rates of 10 and 20 movements/min. at various starting positions with respect to the body midline over a distance of 38cm. Subjects worked at an adjustable work station and adjusted it until their elbow height and table height were at the same level. Results show that muscular strain as measured by electromyography activity was sensitive to variations in magnitude of load and work rate. Work rate had a relatively large influence on muscular strain as compared to magnitude of load. Total muscle load was dependent on the direction of movement. (78134)

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CIS 02-441 A simple self-rating assessment method of residual work capability for occupational permanent disabilities. Chang Y.C., Chensea M.J., Jang Y., Wang J.D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.539-547. 26 ref. (In English)

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A group of 539 compensated permanent disability workers answered visual analogue questionnaires for self-rating their residual work capability (RWC) in terms of speed (RWCS), quality (RWCQ) and a combination of speed and quality (RWCC). 169 of these subjects were evaluated in hospitals with physical capacity assessment (PCA), cognition and sensation assessment (CSA), the work ability index (WAI) and the 12-item Chinese health questionnaire (CHQ-12). High test-retest reliability (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.77) and satisfactory concurrent validity were shown for RWCS and RWCC. All PCA, CSA and WAI showed significant correlation with RWCs, while CHQ-12 displayed statistically borderline correlation. Employment status after injury and whether or not the victim was the main breadwinner before injury were also major determinants of RWCs. (78075)

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CIS 02-442 Method for the prevention of musculoskeletal diseases of the upper extremities and simple tools. (French: Méthode de prévention des troubles musculosquelettiques du membre supérieur et outils simples) Aptel M., Gerling A., Cail F., Morel O., Lahaye S., Documents pour le médecin du travail, 3rd Quarter 2000, No.83, p.187-223. Illus. 29 ref. (In French)

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This issue includes a collection of four articles devoted to the prevention of musculoskeletal diseases of the upper extremities (MSDs). The first article covers general aspects and principles, and explains why prevention requires a two-step approach, one of screening and one of corrective actions based on ergonomic analyses of the workplace; the second article presents the check-list developed by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA); the third article presents the MSD questionnaire developed by the Institut national de recherche et de sécurité (INRS) for collecting subjective data; finally, the fourth article presents a tool for identifying and evaluating body movements called OREGE, developed by INRS en 1999, which enables the separate evaluation of the various biomechanical risk factors. (78301)

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CIS 02-443 Influence of exercise-focused group activities on the physical activity, functional capacity, and work ability of female farmers - A three-year follow up. Perkiö-Mäkelä M., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.381-394. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of exercise-focused group activities on female farmers' physical activity, functional capacity, and work ability over a period of 3 years. Physical activity increased more in the intervention group (n = 62) than in the control group (n = 64) during the first year. By the third year, physical activity had almost returned to the pre-intervention level. In the 3-year follow-up examination, muscular endurance and cardio-respiratory fitness had improved in the intervention group, and there were more instances of decreases in musculoskeletal symptoms in the intervention group than in the control group. The index used to measure perceived work ability showed no changes over the 3-year period. It can be concluded that group activities focused on leisure-time physical activity and work habits can be recommended as health promotion measures for farmers. (78002)

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CIS 02-444 Physical workload in the construction industry. (French: La charge physique dans la construction) Hautekiet M., Travail et bien-être, Nov. 2000, No.5, p.23-28. Illus. 4 ref. (In French)

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An ergonomic approach can help improve the well-being of construction workers on building sites. By studying the physical workload of bricklayers, this article makes several recommendations: avoid manual handling; adapt the height of work by placing the bricks and mortar board 50cm above floor level; reduce the weight of loads, for example by using 25kg bags instead of 50kg bags; use tools for lifting and positioning heavy blocks; ensure proper site layout; use lighter but equally-stable scaffolding; provide appropriate training to workers. (77897)

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CIS 02-445 Circadian rhythm of heart rate, urinary cortisol excretion, and sleep in civil air traffic controllers. Zużewicz K., Kwarecki K., Waterhouse J., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.383-392. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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Ten civil air traffic controllers (ATCs), nine men and one woman, at Warsaw Airport (Poland) were subjected to 24-hr ECG monitoring. A further 19 ATCs, including 14 working 12-hr shifts and 5 performing 24-hr duties, were monitored for urinary cortisol every 4 hours. Finally 62 answered a questionnaire on the quality and duration of sleep and subjective fatigue. Results show that among ATCs, shift work modifies natural rhythms of the circulatory system and decreases the ability for intense mental work at night. 48% of the ATCs reported sleep disorders. (78145)

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CIS 02-446 Participatory design of work schedules in public local transport through "personalized duty rotas". (German: Partizipative Gestaltung der Arbeitszeit im Fahrdienst von Betrieben des öffentlichen Personennahverkehrs (ÖPNV) durch "individualisierte Dienstpläne") Gauderer P.C., Knauth P., Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.5, p.311-317. Illus. 8.ref. (In German)

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A system of flexible, customized shift schedules for public transport divers which takes into account the driver's preferences is presented. A computer software application was developed for this purpose and successfully pilot-tested for one year in a public transport company. Drivers' satisfaction as well as improvements in service quality have been observed. (78222)

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CIS 02-447 Evaluation of low back pain risks in a beef skinning operation. Das B., Sengupta A.K., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.347-361. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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Low back pain risks in a beef skinning workstation were evaluated. The increases in compressive forces at the lower back (L5/S1) between normal and severe, and between normal and very severe bent back postures were 387N or 28% and 616N or 45%, respectively. The high spine load coupled with high level of repetition can give rise to fatigue failure in the spine structural members. Non-neutral back posture for a large portion of the total work time can be a low back pain risk factor. Videotape analysis showed that the times involved during the task performance for the bent back (more than 25°) and severe bent back (more than 45°) were 48.4 and 33.5% of the total cycle time, respectively. The upper limit from OWAS (Ovako Working Posture Analysis System) for bent back posture is 30% of the total cycle time. The bent and twisted back posture (both more than 25°) time was 10.4 % compared to OWAS limit of 5%. This indicated that actions are needed to alleviate the risk of low back pain, including ergonomic redesign of the workstation. (78143)

