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ILO-CIS Bulletin 1994/04

CIS 94-1101 --- CIS 94-1450

Laws, regulations, directives
Chemical data sheets and criteria documents
Training materials and practical information
Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals
   001 General safety, health and conditions of work
   002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology
   003 Industries and occupations
   004 New technologies
   005 Chemical safety
   006 Fires, explosions and major hazards
   007 Electrical safety
   008 Physical hazards
   009 Mechanical hazards, transport
   010 Biological hazards
   011 Physiology, ergonomics
   012 Stress, psychosocial factors


Laws, regulations, directives

CIS 94-1101 Directive concerning safety and health conditions in buildings, locales, installations and areas in workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.1 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los edificios, locales, instalaciones y áreas de los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 16p. Illus. Also in: Diario Oficial, 25 June 1991. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It covers the basic safety and health requirements that employers must comply with in matters of working space, roofs, walls, floors, courtyards, staircases, ramps, fixed and mobile ladders, passageways and platforms. In annex: glossary of terms used. Directive No.1 of 1983 is repealed. (62791)

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CIS 94-1102 Directive concerning the requirements and characteristics of personal protective equipment for workers [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.17 relativo a los requerimientos y características del equipo de protección personal para los trabajadores) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 4p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 17 Dec. 1991. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It prescribes the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in the following situations: when hazard evaluation indicates that the use of PPE is the only or a complementary means of hazard control; when the nature of the activities normally performed at the workplace requires it; as a temporary measure while a hazard is under evaluation; as an emergency prevention measure. Responsibilities of employers and workers regarding the selection, use and checking of PPE are outlined. Particular provisions relating to hearing, eye and respiratory protection are given. Directive No.17 of 1983 is repealed. (62807)

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CIS 94-1103 Directive concerning the establishment, registration and functioning of Joint Safety and Health Committees at the Workplace [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.19 relativo a la constitución, registro y funcionamiento de la Comisión Mixta de Seguridad e Higiene en los Centros de Trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 36p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 29 Apr. 1991. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Federal Labour Act. It provides for the establishment of joint safety and health committees (JSHCs) in all workplaces, to consist of equal numbers of representatives of the employer and the employees. The minimum number of JSHC members for all workplace units or shifts shall be: 2 (for 0-20 workers), 4 (21-100 workers), 10 (for >100 workers). A register of all JSHCs in Mexico shall be maintained by the Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social. The Directive also defines the responsibilities of the JSHCs, in particular with regard to hazard investigations. In annex: sample forms, with detailed instructions; glossary of terms. (62809)

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CIS 94-1104 Directive concerning the requirements and the characteristics of notifications of occupational hazards, in order to harmonize statistics [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.21 relativo a los requerimientos y características de los informes de los riesgos de trabajo que ocurran, para integrar las estadísticas) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1983. 8p. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It provides for the uniform reporting of occupational accidents and diseases in Mexico. In annex: sample forms. (62810)

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CIS 94-1105 Diving [Norway]. (Norwegian: Dykking) Direktoratet for Arbeidstilsynet, Fr. Nansens vei 14, Postboks 8103 Dep., 0032 Oslo 1, Norway, May 1991. 43p. Illus. (In Norwegian)

This directive states the rules that apply to diving work and equipment. It came into force 1 January 1991. The following are the main topics: qualification of diver and assistant, hygiene, health requirements, time limits of diving operations, equipment, decompression chamber, checking of equipment, operations, record-keeping, emergency plan, general provisions. Signalling guide and general guidelines are appended. (62750)

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CIS 94-1106 Directive concerning safety and health in the storage, transportation and handling of corrosive, irritant and toxic substances in workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.9 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene para el almacenamiento, transporte y manejo de sustancias corrosivas, irritantes y tóxicas en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 20p. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 29 May 1989. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains: general provisions (appropriate preventive measures, substitution, reduction of use, modification in work processes and equipment, isolation, limitation of exposure, supply of personal protective equipment, training and information, supply of safety data sheets, maintenance of exposure registers, etc.); provisions for safe storage and transportation. In annex: information note for the storage and handling of corrosive, irritant and toxic substances (definitions, labelling and other types of warning notices, data sheets); information for the granting of authorization for executing dangerous work involving exposure to corrosive, irritating or toxic substances in workplaces. (62799)

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CIS 94-1107 Directive concerning safety and health in workplaces where chemical substances capable of contaminating the work environment may be produced, stored or handled [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.10 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se produzcan, almacenen o manejen sustancias químicas capaces de generar contaminación en el ambiente laboral) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 32p. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 31 May 1989 (erratum: 13 Sep. 1989). (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It covers: general provisions (responsibilities of employers and employees, information of workers, register of exposure levels); hazard identification and evaluation; control measures; provisions affecting newly-established enterprises. In annex: exposure limits for 562 atmospheric pollutants (8h TWA and STEL, in ppm and mg/m3), with special tables for potential carcinogens, mineral dusts, pure asphyxiants and contaminant mixtures; obligatory contents of hazard evaluation data sheets; definitions of technical terms used. (62800)

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CIS 94-1108 Directive concerning the requirements and the characteristics of washing facilities, changing rooms and lockers in workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.18 relativo a los requerimientos y características de los servicios de regaderas, vestidores y casilleros en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 4p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 17 Dec. 1991. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It requires employers to provide washing facilities for workers whose skin or clothing may, in the course of their work, be exposed to dusts, lubricants, paints or other substances that are toxic or irritant and for those who work in an environment where there is danger of infection. Where washing facilities are provided, changing rooms and lockers must be provided as well. Directive No.18 of 1983 is repealed. (62808)

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CIS 94-1109 Commission Directive 91/269/EEC of 30 April 1991 adapting to technical progress Council Directive 82/130/EEC on the approximation of the laws ... concerning electrical equipment for use in potentially explosive atmospheres in mines susceptible to firedamp [European Communities]. (French: Directive 91/269/CEE de la Commission du 30 avr. 1991 portant adaptation au progrès technique de la directive 82/130/CEE concernant le rapprochement des législations... relatives au matériel électrique utilisable en atmosphère explosible des mines grisouteuses [Communautés européennes]) Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, May 1991, Vol.34, No.L. 134, p.51-55. Illus. (In English, French)

The annexes of this directive replace or amend Directive 82/130/EEC. Annexes: list of approved harmonized CENELEC standards, general requirements for electrical apparatus for potentially explosive atmospheres, description of distinctive Community mark, and marking of electrical apparatus covered by an inspection certificate. Deadline for compliance by Member States: 30 June 1992, with certain exceptions. (62670)

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CIS 94-1110 Directive on safety conditions for the prevention of and protection against fires in workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.2 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad para la prevención y protección contra incendio en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 13p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 12 Dec. 1991. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It concerns basic fire protection measures to be taken in workplaces, including: general provisions; isolation provisions for areas, locales and buildings presenting a high risk of fires; characteristics and specifications of normal and emergency exits, and emergency passageways, corridors, ramps, doors and ladders; firefighting equipment. In annex: glossary of terms used. Directive No.2 of 1983 is repealed. (62792)

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CIS 94-1111 Directive concerning the safe storage, transport and handling of flammable and combustible substances in workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.5 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad en los centros de trabajo para el almacenamiento, transporte y manejo de sustancias inflamables y combustibles) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 8p. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 29 May 1989. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It includes the basic safety rules to be obeyed when dealing with flammable or combustible substances in the workplace. (62795)

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CIS 94-1112 Directive relating to safety and health during the production, storage and handling of explosives at workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.8 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene para la producción, almacenamiento y manejo de explosivos en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 7p. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 29 May 1989. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It covers: general provisions; particular safety measures during the production, storage and handling of explosives. (62798)

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CIS 94-1113 High pressure water-jet cleaning [Norway]. (Norwegian: Høytrykksspyling m.m.) Labour inspection of Norway, Tiden Norsk Forlag A/S, Postboks 8813 Youngstorget, 0028 Oslo, Norway, 1993. 20p. (In Norwegian)

This directive came into force 1 July 1993. It states the rules that apply to work with high-pressure water jet blasting equipment. There are provisions on personal protective equipment, use of additives in the water, electrical safety, leakages, safety valves, contact with the water jet, control of pressure and temperature, work under water, storage, frost, regular checks. The operation may not be carried out by young workers under 15 years of age. Guidelines are appended. (62749)

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CIS 94-1114 Directive concerning safety and health in potentially noisy workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.11 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se genere ruido) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 27p. Illus. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 2 June 1989. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains: general provisions; hazard identification and evaluation; noise control measures; special provisions for newly-established enterprises. In annex: glossary of technical terms used; table presenting maximum periods of permitted exposure in function of dB(A) levels; general recommendations for the medical surveillance of noise-exposed workers; noise level measuring methods; method for calculating the noise attenuation factor of hearing protectors. (62801)

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CIS 94-1115 Directive concerning safety and health in workplaces where there is handling, storage or transportation of ionizing radiation sources capable of contaminating the work environment [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.12 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se manejen, almacenen o transporten fuentes generadoras o emisoras de radiaciones ionizantes capaces de producir contaminación en el ambiente laboral) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 84p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 15 Feb. 1991, with erratum published 15 May 1991. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains: general provisions concerning safety and health in the presence of ionizing radiation sources; hazard identification and evaluation; maintenance of an exposure register; prohibition of employment in the presence of exposure risk for certain categories of persons (minors, workers with abnormal haematological characteristics); provisions concerning women (in particular, women of reproductive age should be exposed, if at all, to uniform levels of radiation; exposure levels affecting pregnant women should never exceed 15mSv (1.5rem); pregnant and lactating women should never be exposed to the risk of incorporating radioactive particles); adoption of appropriate control measures; periodic medical examinations for exposed workers; exposure limits - 500mSv (50rem) in general, dose equivalent of 150mSv (15rem) for the eyes, effective dose equivalent for the whole body of 50mSv (5rem). In annex: lists of annual exposure limits for various radionuclides, in Bq/m3 and through ingestion or inhalation; glossary of technical terms. Directive No.12 of 1983 is repealed. (62802)

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CIS 94-1116 Directive concerning safety and health in workplaces where non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation may be produced [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.13 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo donde se generen radiaciones electromagnéticas no ionizantes) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 12p. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 30 May 1989. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains provision for the identification, evaluation and control of hazards connected with exposure in the workplace to non-ionizing radiation. In annex: exposure limit to radiofrequency and microwave radiation (10mW/cm2 based on an 8h day); exposure limits (in mJ/cm2), by wavelength, to pulsating and continuous laser radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared spectrum; exposure limits to infrared, visible and ultraviolet light; glossary of terms and list of symbols and units used. (62803)

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CIS 94-1117 Directive concerning safety and health conditions for work that may take place under conditions of abnormal atmospheric pressure [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.14 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene para los trabajos que se desarrollen a presiones ambientales anormales) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1992. 42p. Illus. Also in:Diario Oficial, 7 Jan. 1992. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains general provisions of safety and health relating to work in low and high pressure areas, as well as special provisions relating to repetitive diving, deep diving, diving with oxygen-helium mixtures and saturation diving with mixtures other than oxygen-helium. In annex: definitions of technical terms used; use of decompression tables; list of hyperbaric chambers in Mexico. Directive No.14 of 1983 is repealed. (62804)

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CIS 94-1118 Directive concerning high and low temperatures at the workplace [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.15 relativo a las condiciones elevadas o abatidas en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 16p. Illus. Also in: Diario Oficial, 15 Feb. 1991, with erratum published 15 May 1991. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains general provisions, as well as provisions relating to temperature measurement methods, and hazard recognition, evaluation and control. In annex: exposure limits to high temperature, depending on the nature of the work and the length of rest-periods provided; estimates of energy metabolism for a 70kg man, depending on the nature of the work (without periods of rest); information note used to determine the acceptability of work under high-temperature conditions. Directive No.15 of 1983 is repealed. (62805)

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CIS 94-1119 Directive concerning safety and health at workplaces relating to ventilation [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.16 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene en los centros de trabajo, referente a ventilación) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 4p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 30 May 1989. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It provides for ventilation in workplaces in order to avoid hazards to health caused by insufficient air supply, air contamination, presence of chemical substances above the permitted level, high temperatures, sudden temperature changes or presence of flammable or explosive atmospheres. The required basic characteristics of ventilation systems are described. Directive No.16 of 1983 is repealed. (62806)

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CIS 94-1120 Directive concerning the obtaining and certification of permits to operate cranes and goods lifts at work [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.3 relativo a la obtención y refrendo de licencias para operadores de grúas y montacargas en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1983. 4p. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It contains the conditions needed by a worker before (s)he may be granted a permit to operate cranes and goods lifts. (62793)

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CIS 94-1121 Directive concerning protection systems and safety equipment at workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.4 relativo a los sistemas de protección y dispositivos de seguridad y equipo en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1991. 12p. Also in: Diario Oficial, 16 Dec. 1991. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It covers: general provisions; safety devices for protection against the hazards of moving machinery and mechanical transmission systems; safety devices at operational locations; special provisions for lifting equipment, goods lifts, tractors and self-propelling industrial trucks; electrically earthed equipment; safety during the installation of new machinery. Directive No.4 of 1983 is repealed. (62794)

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CIS 94-1122 Directive concerning safety and health rules during the stacking of materials in workplaces [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.6 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene para la estiba y desestiba de los materiales en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 8p. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 29 May 1989. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It covers: general safety and health provisions; delimitation, ventilation and lighting of areas used for stacking; maximum height and stability of stacked materials. (62796)

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CIS 94-1123 Directive concerning safety and health rules during the installation and operation of in-plant railways [Mexico]. (Spanish: Instructivo No.7 relativo a las condiciones de seguridad e higiene para la instalación y operación de ferrocarriles en los centros de trabajo) Secretaría del Trabajo y Previsión Social, Doctor Vértiz 96, 06720 México, D.F., Mexico, 1989. 8p. Modifications of the 1983 Directive also in: Diario Oficial, 29 May 1989. (In Spanish)

Directive issued in accordance with provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Regulations (CIS 83-2092). It covers: general provisions; provisions relating to the installation and operation of in-plant railways. In annex: procedures relating to the operation of tanker cars (loading and unloading, cleanliness and maintenance). (62797)

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Chemical data sheets and criteria documents

CIS 94-1124 International Chemical Safety Cards (ICSC) - Japanese edition. Second collection. (Japanese: Kokusai kagaku-busshitsu anzen-sei kādo) Kagaku-kōgyō nippōsha, Chūō-ku, Nihonbashi Hama-chō 3-16-8, 103 Tōkyō, Japan, 1994. xvi, 988p. Indexes. Price: JPY 30,000., ISBN 4-87326-150-3 (In Japanese)

This compendium of chemical data sheets contains the Japanese translations of 432 international chemical safety cards (ICSCs) prepared jointly by IPCS and the EEC. The first collection appeared in 1992 (see CIS 93-732). ICSCs summarize essential health and safety information on chemicals, using a pre-selected set of standard phrases. ICSC sections include: chemical identification (name in Japanese and English; CAS, RTECS and ICSC no.; synonyms; chemical formula; molecular weight); hazards; spillage and disposal; storage; packaging, labelling and transport; summary of important data (including exposure limits in various jurisdictions, if any); physical properties; environmental data. In annex: list of the standard phrases used, in English and Japanese. Indexes by Japanese and English names, and by CAS and ICSC number. (62643)

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CIS 94-1125 Thia-4-pentanal. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the lungs. (62831)

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CIS 94-1126 Metribuzin. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 5mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1990-1991). (62832)

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CIS 94-1127 Nicotine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); convulsions; respiratory insufficiency. Occupational exposure limit: TLV: 0.5mg/m3 (TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1991-1992). (62833)

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CIS 94-1128 Nicotine sulfate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); convulsions; respiratory insufficiency. (62834)

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CIS 94-1129 Nicotine tartrate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes and skin; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); convulsions; respiratory insufficiency. (62835)

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CIS 94-1130 Nitromethane. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the liver and kidney. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 100ppm; 250mg/m3 (ACGIH 1989-1990); PDK: 30mg/m3 (USSR 1988). (62836)

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CIS 94-1131 N-Nitrosodimethylamine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; jaundice. Long-term exposure effects: hepatic disorders; cirrhosis; probable human carcinogen. Occupational exposure limit: TLV: A2, skin (ACGIH 1991-1992). (62837)

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CIS 94-1132 Osmium tetroxide. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; corrosion of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the kidneys. Occupational exposure limits: TLV (as Os): 0.0002ppm; 0.0016mg/m3 (TWA); 0.0006ppm; 0.0047mg/m3 (STEL) (ACGIH 1990-1991). (62838)

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CIS 94-1133 Oxalic acid. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; corrosion of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; corrosive on ingestion; pulmonary oedema; may affect the kidney. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; urinary lithiasis. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 1mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991): STEL: 2mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991). (62839)

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CIS 94-1134 Palmitic acid. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: eye irritation. (62840)

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CIS 94-1135 p-Cymene. (Spanish: p-Cimeno) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 8-0617. International chemical safety card. Synonym: p-methylcumene. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and skin. Occupational exposure limit: PDK: 10mg/m3 (USSR 1988). (62841)

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CIS 94-1136 Barium chlorate. (Spanish: Clorato de Bario) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 8-0613. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect various tissues and organs; methaemoglobinaemia. Long-term exposure effects: may affect various tissues and organs. Occupational exposure limit: TLV (as Ba): 0.5mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1990-1991). (62842)

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CIS 94-1137 Potassium cyanide. (Spanish: Cianuro de potasio) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 8-0671. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosion of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; corrosive on ingestion; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Occupational exposure limits: TLV (as CN): 5mg/m3 (TWA) (skin) (ACGIH 1990-1991). (62843)

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CIS 94-1138 Bromotrifluoromethane. (Spanish: Bromotrifluorometano) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 10-0837. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin irritation; frostbite. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 1000ppm; 6090mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1990-1991); PDK: 3000mg/m3 (USSR 1988). (62844)

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CIS 94-1139 Cyclopentadiene. (Spanish: Ciclopentadieno) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 10-0857. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 75ppm; 203mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991); PDK: 5mg/m3 (USSR 1988); OSHA PEL (TWA 75ppm); German MAK 75ppm (200mg/m3). (62845)

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CIS 94-1140 Ketene. (Spanish: Ceteno) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 10-0812. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Long term exposure effects: may affect the lungs; emphysema; pulmonary fibrosis. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 0.5ppm; 0.86mg/m3 (TWA); 1.5ppm; 2.6mg/m3 (STEL) (ACGIH 1991-1992); OSHA PEL 0.5ppm; 0.9mg/m3 (TWA) and 1.5ppm; 3mg/m3 (STEL). (62846)

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CIS 94-1141 Chloroacetaldehyde (40% solution). (Spanish: Cloroacetaldehído (disolución al 40%)) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 9-0706. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: delayed effects; corrosion of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 1ppm; 3.2mg/m3 (ceiling) (ACGIH 1991-1992); OSHA PEL: 1ppm; 3mg/m3. (62847)

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CIS 94-1142 1,3-Cyclohexadiene. (Spanish: Ciclohexa-1,3-dieno) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 9-0762. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. (62848)

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CIS 94-1143 Cyclophosphamide. (Spanish: Ciclofosfamida) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 9-0689. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect the kidneys, bladder, cardiovascular system, central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, liver, heart and blood. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; human carcinogen; may cause heritable genetic damage; antifertility effects; may cause birth defects. (62849)

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CIS 94-1144 Diethylene glycol monobutyl ether. (Spanish: 2-(-2-Butoxietoxi)etanol) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 9-0788. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and skin. Long term exposure effects: liquid defats the skin. (62850)

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CIS 94-1145 Butane (liquefied gas). (Spanish: Butano (gas licuado)) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0232. International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: narcotic effects; frostbite from contact with liquid. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 800ppm; 1900mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991); MAK: 1000ppm; 2350mg/m3 (1991). (62851)

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CIS 94-1146 Acetyl bromide. (Spanish: Bromuro de acetilo) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0365. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: delayed effects; corrosive to the eyes and skin; corrosive on ingestion; irritation of respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the lungs. (62852)

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CIS 94-1147 Cyanazine. (Spanish: Cianazina) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0391. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; eye irritation. Long-term exposure effects: may cause birth defects. (62853)

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CIS 94-1148 1,2-Butanediol. (Spanish: Butano-1,2-diol) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0395. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: eye irritation. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the kidneys. (62854)

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CIS 94-1149 Carbophenothion. (Spanish: Carbofenotión) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0410. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; eye irritation; neurotoxic effects. (62855)

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CIS 94-1150 Cyanamide. (Spanish: Cianamida) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0424. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitization; animal tests show that this substance possibly causes antifertility effects. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 2mg/m3 (TWA) (ACGIH 1990-1991). (62856)

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CIS 94-1151 Cyclohexanone. (Spanish: Ciclohexanona) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0425. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); renal and hepatic damage. Long-term exposure effects: skin sensitization; asthma; renal and hepatic damage; liquid defats the skin. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 25ppm; 100mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1990-1991); PDK: 10mg/m3 P (USSR). (62857)

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CIS 94-1152 Cyclopentanone. (Spanish: Ciclopentanona) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0427. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, the respiratory tract and possibly of the skin. There is insufficient information available on the effect of this substance on human health, therefore the utmost care must be taken when it is present. (62858)

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CIS 94-1153 Bromochloromethane. (Spanish: Bromoclorometano) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0392. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the kidneys and liver. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 200ppm; 1058mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991); TLV (STEL): 250ppm; 1320mg/m3 (ACGIH 1990-1991). (62859)

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CIS 94-1154 Methyl bromide (liquefied). (Spanish: Bromometano (licuado)) Instituto Nacional de Seguridad e Higiene en el Trabajo, Ediciones y Publicaciones, c/Torrelaguna 73, 28027 Madrid, Spain, 1991. 2p. (In Spanish)

Spanish version of IPCS ICSC 6-0394. International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the respiratory tract; corrosive to the eyes; pulmonary oedema; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); psychological effects. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the lungs; bronchospasm; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); paresis; psychological effects; hallucinations; brain damage; renal and hepatic disorders. Occupational exposure limits: TLV: 5mg/m3 (skin) (ACGIH 1990-1991). (62860)

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CIS 94-1155 Sulfuryl fluoride. (Spanish: Fluoruro de sulfurilo) Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 1994, Vol.56, No.3. 3p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). (62861)

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CIS 94-1156 Ferbam. (Spanish: Ferbam) Noticias de seguridad, Mar. 1994, Vol.56, No.3. 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract; gastrointestinal disorders on ingestion; skin eruption and dermatitis. (62862)

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CIS 94-1157 Magnesium oxide fume. (Spanish: Humo de óxido de magnesio) Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 1994, Vol.56, No.2. 3p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: irritation of the eyes and nose; metal fume fever; leukocytoses. (62863)

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CIS 94-1158 Glycidol. (Spanish: Glicidol) Noticias de seguridad, Feb. 1994, Vol.56, No.2. 3p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin; dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). (62864)

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CIS 94-1159 Hexone. (Spanish: Hexona) Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 1994, Vol.56, No.1. 5p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes, respiratory tract and skin; skin diseases, in particular dermatitis. (62865)

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CIS 94-1160 Mica. (Spanish: Mica) Noticias de seguridad, Jan. 1994, Vol.56, No.1. 3p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: respiratory disorders, in particular pneumoconiosis. (62866)

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CIS 94-1161 N-Ethylmorpholine. (Spanish: N-Etilmorfolina) Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 1993, Vol.55, No.12. 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract; visual function disorders: blurred vision and corneal oedema; may aggravate respiratory disorders. (62867)

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CIS 94-1162 Uranium and insoluble compounds (as uranium). (Spanish: Uranio y compuestos insolubles (como uranio)) Noticias de seguridad, Dec. 1993, Vol.55, No.12. 5p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; carcinogenic effects; radiodermatitis; haemic and lymphatic diseases and neoplasms; may affect the lungs, bone marrow and kidneys. (62868)

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CIS 94-1163 Cadmium fume. (Spanish: Humo de cadmio) Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 1993, Vol.55, No.11. 4p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: delayed effects; irritation of the upper respiratory tract; anosmia; ulceration of the nasal mucosa; anaemia; emphysema; pulmonary oedema; renal dysfunction; probable human carcinogen: may cause lung and prostatic cancer. (62869)

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CIS 94-1164 Antimony and its compounds (as Sb). (Spanish: Antimonio y sus compuestos (como Sb)) Noticias de seguridad, Nov. 1993, Vol.55, No.11. 5p. Insert. (In Spanish)

Chemical safety sheet published by the Consejo Interamericano de Seguridad, 33 Park Place, Englewood, NJ 07631, USA. Health hazards: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of the eyes, upper respiratory tract and skin; skin eruption; diarrhoea; may affect the lungs (pulmonary fibrosis, pneumoconiosis), the heart (myocardial disorders) and the female reproductive system (abortion). (62870)

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[ Top of page ]

Training materials and practical information

CIS 94-1165 Safety and health professionals - Basic training course. (German: Sicherheitsfachkräfte - Grundlehrgang) Wallner M., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, ed., Verlag TÜV Rheinland GmbH, Köln, Germany, 1986-1989. 3 vols. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-88585-473-2 (A-B), ISBN 3-921059-60-7 (A), ISBN 3-921059-61-5 (B) (In German)

Three-volume training manual (in ring binders) aimed at the basic instruction of OSH specialists in Germany. Main topics covered by Volume A and B: general issues; OSH organization and programmes; OSH law; psychological aspects of safety; transport; personal protection; chemicals; electricity; fires and explosions; occupational medicine; ergonomics; statistics; hazard evaluation; OSH training techniques; safety technology; fire protection; radiation protection; use of check lists for prevention; glossary. Vol.Fallbeispiele (F-B) contains a large number of case studies of safety management in enterprises, with illustrations and check lists. (62828)

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CIS 94-1166 WHODOC - List of recent WHO publications and documents. (French: WHODOC - Liste des publications et documents récents OMS) World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. viii, 245p. (In English, French, Spanish)

This annual catalogue (1993) provides details of WHO publications, articles in WHO periodicals, WHO technical and policy documents, press releases produced by WHO and associated agencies and books and articles arising from WHO programmes and published elsewhere. Entries cover a range of medical and health topics including occupational health and medicine. Ordering details are included. (62708)

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CIS 94-1167 Right-to-know pocket guide for construction workers. (Spanish: (Guía de bolsillo - Derecho a saber para trabajadores de la construcción)) Accrocco J.O., Beaumont G., Roy R.A., eds., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 2nd. ed., 1993. 88p. (85p., Spanish ed.). Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-31-5 (In English, Spanish)

Pocket guide to health and safety for construction workers working with hazardous substances. Contents: responsibilities of employers to inform employees about potential hazards; how workers can help to protect themselves (training, information); contents and interpretation of a material safety data sheet (MSDS), with an example; review of lead in the construction industry (potential health hazards, symptoms, OSHA's Lead Standard for the Construction Industry, hazardous construction tasks, respiratory protection, protective clothing, housekeeping); hazards of commonly used construction materials; glossary of terms and abbreviations on labels and MSDSs. (62525)

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CIS 94-1168 A recipe for safety. Health and safety in the food industry. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 16p. Illus. (In English)

This booklet describes the main causes of injury and ill health in the food industry and gives advice on how to establish an effective management organization for the prevention or control of risk. Topics covered: accident statistics and the need for action; action plan for management; the cost of accidents; safety and health priorities and their management; HSE activities. (62737)

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CIS 94-1169 The guide to the handling of patients. Corlett E.N., Lloyd P.V., Tarling C., Troup J.D.G., Wright B., National Back Pain Association, 31-33 Park Road, Teddington TW11 0AB, Middlesex, United Kingdom, 3rd ed., 1992. xii, 138p. Illus. 107 ref. Index. Price: GBP 15.50., ISBN 0-9507726-5-8 (In English)

This guide presents an ergonomic approach to the prevention of injuries and a reduction in physical stresses imposed on nurses during the handling of patients. Contents: legal and professional responsibilities; ergonomics and health care; epidemiology of back pain; assessing the handling risk; preventative approaches; management responsibility; promoting patient independence; understanding the posture and movement of the nurse; basic handling equipment; patient-handling; types of bed and procedures for handling on the bed; sitting and standing; toiletting and clothing; washing and bathing; the falling and the fallen patient; special patient needs; emergency patient-handling techniques and methods of evacuation. (62656)

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CIS 94-1170 Confined space pocket guide. Conforti J.V., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 77p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-41-2 (In English)

Pocket guide to safety and health in confined spaces written for workers. Contents: review of the law (entry permit, training, duties, rescue and emergency services, alternative procedures for entering a permit space, nonpermit confined space); hazard recognition (engulfment, mechanical hazards, atmospheric hazards); hazard assessment (monitoring for oxygen, combustibles and toxins); equipment (ventilation, personal protective equipment, respirators, protective clothing, communications, tools, lighting, belts and harnesses); rescue and first aid; safety tips; glossary. (62527)

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CIS 94-1171 The WHMIS pocket dictionary. (French: Dictionnaire de poche du SIMDUT) Morris D.B., ed., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1991. 70p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-28-5 (In English, French)

Pocket guide to the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) written for workers. Contents: description of WHMIS (a Canada-wide hazard communication system whereby information is provided by means of labels, material safety data sheets (MSDSs) and training); WHMIS hazard classes; supplier labels; requirements of the Transportation of Dangerous Goods Regulations (TDGRs); contents of MSDSs and how to read them; training; glossary of terms and abbreviations. (62528)

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CIS 94-1172 Hazardous waste handling - Pocket guide. Conforti J.V., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 77p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-39-0 (In English)

Pocket guide to hazardous waste handling written for workers. Contents: review of the law (requirements of OSHA's Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response standard (CIS 89-1420), safety and health program, site characterization and analysis, site control, training, medical surveillance, engineering controls, work practice, handling drums and containers, decontamination, emergency response, illumination); hazards present at a typical site (heat stress, explosive atmospheres, toxic hazards, radiation); sampling and monitoring; personal protective equipment; signs and symptoms of overexposure; glossary. (62530)

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CIS 94-1173 Hazards of tradename products - Pocket guide. Gannon M.E., Wurth M.J., eds., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 80p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-57-9 (In English)

Pocket guide to the hazards of tradename products written for workers. Contents: the nature of chemicals and how they enter the body; short-and long-term exposure; products containing hazardous ingredients; chemical names, common names and tradenames; use of personal protective equipment; first aid; legal aspects; common tradename product label statements and what they mean; safety tips for use of tradename products; lists of tradename ingredients; summary of health effects of selected hazardous chemicals. (62531)

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CIS 94-1174 Right-to-know pocket guide for school and university employees. Accrocco J.O., Roy R.A., eds., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1990. 88p. Illus. Price: USD 3.98 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-33-1 (In English)

Pocket guide to safety and health for school and university employees working with hazardous chemicals. Contents: legal aspects; guidelines for working with hazardous materials in various school areas; contents of a material safety data sheet (MSDS) and how to read it; hazards of commonly used school materials and products; glossary of terms and abbreviations used on labels and in MSDSs. (62532)

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CIS 94-1175 Working safely with chemicals in the laboratory - A student guide. Gorman C., ed., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. vi, 123p. Illus., ISBN 0-931690-52-8 (In English)

Contents of this student guide: hazardous chemicals and their routes of entry into the body; exposure limits; recognizing the physical and health hazards of chemicals; materials safety data sheets (MSDSs); first aid; spill, leak and disposal procedures; OSHA regulations; the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and environmental data; tips for working safely with chemicals; hazards of selected chemicals; glossary of terms and abbreviations. (62534)

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CIS 94-1176 Working safely with hazardous materials in the workplace - An employee handbook. Gorman C.E., ed., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. iv, 122p. Illus. Price: USD 12.00 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-58-7 (In English)

Contents of this handbook: hazardous materials and their routes of entry into the body; standards and regulations; exposure limits; material safety data sheets (MSDSs); recognizing the physical and health hazards of materials; tradename products; personal protective equipment; emergency situations; tips for working safely with hazardous materials; health hazards of selected chemicals; glossary of terms and abbreviations. (62535)

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CIS 94-1177 The MSDS pocket dictionary: What does an MSDS mean? - Terms used on MSDSs. (Spanish: El diccionario de bolsillo de las MSDS. Qué significa una MSDS? - Términos usados en las MSDS) Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1994. 85p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-27-7 (In Spanish)

Spanish translation of the pocket guide abstracted under CIS 94-136. It provides a detailed description of the format of MSDSs and of the information contained in them. Includes a glossary of terms and abbreviations found on warning labels and in MSDSs. (62536)

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CIS 94-1178 Food and Environment Act. Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986. An open learning course. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vii, 215p. Price: GBP 16.00., ISBN 0-11-885743-6 (In English)

This open-learning course is concerned with Part III of the Food and Environment Protection Act 1985 (FEPA) and the Control of Pesticides Regulations 1986 (COPR) made under it. The course has been prepared to give officers authorized to enforce Part III an understanding of their powers and functions. Contents: review of the requirements of FEPA and COPR; application of COPR; pesticide approval; consents; the advertisement, sale, supply, storage, transport and disposal of pesticides; use of pesticides and codes of practice; summary of the Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1988 (COSHH); elements of training; powers of enforcement; offences. Self-assessment questions and answers are included. (62710)

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CIS 94-1179 Metalworking fluids. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. 4 booklets: 12p, 8p, 16p, 8p. + poster. 10 ref. (In English)

These four booklets provide guidance on safe working practices for metalworking fluids. Contents: health risks of metalworking fluids (irritation, dermatitis, breathing difficulties, skin cancer); legal requirements; responsibilities of employers and employees; health surveillance programmes (appointment and duties of a responsible person, skin inspections, detection of lung problems); aspects of good machine design; good practice for minimizing health risks. A wallchart summarizing the guidelines is included. (62712)

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CIS 94-1180 Right-to-know pocket guide for health care personnel. Cinquanti M., Gorman C., eds., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1991. 87p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-35-8 (In English)

Pocket guide to health and safety for health care personnel working with hazardous substances. Topics covered: overview of OSHA's standards for hazard communication and for occupational exposures to hazardous chemicals in laboratories; hazards of materials commonly used in health care facilities; safety tips for working with hazardous materials; handling regulated medical wastes; physical and health hazards workers should know about; the format of the material safety data sheet (MSDS) with an example; glossary of terms and abbreviations on labels and MSDSs used by health care facilities. (62521)

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CIS 94-1181 Right-to-know pocket guide for laboratory employees. Accrocco J.O., Cinquanti M., eds., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 88p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-34-X (In English)

Pocket guide to health and safety for laboratory employees working with hazardous substances. Topics covered: overview of the OSHA Standard on Occupational Exposures to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories; safety tips for working with hazardous materials; physical and health hazards workers should know about; permissible exposure limits; signs and symptoms of overexposure; the format of the Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) with an example; glossary of terms and abbreviations on labels and MSDSs. (62522)

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CIS 94-1182 Health aspects of chemical accidents: Guidance on chemical accident awareness, preparedness and response for health professionals and emergency responders. World Health Organization (WHO), OECD Mail Orders, 2, rue André-Pascal, 75775 Paris Cedex 16, France, 1994. 147p. Illus. approx. 200 ref. (In English)

This manual useful for training purposes contains three guidance documents, draft versions of which were prepared for the Apr. 1993 Workshop on Health Aspects of Chemical Accidents, held at Utrecht (the Netherlands). The General Guidance Document covers: Preparedness planning (general aspects; availability of equipment, supplies and facilities; sources of information); emergency response; treatment of the injured; training and education; communicating with the public; accident investigation and follow-up. The Practical Guides provide detailed guidance to action related to the health-related aspects of chemical accidents under 4 main headings: information and communications needs; organization and planning of response to chemical accidents; chemical accident response; training and education for chemical accident prevention, preparedness and response. In annex: chemical hazard identification systems (including samples of the International Chemical Safety Cards, Tremcards, EC product labels and the UN Hazard Classification warning diamonds). The Checklist for action is aimed at those responsible for chemical accident contingency planning and implementation and contains a checklist based on the Practical Guides. (62827)

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CIS 94-1183 Process safety pocket guide. Pierce D., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 85p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-56-0 (In English)

Pocket guide to process safety written for workers. Contents: overview of the OSHA Process Safety Management Standard which targets highly hazardous chemicals that have the potential to cause a major accident; normal process operation (safety information, hazard analysis, operating procedures, mechanical integrity); nonroutine activities (new processes, pre-startup safety review, management of change, incident investigation, emergency planning and response); other topics covered by the standard (contractors, compliance audits, trade secret information, hot work and nonroutine work, interaction with other safety standards); training; glossary. In appendix: listing of highly hazardous chemicals. (62524)

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CIS 94-1184 Guidelines on inspection on chemical factories, especially major hazard installations. International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1992. 107p. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

These guidelines were prepared within the framework of an ILO/FRG technical cooperation project in Indonesia in April 1990. They provide information on the safe operation of chemical plants and may be used both for inspection activities and in the training of inspectors and plant operators. Contents: preliminary meeting with the management to collect information on the processes, substances, process parameters and installations within the plant; selection of sample areas for inspection; plant integrity (design standards, plant operation and control, safety systems, preventive maintenance, plant inspections and tests); process deviations; emergency procedures; visit to the site; recording and reporting of inspection. Annexes provide specific guidance for various processes and equipment. (62788)

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CIS 94-1185 Managing for safety: Training from the best in Europe. Safety, Health and Environment Department, Institution of Chemical Engineers, Davis Building, 165-171 Railway Terrace, Rugby CV21 3HQ, United Kingdom, 1993. 1 videotape (20min) + manual (illus.) + 93 slides. Price: GBP 860.00 (+ GBP 150.50 VAT in the UK). (In English)

Audiovisual training package aimed at managers responsible for process safety in industry. The video covers typical problems such as leaking flanges, management of modifications, shut-down processes, monitoring start-ups and authorization of work permits. Other subjects covered include planned maintenance, safety meetings, safety critical systems, emergency planning and safety audits. The manual contains guidance notes for the discussion leader, technical guidance notes and 25 case studies of real incidents. There are also 93 slides illustrating the guidance notes and the case studies. (62826)