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CIS 02-448 Musculoskeletal disorders in a handmade brick manufacturing plant. Trevelyan F.C., Haslam R.A., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 2001, Vol.27, No.1, p.43-55. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

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This study investigated musculoskeletal disorders in a handmade brick factory, concentrating on the moulding department, where clay is shaped into bricks. Methods included a review of medical records, semi-structured interviews, video recording, subjective discomfort surveys, workplace analysis and comparisons with a similar factory. Both upper limb and back problems were identified. The main task was highly repetitive, with a 13s cycle time. Posture and force analyses found poor standing posture and undesirable wrist positions, accompanied by significant force loadings. An important contributory factor was considered to be the piecework system. Recommendations included task redesign to eliminate high-risk elements, modification of the payment system, and workplace changes. A follow-up investigation found that improvements had been made, but important recommendations still needed to be implemented. (78136)

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CIS 02-449 Effects of training in modifying working methods during common patient-handling activities. Nussbaum M.A., Torres N., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Jan. 2001, Vol.27, No.1, p.33-41. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

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It is generally recommended that workers who perform strenuous physical exertions be given training in proper techniques to minimize musculoskeletal risks. In the present study, the effects of training were examined at a behavioral level, and it was assumed that any long-term reduction in injuries must be preceded by measurable changes in how exertions are performed. Because of high injury incidence rates among nurses, common patient-handling tasks were the basis of the study. Participants performed several such tasks and sub-groups received training that consisted of either a commercial video or combined lecture and practice sessions. Compared to a control group, postural, and biomechanical measures were significantly altered following training. Specifically, training was associated with the adoption of a more upright lifting posture. The results suggest that training can modify behavior in an intended direction. (78135)

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CIS 02-450 Back injuries among nursing personnel - Identification of work conditions with cluster analysis. Engkvist I.L., Kjellberg A., Wigaeus H.E., Hagberg M., Menckel E., Ekenvall L., Safety Science, Feb. 2001, Vol.37, No.1, p.1-18. 36 ref. (In English)

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The aim of this study was to identify working conditions that are typical for nursing personnel and relevant for the risk of back injuries, and to analyse how individual characteristics contribute to the risk of injuries in these situations. Six well-defined clusters were identified by cluster analysis. Two clusters had an over-representation of injuries and they were characterised by a combination of full-time work, work on a rolling schedule, regular patient transfers and a high proportion of assistant nurses. In the three clusters with a lower proportion of injuries, the nurses worked part-time. In the cluster with the lowest rate of injuries, there were no regular patient transfers. The decreased risk of injury may thus be a joint effect of fewer working hours, fixed working schedule and less patient handling. (78137)

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CIS 02-451 Can nurses be employed in 12-hours shift systems?. Macowiec-Dąbrowska T., Krawczyk-Adamus P., Sprunsińska E., Jóźwiak Z.W., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.393-403. 12 ref. (In English)

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Nurses are often obliged to work in 12-hr shifts. To check whether working such long hours constitutes an excessive load for nurses, a questionnaire survey was conducted among nurses working in an 8hr daytime shift system (169 nurses) and in a 12-hr shift (536 nurses). The amounts of physical workload, work stress, and after-work activities were compared. Data analysis shows that a 12-hr shift system is characterized by less significant physical workload but greater mental load. The nurses working in a 2-shift system were more tired after work, but could spend more time on leisure activities and housework. The data suggest that there are no significant contraindications for nurses to work in a 2-shift system. (78146)

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CIS 02-452 Anthropometric analysis and design of a driver's workplace in a side-loading refuse collecting vehicle. (German: Anthropometrische Analyse und Gestaltung des Fahrerarbeitsplatzes eines Seitenlader-Abfallsammelfahrzeugs) Hillecke M., Schütte M., Laurig W., Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.3-4, p.249-257. Illus. 20 ref. (In German)

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The postures of drivers in side-loading garbage collecting trucks were determined by anthropometric analyses according to the ISO 3411 and EN 894 standards. Side-loading garbage collection trucks are equipped with an extension arm which picks up the garbage containers and empties them into the truck. The driver controls the extension arm from his seat with a joystick. The anthropometric analyses revealed that very unfavourable postures were adopted for viewing the automatic emptying process. Recommended design changes include the installation of a revolving driver's seat and a larger side window. A new design for side-loading garbage collection trucks is also presented, requiring no rotating movement by the driver, who can remained seated in an upright position. (78174)

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CIS 02-453 Psychosocial aspects of flexible shift work organization among hospital nurses. (German: Psychosoziale Aspekte flexibler Diensteinteilung für das Pflegepersonal in Krankenanstalten) Kundi M., Wöckinger G., Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.5, p.306-310. Illus. 8 ref. (In German)

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The influence of the shift work schedule on sleep duration and social life was determined by conducting a questionnaire survey among 134 nurses in various hospitals in Austria. The aim of the study was to assess possible benefits of flexible shift schedule arrangements compared to traditional 12-hour day or night shift and 8-hour 3-shift schedules. Nurses with flexible shift schedule reported less interference with family obligations and leisure time activities and higher sleep duration and quality. They were on average also more satisfied with their schedule. In both groups with fixed schedules, a significant correlation between interference with family and leisure activities and sleep was observed. (78221)

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CIS 02-454 Sleep-wake cycles of medical residents working extended shifts in Israel. (German: Schlaf- und Wachzyklen von Assistenzärzten mit langen Arbeitszeiten in Israel) Epstein R., Tzsischinsky O., Nave T., Nela C., Dov Z., Peretz L., Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.5, p.324-329. Illus. 25 ref. (In English, German)

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In Israel residents in hospitals are on duty in shifts up to 32 hours. The purpose of this study was to provide specific information on their sleep-wake cycles. 78 residents completed a self-administered questionnaire survey and their sleep-wake cycle was monitored by a wrist-worn actigraph for one week at the beginning of the study, and after 6 and 12 months. It was found that residents slept significantly less during a night shift compared to a night at home. During the first year of residency, the residents worked at least 9-10 extended shifts a month and suffered from chronic sleep deprivation. (78223)