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CIS 94-1186 Getting to grips with handling problems - Worked examples of assessment and reduction of risk in the health services. Health and Safety Commission, Health Services Advisory Committee, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1993. iii, 44p. 23 ref. Price: GBP 4.50., ISBN 0-7176-0622-8 (In English)

This booklet provides guidance on the training of staff to carry out risk assessments of manual handling tasks and to identify ways in which risks may be reduced. There are four sections: introduction to manual handling injuries and requirements of the Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 (CIS 93-36); checklist for the identification of problems; scenarios relating to handling of patients and inanimate loads during various health care activities; abbreviated solutions to each of the scenarios. Appendices contain further teaching material and additional guidance for trainers and managers. (62623)

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CIS 94-1187 Watch out for falls!. (French: Gare aux faux pas!; German: Lueg uf e Wäg; Italian: Occhio ai passi falsi) SUVA, Postfach 4358, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1994. Training kit. Illus. Price: CHF 125.00 (for full set), many components free of charge when ordered separately. (In French, German, Italian)

Training kit issued as the documentation for a Swiss national safety campaign designed to prevent fall-related injuries in the workplace and elsewhere. It consists of: one brochure aimed at management, showing simple safety measures that can be easily implemented in the workplace; an information note aimed at those responsible for the cleaning of workplaces and floor polishing; a technical information note, providing detailed advice (floor, shoes, cleaning techniques, safe staircases, lighting); a brochure on antislip shoes; safety posters in various sizes; a videocassette (8min, CHF 30.00) of parody of famous movies, illustrating the dangers of slipping and falling; a computer game diskette (MS-DOS, CHF 15.00); publicity posters, stickers, pins and T shirts. (62824)

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CIS 94-1188 Oops - 10 stories of falls. (French: Le Holà: 10 histoires de chute; German: Hoppla: 10 Sturzgeschichten; Italian: Patapum: 10 storie di ordinarie cadute; Portuguese: Catrapus: 10 histórias de quedas; Serbocroatian: Opa: Deset priča o padanju; Turkish: Hopla: 10 düşme hikayesi) SUVA, Postfach 4358, 6002 Luzern, Switzerland, 1994. 15p. Illus. (In French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Serbocroatian, Turkish)

Humorous treatment of 10 cases of falls on the level due to inattention. Published in conjunction with the Swiss national safety campaign designed to prevent fall-related injuries in the workplace and elsewhere. (62825)

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CIS 94-1189 Lockout tagout pocket guide. Conforti J.V., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 60p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-59-5 (In English)

Pocket guide to the requirements for locking-out or tagging-out (controlling) energy sources during servicing and/or maintenance of machines and equipment, written for workers. Contents: legal aspects; hazardous energy sources (electrical, mechanical, thermal and potential energy); energy control program (lockout versus tagout, performance requirements for lockout/tagout devices, safety tips); energy control procedures and application materials; energy control situations not requiring documented procedures; training; glossary. (62533)

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CIS 94-1190 Tractor safety is deadly serious: What every family should know about tractor safety. Department of Labour, Occupational Health and Safety Division, Nauru House, 80 Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia, no date. 16p. Illus. (In English)

This booklet provides a simple guide to basic tractor safety. Causes of tractor accidents are described along with relevant legislation. Guidance is given on the importance of rollover protection structures, safety during maintenance operations, safe operating to avoid backflipping, rollover, overhead accidents, fire and explosion and running over oneself, child safety and precautions when using attached equipment. (62785)

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CIS 94-1191 Motor vehicle safety pocket guide. Conforti J.V., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1992. 63p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-48-X (In English)

Pocket guide to motor vehicle safety for drivers. Contents: overview of the Occupant Protection in Motor Vehicles Standard (safety belts, head protection, drive safety awareness); vehicle familiarization (major components, how they work and how they may break down); vehicle safety features; basic driving safety tips; drug and alcohol abuse; traffic laws; glossary. (62526)

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CIS 94-1192 Bloodborne pathogens in the workplace - Pocket guide. Morris R.J., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 63p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-47-1 (In English)

Pocket guide to bloodborne pathogens in the workplace, written for workers. Contents: major types of bloodborne pathogens and their transmission (HIV, hepatitis); exposure control plan (requirements of OSHA's Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens regulation); prevention of exposure (prevention of needlestick injuries, safe transport of biohazardous materials, decontamination of equipment, personal protective equipment, good housekeeping); immunization; emergency and post-exposure procedures; glossary. (62529)

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CIS 94-1193 Lifting and handling - An ergonomic approach. Pheasant S., Stubbs D., National Back Pain Association, 31-33 Park Road, Teddington TW11 0AB, Middlesex, United Kingdom, 1991. 28p. Illus. 6 ref. Index. Price: GBP 5.00., ISBN 0-9507726-4-X (In English)

This guide presents an ergonomic approach to the prevention of back pain during lifting and handling work. Contents: back pain at work (lifting and handling injuries, the EC Directive and the HSC Guidelines, safe systems of work); body mechanics; ergonomics (the working area, the load, guidelines concerning load weight, rest pauses); a risk assessment checklist for lifting and handling tasks; training; special lifting procedures and mechanical lifting aids. (62655)

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CIS 94-1194 Ergonomics pocket guide. Crossman R.M., Genium Publishing Corporation, One Genium Plaza, Schenectady, NY 12304-4690, USA, 1993. 64p. Illus. Price: USD 4.18 (per copy, for a minimum order of 10 copies), lower prices for large-quantity orders., ISBN 0-931690-60-9 (In English)

Pocket guide to ergonomics in the workplace, written for workers. Contents: limitations of the body and job-related stresses; repetitive tasks; improper postures; improper lifting; overcoming tool design; lighting and glare; noise; temperature extremes; workplace exercise; glossary. (62523)

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Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals


001 General safety, health and conditions of work

CIS 94-1195 Managing safety in the workplace - An attribution theory analysis and model. DeJoy D.M., Journal of Safety Research, Spring 1994, Vol.25, No.1, p.3-17. Illus. 80 ref. (In English)

Actions to manage workplace safety are based less often on objective knowledge of cause-effect relationships than on attributions, that is, on what individuals believe or infer to be the relevant relationships. These attributions may be complicated or biased by social or organizational factors. Although hundreds of papers on attributional processes have been published in the last 20 years, few have dealt with the workplace. The proposed model shows where attribution of causes fits into the safety management process. Whereas in the past the search for causes has been associated with the assignment of blame or responsibility, awareness of the role of attribution should lead managers to modify their safety programmes so as to improve communication between workers and supervisors, eliminate adversarial relationships between them, increase the objectivity of accident reporting and investigation and make the results widely available. (62552)

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CIS 94-1196 Work environment functions in small enterprises in Sweden. Johansson J., Johansson B., Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.91-94. 5 ref. (In English)

This paper discusses new proposals formulated by a governmental Commission in Sweden concerning the work environment with the aims of reducing employee absenteeism and re-employing those individuals who have already left employment as a result of bad working conditions. The results are based on interviews carried out with company directors, safety representatives and labour inspectors of small enterprises, employing less than 50 persons. The interviews revealed that the company directors had a negative attitude towards both the strengthening of legislation and responsibility for work injury costs. It was also revealed that the small companies lack both knowledge of how a good environment can be created and the state of their own work environment. It seems that the small companies cannot handle work environment questions in a systematic way without comprehensive education and training or without seeking expert assistance outside the company. (62627)

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CIS 94-1197 Coal, lead, asbestos, and HIV: The politics of regulating risk. Bayer R., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.897-901. 15 ref. (In English)

This article is a discussion of politics versus scientific evidence, when it comes to setting exposure limits. What is needed to set a reasonable exposure limit? A number of statements from participants in the debate are summarized. It is stated that the setting of exposure limits and other regulations to limit exposure to harmful factors is a political issue more than a scientific one. The main discussion is on whether doubts should be resolved in favour of workers' health or the economy. (62671)

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CIS 94-1198 Current principles of hygienic standards setting - Part I. Czerczak S., Indulski J.A., Kowalski Z., Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.2, p.117-126. 8 ref. (In English)

A critical analysis of the present situation with respect to hygienic standard setting is presented. The authors introduce requirements for developing scientifically based exposure limits for chemicals as well as differences between documentation of recommended exposure limits for agents occurring in the working environment and for those occurring in the environment in general. (62691)

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CIS 94-1199 Cutbacks and safety. James D.W.B., Industrial Safety Data File, Aug. 1993, p.A:38:1-A:38:5. (In English)

In order to determine whether enforced economies or cutbacks in personnel have led to a deterioration in health and safety standards during a period of financial difficulty, attention should be given to certain factors relating to the workplace, the workforce and the funding of safety measures in general. These include accurate reporting and recording of accidents and near misses, analysis of accident records and trends on a departmental basis, safety training, maintenance of regular health and safety inspections, provision of safety and first-aid equipment and revision of the company's major emergency plan. (62653)

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CIS 94-1200 Development of a work behavior taxonomy for the safety function in industry. DeJoy D.M., Accident Analysis and Prevention, Aug. 1993, Vol.25, No.4, p.365-374. 13 ref. (In English)

A questionnaire describing the safety function within industry was developed and sent to 1,190 safety professionals representing 10 major industrial categories. Respondents rated the relative importance and amount of time spent on each of 24 job activities. Five primary dimensions of the safety function were identified: serving as safety consultant/advisor; coordinating compliance/control activities; assessing the effectiveness of controls; analyzing hazards and losses; conducting specialized studies and reviews. There were very few differences in the safety function across different industries or sizes of operations. Results suggest that generic selection and training procedures may be developed for safety professionals in all sectors of industry. (62658)

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CIS 94-1201 Application of an injury surveillance system to injuries at an industrial facility. Mitchell C.S., Cloeren M., Schwartz B.S., Accident Analysis and Prevention, Aug. 1993, Vol.25, No.4, p.453-458. 18 ref. (In English)

A computerized surveillance database using the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was developed and used to sample three months of non-fatal injuries at a large industrial facility. With the addition of some new AIS codes for injuries specific to the workplace, most injuries could be coded and severity scores calculated with good interrater reliability. Neither Maximum AIS nor Injury Severity Score (ISS) predicted restricted or lost work time. Because of its ease of automation and reliability, the AIS can serve as a useful tool for occupational injury surveillance, but its current severity scoring system is not predictive of disability. (62660)

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CIS 94-1202 Role of research in occupational health and safety. African Newsletter on Occupational Health and Safety, Aug. 1993, Vol.3, No.2, p.31-54. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Contents of this issue: occupational health and safety research in developing countries (Jeyaratnam J.); comprehensive survey of the informal sector in Tanzania (Lukindo J.K.); ergonomic surveys (Abeysekera J.); what can be achieved with occupational hygiene (Muchiri F.K.); the work environment and health in Seychelles (Adam R.); research - a tool for development or a playground for academics (Vähäpassi A.); accidents in Kenyan factories projected to 1995 (Mayaka A.N.); report of the regional tripartite seminar on occupational health and safety, 24-26 February 1993 (Nielsen F.). (62716)

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CIS 94-1203 Annual Report of the Health and Safety Commission 1992/93. Health and Safety Commission, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. xv, 131p. Illus. 26 ref. Price: GBP 11.00., ISBN 0-7176-0652-X (In English)

A review of the work of the British Health and Safety Commission in the areas of: inspection, advice and enforcement; international law and standards making; risk assessment; management of health and safety; information and statistics; action in different industrial sectors and on particular health and safety hazards; the structure, organization and management of the British Health and Safety Executive. The report includes detailed statistics on occupational accidents and ill health by industrial sector. (62648)

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CIS 94-1204 Annual Report of the Health and Safety Commission 1992/1993. Statistical supplement. Health and Safety Commission, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. vi, 108p. 16 ref. Price: GBP 4.00., ISBN 0-7176-0653-8 (In English)

This new Statistical Supplement replaces an annual supplement to the Employment Gazette in which health and safety statistics have been published for the last few years. Figures given cover the years 1986-1991. Commentary is given on injuries by severity and industrial sector, kind of accidents, nature and site of injuries, age and sex of injured people, dangerous occurrences, gas safety statistics, enforcement action statistics, occupational ill-health. The supporting tables include some time series data along with provisional figures for 1992/93. (62649)

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CIS 94-1205 Labour administration: Profile on Malaysia. Khan M., Asian and Pacific Regional Centre for Labour Administration (ARPLA), ed., ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1989. xi, 145p. Price: USD 7.00., ISBN 92-2-107028-X (In English)

This profile outlines Malaysia's policies and laws in the field of industrial relations, human resource development and labour protection. Contents: labour administration (functions of the Ministry of Labour and other agencies); labour inspection (relevant labour laws, inspection procedures and follow-up action); occupational health and safety (role and functions of the Factory and Machinery Department, industrial hygiene, health and safety promotion, effectiveness of inspection, budget); social security; industrial relations; human resource planning and development. (62704)

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CIS 94-1206 National Occupational Health and Safety Commission Annual Report 1988-89. Worksafe Australia, Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, 1989. ix, 114p. Illus. approx. 160 ref. (In English)

Topics covered in this annual report: organizational structure of the Commission; overview of the year's activities in education and training, targeting hazards and industries, training professionals, research, legislation, standards and information; development and management of the Commission's resources; increasing knowledge and awareness of occupational health and safety; financial statements; publications. (62734)

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CIS 94-1207 Research report 1985 to 1990. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia), Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1991. xiv, 243p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 0-644-12874-7 (In English)

This is the first research report produced by the National Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia) and describes 88 research projects either conducted by the Commission or supported by it. Projects are grouped by main subject area: epidemiology and surveillance; ergonomics; human performance analysis; occupational hygiene and safety engineering; occupational medicine; toxicology; back pain; noise-induced hearing loss; chemicals; occupational cancer; mechanical equipment injury; occupational overuse syndrome. For each project, information is provided on: background; aims; methods; findings; work in progress; implications for the workplace; reports produced. (62781)

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CIS 94-1208 Occupational Health and Safety Authority. Status report 1991. Occupational Health and Safety Authority, Level 9, Nauru House, 80 Collins Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia, 1991. 50p. Illus., ISBN 0-947231-04-8 (In English)

Contents of this annual report of the Victoria Occupational Health and Safety Authority: overview and achievements of the Authority; structure and objectives; activities in the areas of: legislation and standards, technical advice and support, field operations, investigations, prosecution and appeals, education and training, information services and the Occupational Health and Safety Initiatives Program, with budget allocations and expenditure. (62783)

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CIS 94-1209 Accident Compensation Commission. 1988-1989 annual report. Accident Compensation Commission, GPO Box 4306, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia, 1989. 2 vols. 52p. and 29p. (In English)

The Accident Compensation Commission is a Victorian statutory authority which manages the payment of compensation to injured workers. This report provides an overview of the year 1988-89, data on claims and employers' levy, details of changes in the WorkCare scheme, an outline of the structure of the Commission and its future plans, and financial statements. An accompanying booklet provides detailed claim statistics. (62784)

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CIS 94-1210 EC law for UK lawyers - The domestic impact of EC law within the UK. O'Neill A., Coppel J., Butterworths, 88 Kingsway, London WC2B 6AB, United Kingdom, 1994. lxii, 324p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: GBR 19.95., ISBN 0-406-02459-6 (In English)

Survey of the impact of European Communities (EC) directives and other legislation on the legal system in the United Kingdom. Part I concerns: the European Legal Order; the role of national courts, the European Court of Justice and direct actions; sources of information; institutional structure of the European Union. Part II deals with the impact of EC law on the legal order of the United Kingdom in specific areas of legislation, among which: chapter 13 (environmental protection and planning, including waste disposal); chapter 22 (workplace health and safety). Implementation within the United Kingdom, and relevant case law is discussed throughout. Within the occupational health and safety area, emphasis is laid on the impact of the First Health and Safety Framework Directive (80/1107/EEC, see CIS 81-1610). (62819)

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CIS 94-1211 The structure of safety science: Definitions, goals and means. Geysen W.J., The Institute of Engineers and Technicians, 100 Grove Vale, East Dulwich, London SE22 8DR, United Kingdom, Jan. 1992. ii, 23p. 32 ref. (In English)

This paper was presented at the First World Conference on Safety Science held in Cologne. Opinions on the nature and role of science are presented in an attempt to place safety in the larger framework of the sciences and their history. Safety science is defined using the MTE-model, which considers that the universe of the safety scientist consists of the elements 'man, technology and environment' and the interactions among them. Based on this model a definition of safety science is presented and its essential features are explained. The concept of risk is discussed and finally the structure and methodology of safety science. (62631)

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CIS 94-1212 WorkCover Corporation. Annual Report and Statistical Supplement 1992-1993. WorkCover Corporation, 100 Waymouth Street, GPO Box 2668, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia, 1993. 2 vols. 57p. and 56p. (In English)

WorkCover was set up as a statutory authority in 1987 under the Workers Rehabilitation and Compensation Act (1986) and provides compensation, rehabilitation and prevention services for South Australia. This report reviews the Corporation's activities in the areas of: the WorkCover Scheme; self-insurers; injury management and prevention; review and appeals; corporate operations; human resources management. Financial statements are included. A separate statistical supplement includes data on claims and rehabilitations. Glossary. (62635)

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CIS 94-1213 Managing health and safety at work. WorkCover Corporation, 100 Waymouth Street, GPO Box 2668, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia, 3rd. ed., 1991. ii, 30p. Illus. 6 ref., ISBN 0-7243-8489-8 (In English)

Contents of these guidelines: costs of health and safety problems; management control of hazards; five elements of a successful health and safety management system (top management are involved and committed, supervisors are responsible and accountable for the health and safety of their staff, effective mechanisms for employee consultation, circulation of the company health and safety policy, adequate training programme). The second part of the document gives advice on how to make the five elements work successfully: responsibilities of top management, supervisors, and employees; role of safety and health personnel; rehabilitation procedures. (62636)

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CIS 94-1214 South Australian Occupational Health and Safety Commission. Annual report 1991-92. South Australian Occupational Health and Safety Commission, GPO Box 427, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia, Dec. 1992. ii, 38p. Illus. (In English)

The Commission's strategic plan for 1991/92 is described followed by a review of work in the areas of: standards developments; national standards (uniformity); administration of the Occupational Health, Safety and Welfare Act, 1986; education and workplace services; information and research; publicity and promotions; workforce and industry groups (Women's Advisory Committee); internal organization. A financial statement and lists of committees and working parties are included. (62639)

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CIS 94-1215 Annual report of the Health and Safety Commission 1992/1993. Summary. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. 10p. (In English)

This report summarizes the main achievements of the British Health and Safety Commission for 1992/93, action taken in particular sectors and/or cross-sectoral hazards, enforcement activity and key points from the statistics. Tables show key output and performance measures of the Health and Safety Executive. (62650)

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CIS 94-1216 National Institute of Occupational Health: Plan for the year 1994. (Danish: Arbejdsmiljøinstituttets årsplan for 1994) Arbejdsmiljøinstituttet, Lersøpark allé 105, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1994. 20p. Gratis., ISBN 87-7534-457-2 (In Danish)