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CIS 02-455 Evaluation of occupational hazards associated with physical workload in the food retail sector. (Spanish: Evaluación de riesgos laborales asociados a la carga física en el sector comercio-alimentación) García Molina C., Prevención, July-Sep. 2001, No.157, p.8-13. Illus. 4 ref. (In Spanish)

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Many occupations in the food retail sector involve straining physical workloads due to the handling of heavy loads, inappropriate work postures and repetitive movements of the arms and hands. This survey covered 10 representative enterprises in the sector and analysed the risk associated with the physical workload as well as the main ergonomic risks of the tasks studied; it includes recommendations for the design and layout of workplaces that reduce the level of risks considered to be unacceptable. 80% of the repetitive tasks analysed presented a high risk of musculoskeletal disorders or injuries in the cervicobrachial region, and close to 50% in the hand-wrist region. The most frequent risk factors related to repetitive movements were an important flexion of the neck and arms, repetitive movements of the arm and forced deviation of the wrists. In 35% of the manual handling tasks, the risks of musculoskeletal injuries in the dorsal and lumbar region were found to be unacceptable. (78277)

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CIS 02-456 Working at night 8, 10 or 12 hours in hospitals. (French: Travailler la nuit en 8, 10 ou 12 heures à l'hôpital) Estryn-Béhar M., Bonnet N., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Oct. 2000, Vol.61, No.6, p.402-416. 49 ref. (In French)

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A comparison of hospital working conditions on various shifts and of their repercussions on health and social life was made by means of a self-administered questionnaire, using a sample group of 2,241 women. It was possible to distinguish employees working day shifts and starting early or late, afternoon shifts, and night shifts of 8-, 10-, or 12-hour duration. Multiple logistic regression analyses were carried out in order to take socio-demographic and professional characteristics into account. Factors taken into account in the survey included sleep problems, fatigue, irritability, gastro-intestinal problems, stress, obesity, level of responsibility, eating habits, age and the number of children. The study shows a significant effect on sleep and fatigue for 10- and 12-hour night shifts. (78292)

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CIS 02-457 Worksite and personal factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome in an Egyptian electronics assembly factory. Abbas M.F., Faris R.H., Harber P.I., Mishriky A.M., El-Shahaly H.A., Waheeb Y.H., Kraus J.F., International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health, Jan.-Mar. 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.31-36. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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The study objective was to identify personal and work related risk factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in electronics assembly operators relative to clerical workers in the same factory. Of 422 workers in a television assembly factory located in Ismailia, Egypt, 198 (46.9%) participated. The electronics assembly workers were more likely to report CTS (odds ratio = 11.41) than were the clerical workers. The significant risk factors were longer work years (odds ratio = 1.11) and precision-type hand grip (odds ratio = 6.5). The results suggest an association between electronics assembly and CTS. Work years and precision grip are possible risk factors for CTS and should be studied more thoroughly. Tools to reduce the need for precision grip may help reduce CTS. (78105)

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CIS 02-458 Internal and external factors influencing time-related injury risk in continuous shift work. Ogiński A., Ogińska H., Pokorski J., Kmita W., Goździela R., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.405-421. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

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Time-related accident risk in shift work may be attributed to internal factors, such as fatigue, level of performance, sleep propensity, and to some external factors such as the shift system and the physical and social environments. 668 accidents in the metallurgical industry have been analysed in terms of time of day, time on task, consecutive day of the shift block, day of the week, and season. The injury rate was similar on all shifts, but accident severity was higher at night. Somewhat more injuries occurred in the second half of the shift, in the second part of a shift block, and in summer compared with winter. There were fewer injuries at weekends. (78147)

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CIS 02-459 Work performance when breathing through different respirator exhalation resistances. Caretti D.M., Scott W.H., Johnson A.T., Coyne K.M., Koh F., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.411-415. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

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An evaluation of the performance in workers, exercising at a fixed workload and wearing full-face piece respirators, and modified to provide different expiratory resistances. Fifteen volunteers exercised on a treadmill at fixed speeds and grades. Performance time decreased linearly with increased resistances. Average oxygen consumption rates and minute ventilation also decreased, indicating that increases in expiratory resistance result in hypoventilation. This study suggests that the only practical expiratory resistance level limitation is the reduction in performance that will be acceptable to the workers. (78182)

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CIS 02-460 Fatigue and endurance limits during intermittent overhead work. Nussbaum M.A., Clark L.L., Lanza M.A., Rice K.M., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.446-456. Illus. 90 ref. (In English)

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An ergonomic evaluation of tasks requiring the hands to be used at or above shoulder level has been conducted first of all with a laboratory simulation of overhead assembly work. In this simulation the duty cycle (work/rest ratio), arm reach and hand orientation of a tapping task were varied. Females exhibited longer endurance times, delayed reports of discomfort and slower declines in strength. Influences of duty cycle were found on both endurance and fatigue times, which are presented as criteria for preliminary evaluation of overhead work. (78186)

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CIS 02-461 Reducing incidence of low-back injuries reduces cost. Brophy M.O., Achimore L., Moore-Dawson J., AIHA Journal, July-Aug. 2001, Vol.62, No.4, p.508-511. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

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Report on an ergonomics programme employing mechanical lifting devices in order to reduce musculoskeletal injuries in nursing personnel in a nursing home. Comparisons in health and financial outcomes were made between the pre-intervention period (two years) and the intervention period (four years). There was a significant reduction in the number of low-back injuries and the total number of lost workdays was reduced from 1,476 before to 625 per year after the intervention. There was a significant reduction in the average yearly cost associated with low-back injuries. (78193)

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CIS 02-462 Observation procedures characterizing occupational physical activities: Critical review. Denis D., Lortie M., Rossignol M., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.463-491. 110 ref. (In English)

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This literature review had two objectives, firstly to compare the observation procedures proposed for characterizing physical work, and secondly to examine the following 3 methodological issues: reliability, observer training and internal validity. 72 papers were reviewed, 38 of which proposed a new or modified observation grid. The observation variables identified were broken down into seven categories as follows: posture, exertion, load handled, work environment, use of feet, use of hands, and activities or tasks performed. The review revealed the variability of existing procedures. The examination of methodological issues showed that observation data can be reliable and can present an adequate internal validity. However, little information on the conditions necessary to achieve good reliability was available. (78333)

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CIS 02-463 Users' demands regarding dental safety glasses. Combining a quantitative approach and grounded theory for the data analysis. Lönnroth E.C., Shahnavaz H., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.49-59. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

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Despite the frequency of eye infections among dentists, few use proper eye protection. To understand users' demands behind the low use of safety glasses, a questionnaire was mailed to all dentists and dentists' assistants in Sweden on the factors they found most important when choosing protective glasses; they were also asked to rate the importance of 31 statements regarding ergonomic aspects of dental safety glasses. Results showed that dentists ranked the visual aspects as most important, while for the assistants, the protective aspects were given a higher priority. Protective glasses which satisfy the highly visual demanding work performed by dentists are not yet available on the market, which may explain the low use level. (78338)

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CIS 02-464 Effects of neutral posture on muscle tension during computer use. Dowler E., Kappes B., Fenaughty A., Pemberton G., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.61-78. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

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The objective of this study was to develop a new approach for evaluating seated work positions. 67 office workers who use a Visual Display Terminal (VDT) during a major portion of their working day were evaluated. Muscle tension was measured by surface electromyography (sEMG) while participants were asked to adopt four selected working postures. Pain was measured before and after ergonomic intervention on the Nordic scale, which was modified for this study. Adjustable workstations were used to place participants in desired positions during the testing sessions and the extended intervention period. Results indicate that this ergonomic intervention may have positive effects on muscle tension and pain, significant enough to encourage employers to implement training and workstation modifications following these guidelines. (78339)

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CIS 02-465 Effects of Ergorest arm supports on muscle strain and wrist positions during the use of the mouse and keyboard in work with visual display units: A work site intervention. Lintula M., Nevala-Puranen N., Louhevaara V., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2001, Vol.7, No.1, p.103-116. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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The effects of Ergorest arm supports on wrist angles and musculoskeletal strain in the neck-shoulder-arm region and electrical activity in the shoulder and arm muscles were studied during typing or the use of the mouse in work with a visual display unit (VDU). 21 women were divided into three groups (one arm support, two arm supports, and control). Measurements were carried out before and after the six-week intervention. The wrist extension of the mouse hand, the muscle activity of the trapezius muscle, and the subjective discomfort ratings indicated that two arm supports were better than one during work with a mouse. The Ergorest arm support alleviates muscle and joint strain in VDU work when used for both arms. (78340)

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CIS 02-466 Participative versus assigned production standard setting in a repetitive industrial task: A strategy for improving worker productivity. Das B., Shikdar A.A., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.417-430. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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This study designed to compare the effects of participative versus assigned production standard setting on worker productivity was conducted in a fish processing plant on 32 workers executing a repetitive task. The participative standard with feedback condition was superior to the assigned difficult (140% of normal) standard with feedback condition. The percentage increase in worker productivity with the participative standard and feedback condition was 46%, whereas the increase in the assigned difficult standard with feedback was 23%, compared to the control group (no standard, no feedback). Worker productivity also improved significantly as a result of assigning a normal (100%) production standard with feedback, compared to the control group, and the increase was 12%. The participative standard with feedback condition emerges as the optimum strategy for improving worker productivity in a repetitive industrial production task. (78004)

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CIS 02-467 Methods of human reliability analysis. (German: Verfahren zur Bewertung der menschlichen Zuverlässigkeit) Heinz K., Lolling A., Menk J., Zeitschrift für Arbeitswissenschaft, 2000, Vol.54, No.3-4, p.234-242. Illus. 53 ref. (In German)

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Human error probability is an important issue in hazardous industries. Eleven methods of human reliability analysis in man-machine systems are described and evaluated. Six are based on expert assessments of the probability of human errors, four use observations, experiments or calculations and one uses the relationship between the available time and the time needed to perform a task. The methods are evaluated according to the criteria of accuracy, completeness, required resources and acceptance. The results are summarized in a table, which helps selecting the most appropriate method for determining human reliability. (78173)

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CIS 02-468 A classification system for characterization of physical and non-physical work factors. Genaidy A., Karwowski W., Succop P., Kwon Y.G., Alhemoud A., Goyal D., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.4, p.535-555. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

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A comprehensive evaluation of work-related performance factors is a prerequisite to developing integrated and long-term solutions to workplace performance improvement. This paper describes a work-factor classification system that categorizes the entire domain of workplace factors impacting performance. A questionnaire-based instrument was developed to implement this classification system in industry. 50 jobs were evaluated in four different service and manufacturing companies using the proposed questionnaire-based instrument. The reliability coefficients obtained from the analyzed jobs were good. In general, the physical work factors resulted in higher reliability coefficients than non-physical work factors. (78335)

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CIS 02-469 Method for analysing manual handling tasks aimed at health care institutions and employees. (French: Méthode d'analyse des manutentions manuelles destinée aux établissements et personnels de soins) Granier M., Bourchenin P., Perrin P., Beuchot J., Labourayre J.L., Samuel A., Meyer J.P., Baranski R.M., Jandrot P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1st ed., Aug. 2001. 72p.+27p. (annexes). Illus. 33 ref., ISBN 2-7389-0968-X (In French)

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Recent studies show that health care workers are the most exposed to manual handling, and rank immediately behind building industry workers for strenuous postures. Aimed at health care institutions as well as health care workers, this manual describes a method for analysing the working conditions of health care workers with respect to manual handling. Phases of the approach include job study, analysis, interpretation of results, search for solutions and evaluation of actions. An example showing the application of the method in a 40-bed rehabilitation ward is presented. (77890)