The plans for the National Institute of Occupational Health in Denmark are given for the year 1994. Areas that are given high priority are: waste and recycling, development of methods and quality control, occupational cancer, musculoskeletal disorder, technical prevention and substitution, indoor climate, occupational allergy, occupational psychology, substances with neurotoxic effects, work environment for older people, and the Danish Product Register Database. Resources and administrative matters are outlined. (62669)

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CIS 94-1217 Research concepts in the field of occupational health and safety. (French: Politiques de la recherche en prévention) International Social Security Association (ISSA), International Section for Research, Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (INRS), 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1993. 134p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 92-843-1071-7 (Eng), ISBN 92-843-2071-2 (fr), ISBN 92-843-7071-X (deu) (In English, French, German)

Results of a workshop of a working group of the ISSA Research Section held 16-17 September 1992. The workshop considered proposals for the planning and implementation of occupational safety and health research and the valorization of results. Topics covered: planning and organizational aspects of state research promotion in the field of occupational health and safety; quality of research in the field of work safety; initiation of research programmes and projects; valorization and assessment of research results. In appendix: interim report of the working group. (62761)

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CIS 94-1218 National Occupational Health and Safety Commission Annual Report 1987-88. Worksafe Australia, Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1989. viii, 129p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Topics covered in this annual report: organizational structure of the Commission; review of 1987-88 and the changing pattern of occupational health and safety in Australia; activities in the areas of policy development, legislation, preventive strategies, training and education, grants and awards, publicity and promotions, information services, national standards and chemicals; research and teaching activities of the newly organized National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety; corporate services; financial statements; staff publications. (62782)

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CIS 94-1219 High level meeting on safety and health priorities, 29-30 July 1991. Symposium for chief factory inspectors, 31 July-2 August 1991. International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1991. 71p. Illus. (In English)

This report provides a review and summary of a high level meeting on safety and health priorities held in Harare, Zimbabwe, 29-30 July 1991 along with the text of some of the papers presented: a summary of two ILO-FINNIDA African Regional Projects on safety, health and inspection services; workers' views on priorities; introduction to performance of inspection services; improved working conditions - a development factor for the efficient utilization of manpower resources; national promotional structures in Zimbabwe. A report on a symposium for chief factory inspectors on safety and health project implementation is also included. This covers: development of safety and health infrastructures; training for performance improvement; priority areas; action planning. (62789)

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CIS 94-1220 Selecting a health and safety consultancy. Health and Safety Executive (HSE), HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, Dec. 1992. 14p. (In English)

This booklet provides guidance on how to use and select a consultancy that is competent to advise on health and safety. The importance of health and safety to businesses is outlined and guidance is given on when to use a consultancy, what a consultancy can do, how to choose the right consultancy and how to judge its performance. Employers' duties under British health and safety at work legislation are also outlined. (62642)

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CIS 94-1221 Health and safety at work - Register of databases - CD-ROM, online, videotex. International Social Security Association (ISSA), Association nationale pour la prévention des accidents du travail (ANPAT), rue Gachard 88, bte 4, 1050 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1994. 135p. 4 ref. Index., ISBN 92-843-1079-2 (In English)

Worldwide register of computerized databases (full-text and bibliographic) dealing completely or partially with occupational safety and health topics. Altogether there are 81 listings for CD-ROM disks, 115 for on-line databases (many of them available as well on one or more CD-ROM disks) and 8 for teletex databases (all of them on the French MINITEL system). For each database, information is given on: title of the database; information provider; publisher; vendor(s); database type; language; subject; abstract; coverage (national or international); timespan; updating (including number of records). Introduction in English, French, Dutch, German and Spanish. (62830)

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002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology

CIS 94-1222 Comments on the determination of the onset of occupational hearing loss. (Italian: Considerazioni sulla determinazione di insorgenza dell'indebolimento del senso dell'udito di natura professionale) Albera R., Beatrice F., Romano C., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.448-458. 36 ref. (In Italian)

Different aspects of the diagnosis of noise-induced hearing disability and handicap are discussed. It is suggested that this diagnosis can only be made if both occupational acoustic trauma and hearing disability or handicap are present. Occupational acoustic trauma may be considered to be present only in people working in a noisy environment, if there are no hearing problems other than those of occupational origin, and if the hearing loss is neurosensorial, bilateral, greater at higher frequencies and greater than in subjects of the same age not exposed to industrial noise. On the other hand, loss of hearing function may be diagnosed when hearing disability and handicap are present according to the WHO definition. An experimental model is proposed that will establish the presence of hearing disability and handicap. (62812)

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CIS 94-1223 California adults with elevated blood lead levels, 1987 through 1990. Maizlish N., Rudolph L., American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 1993, Vol.83, No.3, p.402-405. 9 ref. (In English)

Follow-up data based on California (USA) blood lead registry reports (95% of whom occupationally exposed adults) are presented. From 1987 through 1990, the California Department of Health Services received 17,951 reports for 4,069 civilian, non-institutionalized adults employed by at least 328 companies. Of 232 incident case subjects with severe toxicity (2.90µgmol/L or greater), 182 were successfully traced and interviewed. Index case subjects were mostly male (95%) and disproportionately Hispanic (46%); 35% lived with children aged seven or younger, and 10% had been hospitalized. Ninety-four percent involved over-exposures at worksites that lacked medical removal (50%), ventilation (36%), appropriate respirators (62%), training (64%), clothing changes (45%), or showering (60%). Tabular data are given indicating the distribution of persons by peak blood lead levels, according to Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes. (62592)

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CIS 94-1224 Interpretation of urine results used to assess chemical exposure with emphasis on creatinine adjustments: A review. Boeniger M.F., Lowry L.K., Rosenberg J., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.615-627. Illus. 122 ref. (In English)

Review of the process of elimination of creatinine (CRE), and of the limitations of its use in the determination of urinary concentrations of various substances. CRE excretion is subject to wide fluctuation due to specific internal factors; the use of CRE to correct chemical concentrations in urine will not necessarily improve the correlation to the exposure dose for all chemicals; and other means of expressing urine concentration may offer greater accuracy in estimating individual absorbed dose. (62667)

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CIS 94-1225 Drinking habits and occupational exposure to inhalation anesthetics at low doses. Franco G., Fonte R., Ghittori S., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.463-472. Illus. 54 ref. (In English)

The aim of this study was to evaluate certain indicators of hepatic (serum aminotransferase activities) and haematological (erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume) changes among health care personnel exposed to inhalation anaesthetics (nitrous oxide and isoflurane). Workers (172) in a hospital were divided into four groups according to exposure and drinking habits: (1) non-drinkers and unexposed subjects; (2) drinkers and unexposed subjects; (3) non-drinkers and exposed subjects; (4) drinkers and exposed subjects. Aminotransferase activity or mean erythrocyte size were not affected by anaesthetics exposure. Increased aspartateaminotransferase (AST) values among unexposed drinkers were related to alcohol intake. This observation was confirmed by the relationship between AST behaviour and quantitative alcohol intake. Thus, when studying any effect involving functions related to the biotransformation of xenobiotics, in which the liver plays a primary role, the importance of establishing the exact daily amount of ethanol intake is stressed. (62814)

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CIS 94-1226 Epidemiology of sudden unexpected death syndrome among Thai migrant workers in Singapore. Goh K.T., Chao T.C., Heng B.H., Koo C.C., Poh S.C., International Journal of Epidemiology, Feb. 1993, Vol.22, No.1, p.88-95. Illus. 32 ref. (In English)

A total of 235 cases of sudden unexpected death syndrome (SUDS) among apparently healthy male Thai migrant workers in Singapore were reported between 1982 and 1990. Most of the deaths occurred during sleep. The median age at the time of death was 33 years and the median interval between arrival and death was eight months. Post-mortem examination revealed few abnormal findings except for haemorrhagic congestion or oedema of the lungs. There were moderate to severe intra-alveolar haemorrhages with some evidence of myocarditis or pneumonitis. There was some evidence of anomalies in the cardiac conduction system. Epidemiological investigations showed that a family history of similar deaths and serological evidence of current or recent infection with Pseudomonas pseudomallei were significantly associated with SUDS. Extensive biochemical and toxicological investigations were inconclusive. Because these workers experienced various psychological problems, stress could be a precipitating factor for SUDS. (62563)

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CIS 94-1227 Occupation and cancers of the lung and bladder - A case-control study in Bombay. Notani P.N., Shah P., Jayant K., Balakrishnan V., International Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1993, Vol.22, No.2, p.185-191. 14 ref. (In English)

Associations between occupation and cancers of the lung (n=246) and bladder (n=153) were examined in a case-control study of males. Controls (n=212) comprised cases of oral and pharyngeal cancers and non-neoplastic oral diseases. For lung cases, significantly elevated risks (adjusted for smoking) were found for textile workers (odds ratio [OR]=1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.3-3.6) and cooks (OR=4.48, 95% CI : 1.2-16.9). High risks were also observed among ship and dockyard workers (OR=2.87, 95% CI : 0.8-10.1) and wood workers (OR=2.88, 95% CI : 0.9-9.6). For bladder cancers, significantly elevated risks were observed only for chemical/pharmaceutical plant workers (OR=4.48, 95% CI : 1.2-16.5). Two other sets of risk estimates were obtained: one by comparison with a second unexposed group made up of occupations with little exposure to cancer causing agents, and the other by fitting logistic regression models to the data. All methods yielded similar risk estimates. (62564)

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CIS 94-1228 Correlation between respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function in asbestos-exposed workers. Brodkin C.A., Barnhart S., Anderson G., Checkoway H., Omenn G.S., Rosenstock L., American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.32-37. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

To determine whether respiratory symptoms are associated with diminished pulmonary function, symptoms reported on the American Thoracic Society (ATS-DLD-78A) questionnaire were correlated cross-sectionally with measured spirometric volumes in 816 asbestos-exposed workers. Cough, phlegm, wheeze, and dyspnoea were inversely related to pulmonary function. Cough, phlegm, and chronic bronchitis were associated with a 2 to 8% reduction (p<0.001) in predicted values for forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume (FEV1); wheeze and dyspnoea were clinically more significant, with an 11 to 17% reduction (p<0.001). Wheeze, dyspnoea, and roentgenographic fibrosis were all significant independent predictors of risk for restrictive impairment. These results support the validity of the ATS questionnaire as an epidemiological tool and emphasize the importance of clinical history in assessing respiratory status. (62571)

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CIS 94-1229 Farmer's lung - Long-term outcome and lack of predictive value of bronchoalveolar lavage fibrosing factors. Lalancette M., Carrier G., Laviolette M., Ferland S., Rodrique J., Bégin R., Cantin A., Cormier Y., American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.216-221. Illus. 32 ref. (In English)

This study evaluates the long-term outcome of farmer's lung (FL), adding high-resolution computed tomograms (HRCT) to previously reported procedures and verifying whether bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid markers or fibrogenic factors (FF) predict outcome. Pulmonary function tests on FL subjects revealed an obstructive profile in 13 subjects and normal values in 16. Chest radiographs (CXR) were normal in 22 subjects, abnormal in six, and suggestive of emphysema in five. HRCT revealed emphysema in nine subjects and 19 were normal. There was a good correlation between the findings on pulmonary function tests and HRCT; however, CXR alone did not suggest the existence of emphysema in four subjects who had such findings on HRCT. No correlations were found between most outcome parameters and the level of the BAL FF measured six years previously. Airflow obstruction with or without emphysema is an important long-term sequela of FL and BAL FF do not predict outcome in this disease. (62576)

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CIS 94-1230 Effects of inhaled beclomethasone on airway responsiveness in occupational asthma - Placebo-controlled study of subjects sensitized to toluene diisocyanate. Maestrelli P., De Marzo N., Saetta M., Boscaro M., Fabbri L.M., Mapp C.E., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Aug. 1993, Vol.148, No.2, p.407-412. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

The study investigated the effect of five months of treatment with inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) on the airway responsiveness to methacholine and to toluene diisocyanate (TDI) in 15 sensitized asthmatic subjects who had been removed from occupational exposure to TDI. Beclomethasone reduced the airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine but did not affect the response to TDI. In fact, in the subjects on BDP, the provocative dose of methacholine producing a 20% fall in FEV1 (PD20 FEV1) increased from 0.145 to 0.485mg (p<0.05) after two months of treatment. A further increase was observed at four and five months. In contrast, in the subjects on placebo, PD20 FEV1 did not change significantly. At the end of the study, the severity of asthmatic reactions induced by bronchial challenge with TDI was significantly reduced in both groups, but no differences were observed between placebo and BDP. (62577)

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CIS 94-1231 Early pulmonary physiologic abnormalities in beryllium disease. Pappas G.P., Newman L.S., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Sep. 1993, Vol.148, No.3, p.661-666. 40 ref. (In English)

By using the beryllium-specific blood lymphocyte transformation test (BeLT) as a screening tool, it is possible to identify beryllium disease before clinical symptoms or radiographic abnormalities develop. Two groups were compared: (1) "surveillance-identified" early beryllium disease patients, detected using the BeLT in workplace screening (n=21), and (2) "clinically identified" beryllium disease patients who had symptoms or radiographic abnormalities (n=15). Physiological abnormalities occurred in 12 of 21 (57%) surveillance-identified patients. In comparison, 93% of the clinically identified patients had one or more abnormalities, the most sensitive indicator being the exercise capacity. Clinically identified patients performed less work, had more severe gas exchange abnormalities, and had higher dead space to tidal volume ratio (VD/VT) at maximal exercise than did surveillance-identified patients. These results show that alterations in gas exchange and the pulmonary vascular bed occur early in beryllium disease. (62578)

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CIS 94-1232 Predictors of asthma and wheezing in adults - Grain farming, sex, and smoking. Senthilselvan A., Chen Y., Dosman J.A., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Sep. 1993, Vol.148, No.3, p.667-670. 18 ref. (In English)

Predictors for asthma and wheeze were investigated in 1,634 subjects in the 20-65 age group from a Saskatchewan (Canada) town. Subjects were classified as asthmatic (n=62), wheezing (n=444), asymptomatic (n=908), or symptomatic (n=220). After excluding the symptomatic group, it was found that significant predictors for asthma were grain farming (odds ratio (OR)=1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-3.5; p=0.03) and sex (OR=1.9, CI: 1.1-3.2; p=0.03; males compared with females). Significant predictors for wheezing were smoking (former smoker: OR=1.8, CI: 1.3-2.5, p<0.001; current smoker: OR=5.0, CI: 3.8-6.7, p<0.001; in comparison to non-smoker) and grain farming (OR=1.7, CI: 1.3-2.4, p<0.001). Age, level of education, and physical activity at work were not significant predictors for asthma or wheezing. Grain farming was a significant predictor of asthma in men but not in women. Nevertheless, smoking and grain farming were significant predictors of wheezing in both sexes. (62579)

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CIS 94-1233 DNA adducts as a measure of lung cancer risk in humans exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Kriek E., Van Schooten F.J., Hillebrand M.J.X., Van Leeuwen F.E., Den Engelse L., De Looff A.J.A., Dijkmans A.P.G., Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1993, Vol.99. p.71-75. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

Workers in the coking, foundry, and aluminium industry can be exposed to high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and are at an increased risk for lung cancer. Theoretically, DNA adduct formation is a more relevant biological parameter for assessing exposure risk than PAH in the work atmosphere because adduct levels reflect that part of the dose that escapes detoxification and binds to DNA. The study analyzed white blood cell (WBC) DNA from coke-oven workers and from workers in an aluminium production plant and demonstrated the presence of PAH-DNA adducts. Forty-seven percent of the coke oven workers had detectable levels of PAH-DNA adducts in their WBC compared with 27% of the controls (p<0.05). In the aluminium workers, no PAH-DNA adducts were detected by ELISA. The more sensitive 32P-postlabelling assay showed the presence of PAH-DNA adducts in 91% of the aluminium workers. There was no correlation of WBC adduct levels with the concentration of PAH in the work atmosphere. (62593)

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CIS 94-1234 Agricultural exposures and cancer trends in developed countries. Davis D.L., Blair A., Hoel D.G., Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr. 1992, Vol.100, p.39-44. 64 ref. (In English)

Trends in cancer mortality in industrialized countries were reviewed to identify increasing sites, and summaries were compiled of studies on farmers which have shown increased risks for these same sites. Based on a literature review by the US National Cancer Institute, patterns of cancer in farmers reported in 20 studies from eight countries are summarized. Increasing rates of cancer mortality in industrialized countries were found for melanoma, prostate, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, multiple myeloma, breast, brain, and kidney cancer. Many of the same sites that have increased in the general population have also been found to be increasing in farmers. Significant excesses occurred for Hodgkin's disease, multiple myeloma, leukaemia, skin melanomas, and cancers of the lip, stomach, and prostate. These excesses occurred against a background of substantial deficits among farmers for total mortality, heart disease, and many other specific diseases. Heart disease and some sites of cancer show opposite trends in the general population. (62597)

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CIS 94-1235 Asthma related to occupational and ambient air pollutants in non smokers. Greer J.R., Abbey D.E., Burchette R.J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.909-915. Illus. 42 ref. (In English)

To determine the association of occupational and general air pollutant exposure with the development of adult asthma, a standardized respiratory questionnaire was administered to a cohort of 3914 non-smoking adults in 1977 and again in 1987. Ambient air pollution levels at place of work and residence over a 20-year period were established by interpolation from concentrations measured at fixed monitoring stations. Second-hand smoke exposure was significantly associated with the development of asthma. Airway obstructive disease before age 16 was related to marked increased risk. An increased risk of asthma in men was significantly associated with increased exposure to ozone. (62673)

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CIS 94-1236 Relationship between occupation and episodes of headache that match cervical origin pain patterns. Grimmer K., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.929-935. 46 ref. (In English)

The relationship between headache that matches cervical-origin pain patterns, occupation, sex, age, and hours of work was examined in a randomly sampled, never injured population. Although sex was a significant factor in the association between occupation and headache, age and hours of work had no effect. Women working in managerial and professional occupations had a significantly higher risk of cervical-origin headache than women working in either clerical or blue-collar occupations. A similar association for men was not noted. (62676)

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CIS 94-1237 Health, employment and financial outcomes in workers with occupational asthma. Gannon P.F.G., Weir D.C., Robertson A.S., Sherwood Burge P., British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.491-496. 19 ref. (In English)

Results of a follow-up study of workers with a diagnosis of occupational asthma showed that 32% of the subjects remained exposed to the causative agent; these workers had more respiratory symptoms and a decrease in lung function at follow-up compared with those removed from exposure. The median loss of annual income was greater for those removed from exposure. It is concluded that removal from exposure after diagnosis of occupational asthma is beneficial in terms of symptoms and lung function, but is associated with a loss of income. Early diagnosis is important for symptomatic improvement after removal from exposure. (62683)

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CIS 94-1238 Hypersensitivity pneumonitis presenting as sarcoidosis. Forst L.S., Abraham J., British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.497-500. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