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CIS 02-470 Applied Ergonomics - Case studies - Volume 2. Alexander D.C., ed., Engineering and Management Press, Customer Service, 25 Technology Park, Atlanta, Northcross, GA 30092, USA, 1999. 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 0-89806-214-4 (In English)

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This publication consists of a collection of 22 articles describing real cases of ergonomic evaluations and improvements, divided into five sections: manufacturing ergonomics; office ergonomics support ergonomics; (field sales activities, maintenance personnel); design ergonomics; ergonomics programs. (77952)

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CIS 02-471 Gender, employment and working time preferences in Europe. Fagan C., Warren T., European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus., ISBN 92-897-0116-1 (In English)

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During 1998, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out a major survey on Employment Options of the Future across the 15 EU Member States and Norway. It involved over 30,000 telephone interviews with people aged between 16 and 64 years. The survey examined the questions of persons wanting to work, when and why. This leaflet summarizes the main findings of the survey concerning men's and women's preferences with respect to the number of hours they work per week. Contents: adjustments to weekly working hours; children and care responsibilities; country differences; occupational and professional status; overtime, sabbaticals and part-time work; discussion of results. (78203)

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CIS 02-472 Hours of work '99. (German: Arbeitszeit '99) Bundesmann-Jansen J., Gross H., Munz E., Gemeinnützige Werkstätten Neuss GmbH, Am Krausenbaum 11, 41464 Neuss, Germany, 2000. 205p. 64 ref. (In German)

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A questionnaire survey of 4024 employees aged 18 to 65 conducted in Germany in 1999 revealed that only 15% had the standard 9 to 5, five days a week work time schedule. The majority of 85% worked under some form of flexible arrangement. Of those with flexible work time schedules, more worked under pressure with regard to speed of work and performance as compared to those working according to the standard work time schedule. The majority of those questioned (56%) said they regularly worked overtime. More men (63%) claimed to work overtime than women (47%), which represents an increase of 13% for men and 10% for women compared to an earlier survey in 1995. Part-time work was performed by 20%, which represents an increase of 2% over 1995. The employees who regularly worked shifts and at night rose by 5% from 1995 to reach 18% in 1999. More than half of the shift and night workers (54%) claimed to have work time schedules which suit their individual preferences. (78226)

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CIS 02-473 Occupational safety and health - Ergonomics - Standard performance. Strategic contributions to a comprehensive organization of work. (German: Arbeitsschutz - Ergonomie - Normleistung. Strategische Beiträge zur ganzheitlichen Arbeitsgestaltung) Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 131p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-89701-717-2 (In German)

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Proceedings of a workshop on the standardisation of working performance held in Dresden, Germany, 12 December 2000. This workshop was primarily focussed on pre-defined time systems, and particularly on the MTS (Methods-Time-Measurement) system. Topics presented: standardization of work performance; ergonomics; limitation of constraints; stress prevention; quality of work; carrying out work in accordance with safety requirements. (78233)

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CIS 02-474 Working conditions in atypical work. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus. 5 ref., ISBN 92-897-0126-9 (In English)

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Atypical work is defined as non-permanent work, part-time work and forms of work other than full-time employment with a permanent contract. Using data from the Third European Survey on Working Conditions 2000 (see CIS 02-476), a very diverse situation was observed in the European Union, with large differences between and within countries concerning the distribution of different forms of atypical work, the way such work is divided between sectors, the legal frameworks and monitoring mechanisms governing this type of employment. There are important differences between permanent and non-permanent employees in aspects such as control over working time, skills-matching and training provision. Contents: implications for working conditions and employment conditions; health problems and outcomes; situation of temporary agency workers; discussion of results. (78204)

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CIS 02-475 Working time preferences at different phases of life. Lilja R., Hämäläinen U., European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. 8p. Illus., ISBN 92-897-0108-0 (In English)

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During 1998, the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions carried out a major survey on Employment Options of the Future across the 15 EU Member States and Norway. It involved over 30,000 telephone interviews with people aged between 16 and 64 years. The survey examined the questions of persons wanting to work, when and why. This leaflet summarizes the main findings of the survey concerning age-related preferences with respect to weekly hours of work. Contents: employment patterns at different phases of life; young people and employment; transition from school to employment; factors affecting young people's employment prospects; combining family and work; satisfaction with working hours; working time regulations; reaping the benefits of work; choices of older women; preparing for life after work; gradual retirement; discussion of results. (78205)

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CIS 02-476 Third European survey on working conditions 2000. Paoli P., Merllié D., European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2895 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 2001. xi, 72p. Illus. Index. Price: EUR 25.00., ISBN 92-897-0130-7 (In English)

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This report presents the main findings of the Third European survey on working conditions, and follows earlier surveys of 1990/91 and 1995/96 (see CIS 98-133). The survey was carried out simultaneously in each of the 15 Member States of the European Union and in Norway in March 2000, and involved face-to-face interviews with over 20,000 workers. Contents: methodology; context and structural variables; nature of work; physical work factors; work organization; time; information and consultation; psychosocial factors; outcomes (safety and health risks, occupational accidents and diseases); income levels and payment systems; work and family life; comparison of Norway with EU averages. (78206)

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CIS 02-477 Workplace design - Approaches, methods and technical understanding. (French: Conception des lieux de travail - Démarches, méthodes et connaissances techniques) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 4th ed., Sep. 2000. 124p. Illus. Index., ISBN 2-85599-793-3 (In French)

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This guide is aimed at building owners, builders, architects and all persons involved in discussions with designers (workers' representatives, safety and health specialists, suppliers). It contains a series of design principles that should be integrated into all projects involving the construction of work premises or workplaces. Contents include: phases of a project; approaches for the prevention of occupational accidents and diseases; collecting information; layout methods; layout and traffic; fluids, energy and heavy equipment; structures and buildings; noise, fire and explosions; machinery and workplaces; design and layout of premises; design and layout of offices; maintenance of workplaces and equipment; preparing the commissioning of the site. (77917)

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CIS 02-478 NIOSH Musculoskeletal documents on CD-ROM - Preventing work-related disorders. Publications Dissemination, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226-1998, USA, Apr. 2001. CD-ROM for Windows 95, 98, NT or 2000, with a Pentium 60MHz of higher (needs Acrobat Reader 3.0 or higher). (In English)

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Collection of documents in PDF format on CD-ROM covering the following topics: ergonomic keyboards; revised NIOSH lifting equation; effectiveness of back belts; elements of ergonomics programmes; ergonomic interventions for the soft drink beverage delivery industry; effective workplace ergonomic practices and programmes; musculoskeletal disorders and workplace factors; national occupational research agenda for musculoskeletal disorders; participatory ergonomic interventions in meatpacking plants; NIOSH testimony submitted to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) in support of the proposed OSHA ergonomics programmes. The documents include methods, case studies, "toolkits", study reports and proposed research programmes. (77954)

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012 Stress, psychosocial factors

CIS 02-479 Job stress, upper extremity pain and functional limitations in symptomatic computer users. Haufler A.J., Feuerstein M., Huang G.D., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Nov. 2000, Vol.38, No.5, p.507-515. 57 ref. (In English)

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To study upper extremity pain and function, 124 symptomatic female office workers completed a questionnaire measuring demographics, medical history, work demands, perception of the work environment, work style, pain intensity, functional impact and time lost from work. Heightened job stress and the tendency to continue to work in a way that contributes to pain to ensure high quality were related to pain intensity at work and decreased function. These variables, in addition to hours worked per year, were related to increased pain experienced across the work week. The model tested did not predict the occurrence of lost time. These findings provide support for the association between job stress, work style, upper extremity pain and function impairment. Results are consistent with prior research indicating the potential significance of job stress and work style on symptom exacerbation and functional limitations. (78072)

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CIS 02-480 Working and health conditions of Italian air traffic controllers. Costa G., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Vol.6, No.3, p.365-382. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

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This paper summarizes some studies carried out in recent years on air traffic controllers in Italy. Work stress appeared related mainly to mental charge, aggravated by time pressure and high responsibility. Shiftwork was not considered highly stressful, as a result of the good shift schedules adopted. The disorders most frequently complained of had a prevalent psychosomatic component, concerning the digestive, neuropsychic, and cardiovascular systems. However, their prevalence was similar to or below that of the general population. The controllers engaged in regional centres showed slightly worse health conditions than those engaged in airport towers; the same was found in the radar controllers compared to those working in non-radar positions. (78144)

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CIS 02-481 Mental health of scientific researchers I. Characteristics of job stress among scientific researchers working at a research park in Japan. Kageyama T., Matsuzaki I., Morita N., Sasahara S., Satoh S., Nakamura H., International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Apr. 2001, Vol.74, No.3, p.199-205. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

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To study job stress among scientific researchers, data from a self-administered questionnaire survey of workers aged 20-59 years at Tsukuba Research Park City, Japan, were analysed. The data, and the characteristics of job stress in 3,290 scientific researchers were compared with those of 1,799 technicians and 1,849 clerks. The researchers perceived higher quantitative and qualitative workload, greater job control, and greater reward from work, than did the other two job groups. Young male researchers received a large amount of support from their co-workers, while middle-aged male researchers perceived difficulty in personal relationships with their co-workers. For researchers, particularly men, the large amount of effort required for their work seemed to be balanced by greater reward from work. Compared with male researchers, female researchers perceived lesser job demand, lesser job control and lesser reward from work. (78115)

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CIS 02-482 Study of workplaces which require the use of both a screen and a telephone in customer-service jobs. (French: Etude de postes de travail utilisant le couple téléphone-écran dans les services de relation-clientèle) Choffat P., Desbazelle A., Eugène G., Archives des maladies professionnelles et de médecine du travail, Dec. 1999, Vol.60, No.8, p.755-759. 5 ref. (In French)

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This study investigated the working conditions of a total of 150 operators working in call centres of three catalogue-sales companies. Subjects were predominantly women. The tasks performed, environmental conditions, work organization and work evaluation were analysed. Findings include a high mental workload, as well as a risk that productivity targets imposed on workers goals give rise to stress. The use that supervisors and managers make of productivity-measuring tools could have important consequences on the mental health of call centre workers. (77972)

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CIS 02-483 Prevention of drowning: Visual scanning and attention span in lifeguards. Fenner P., Leahy S., Buhk A., Dawes P., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.61-66. 24 ref. (In English)

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The safety of the swimming public is dependent on effective continuous scanning techniques by lifeguards patrolling the area. Similar scanning skills are needed in other professions which require concentration for repetitive, monotonous or boring tasks. These include airline pilots, air search and rescue personnel, and long-distance train or bus drivers. To date, very little has been published on effective methods for lifeguards to use when scanning their area of responsibility. Techniques that influence visual scanning effectiveness and concentration spans, or assist in the prevention of boredom, are presented and discussed. (78068)

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CIS 02-484 8th Research day of the Inter-University Institute of Occupational Medicine of Paris-Ile-de-France: Sleep - vigilance - work. (French: 8ème Journée de recherche de l'Institut interuniversitaire de médecine du travail de Paris-Ile-de-France: sommeil - vigilance - travail) Özkan-Rabret E., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.2, p.189-202. (In French)

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Review article on the topics presented at the 8th inter-university occupational medicine research day of Paris-Ile-de-France held in Paris, 23 March 2001. Contents: biological clocks and rules affecting alternating sleep and alert periods; insomnia and poor quality sleep, including evaluation tools; hypersomnia; drowsiness when driving; intake of medicines and drowsiness; drowsiness and aptitude for vigilance tasks; drowsiness assessment scales. (77884)

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CIS 02-485 Bullying: Psychosomatic, psychodynamic and therapeutic approaches. (French: Le harcèlement moral: approche psychosomatique, psychodynamique, thérapeutique) Grenier-Peze M., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2001, Vol.41, No.2, p.169-177. 8 ref. (In French)

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In 1997 in France, 30% of employed persons declared having experienced a tense relationship with supervisors. The most affected sectors are large retail chains, the hotel industry and the health care establishments. Contents of this general review article on bullying: definitions of bullying; clinical profile of victims; trauma; therapeutic approaches. (77881)