A case report is presented to illustrate a misdiagnosis of sarcoidosis in a spraypainter whose history was suggestive of hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by exposure to toluene diisocyanate in the workplace. The two diseases have similar clinical, laboratory and pathological features and are thus difficult to distinguish. Since early recognition of hypersensitivity pneumonitis can lead to complete reversal of the disease in many cases, it is important to make the diagnosis as early as possible. (62684)

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CIS 94-1239 Manganese encephalopathy: Utility of early magnetic resonance imaging. Nelson K., Golnick J., Korn T., Angle C., British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.510-513. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides visual evidence of cerebral deposits of paramagnetic metals. The usefulness of MRI is described in connection with the manganese poisoning of an arc welder who had been engaged in the repair and recycling of railroad track made of manganese steel alloy. MRI should be considered as an important adjunct to air monitoring and the determination of blood and urinary concentrations of manganese for the evaluation and diagnosis of manganese poisoning in workers at risk. (62685)

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CIS 94-1240 High resolution pulmonary computed tomography scans quantified by analysis of density distribution: Application to asbestosis. Eterović D., Dujić Ž., Tocilj J., Čapkun V., British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.514-519. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

A new method for quantitative evaluation for high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs was developed by assessment of the distribution of radiological densities within the lung slices. To improve the sensitivity of detection of abnormalities, the density distributions were analyzed using a curve fitting technique. The method was applied to seven patients with early asbestosis, 15 with advanced asbestosis and 13 normal controls. Results of the study indicated that the curve fitting technique enables a more objective assessment of HRCT pulmonary scans, especially in the early stage of asbestosis. (62686)

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CIS 94-1241 Skin symptoms among workers in a spice factory. Meding B., Contact Dermatitis, Oct. 1993, Vol.29, No.4, p.202-205. 13 ref. (In English)

Workers in a Swedish spice factory (n=70), and in the office (n=23) of the same company, were investigated by questionnaire regarding skin symptoms. Later the subjects reporting skin symptoms were examined and investigated by patch and prick testing. Skin symptoms were reported by 50% of the factory workers. Pruritus and skin irritation, particularly from cinnamon powder were common. Patch test reactions to cinnamaldehyde were found in 11/25 factory workers. Irritant patch test reactions were seen from powders of cardamom, paprika and white pepper. On prick testing, 6/25 workers reacted to cinnamaldehyde. The results illustrate the difficulties of patch testing with spices and indicate the need for further research and validation of methods. (62690)

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CIS 94-1242 Cor pulmonale and pneumoconiotic lung disease: An investigation using hospital discharge data. Kusiak R., Liss G.M., Gailitis M.M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.2, p.161-173. 36 ref. (In English)

Cor pulmonale has been reported in the past to be associated with pneumoconioses as an end-stage complication. Whether the association can be demonstrated among cases of pneumoconioses acquired in more recent decades is still not clear. The authors examined the relation between these conditions using data summarized in hospital records in Ontario for males discharged between 1979 and 1990 with a diagnosis of chronic cor pulmonale or one of the pneumoconioses. Based on the age-specific frequency rates, cor pulmonale was diagnosed 17 times more frequently than expected among men with pneumoconioses than among other men admitted to hospital. The results show that cor pulmonale still appears to be associated with dust exposure at the workplace and demonstrates the usefulness of hospital discharge information in addressing questions in occupational health. (62694)

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CIS 94-1243 Cancer in Illinois construction workers: A study. Keller J.E., Howe H.L., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.2, p.223-230. 15 ref. (In English)

A series of case-control studies using subjects from the Illinois State Cancer Registry have been conducted. Logistic regression was used to control for age and history of tobacco and alcohol use. Construction workers were consistently found to be younger than other subjects and to have used alcohol and tobacco more often. Significant positive associations between cancer of the stomach and welding, lung cancer and employment in the construction industry, and lung cancer and welding were found. Significant negative associations between cancer of the colon and welding, cancer of the prostate and plumbing, cancer of the prostate and metal working, and bladder cancer and employment as an electrician suggest that construction workers did not consistently experience excesses of cancer known to be associated with tobacco use, and an overall excess of sites not known to be related to tobacco use may have occurred. (62696)

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CIS 94-1244 Biomarkers of carcinogen exposure and cancer risk in a coke plant. Assennato G., Ferri G.M., Tockman M.S., Poirier M.C., Schoket B., Porro A., Corrado V., Strickland P.T., Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1993, Vol.99. p.237-239. 16 ref. (In English)

To evaluate the association between an indicator of carcinogen exposure (peripheral blood leukocyte DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and an early indicator of neoplastic transformation (sputum epithelial cell membrane antigens binding by monoclonal antibodies against small cell lung cancer and against non-small cell lung cancer), a survey of 350 coke-oven workers and 100 unexposed workers was planned. This paper reports a pilot investigation on a subgroup of 23 coke-oven workers and eight unexposed controls. A "gas regulator" worker with positive tumour antigen binding was identified . Results show that smokers, subjects with decreased pulmonary function, and those with morphological dysplasia of sputum cells have higher levels of DNA adducts. The gas regulators showed the highest values for adducts; however, no significant difference of adduct levels was found between the coke-oven group and unexposed controls. (62595)

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CIS 94-1245 Asthma risk and occupation as a respiratory therapist. Christiani D.C., Kern D.G., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Sep. 1993, Vol.148, No.3, p.671-674. 24 ref. (In English)

A previous cross-sectional study of state of Rhode Island (USA) respiratory therapists reported an excess risk of asthma after entry into that profession. A confirmatory questionnaire survey of 2,086 Massachusetts (USA) respiratory therapists and 2,030 physical therapists and their assistants was conducted. A history of physician-diagnosed asthma was reported by 16% of respiratory therapists and 8% of control subjects. When analysis was restricted to those who developed asthma after entry into their profession, respiratory therapists still had significant excess, 7.4 compared to 2.8%. The odds ratio for respiratory therapy was 2.5 (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.3) after adjustment for age, family history, atopic history, smoking, and gender. These results confirm the previous report of excess risk of asthma among respiratory therapists. This excess risk develops after entry into the profession and does not appear to be explained by bias or confounding. (62580)

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CIS 94-1246 Mobile work site health promotion programs can reduce selected employee health risks. Aldana S.G., Jacobson B.H., Harris C.J., Kelley P.L., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.922-928. Illus. 25 ref. (In English)

This study examined the effect of participation in a mobile work site health promotion program (MWHPP) on selected cardiovascular risk indicators. Measures of blood pressure, cholesterol (total and total/high-density lipoprotein ratio), percent body fat, and submaximal fitness were taken at baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month intervals from 113 employed adults. Significant reductions were observed in all variables measured. Further analysis of the number of employees who went from high risk to low risk demonstrated a significantly reduced risk of hypercholesterolaemia, cholesterol total/high-density lipoprotein ratio, and obesity. (62675)

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CIS 94-1247 Classification of radiographs for pneumoconiosis: The Canadian pneumoconiosis reading panel. Muir D.C.F., Julian J.A., Roos J.O., Maehle W.M., Chan J., Mountain W., Morgan W.K.C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.2, p.139-147. 8 ref. (In English)

A method of providing experience for readers in the classification of radiographs for pneumoconiosis is described. It is based on an exchange of films by mail, with provision for ongoing feedback of results. The effects of this feedback on reading levels is described. The method is suitable for readers who are unable to attend major centres for formal instruction, and has the additional advantage of continual monitoring of reading levels. (62693)

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CIS 94-1248 Occupational medicine training program surveys. Hegmann K., Barrier P., Moser R., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.35, No.8, p.768-775. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

Although the number of occupational medicine (OM) residents in training programmes has risen in the past 15 years, there remains a significant shortage of OM physicians in the United States. OM residency programme directors and residents and fellows (trainees) were surveyed to answer questions relevant to recruiting and supplying OM trained physicians. Relatively few trainees were taught OM as fourth-year medical students and in other residencies. Reasons for pursuing OM training were diverse and often related to postgraduate clinical experience with OM. Only a total of 84 primary care residents (0.32%) rotate through the OM residency programmes in an average year. An insufficient quantity of qualified applicants, combined with limited exposure to OM in medical schools and low levels of contact with residents in primary care programmes, will continue to hinder efforts to reduce the shortage of OM residents and physicians. Further training specifically targeting the fourth year of medical school and the primary care residencies may have the most impact on recruitment. (62544)

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CIS 94-1249 Computerized system for the medical surveillance and health assessment of workers (an example from the Černomorec Furniture Works). (Russian: Sistema medicinskogo nabljudenija i ocenki zdorov'ja rabočih s ispol'zovaniem ĖVM (na primere NPMO "Černomorec")) Ahmetzjanov L.M., Derevoobrabatyvajuščaja promyšlennost', 1992, No.6, p.20-23. Illus. (In Russian)

Description of a microcomputer program for compiling and analyzing data as recorded on various standard Russian medical report forms (routine medical examinations, certification of incapacity, etc.). Examples of data are taken from the system installed at a research and production unit of the furniture industry in the city of Novorossijsk. The 30 most common causes of temporary incapacity for the period 1987-1991 are analyzed and used to predict figures for 1994. The economic impact of the various causes of incapacity is also calculated by the program, which facilitates setting priorities for intervention. The program is stated to run on IBM AT-type microcomputers; no flowchart or example of code is given. (62558)

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CIS 94-1250 Medical logging and injury surveillance database system. Goldberg J.H., Leader B.K., Stuart-Buttle C., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Apr. 1993, Vol.11, No.2, p.107-123. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

A medical logging and injury surveillance database program was created for (1) rapid, flexible entry of occupational injuries and illnesses; (2) generation of US government required forms/reports; (3) generation of company forms/reports; and (4) statistical analysis of current and future trends in injuries and illnesses. The operation of this non-commercial system is described in order to highlight necessary and important capabilities when evaluating commercial databases. Access at various levels is controlled from passwords to maintain confidentiality in employees' records. Most entries in the menu-based package are made with "mouse" pointing and clicking, and list scrolling. Relational data files allow necessary forms to be pre-filled to the greatest extent, eliminating duplicate entries and providing significant work simplification. Statistical multiple regression, forecasting, and incidence rate analyses are unique to this package, and allow powerful data interpretation and trend analysis. (62561)

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CIS 94-1251 Occupational health surveillance. Robertson A.S., Industrial Safety Data File, Sep. 1993, p.G:31:1-G:31:6. (In English)

The requirements for health surveillance in the United Kingdom are described along with the aims, methods and consequences of surveillance. Legislation covers health surveillance for those involved with asbestos, lead, compressed air, diving, ionizing radiation, mine dusts and certain chemicals. General recommendations and specific methods of surveillance are contained in the COSHH Regulations and Approved Codes of Practice. Surveillance techniques should include reliable and consistent methods of recording, analysis and interpretation. The main national system for occupational disease surveillance is the Reporting of Injuries, Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1985 (RIDDOR). (62654)

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CIS 94-1252 International classification of handicaps. (French: La classification internationale des handicaps) Vez J.P., Vader J.P., Revue de traumatologie et d'assécurologie, Apr. 1994, Vol.87, No.1, p.52-58. 8 ref. (In French)

This classification system concerns the consequences of diseases on the life of an individual. Three levels are distinguished and defined: impairments, disabilities and handicaps. The significance of these levels is explained and the relativity of the handicap is highlighted. By including non-medical data, this classification scheme broadens the medical evaluation and fosters a better understanding of handicaps. Guidance is given on how to use the scheme. (62701)

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CIS 94-1253 The healthy worker project - A work-site intervention for weight control and smoking cessation. Jeffery R.W., Forster J.L., French S.A., Kelder S.H., Lando H.A., McGovern P.G., Jacobs D.R., Baxter J.E., American Journal of Public Health, Mar. 1993, Vol.83, No.3, p.395-401. 54 ref. (In English)

A randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a work-site health promotion programme in reducing obesity and cigarette smoking. Thirty-two worksites were randomized to treatment or no treatment for two years. Treatment consisted of health education classes combined with a payroll-based incentive system. Evaluation was based on cohort and cross-sectional surveys. Results showed that of 10,000 total employees in treatment worksites, 2,041 and 270 participated in weight control and smoking cessation programmes, respectively. Weight loss averaged 4.8lbs, and 43% of smoking participants quit. Net two-year reductions in smoking prevalence in treatment compared to control worksites were 4.0% and 2.1% in cross-sectional and cohort surveys, respectively. No treatment effect was found for weight. Treatment effects for smoking prevalence and weight were both positively correlated with participation rates in the intervention programmes (r=0.45 for smoking and r=0.55 for weight). (62591)

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CIS 94-1254 Cancer risk assessment and management: An ethical perspective. Vineis P., Soskolne C.L., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.902-908. 96 ref. (In English)

Different ways of evaluating acceptable risk in the work environment are described, with particular emphasis on their ethical aspects. Main topics: definition of acceptability of risks, assumptions in setting acceptable risks, measurement of risks, examples of acceptable levels of risk, principles of medical ethics, ethical models, and risk assessment, from the clinical setting to the population level. (62672)

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CIS 94-1255 Pregnancy and the working environment. (Swedish: Graviditet och arbetsmiljö) Westerholm P., Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, 1993. 63p. (Eng.), 60p. (Swe.). Illus. 17 ref., ISBN 91-7522-356-2 (Sw), ISBN 91-7522-405-4 (En) (In English, Swedish)

Reproductive problems are described in general and especially in relation to the parents' work. The causes of reproductive problems are outlined both for men and women. Examples are chemical risk factors, tobacco smoking, mental stress, and heavy workload. The possible consequences include low birth weight, perinatal mortality, malformation and retardation. So far, no studies have shown any link between risk of miscarriage or malformation and work with VDUs during pregnancy. Swedish regulations as well as European Communities directives and Nordic Council of Ministers recommendations are surveyed. (62680)

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CIS 94-1256 Occupational health services workshop. Handouts, speeches, report and conclusions. African Regional Labour Administration Centre (ARLAC), ILO-FINNIDA Labour/Factory Inspection Service Project, P.O. Box 6097, Harare, Zimbabwe, 1993. 2 vols. 30p. and 35p. (In English)

These two volumes contain the handouts, speeches, report and conclusions of an occupational health services workshop held in Harare, Zimbabwe, 8-19 November 1993. Topics covered in the report: objective of the workshop; problems in occupational health; role of the occupational health services; financing and resourcing of occupational health services; ethics in occupational health services; workplace survey; medical screening and surveillance; interaction between the Ministry of Labour and the Ministry of Health in occupational health services; development of an occupational health system policy. (62640)

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CIS 94-1257 Researching health risks. US Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, US Government Printing Office, Superintendent of Documents, Mail Stop SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-9328, USA, Nov. 1993. viii, 228p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: USD 13.00 (+25% for international orders)., ISBN 0-16-043021-6 (In English)

The Office of Technology Assessment of the US Congress analyzed the nature and organization of federally funded research on health risk assessment in terms of the resources and priorities of the agencies concerned (the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, among others), the linkage of research to decision-making and the limits of research-based information in making social policy. Assessment of the risks associated with radon exposure was taken as a case study. Promising areas for future research and factors of importance for successful assessment were identified. Risk assessment activities outside the USA were surveyed. (62610)

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003 Industries and occupations

CIS 94-1258 Medium-term variations of visual function in VDT operators - Observation of 70 cases. (Italian: Variazioni a medio termine della funzionalità visiva in operatori VDT - Osservazioni di 70 casi) Gratton I., Piccoli B., Pierini F., Bergamaschi A., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.482-486. 13 ref. (In Italian)

The aim of the study was to evaluate medium-term variations of visual functions in 70 VDT operators in function of their VDT exposure. Clinical records of the operators were reviewed in order to evaluate the variation of visual parameters (refraction, phorias, fusional convergence and divergence, stereopsis) after a 2yr follow-up. Subjects affected by hyperopia, large ametropias, or binocular vision disturbances were excluded from the study. The operators were divided into two subgroups: low exposures (n=20; <4h/day) and high exposures (n=50; >4h/day). Asthenopia was frequent in both groups. Variation of refraction and binocular vision parameters was absent or rather limited in both groups. This indicates that in subjects without significant ophthalmological problems the risk of permanent functional damage is very low at medium-term. (62816)

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CIS 94-1259 Skin symptoms and disease during work with visual display terminals. Bergqvist U., Wahlberg J.E., Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1994, Vol.30, No.4, p.197-204. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

A cross-sectional study of 353 routine office workers was carried out in order to investigate relationships between skin diseases, signs or reported symptoms and work at visual display terminals. There was a tendency for increased occurrence of eczema, nonspecific erythema and symptoms among VDT users compared to non-VDT users. Organizational conditions such as a perceived high work pace, or work load, and inability to take rest breaks were found to be associated with reported skin symptoms and nonspecific erythema. A low relative humidity was associated with a diagnosis of eczema. (62772)

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CIS 94-1260 Accidents due to walking, running, carrying, pushing and pulling in agriculture and their prevention. (German: Unfallgefährdung und -verhütung beim Gehen, Laufen, Tragen, Schieben und Ziehen im landwirtschaftlichen Betrieb) Hammer W., Safety Science, Jan. 1994, Vol.17, No.2, p.117-143. Illus. 21 ref. (In German)

Data on farm accidents involving walking, running, carrying, pushing and drawing were analyzed in order to locate accident clusters, to determine causal factors and to find starting points for safety measures. Women had more accidents than men. The risk was highest for the youngest and oldest age groups and increased with volume of work per worker and thus with farm size. Accumulations of accidents were found when walking on snow or ice and on paved surfaces; slip resistance was frequently inadequate. Preventive measures are suggested including good work organization to avoid extreme efforts, hurry and stress and recommended maximum loads for materials handling. (62722)

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CIS 94-1261 Mortality in the coke oven plant of Carrara, Italy. Franco F., Chellini E., Seniori Costantini A., Gioia A., Carra G., Paolinelli F., Martelli C., Vigotti M., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.443-447. 11 ref. (In English)

A mortality study was performed on a cohort of 538 male workers employed at a coke plant in Carrara, Italy, during the period 1960-1985. The follow-up period ranged from 1 Jan. 1960 to 31 Dec. 1990, with 10,665 person-years accumulated. A significant excess of mortality from lung cancer was observed: 19 compared to 10.02 expected deaths using national rates, SMR 190 (95% CI = 114-296), and compared to 11.19 expected deaths using regional rates, SMR 170 (95% CI = 102-265). The results provide additional evidence for a relationship between this occupation and lung cancer, already observed in larger cohorts of coke oven workers. (62811)

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CIS 94-1262 Fatal occupational injuries in the New Jersey construction industry, 1983 to 1989. Sorock G.S., Smith E.O., Goldoft M., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.916-921. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

Potential risk factors for fatal injury in the construction industry in New Jersey were identified. Multiple data sources including death certificates, medical examiners reports, Occupational Safety and Health Administration fatality files, and Workers Compensation reports were used to identify 200 construction-related fatalities in New Jersey during the years 1983-1989. All deaths were in men. The death rate was 14.5 per 100,000 employed person-years over the study period. Death rates were higher for Hispanics and for African-Americans than for whites. Iron workers and roofers had the highest rates among specific occupational groups within the construction industry. The leading cause of death was falls. (62674)