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CIS 02-486 Neuropsychic reactions following exposure to traumatic incidents at the place of work. (French: Réactions psychiques après événements traumatiques survenus en milieu de travail) Bertucat-Dufourt I., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.2, p.155-164. 4ref. (In French)

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Cases of work-related post-traumatic neurosis are increasing. They can occur after an accident or tragic incident in which the worker was either a direct victim or a close witness; they can also follow incidents of physical or verbal violence. Unfortunately, they are not always recognized by employers or by occupational accident legislation. Contents of this review article: summary of regulations; description of post-traumatic neurosis symptoms; short case descriptions; approaches implemented by a public transport authority and a bank; role of employers; role of health insurance institutions; role of occupational physicians. (77892)

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CIS 02-487 WebStress: A web interface to explore a multidatabase bibliographic corpus on occupational stress. Jolibois S., Mouzé-Amady M., Chouanière D., Grandjean F., Nauer E., Ducloy J., Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2000, Vol.14, No.4, p.283-296. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

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In this literature study on occupational stress, eight databases belonging to different fields (medicine, psychology, etc.) from different countries were searched. More than 26,000 references on occupational stress were gathered. A system called WebStress was developed for reformatting the data, removing duplicates, and searching the corpus with advanced features (using clustering, a specialized thesaurus on stress and Boolean queries). In addition to the usual bibliographic queries on a specific database such as Medline, WebStress provides bibliometric analysis of the corpus, which might contribute to a detailed analysis on occupational stress in order to highlight the networks of researchers and to find the main topics studied in this area. WebStress is being further developed and is not yet commercially available. (77957)

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CIS 02-488 Job insecurity, coping resources and personality dispositions in occupational strain. Mak A.S., Mueller J., Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2000, Vol.14, No.4, p.312-328. 51 ref. (In English)

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The relationships between the work-related stressor of perceived job insecurity and various indicators of occupational strain are presented, taking into account employees' personality dispositions and coping resources. 222 Australian public servants were surveyed during an organizational restructuring that involved downsizing and threats to job certainty. Findings from hierarchical regression analyses indicate consistent significant independent effects of personality dispositions, coping resources and perceived job insecurity on various indicators of strain. There was also support for the moderating roles of negative affectivity and self-care in the relation between perceived job insecurity and physical strain. Implications for the role of dispositional factors, especially negative affectivity, and the utility of various coping resources in accounting for occupational strain in times of threatened job security are discussed. (77958)

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CIS 02-489 The role of attributions in psychological reactions to job relocation. Martin R., Leach D.J., Norman P., Silvester J., Work and Stress, Oct.-Dec. 2000, Vol.14, No.4, p.347-361. Illus. 54 ref. (In English)

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Job relocation refers to the process of simultaneously moving to a new job and place of residence. This can cause considerable stress for the persons relocating and their families. It was predicted that negative psychological reactions would be a function of the number of relocation problems, and the tendency of making pessimistic attributions for relocation problems (that is to attribute negative events to internal, stable and global causes). Furthermore, these factors should interact, such that individuals with many relocation problems who also make pessimistic attributions are expected to experience the worst psychological reactions. The results from a cross-sectional survey of 93 relocating persons supported these predictions. Those with many relocation problems and who made pessimistic attributions reported the worst mental health and relocation-specific stress. Furthermore, the relocators predicted to be most at risk (many problems, low control) reported the worst changes in mental health during the course of the move. (77959)

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CIS 02-490 Workspace layout design: Physical comfort, appropriation and social interactions. (French: L'aménagement des espaces de travail: confort physique, appropriation et interactions sociales) Van de Leemput C., Médecine du travail & Ergonomie / Arbeidsgezondheitszorg & Ergonomie, 1999, Vol.XXXVI, No.4, p.169-175. Illus. 5 ref. (In French)

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The psychology of workspace allows the examination of the interactions between human behaviour and the structures in which people work from a new perspective. Through a historical analysis of the organization of the workspace in the technical and administrative sectors, this article reviews the interaction between changes in working organization and office layout. Workspace functionality is analysed along three dimensions: spatial layout, physical comfort and social relationships. Results show that open-space offices, with or without separations, are less functional and more constraining with respect to the establishment of social relationships. Not having a private workspace is also viewed as a negative element. (77984)

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CIS 02-491 Achievement and social relations values as conditions of the importance of work aspects and job satisfaction. Zalewska A.M., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 1999, Vol.5, No.3, p.395-416. Illus. 46 ref. (In English)

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169 bank employees were investigated with the "Orientation to Work Values Inventory", and the "Work Description Inventory". The data show complex connections between values and the perceived importance of work on one hand, and job satisfaction on the other hand. It was found that the importance of the values of achievement and social relations influences the importance of aspects of work. Overall job satisfaction depends on the social relations value, while some specific aspects of satisfaction depends on this value or on interactions of both of the values. The hypothesis that overall job satisfaction can be predicted from satisfaction with most important aspects of work is not confirmed by the data. (78003)

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CIS 02-492 Monitoring psychosocial stress at work: Development of the psychosocial working conditions questionnaire. Widerszal-Bazyl M., Cieślak R., International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 2000, Special issue, p.59-70. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

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Many studies on the impact of psychosocial working conditions on health prove that psychosocial stress at work is an important risk factor for workers' health and should be constantly monitored as are other work hazards. The paper presents a newly-developed approach for stress monitoring, the Psychosocial Working Conditions Questionnaire (PWC). It consists of 3 main scales, Job Demands, Job Control and Social Support, and 2 additional scales adapted from the Occupational Stress Questionnaire, Well-Being and Desired Changes. The study of 8 occupational groups (bank and insurance specialists, medical personnel, construction workers, shop assistants, public administration workers, computer scientists, public transport drivers and teachers) indicates that PWC has satisfactory psychometric parameters. (78007)

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CIS 02-493 Minesafe 1998 - Understanding human behaviour: A necessity in improving safety and health performance. Sundström-Frisk C., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.37-45. 12 ref. (In English)

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According to this article, all accidents in artificial systems directly or indirectly caused by human behaviour. For persons seriously wishing to improve safety, understanding human factors and human behaviour is essential. Usually the behaviour of the person triggering the risk is focused on. However, the behaviour of managers, designers, instructors and risk analysts also need to be considered. Their decisions, mistakes and attitudes towards risks define the underlying risk level and safety culture of the company, worker behaviour being only a reflection of this safety culture. Efforts to influence workers' risk behaviour must begin by analysing the company's safety culture and the situations in which accidents arise. (78067)

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CIS 02-494 Burnout in mental health professionals: A personal construct approach. Colquhoun R., Journal of Occupational Health and Safety - Australia and New Zealand, Feb. 1999, Vol.15, No.1, p.67-78. 45 ref. (In English)

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Burnout is characterized by depersonalization, a decreased sense of personal accomplishment and physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. This research project used quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the influence of affect states (anger, depression and good feelings), differences in work-related construct systems and socio-demographic variables on burnout. The study group consisted of 60 health care professionals, who were questioned on their working environment and personal life; the replies were transcribed and rated on a number of scales. A personal construct model of burnout was developed, according to which affect states were associated with levels of burnout and differences in content of work-related construct systems were predictive of levels of burnout. However, there were no significant differences in socio-demographical factors among professionals who showed burnout. Implications of the present research are discussed and ideas for future research are suggested. (78069)

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CIS 02-495 Effectiveness of smoking-cessation intervention in all of the smokers at a worksite in Japan. Kodawaki T., Watanabe M., Okayama A., Hishida K., Ueshima H., Industrial Health, Oct. 2000, Vol.38, No.4, p.396-403. Illus. 23 ref. (In English)

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In Japan, the prevalence of smoking among males and females was 56.1% and 14.2%, respectively, in 1997. This study describes a smoking-cessation intervention in a radiator manufacturing factory. All 263 male smokers were randomly allocated either to an intervention group (132) or a control group (131). Subjects in the intervention group received individual counseling by a doctor, and participated in group discussions during the five-month intervention. Subjects in the control group received equivalent delayed intervention for four months. The cessation rate after the original intervention was 12.9% and 3.1% in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Among those who once succeeded in quitting, 48.6% maintained cessation at the long-term survey. Overall, the cessation rate was 8.4% and the prevalence of smoking among males significantly decreased from 62.9 to 56.7%. (78133)

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CIS 02-496 Sexual harassment. (French: Le harcèlement sexuel) Vallès G., Cahiers de médecine interprofessionnelle, 2000, Vol.40, No.4, p.417-421. (In French)

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This general article on sexual harassment covers the following topics: definition; French legislation; internal and legal recourse; role of management in preventing and punishing sexual harassment; psychological and pathological profile of perpetrators. (78300)

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CIS 02-497 Statistical models applied to neurobehavioural epidemiology. (French: Modèles statistiques appliqués à l'épidémiologie neuro-comportementale) Grzebyk M., Chouanière D., Wild P., Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, June 2000. 99p. Illus. 48 ref. (In French)

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Neurobehavioural epidemiological studies use psychometric testing for generating specific multi-variate data. This report summarizes the results of a study aimed at developing a statistical analysis method suited for multi-variate analysis. Upon reviewing published literature describing appropriate statistical methods, the linear latent variable model was selected. It was first tested and validated on simulated variables, then applied to two sets of real data, one from a cross-sectional study on the neurotoxicity of toluene, and the other on a study aimed at estimating the incidence of insanity among aged persons and identifying the risk factors. Through these different applications of the model, it was possible to develop a better understanding of its applicability and its limitations. (77970)

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CIS 02-498 A critical review of psychosocial hazard measures. Rick J., Briner R.B., Daniels K., Perryman S., Guppy A., Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 2WA, United Kingdom, July 2001. viii, 137p. Illus. 300 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-2064-6 (In English)

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Occupational safety and health legislation requires that employers regularly conduct risk assessments to identify potential hazards to employees' health at the workplace. The idea of risk assessment for physical hazards is well-established. More recently, attention has focused on the assessment of risk from psychosocial hazards, and methods have been developed from research to assess the prevalence of workplace stressors. Although much research has been done on stress, there existed no systematic overview of the different types of stressor measures currently available, nor was there any consistently-recorded information about their relative merits. This report consists of a critical review of published literature, identifying a wide range of commonly used methods, assessing the research evidence available and providing an overview of their relative strengths. Conclusions are drawn about the state of knowledge in this area and issues for practice and research. (78023)

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CIS 02-499 Psychological preparation and follow-up of occupational groups faced with emergency situations. (German: Psychologische Vor- und Nachsorge für Beschäftigte von Berufsgruppen, die mit Notfallsituationen konfrontiert sind) Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Postfach 10 11 10, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 2001. 93p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-89701-718-0 (In German)

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Proceedings of a workshop on the psychological preparation and follow-up of occupational groups faced with emergency situations organized by the Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin on 15 June 2000. Main topics covered: definition and basis for psychological support in emergency situations; first aid and psychological support in cases of accidents; experiences with respect to religious support; rules for debriefing and training of persons required to conduct debriefing sessions; crisis management and emergency situations within the enterprise; psychological support following occupational accidents; prevention measures and computerized training programmes for persons providing psychological support in emergency situations. (78234)

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CIS 02-500 Sexual harassment at the workplace. (Spanish: Acoso sexual en el trabajo) Pérez Bilbao J., Sancho Figueroa T., Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1999. 6p. 8 ref. (In Spanish)

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This information note addresses the issue of sexual harassment at the workplace, a problem which mainly affects women. It presents a definition and a classification of sexual harassment and describes its possible impact on work and health. Preventive measures and procedures to be adopted within the organization (advice to women who are victims of harassment, complaint procedures, investigations, penalties) are described, as well as the provisions of Spanish legislation in this area. (78262)

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Page generated from the CISDOC database. Date: 19.09.19.