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CIS 94-1263 Accident with several victims in the First Bereznikov Potash Production Mine Administration mine. (Russian: Gruppovoj nesčastnyj slučaj v pervom Bereznikovskom kalijnom rudoupravlenii) Sologub T.T., Slavnyyj I.Ju., Bezopasnost' truda v promyšlennosti, 1993, No.8, p.18-19. Illus. (In Russian)

On 3 Dec. 1992, a gas explosion in exploratory underground workings of the Uralkalij enterprise killed three persons and injured three others. The deposit was known to emit a dangerous mixture of methane and hydrogen. In a new drift, the air was monitored regularly with portable equipment. On the morning of the accident, the foreman twice interrupted work in the drift when methane concentrations of 4% were detected. The sector supervisor decided to stop excavation completely and evacuate the area. Although the atmosphere was checked and found free of methane before transport equipment was set in motion, a moving mine car damaged a cable and detonated a pocket of gas 20m from the mouth of the new drift. Investigators found that the adequacy of the ventilation in the area had not been certified, that the devices ensuring the explosion-proof operation of the mining equipment were out of order, that air monitoring over the whole sector was inadequate and that workers were carrying smoking materials. Supervisory personnel were held responsible. (62601)

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CIS 94-1264 Working on the hot seat: Urban bus operators. Evans G.W., Accident Analysis and Prevention, Apr. 1994, Vol.26, No.2, p.181-193. 46 ref. (In English)

A critical overview of findings on urban bus drivers' health status is presented. Such operators have excessive rates of morbidity and mortality from stress-related diseases, specifically cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disorders. City bus drivers are apt to retire prematurely, typically from stress-related illnesses or from musculoskeletal dysfunction. Rates of absenteeism are high. Epidemiological studies indicate that workers facing the job characteristics epitomized by urban bus driving - high workload demands, low control and high social isolation - are at substantially greater risk for coronary heart disease. (62620)

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CIS 94-1265 Mortality and cancer morbidity of production workers in the United Kingdom flexible polyurethane foam industry. Sorahan T., Pope D., British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.528-536. 10 ref. (In English)

In a survey of mortality and cancer incidence among workers exposed to toluene diisocyanate (TDI), data on workers from 11 factories in the flexible polyurethane foam industry were analyzed. Results indicated that cancer rates in this population were lower than those for the general population. All increased cancer rates among women occurred at sites of cancer known to be related to cigarette smoking, and these excesses were probably due to a combination of smoking, chance and factors unrelated to the industry under study. (62687)

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CIS 94-1266 Cancer incidence and mortality in the Swedish polyurethane foam manufacturing industry. Hagmar L., Welinder H, Mikoczy Z., British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.537-543. 30 ref. (In English)

Cancer incidence and mortality patterns were investigated in workers from nine Swedish plants using toluene diisocyanate and methylene diphenyldiisocyanate in the manufacture of polyurethane foam. A statistically significant deficit for all cause mortality was evident; the relative risk for mortality being lowest for the first 10 years since first exposure. There was an almost statistically significant deficit for all malignant neoplasms. A slight risk excess was observed for rectal cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, increasing after the first 10 years. Further follow-up studies are required to evaluate relative risks of these two diseases. (62688)

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CIS 94-1267 Occupational accidents and objective risk on North Sea offshore installations. Rundmo T., Safety Science, Jan. 1994, Vol.17, No.2, p.103-116. 19 ref. (In English)

Objective risk among personnel working on offshore petroleum installations on the Norwegian Continental Shelf was calculated using data from a self-completion survey which had a response rate of 92%. The study, conducted in Spring 1990, drew respondents from five companies and eight installations and provided details of respondents' accident experience. Results of the risk assessment are presented in respect of accident probability, accident consequences and exposure to specific hazards. It is concluded that information collected in this way can be used as a basis for a valid assessment of objective risk. (62721)

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CIS 94-1268 Health and work in a pharmaceutical plant. (Portuguese: Saúde e trabalho numa indústria farmacêutica) Rêgo M.A.V., Silvany Neto A.M., Macêdo J.S., Sousa C.S.C., Lima M.A.G., Rêgo R.C.F., Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Sep. 1993, Vol.21, No.79, p.39-47. 17 ref. (In Portuguese)

Preliminary study of the health problems among workers in a pharmaceutical plant in the state of Bahia (Brazil) and of the occupational factors that might have caused them. A total of 108 workers underwent a medical examination. More than 50% had symptoms of physical tiredness, chest and leg pain, headaches and nervousness. Other symptoms, with incidence rates between 25-50%, included forgetfulness, mental fatigue, itchiness of the eyes, dizziness, arm pain, nasal obstruction and insomnia. Without making any attempts at establishing a relationship between these symptoms and workplace exposure factors, the article describes some of these factors: noise, heat, dust, presence of pharmaceutical substances in the air, repetitive work. Though the plant is relatively new, it is suggested that much more preventive action could be undertaken than has been the case until now. (62822)

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CIS 94-1269 Cross sectional study of respiratory diseases among textile workers in Tunisia. (French: Etude transversale de la pathologie respiratoire chez les travailleurs textiles en Tunisie) Gharbi E., Gharbi R., Ghachem A., Tanabene A., El Gharbi T., Rondia D., Archives of Public Health, 1993, Vol.51, Nos.9-10, p.457-468. 20 ref. (In French)

An epidemiological survey was carried out among 797 textile workers exposed to cotton dust and 266 non-exposed workers. Results of questionnaire survey and a clinical examination indicated prevalence rates of 23.2% for byssinosis, 22.8% for chronic bronchitis and 11.1% for bronchial asthma among the exposed workers; the rates were statistically higher than in the non-exposed group. Textile workers also showed significantly lower FEV1 and FVC, both in smokers and non-smokers. It is concluded that the clinical picture and the functional loss are probably caused by exposure to cotton dust. (62703)

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CIS 94-1270 An agenda for change. Publications, Center to Protect Workers' Rights, 111 Massachusetts Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20001, USA. 86p. Illus. 14 ref. Price: USD 10.00. (In English)

Proceedings of the national conference on ergonomics, safety and health in construction held in Washington, D.C., USA, 18-22 July 1993. Topics covered: the need for change (accident statistics and costs); main safety and health hazards; unique features of the construction industry; a coalition for change (role of unions, employers, government and others); legislative framework; model safety and health programmes; safety and health organization in the construction industry; workers' compensation (costs, legislative considerations, model programmes, recommendations); the state of research in construction safety and health and recommendations for data and research needs. (62787)

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CIS 94-1271 WOAD Worldwide offshore accident databank. Statistical report 1992. DNV Technica Norge, P.O. Box 300, 1322 Høvik, Norway, 1992. viii, 175p. Illus. (In English)

This report presents statistics on accidents to offshore structures engaged in oil and gas activities in the period 1970-1991. Tables for exposure data show number of unit- and personnel-years for mobile and fixed units classified according to type of unit, year and geographical location. Tables for accident data show number of accidents classified according to type, degree of structural damage, type of release/spill and spill size, operation mode, number of fatalities, type of unit and geographical location. In general, the data are given separately for the two time periods 1970-79 and 1980-91. A list of all major accidents is included. (62633)

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CIS 94-1272 Provision of a lee for TEMPSC. Bartholomew A.P., Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 111p. Illus. Price: GBP 34.00., ISBN 0-11-882109-1 (In English)

Trials were carried out on different types of North Sea offshore oilfield vessels to assess their ability to form a lee and consequently their capability in rescue service or support. Results indicate that, in general, an effective lee can be formed by the most highly manoeuvrable vessels of the anchor handler/supply type and that rescue operations for occupants of Totally Enclosed Motor Propelled Survival Capsules (TEMPSCs) can be successfully made. It is recommended that masters and officers of oilfield vessels become familiar with the capability of their ship to form a lee. (62699)

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CIS 94-1273 Aging and working capacity - Report of a WHO Study Group. World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. vi, 51p. 20 ref. Price: CHF 10.00 (CHF 7.00 in developing countries)., ISBN 92-4-120835-X (In English)

Report of a WHO Study Group on Aging and Working Capacity which met in Helsinki, Finland, 11-13 December 1991. Contents: aging population demographics; physiological changes with age; age and job performance; health of the aging worker (mortality, morbidity, disability and poor work ability); working conditions of the aging worker; the aging worker in special work environments (heat, cold, shiftwork); aging and work accidents; health promotion (lifestyle factors, ergonomics); supporting work capacity as workers age. The report concludes with a number of recommendations. (62632)

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CIS 94-1274 The management and administration of safety and health at mines. Health and Safety Commission, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. v, 82p. Illus. Price: GBP 7.50., ISBN 0-11-882167-9 (In English)

This Code of Practice gives practical guidance with respect to the Management and Administration of Safety and Health at Mines Regulations 1993. Contents: interpretation and general duties of employers and employees; duties of mine owners and notification of mining operations; structure of health and safety management, supervision and inspection of the mine; qualifications; training requirements; surveyors and plans; records and information; exemptions, repeals, modifications and revocations. (62626)

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CIS 94-1275 Personal protective equipment (PPE). Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. 17p. (In English)

These eight information sheets cover: principles, duties and responsibilities for the provision of personal protective equipment (PPE); head protection; hearing protection; eye and face protection; respiratory protective equipment; general and specialist clothing; gloves; safety footwear. Guidance is given on legal requirements and responsibilities, selection of appropriate equipment, maintenance and storage, training and use. (62735)

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[ Top of page ]

004 New technologies

CIS 94-1276 New technologies. (Portuguese: Novas tecnologias) Moura M.A., Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Sep. 1993, Vol.21, No.79, p.63-75. 25 ref. (In Portuguese)

General discussion of the relationship between work organization (including working conditions and OSH) and the introduction of new technologies, with a special focus on the situation in Brazil. Particular new technologies discussed: robots; computerization; integrated information and production systems (computer aided design (CAD), computer aided manufacturing (CAM), computer aided production engineering/planning (CAPE/CAPP), computer aided storage and transportation (CAST)); new chemical substances. Three aspects of occupational medicine are discussed in detail in this context: occupational pathology, physiology and toxicology. The impact of new technologies on collective bargaining is also outlined. (62823)

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CIS 94-1277 Research on workers' protection at mobile robots and multi-robot systems. (German: Untersuchungen zum Arbeitsschutz bei mobilen Robotern und Mehrrobotersystemen) Freund E., Dierks F., Rossmann J., Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft Gmbh, Postfach 10 11 10, Am Alten Hafen 113-115, 27511 Bremerhaven, Germany, 1993. v, 212p. Illus. 27 ref., ISBN 3-89429-297-0 (In German)

Until recently mobile robots were restricted in their predefined and predictable areas and it was therefore fairly easy to devise warning and protection systems. More sophisticated mobile robots today have much broader possibilities of movement, greatly increasing the likelihood of accidents and thus creating the need for new guarding and warning systems. This report explores the hazards and describes a method for creating such systems, covering both navigational and safety aspects. These systems are suitable for both transport and production robots. (62551)

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005 Chemical safety

CIS 94-1278 Asbestos-related radiographic abnormalities in elevator construction workers. Bresnitz E.A., Gilman M.J., Gracely E.J., Airoldi J., Vogel E., Gefter W., American Review of Respiratory Disease, June 1993, Vol.147, No.6, p.1341-1344. 26 ref. (In English)

Elevator construction workers are exposed to asbestos dust during construction and refurbishment work on older buildings. The study screened a cohort of workers, all with more than 20 years of employment in the industry, with clinical examinations, chest radiography ("B" reader interpretations), and routine spirometry. Twenty of the 91 workers (22%) had evidence of pleural disease, but none had an interstitial process consistent with asbestosis. Of those with pleural thickening, 15 had bilateral circumscribed plaques and five had unilateral plaque formation. There were no cases of diffuse pleural thickening, benign pleural effusions, or mesothelioma in the cohort. The difference in the mean body mass index of those with pleural abnormalities (29.18 ± 3.95) and those without (27.7 ± 3.86) was not statistically significant (p=0.135). The results of this study show that elevator construction workers have an increased risk for the development of asbestos-related pleural disease. (62568)

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CIS 94-1279 Fiber burden and patterns of asbestos-related disease in chrysotile miners and millers. Churg A., Wright J.L., Vedal S., American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.25-31. 24 ref. (In English)

To examine how fibre type, concentration, and size correlate with the presence of asbestos-related disease in workers with heavy chrysotile exposure, analytic electron microscopy was used to determine the fibre content of the lungs of 94 long-term chrysotile miners and millers. The data suggest that asbestosis, airway fibrosis, and probably mesothelioma reflects high tremolite burden. Although the role of tremolite in all three diseases is established, the role of chrysotile is unclear. However, the data cannot rule out the possibility that chrysotile fibres, which are inhaled and rapidly cleared, are important in disease induction. The data also suggest that mean fibre size measures are important in the genesis of pleural plaques but that mean fibre size measures do not discriminate between subjects with and without the other asbestos-related diseases. Specifically, there is no demonstrable effect of fibre surface area. Finally, there was no association found between fibre burden and lung cancer. (62570)

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CIS 94-1280 Occupational dust exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic overview of the evidence. Oxman A.D., Muir D.C.F., Shannon H.S., Stock S.R., Hnizdo E., Lange H.J., American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.38-48. 57 ref. (In English)

An extensive literature review was conducted to assess the relationship between occupational dust exposure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirteen reports derived from three cohorts of coal miners and one of gold miners met the authors' inclusion criteria. All of the studies found a statistically significant association between loss of lung function and cumulative respirable dust exposure. It was estimated that 80 of 1,000 non-smoking coal miners with a cumulative respirable dust exposure of 122.5gh/m3 (considered equivalent to 35 years of work with a mean respirable dust level of 2mg/m3) could be expected to develop a clinically important (>20%) loss of FEV1 attributable to dust. Among 1,000 smoking miners the comparable estimate was 66. The risk of a clinically important loss of lung function attributable to dust among non-smoking gold miners was estimated to be three times as large as for coal miners at less than one-fifth of the cumulative respirable dust exposure (21.3gh/m3). (62572)

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CIS 94-1281 Clinical relevance of cellular mediators of inflammation in workers exposed to asbestos. Schwartz D.A., Galvin J.R., Frees K.L., Dayton C.S., Burmeister L.F., Merchant J.A., Hunninghake G.W., American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.68-74. 49 ref. (In English)

To identify the clinical relevance of cellular mediators of parenchymal inflammation in workers exposed to asbestos, the relationship between inflammatory products primarily released by alveolar macrophages and the clinical expression of asbestos-induced interstitial fibrosis was investigated. The study findings indicate that among workers exposed to asbestos, the concentration of interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor released from cultured alveolar macrophages does not appear to be associated with the radiographic or physiological expression of mild asbestos-induced parenchymal lung disease. Moreover, although higher concentrations of fibronectin in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and macrophage-derived prostaglandin E2 were associated with restrictive lung function, these two cell products were not associated with radiographic evidence of interstitial fibrosis. (62575)

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CIS 94-1282 Pulmonary dust retention in a silicon carbide worker. Dufresne A., Loosereewanich P., Harrigan M., Sébastian P., Perrault G., Bégin R., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.327-330. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

Pulmonary dust retention was determined in lung tissue removed from a man who worked 42 years in the vicinity of an Acheson furnace of a silicon carbide plant and developed carborundum pneumoconiosis. Special attention was paid to the retained silicon carbide fibres in the lung parenchyma. The concentration of silicon carbide fibres longer than 5µm was 39,300 fibres/mg dry lung. These fibres had a similar morphology to fibres observed in the working environment. The observed pulmonary retention is longer than that of asbestos in exposed workers. (62608)

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CIS 94-1283 Successful reduction of silica exposures at a sanitary ware pottery. Cooper T.C., Gressel M.G., Froehlich P.A., Caplan P.E., Mickelsen R.L., Valiante D., Bost P., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.600-606. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

Silica exposures were measured at a sanitary ware pottery. Some of the samples exceeded both NIOSH recommendations and OSHA's permissible exposure level for crystalline silica. Three years later, a follow-up survey found statistically significant reductions in respirable crystalline silica exposures in two of four plant departments, and statistically significant reductions in area concentrations in all four plant departments. These reductions were accomplished through a combination of automating and enclosing the batching system in the slip house and by replacing the mould parting compound with a nonsilica material, altering the method of dry sweeping, cleaning of castings while damp, improving exhaust ventilation at the spray booths, and improved housekeeping. (62665)

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CIS 94-1284 Laboratory safety course in the chemistry curriculum. Senkbeil E.G., Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.159-164. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

The Chemistry Department at Salisbury State University (Maryland, USA) had instituted a Laboratory Safety Course with the objective of developing skills and attitudes for working with chemicals in a safe and responsible way. The general design of the course is described including texts/materials, course requirements, course content and teaching tools. Outcomes of the course include positive student evaluations and an increased student awareness for applying safety practices in the laboratory. (62543)

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CIS 94-1285 Metals and skin. Hostýnek J.J., Hinz R.S., Lorence C.R., Price M., Guy R.H., Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 1993, Vol.23, No.2, p.171-235. 566 ref. (In English)

Certain metals and metal-based compounds are inherently toxic, and their presence in occupational and environmental settings raises appropriate questions concerning human exposure. This literature review summarizes: (1) data relevant to the qualitative and (where possible) quantitative evaluation of metal compound permeation through the skin; (2) the role of each metal in metabolism, particularly with respect to the skin, and the potentially toxic effects that may result from dermal contact; and (3) the immunological characteristics (including allergenicity) of the metals and their derivatives. In total, 31 metals were reviewed. Many diverse factors determine the ability of metal-based species to permeate biological membranes, not all of which have been fully defined. Therefore, considerably more experimentation, targeted at the development of high-quality transport data, will be required before the specification of practically useful structure-activity relationships are possible. (62590)

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CIS 94-1286 Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in animal-feed production plant workers. Autrup J.L., Schmidt J., Autrup H., Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1993, Vol.99. p.195-197. 14 ref. (In English)

The exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB) in animal feed processing plants was assessed using binding of AFB to serum albumin. The albumin fraction was digested with pronase, and the digest purified on a C18 Sepak column and an aflatest affinity column before quantification by ELISA. The level of detectability was 5pg/mg albumin. The workers served as their own controls, as blood samples were taken upon return from vacation and after four weeks of work. A total of seven of 45 samples were positive for AFB, with an estimated average daily intake of 64ng AFB/kg body weight. The exposed workers had been disembarking cargos contaminated with AFB or working at places where the dust contained detectable amounts of AFB. The sera from the exposed workers had a significantly higher titer against an aflatoxin B1-epitope than a non-exposed Danish control group. The level of exposure could partly explain the increased risk of liver cancer in workers in the animal feed processing industry. (62594)

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CIS 94-1287 Monitoring genotoxic exposure in uranium miners. Šrám R.J., Binková B., Dobiáš L., Rössner P., Topinka J., Veselá D., Veselý D., Stejskalová J., Bavorová H., Řeřicha V., Environmental Health Perspectives, Mar. 1993, Vol.99. p.303-305. 14 ref. (In English)

Three groups of miners from different uranium mines were studied for the effects of chemical mutagens. Cytogenetic analysis of peripheral lymphocytes, unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) in lymphocytes, and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in both plasma and lymphocytes were studied on 66 exposed miners and 56 controls. Throat swabs were taken from 116 miners and 78 controls. Significantly increased numbers of aberrant cells were found in all groups of miners, as well as decreased UDS values in lymphocytes and increased LPO plasma levels in comparison with controls. Moulds were detected in throat swabs from 27% of miners, and 58% of these moulds were embryotoxic. Only 5% of the control samples contained moulds, and none were embryotoxic. The following mycotoxins were isolated from miners' swab samples: rugulosin, sterigmatocystin, mycophenolic acid, brevianamid A, citreoviridin, citrinin, penicilic acid, and secalonic acid. These data suggest that mycotoxins are a genotoxic factor affecting uranium miners. (62596)

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CIS 94-1288 Carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene. Melnick R.L., Shackelford C.C., Huff J., Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr. 1993, Vol.100, p.227-236. Illus. 50 ref. (In English)

1,3-Butadiene, a high-production-volume chemical used widely in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, is a multiple organ carcinogen in rats and mice. Human exposures by workers employed at facilities that produce this chemical and at facilities that produce styrene-butadiene rubber have been measured at levels higher than those that cause cancer in animals. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have consistently revealed associations between occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene and excess mortality due to lymphatic and haematopoietic cancers. In response to the carcinogenicity findings for 1,3-butadiene in animals and in humans, the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration has proposed lowering the occupational exposure standard for this chemical from 1,000ppm to 2ppm. Future work is needed to understand the mechanisms of tumour induction by 1,3-butadiene; however, the pursuit of this research should not delay the reduction of human exposure to this chemical. (62598)

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CIS 94-1289 The fifth plot of the Carcinogenic Potency Database - Results of animal bioassays published in the general literature through 1988 and by the National Toxicology Program through 1989. Gold L.S., Manley N.B., Slone T.H., Garfinkel G.B., Rohrbach L., Ames B.N., Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr. 1993, Vol.100, p.65-135. 84 ref. (In English)

This supplement includes results of 412 long-term, chronic experiments of 147 test compounds, and reports the same information about each experiment in the same plot format as the earlier papers: the species and strain of test animal, the route and duration of compound administration, dose level and other aspects of experimental protocol, histopathology and tumour incidence, TD50 (carcinogenic potency) and its statistical significance, dose response, author's opinion about carcinogenicity, and literature citation. Readers are referred to the 1984 publications for a guide to the plot of the database, a complete description of the numerical index of carcinogenic potency, and other information. In all, the five plots include results of 4,487 experiments on 1,136 chemicals. Updated results based on all five plots are given for the following earlier analyses: the most potent TD50 values by species, reproducibility of bioassay results, positivity rates, and prediction between species. (62599)

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CIS 94-1290 The toxicology of benzene. Snyder R., Witz G., Goldstein B.D., Environmental Health Perspectives, Apr. 1993, Vol.100, p.293-306. Illus. 167 ref. (In English)

Benzene is metabolized, primarily in the liver, to a series of phenolic and ring-opened products and their conjugates. The mechanism of benzene-induced aplastic anaemia appears to involve the concerted action of several metabolites acting together on early stem and progenitor cells, as well as on early blast cells, to inhibit maturation and amplification. Benzene metabolites also inhibit the function of micro-environmental stromal cells necessary to support the growth of differentiating and maturing marrow cells. The mechanism of benzene-induced leukaemogenesis is less well understood. Benzene and its metabolites do not function well as mutagens but are highly clastogenic, producing chromosome aberrations, sister chromatid exchange, and micronuclei. Benzene has been shown to be a multi-organ carcinogen in animals. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that benzene is a human leukaemogen. There is need to better define the lower end of the dose-response curve for benzene as a human leukaemogen. (62600)

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CIS 94-1291 The relationship between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air and in urine of workers in a Söderberg potroom. Ny E.T., Heederik D., Kromhout H., Jongeneelen F., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.277-284. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

The relationship between increase of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene over the workweek and the airborne concentrations of benzo(a)pyrene and coal tar pitch volatiles (CTPVs) were studied among groups of workers in a vertical-stud Söderberg potroom of an aluminium smelter. There was a strong correlation between the natural logarithm of the pyrene concentration and the natural logarithm of the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) concentration in personal air samples. A strong positive correlation was also found between the natural logarithm of increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene and the natural logarithm of the estimated airborne PAH exposure when the use of extra layers of cloth under respirators was taken into account. A contradictory fact was found: the use of extra facial protection seemed to lead to a strong increase of 1-hydroxypyrene over the workweek. (62602)

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CIS 94-1292 Coulometric method for the quantification of low-level concentrations of hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine. Wyatt J.R., Rose-Pehrsson S.L., Cecil T.L., Crossman K.P., Mehta N.K., Young R., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.285-292. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

This coulometric method can readily be used in conjunction with impingers to measure the amount of hydrazine and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) in air. The method has a limit of detection of less than 25ng of hydrazine or MMH in 40mL of solution, which corresponds to less than 2ppb in 10L of air. External standards are not necessary as calibration can be performed electronically. The dynamic range of the coulometic method extends from 25ng to more than 2500ng in 40mL of solution. At the higher concentrations the relative standard deviation was about 2%. The method gave excellent agreement with the two current National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health approved methods at the higher end of this concentration range. (62603)

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CIS 94-1293 A multipurpose industrial hygiene controlled atmosphere testing chamber. Yao C., Krueger D.C., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.313-319. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

A multipurpose stainless-steel controlled-atmosphere exposure chamber was designed and constructed. The chamber can be used for simultaneous exposure tests involving different types of active and passive industrial hygiene monitors. The test contaminant concentration levels can be varied from low parts per billion (ppb) to high parts per million (ppm). Two application examples that used the newly designed exposure chamber are presented. The first example compares two methods for determining 1,3-butadiene concentrations. These methods were National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 1501 and a thermal desorption method using passive dosimeters. The second example illustrated an evaluation of the limit of detection and the limit of quantitation for benzene monitoring with charcoal tubes and dosimeter badges. (62606)

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CIS 94-1294 Airborne glass fiber concentrations during manufacturing operations involving glass wool insulation. Jacob T.R., Hadley J.G., Bender J.R., Eastes W., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.320-326. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

Airborne fibre concentrations were measured in a number of different operations involving Owens-Corning Fiberglas insulation products. The operations sampled included those that manufacture or assemble metal building insulation, prefabricated houses, pipe insulation, kitchen ranges, air-handling ducts, and water heaters. Some operations in which pipe insulation and ceiling boards were removed and discarded were also measured. Samples collection and fibre-counting procedures followed National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Method 7400 procedures (phase contrast light microscopy), with some modifications to allow identification of the fibre type. For the removal of pipe insulation and ceiling boards, the mean fibre concentration was 0.29 fibres/cm3. Mean fibre concentrations in manufacturing were 0.02-0.2 fibres/cm3; half or less of the fibres were glass. (62607)

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CIS 94-1295 Developing an effective lead detection and abatement industry: The role of the industrial hygienist. Anderson L.A., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.331-334. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

The present and future roles of the industrial hygienist in the control and detection of lead sources in both industrial and general environments (e.g. paints, soil, water) are described. (62609)

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CIS 94-1296 An in vitro comparison of the permeation of chemicals in vapor and liquid phase through pig skin. Jacobs R.R., Phanprasit W., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.569-575. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

Pig skin was used to compare vapour and liquid permeation of benzene, n-butanol, and toluene in vitro. Vapours of radio-labelled chemicals were generated by passing purified air through two saturators in series containing the labelled chemical. The generated vapour was directed into the donor compartment of a modified liquid permeation cell. For liquid permeation experiments, neat chemicals were dosed directly on the surface of the skin. The variability of the generated concentrations for the vapour phase of each chemical ranged from 3 to 7%. The mean flux of the liquid chemicals was significantly higher than those of the vapour phase. There was no significant difference in the flux of the individual chemicals in the liquid phase. In the vapour phase test, the fluxes of toluene and benzene were not significantly different; however for n-butanol the flux was significantly lower than for either benzene or toluene. (62661)

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CIS 94-1297 Evaluation of shipboard formation of neurotoxicant (trimethylolpropane phosphate) from thermal decomposition of synthetic aircraft engine lubricant. Wyman J., Pitzer E., Williams F., Rivera J., Durkin A., Gehringer J., Servé P., von Minden D., Macys D., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol. 54, No. 10, p.584-592. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

Synthetic lubricants based on trimethylolpropane triheptanoate and tricresyl phosphate have been shown to form a neurotoxicant, trimethylolpropane phosphate (TMPP), during pyrolysis and/or combustion under laboratory conditions. This study examined whether TMPP is produced during an actual shipboard fire by placing the lubricant in a fire environment aboard a decommissioned US naval vessel. Both biological and chemical analyses were performed on the thermally decomposed lubricant to ensure detection of the neurotoxic material. The formation of TMPP was confirmed. The implications of this finding for safe management of post-fire cleanup are discussed. (62663)

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CIS 94-1298 Paraoccupational exposures to lead and tin carried by electric-cable splicers. Rinehart R.D., Yanagisawa Y., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.593-599. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

To test the hypothesis that electric-cable splicers contaminate their homes with lead and tin, 9 splicers were matched with their neighbors. House dust samples were collected in two areas within each home: a laundry room/dirty clothes area, and a composite sample from other areas in the house. Samples were analyzed by energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence for lead and tin. The difference in the geometric mean lead concentrations in both the laundry areas and the other areas between the splicers' and neighbours' homes was significant. Tin concentrations in house dust were also higher in the splicers' homes. Recommendations are included to prevent paraoccupational lead exposures by eliminating the pathways into the home. (62664)

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CIS 94-1299 A review of safety and health hazards of metalorganic compounds. Roychowdhury M., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.607-614. 66 ref. (In English)

This article presents a review of the available safety and health hazard information related to 10 metalorganic compounds, and also outlines other considerations with respect to their exposure, use, and storage. The compounds are discussed in three sections: highly pyrophoric and reactive, but relatively non-toxic, metalorganic compounds of gallium, indium, aluminum, and zinc; highly toxic, and some pyrophoric, compounds of lead, cadmium, arsenic, and mercury; and metalorganic compounds of selenium and tellurium, which are neither pyrophoric nor very toxic. (62666)

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CIS 94-1300 Determination of pentamidine isethionate in air. Tucker S.P., Belinky B.R., Seitz T.A., Foley G.D., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.628-632. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in immunocompromised patients, including those with human immunodeficiency virus infection, is treated with pentamidine isethionate. In order to evaluate worker exposures, a sampling and analytical method for pentamidine isethionate in air has been developed. The limit of detection is about 18ng per sample, and the lower limit of quantitation is 50ng per sample. Samples were stable on PVC filters during 27 days of storage at room temperature. Safety precautions for handling samples contaminated with tuberculosis were included in the sampling and analytical method. (62668)

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CIS 94-1301 Mortality among employees of a perfluorooctanoic acid production plant. Gilliland F.D., Mandel J.S., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.950-954. 29 ref. (In English)

This study examined the relationship between perflourooctanoic acid (PFOA) and mortality using a retrospective cohort mortality design. The cohort consisted of 2788 male and 749 female workers employed between 1947 and 1983 at a plant that produced PFOA. The all-causes standardized mortality ratio was 0.75 for women and 0.77 for men. Among men the cardiovascular standardized mortality rate was 0.68; for all gastrointestinal diseases it was 0.57. There was no significantly increased cause-specific standardized mortality ratio for either men or women. Ten years of employment in exposed jobs was associated with a 3.3 fold increase in prostate cancer mortality compared to no employment in PFOA production. There were only six prostate cancer deaths overall and four among the exposed workers; thus, the results must be interpreted cautiously. (62679)

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CIS 94-1302 The influence of cigarette smoking on sister chromatid exchange frequencies in peripheral lymphocytes among nurses handling cytostatic drugs. Górecka D., Górski T., Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.2, p.143-148. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Genotoxic compounds and various cancer chemotherapeutic agents can interact with tobacco smoke synergistically, especially among cigarette smoking nurses who handle cytostatic drugs. The aim of the study was to examine the hypothesis that tobacco smoking has a greater influence on sister chromatid exchange (SCE) frequencies among nurses than the influence of cytostatics in working conditions. The frequencies of SCE in lymphocytes investigated among hospital staff who handle anti-cancer drugs were higher than in a control group which did not handle them (smokers and non-smokers). The increase of SCE frequencies was observed more often among cigarette smoking nurses and less among non-smoking nurses who handle cytostatics 3 times a week. (62692)

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CIS 94-1303 Establishment of an air-quality indicator for bus diesel exhaust in garages. Lavoie J., Roberge B., Lambert J., Lazure L., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.426-431. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

This study simultaneously measured levels of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitric oxide and total particulates in three bus garages of a mass transit company, using standard methods. Statistically significant multiple correlations were found between contaminants and predictors such as CO2 or type of garage. A net CO2 concentration of 400ppm is therefore proposed as a standard of air quality in these garages. While the specific relationship between CO2 levels and those of other contaminants will vary as a function of operating conditions in specific garages, this approach can serve as the basis of air quality monitoring in other garages where diesel engines are in operation. (62743)

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CIS 94-1304 Measurement of arsenic and mercury concentrations by hydride and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Pan T.C., Huang C.W., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.454-457. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Workplace activities in a motorcycle part manufacturing plant were observed. The processes involved were bending and pressing of metal sheets, electric welding, electroplating, machining, and motorcycle muffler assembly. Arsenic and mercury concentrations in urine specimens of student controls and workers were determined. Both methods were sufficiently precise and accurate. Total arsenic levels in the exposed workers were significantly higher than those in non-exposed controls; there is a risk of arsenic poisoning to the workers engaged in motorcycle muffler assembly. The total mercury levels in the exposed workers were no different than in the controls. (62747)

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CIS 94-1305 Case study "Carcinogens" - The MBOCA TLV Example, and response to this article. Hogan T.J., Ward E.M., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.458-463. 30 ref. (In English)

In the USA 4,4'-methylene bis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA) was proposed to be classified as carcinogenic on basis of a study by E.M. Ward et al. The Polyurethane Manufacturers Association engaged a number of people (including T.J. Hogan) to look into the background material. The result was that the proposed classification was changed to suspected carcinogen. In one of these articles Hogan evaluates the work of Ward, and outlines a number of insufficiencies. In the other article Ward defends the study and explains the background for the conclusions. (62748)

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CIS 94-1306 Increased urinary excretion of the oxidative DNA adduct, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, as a possible early indicator of occupational cancer hazards in the asbestos, rubber and azo-dye industries. Tagesson C., Chabiuk D., Axelson O., Barański B., Palus J., Wyszyńska K., Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1993, Vol.6, No.4, p.357-368. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

Urinary excretion of the oxidative DNA adduct, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), was determined in workers in the asbestos, rubber and azo-dye industries and in controls. Levels of 8-OHdG appeared to be significantly higher in each of the exposed groups than in the control group. Findings suggest that occupational exposures may contribute to an increased oxidative damage to human DNA and point to the possible use of urinary 8-OHdG assays in biomonitoring of biological effects of chemicals in selected industrial workplaces. (62763)

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CIS 94-1307 Environmental and biological monitoring in carbon disulfide exposure assessment. Krstev S., Peruničić B., Farkić B., Varagić M., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.473-481. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

Carbon disulfide (CS2) exposure was evaluated in a viscose fibre plant. Environmental exposure was measured by static area sampling and by personal monitoring, while biological indicators of exposure were determined in urine. Environmental exposure as determined by personal samplers (TWA) was twice as high than when measured by static area sampling: 62.2mg/m3 compared to 31.1mg/m3 in the spinning rooms, and 18.3mg/m3 compared to 12.2mg/m3 in the viscose manufacturing departments. Determination of biological exposure indicators showed some correlation with environmental exposure results, particularly for urinary TTCA levels. Using a linear regression equation, a biological limit value for TTCA, corresponding to the Yugoslav MAC of 30mg/m3 for CS2, was calculated (9.89mg/g creatinine) for the study population, which is higher than in other investigations. This is probably due to different air and urine sampling methodologies. (62815)

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CIS 94-1308 Hematologic effects of benzene: Job-specific trends during the first year of employment among a cohort of benzene-exposed rubber workers. Cody R.P., Strawderman W.W., Kipen H.M., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.35, No.8, p.776-782. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

Haematologic surveillance data from 1940 to 1975 were analyzed for a benzene-exposed cohort of 161 workers with "pre-employment" counts done before exposure and subsequent counts from the first 12 months of employment. While blood cell counts declined approximately 1000 cells/mm3 over the first 4 months of exposure, according to repeated-measures analysis of variance, workers exposed above the median benzene exposure at the plant had significantly lower average white and red blood cell counts at each month during the first year of work than did workers exposed below the median. These decreased counts suggest that clinically detectable bone marrow depression accompanied the onset of work in this plant during the 1940s and that benzene levels were higher in the 1940s than in subsequent decades. The general utility of repeated-measures analytic techniques for medical surveillance data is also demonstrated by this analysis. (62545)

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CIS 94-1309 Effects of cigarette smoking on lymphocyte subsets in office workers. Hanaoka T., Ishizu S., Yamano Y., Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, Oct. 1993, Vol.69, No.10, p.15-20. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

Some immunotoxicological studies have applied the analysis of lymphocyte subsets to the detection of biological effects of chemical exposures. The purpose of this research was to examine the effects of cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking on lymphocyte subsets. Some lymphocyte subsets in healthy office workers (n=36) with no industrial exposure to chemicals were determined. A significant increase of the total peripheral white blood cell counts, the total lymphocyte counts, the percentages of CD4+CD45RA-cells and CD25 positive cells was found in smokers (n=16) compared to non-smokers (n=20). A positive correlation was also observed between the percentage of CD4+CD45RA-cells and the Brinkman index (p<0.05) and between the percentage of CD20 positive cells and the Brinkman index (p<0.1). Furthermore, a negative correlation was seen between the percentage of CD8+CD11b-cells and Brinkman index (p<0.05). On the other hand, no effects of alcohol drinking and age were observed on the percentages of lymphocyte subsets. Thus, it is necessary to take into account smoking habits in industrial toxicological studies using the analysis of lymphocyte subsets. (62555)

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CIS 94-1310 Chronic beryllium disease in a dental laboratory technician. Kotloff R.M., Richman P.S., Greenacre J.K., Rossman M.D., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Jan. 1993, Vol.147, No.1, p.205-207. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

Workers involved in the manufacture of dental prostheses are exposed to a number of potentially harmful substances capable of inducing lung disease. This report describes a dental laboratory technician who developed chronic beryllium disease as a result of workplace exposure. The diagnosis of chronic beryllium disease was suspected from the clinical, radiographic, and histological features and confirmed by the in vitro proliferation of lung lymphocytes in response to beryllium salts. The potential risks of beryllium use in the dental industry have been recognized for some time, but this is the first documentation of chronic beryllium disease in this population of workers. Because chronic beryllium disease may be easily confused with sarcoidosis, awareness of this occupational association is essential in preventing misdiagnosis and in providing appropriate management. (62566)

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CIS 94-1311 A clinical and immunologic study of workers with trimellitic- anhydride-induced immunologic lung disease after transfer to low exposure jobs. Grammer L.C., Shaughnessy M.A., Henderson J., Zeiss C.R., Kavich D.E., Collins M.J., Pecis K.M., Kenamore B.D., American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.54-57. 26 ref. (In English)

The study determined the clinical and immunological status of trimellitic anhydride (TMA) workers (n=29) who had had immunological lung diseases and who had been moved to lower-exposure jobs. Workers with late asthma (LA) (n=3), late respiratory systemic syndrome (LRSS) (n=8), or both LRSS and asthma rhinitis (A/R) (n=6) had improved symptoms, improved pulmonary functions, and lower total antibody against TMA haptenized human serum albumin (TM-HSA). Five of the 12 workers with A/R had improved symptoms, improved pulmonary functions, and lower IgE against TM-HSA, whereas seven continued to have moderate to severe symptoms, abnormal pulmonary functions, and elevated IgE against TM-HSA. There were no chest film findings in any group that were definitely attributed to TMA. Although TMA workers with LA or LRSS improve when moved to lower exposure jobs, only half of workers with A/R improve; elevated IgE against TM-HSA appears to be a marker for the subpopulation of workers with A/R that does not improve. (62573)

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CIS 94-1312 Accidental gassing incidents and the pulmonary function of pulp mill workers. Henneberger P.K., Ferris B.G., Sheehe P.R., American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.63-67. 12 ref. (In English)

A previous investigation of workers in pulping operations identified decrements in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). A subset of those data (230 workers) were reanalyzed to consider accidental exposure to high levels of irritant gases, such as chlorine (CL2) or sulfur dioxide (SO2). Gassing events were more common among pulp mill workers (34%) than workers in other parts of the company (9%). Average changes of -291.9mL in FEV1 (p<0.05) and -5.00% in FEV1/FVC (p<0.05) were associated with gassing. Also, in each of the regression models for the three measures of pulmonary function (FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC), there was a three-way interaction of cumulative smoking, cumulative pulp mill exposure, and gassing. The greatest decreases in FEV1 and FEV1/FVC associated with gassing were evident in the dual smoking/pulp mill exposure categories of none/high and high/none. Changes in pulmonary function persisted after cessation of exposure. (62574)

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CIS 94-1313 Pregnancy outcome among women exposed to pesticides through work or residence in an agricultural area. Willis W.O., Peyster A., Molgaard C.A., Walker C., MacKendrick T., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.943-949. 23 ref. (In English)

This study covered 535 women enrolled in a southern California community clinic perinatal program. They were potentially exposed to pesticides and other agricultural chemicals occupationally and/or environmentally. Maternal blood samples were assayed for cholinesterase activity and exposure history was determined by concurrent interviews. These assessments were conducted on each participant approximately once each trimester. No difference between exposed and unexposed women was noted for risk of preterm birth or toxaemia. Subjects who experienced spontaneous abortion were all unexposed, and the rate of spontaneous abortion was 2.1%, less than expected. A greater incidence of low birth weight among unexposed women indicates that exposure may have had a "protective" effect. (62678)

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CIS 94-1314 Mortality from lung cancer in asbestos workers. Doll R., British Journal of Industrial Medicine, June 1993, Vol.50, No.6, p.485-490 (given as p.81-86). 14 ref. (In English)

Reprint of a classic study originally published in the BJIM in 1955 (12:81-86). A mortality study was carried out on 113 men who had been potentially exposed to asbestos dust for at least 20 years. 39 deaths occurred, compared with 15.4 expected in the whole male population. The excess was entirely due to excess deaths from lung cancer (11 against 0.8 expected) and from other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases (22 against 7.6 expected); all cases of lung cancer were associated with the presence of asbestosis. Results of this study together with available necroscopy data indicate that the risk of lung cancer has become progressively less since the introduction of regulations for the control of asbestos dust in 1931. (62682)

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CIS 94-1315 Dermatitis in hairdressers. (I) The experience of the past 4 years. van der Walle H.B., Brunsveld V.M., Contact Dermatitis, Apr. 1994, Vol.30, No.4, p.217-221. 23 ref. (In English)

Recent small-scale investigations into the prevalence of dermatitis among hairdressers in the Netherlands have helped to give some indication of the magnitude of the problem. During the period 1989-1992, patch tests on a total of 103 hairdressers indicated that glyceryl thioglycolate (GTG), ammonium persulfate and nickel sulfate were responsible for the majority of the positive reactions. Positive reactions were also found for hair dyes and preservatives, cocamidopropyl betaine and sodium coco hydrolyzed animal protein. It is emphasized that contamination of hairdressing salons with GTG may explain the flare-ups in GTG-sensitized hairdressers who no longer use GTG solutions. (62773)

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CIS 94-1316 Occupational asthma due to colophony in non-industrial environments. Mariano A., Paredes I., Nuti R., Innocenti A., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.459-462. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

Colophony is mainly used in industrial environments, such as the electronics and the rubber tyre industries, but it is also present in non-industrial environments as a constituent of glues and paper. For this reason it is one of the most common skin sensitizers. Many cases of occupational asthma due to colophony have been described, but reports emanating from outside the electronics industry are not common. The case is described here of a subject employed in administrative work who developed asthma due to colophony from sealing wax used to seal samples of food packages. (62813)

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CIS 94-1317 The development and use of dust respirators in Japan (Report 1) - Research and standards before 1970. (Japanese: Waga kuni ni okeru bōjin masuku (dai-ichi ho) - 1970-nen goro made no kenkyū to kikaku) Kimura K., Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Oct. 1993, Vol.69, No.10, p.443-460. Illus. 39 ref. (In Japanese)

The incidence of occupational lung diseases due to exposure to mine dust was first recorded around 1800, but the use of anti-dust measures started only at the beginning of this century. The first national standards for dust respirators were brought into practice in 1950, both in the Japanese Industrial Standards (JIS) and in the regulatory measures by the Ministry of Labour. The governmental certification system according to these standards was also initiated. The new system gave rise to a series of studies on filtering materials, the physiological effects of the use of dust respirators and their actual utilization at workplaces. Thus research and technology developed rapidly, in particular concerning filters, respiratory resistance, respiration valves, hindrances in the field of vision and measures to promote the use of respirators. As a result, the efficiency of dust respirators improved markedly in the 1950s and 1960s, with the help of newly developed materials and advanced production technologies. This led to the revisions of the dust respirator standards in 1955 and 1962. The regulations were also revised from time to time so as to adjust them to workplace conditions. These developments provided an important basis for enacting more developed standards that were to follow in accordance with the Industrial Safety and Health Law in the early 1970s. (62554)

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CIS 94-1318 Increasing acceptance of respirators by positive supply filter systems. (German: Erhöhung der Trageakzeptanz von Atemschutzgeräten durch gebläseunterstützte Systeme) Pasternack A., Sicher ist Sicher, June 1992, Vol.43, No.6, p.290-294. Illus. 8 ref. (In German)

Air purifying respirators are perceived as a burden at work if they weigh more than 10kg, the breathing resistance is higher than 30mbar, temperature and humidity of the inhaled air are high and the CO2 concentration amounts to more than 2%. Positive supply filter respirators avoid these disadvantages as was confirmed by comparative 1h-tests. While walking on a treadmill with a speed of 5.3km/h, five male and two female volunteers assessed the comfort of an air purifying respirator with the particulate filter attached to the hose mask and a positive supply filter respirator with the filter and air supply unit attached to the belt. (62622)

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CIS 94-1319 Workplace field testing of a disposable negative pressure half-mask dust respirator (3M 8710). Wallis G., Menke R., Chelton C., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Oct. 1993, Vol.54, No.10, p.576-583. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

The performance of the 3M 8710 dust/mist halfmask respirator was characterized in a workplace (alkaline battery plant) atmosphere that contained concentrations of manganese dioxide dust in the range 0.14 to 20 mg/m3 as manganese. Workplace protection factors (WPFs) were calculated from the ratio of the concentration outside the respirator (C(o)) and that measured simultaneously inside the respirator (C(i)). The WPFs were in the range of 2.8 to 248. The relation of WPF to C(o) for 13 was approximately linear. The size distribution of manganese dioxide particles was determined at different values of C(o). The relation of C(p), the concentration of particles in stated particle size groups, and C(o) was linear as well. An explanation for the dependence of WPF on C(o) could be that the performance of the respirator is related to particle size. (62662)

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CIS 94-1320 Measurement of the leakage and fit factor of a filtering facepiece by continuous monitoring of pressure pulsations. Brown R.C., Vaughan N.P., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.409-416. Illus. 10 ref. (In English)

The fit factor of filtering respirators is measured by continuous monitoring of the pressure produced in the respirator cavity by injecting and withdrawing a volume of air so that the volume varies sinusoidally with time. Comparison between measurements made when leaks occur and the measurements made without leakage enables a fit factor to be calculated for each breath. Results obtained by the use of this method on a filtering respirators worn by a manikin agree with bubble flowmeter measurements, although systematic differences exist. The method is most accurate when leakage is large, and is potentially useful for fit factors up to about 50, and leakages down to about 2%. (62741)

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CIS 94-1321 Preliminary evaluation of an active end-of-service-life indicator for organic vapor cartridge respirators. Moyer E.S., Findlay M.W., Maclay G.J., Stetter J.R., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.417-425. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

Data are presented on a microwatt chemiresistor microsensor for use with negative-pressure organic vapour respirators. This sensor would operate at or within a sorbent bed and detect parts-per-million levels of chemical vapours and/or gases as a function of sensor resistance. Sensors were evaluated against four challenge concentrations of ethyl acetate (750ppm, 1500ppm, and 2000ppm). The chemiresistor sensor responses correlated well with an infrared system. Although the chemiresistor sensors were not as sensitive as the IR detectors, they could be used if located inside the charcoal bed. However, further improvement in the stability and sensitivity of these chemiresistor sensors is necessary. (62742)

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CIS 94-1322 Determining the service lives of organic-vapor respirator cartridges for nitroglycerin under workplace conditions. Cohen H.J., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.432-439. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

A field study, with the aim of estimating the service lives of different brands of organic-vapour respirator cartridges, is presented. The measurement were carried out in a gunpowder factory. The breakthrough time for nitroglycerin was between seven and 81 hours (depending on the brand of the tube) when the concentration in the air was 1mg/m3. No premature breakthrough was detected. (62744)

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CIS 94-1323 Dermal exposure of pesticide spraying workers in staked tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) cultivation - Efficiency of personal protective equipment. (Portuguese: Exposição dérmica de aplicadores de agrotóxicos na cultura estaqueada de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) - Eficiência de equipamentos de proteção individual) Machado Neto J.G., Matuo T., Matuo Y.K., Revista brasileira de saúde ocupacional, July-Sep. 1993, Vol.21, No.79, p.29-38. 17 ref. (In Portuguese)

The protective power of different types of protective overalls made of plastic was compared with that of plastic aprons worn by pesticide sprayers in Brazil. The pesticide concerned was a copper-based fungicide, and exposure levels were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The plastic aprons reduced dermal exposure of the front part of the body by 83-94%. The overalls reduced it only by 73-78% in the chest and arm area, while they proved to be useless in providing protection of the legs and thighs. (62821)

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CIS 94-1324 Occupational exposure to 4,4'-bipyridyl vapor and aerosol during paraquat manufacturing. Kuo H.W., Li C.S., Wang J.D., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.440-445. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

The concentrations of 4,4'-bipyridyl both as vapour and as aerosol were determined in a paraquat factory. The aerosols were the major source of exposure for the workers. The major mass fraction of aerosols had aerodynamic diameters of 3.3-5.8µm. An enclosure hood had an efficiency of 88% and 82% for aerosols and vapour respectively. (62745)

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CIS 94-1325 Selected synthetic organic fibres. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 100p. 76 ref. Price: CHF 20.00 (developing countries: CHF 14.00)., ISBN 92-4-157151-9 (In English)

The data available on the health effects of synthetic organic fibres in humans are extremely limited. Negative results of some studies are most likely a function of their limited ability to detect an effect, while positive results from other studies are poorly documented. Based on evidence from exposure to other respirable and durable fibrous materials, the potential adverse effects for humans from inhalation exposure to synthetic organic fibres are the development of malignant and non-malignant respiratory diseases. Dermal exposure may cause contact dermatitis and skin irritation. Detailed abstracts in French and Spanish (62728)

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CIS 94-1326 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Priority Substances List Assessment Report. Hexachlorobenzene. Environmental Health Centre, Health Canada, Room 104, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada, 1993. v, 52p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 0-662-20291-0 (In English)

This report reviews the environmental and toxicological data on hexachlorobenzene (HCB). Although studies indicate that HCB causes cancer in experimental animals, data are inadequate to determine whether it is a human carcinogen; the substance is therefore a non-threshold toxicant. There are case reports of workers developing porphyria cutanea tarda as a result of direct contact with HCB. The substance is toxic as defined under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Also available in French from the same source. (62537)

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CIS 94-1327 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Priority Substances List Assessment Report. Benzidine. Environmental Health Centre, Health Canada, Room 104, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada, 1993. v, 17p. 57 ref., ISBN 0-662-20895-1 (In English)

This report reviews the environmental and toxicological data on benzidine. The substance has been shown to cause cancer in occupationally exposed workers and is therefore a non-threshold toxicant. Benzidine is toxic as defined under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Also available in French from the same source. (62538)

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CIS 94-1328 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Priority Substances List Assessment Report. 3,3'-Dichlorobenzidine. Environmental Health Centre, Health Canada, Room 104, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa K1A 0L2, Ontario, Canada, 1993. v, 17p. 66 ref., ISBN 0-662-20490-5 (In English)

This report reviews the environmental and toxicological data on 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine. Although available information is inadequate to assess the carcinogenicity of the substance in humans, it has been shown to cause cancer in a number of animal species, and is therefore a non-threshold toxicant. 3,3'-dichlorobenzidine is toxic as defined under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Also available in French from the same source. (62539)

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CIS 94-1329 Canadian Environmental Protection Act. Priority Substances List Assessment Report. Pentachlorobenzene. Environmental Health Centre, Health Canada, Room 104, Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0L2, Canada, 1993. v, 32p. 123 ref., ISBN 0-662-21064-6 (In English)

This report reviews the environmental and toxicological data on pentachlorobenzene. No reports are available on the adverse health effects of this substance in humans, and data from animal experiments are also limited. Further studies are required to permit a more complete assessment of toxicity. Also available in French from the same source. (62540)

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CIS 94-1330 1993-1994 Threshold Limit Values for chemical substances and physical agents and Biological Exposure Indices. American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 6500 Glenway Avenue, Building D-7, Cincinnati, OH 45211-4438, USA, 1993. vi, 124p., ISBN 1-882417-03-8 (In English)

New material or revisions for 1993-94 include: proposed TLVs for acetone cyanohydrin, calcium cyanide, dimethylethoxysilane, hexachlorobenzene, methyl tert-butyl ether, potassium cyanide, sodium cyanide and sulfometuron methyl; revisions of 23 listings; transfer of 25 substances and of airborne particle sampling criteria from the Notice of Intended Changes list to the Adopted list; deletion of the short-term exposure limit (STEL) for manganese fume; addition of STELs of two substances; proposed BEIs for cobalt and N,N-dimethylacetamide; revision of four BEIs; withdrawal of the BEI for toluene; adoption of biological determinants for arsenic and soluble compounds, cadmium and inorganic compounds, carbon monoxide, mercury, methyl isobutyl ketone and trichloroethylene; revisions for six physical agents; addition of ergonomics to the Physical Agents Under Study list. (62621)

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CIS 94-1331 IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Beryllium, cadmium, mercury and exposures in the glass manufacturing industry. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 444p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 75.00., ISBN 92-832-1258-4 (In English)

This monograph represents the views and expert opinions of an IARC Working Group which met in Lyon, France, 9-16 February 1993. IARC final classifications: beryllium and beryllium compounds and cadmium and cadmium compounds are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1); methylmercury compounds are possibly carcinogenic to humans (Group 2B); metallic mercury and inorganic mercury compounds are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). In the glass manufacturing industry, the manufacture of art glass, glass containers and pressed ware entails exposures that are probably carcinogenic to humans (Group 2A) while occupational exposures in flat-glass and special glass manufacture are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity to humans (Group 3). (62681)

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CIS 94-1332 Concentrations of cadmium in air and urine in an alkaline battery works - A case study. Dewell P., British Occupational Hygiene Society (BOHS), H and H Scientific Consultants Ltd., P.O. Box MT27, Leeds LS17 8QP, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 35p. 40 ref. Price: GBP 11.00 surface mail (GBP 15.00 airmail)., ISBN 0-948237-20-1 (In English)

Historical data on concentrations of cadmium in air and of cadmium in urine and blood and β2-microglobulin in urine are examined for exposed workers in an alkaline battery factory. Using simple statistical methods, annual data sets have been analyzed by department, job or other classification. Summary results show a steady annual reduction of cadmium in air with a sudden decrease during the two years covered by a major change in the production method; no such sudden decrease was noted for cadmium in urine. Results indicate that the current maximum exposure limit of 50µg/m3 for airborne cadmium hydroxide is sufficiently low to keep cadmium in urine concentrations below the presently used medical guidance level. (62718)

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CIS 94-1333 ETX 1.3a - A program to calculate confidence limits for hazardous concentrations based on small samples of toxicity data. Aldenberg T., National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven, Netherlands, May 1993. iii, 69p. Illus. 8 ref. Index. (In English)

ETX (Ecotoxicological Extrapolation Program) handles the extrapolation of laboratory toxicity data to values that may be of interest to policy makers in setting standards for environmental protection; it may also be used in human health-oriented problems. The program runs on MS-DOS computers. This package provides a users's guide to installing, running and leaving the program along with a detailed reference manual on how to use the software. Also included is a previously published article (Aldenberg T., Slob W., in Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol.25, No.1, Feb. 1993) on confidence limits for hazardous concentration based on logistically distributed NOEC toxicity data. A computer diskette (3.5") is included. (62720)

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CIS 94-1334 Naloxone, flumazenil and dantrolene as antidotes. Meredith T.J., Jacobsen D., Haines J.A., Berger J.C., World Health Organization (WHO), eds., Cambridge University Press, The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, United Kingdom, 1993. xv, 98p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 0-521-45459-X (In English)

These monographs summarize and assess the clinical use, mode of action and efficacy of naloxone, flumazenil and dantrolene sodium as antidotes in the treatment of poisoning. Naloxone is used to reverse opiate poisoning and there are unproven reports that it may also reverse the effects of ethanol and benzodiazepine (BZD) poisoning. Flumazenil has been shown to reverse the sedative, anti-convulsant and muscle-relaxant effects of BZD. Dantrolene sodium is used in the treatment of drug-induced hypercatabolic syndromes. This first volume of the series includes an introduction to the series and a provisional list of forthcoming volumes; appendices include a list of antidotes and principles for the evaluation of antidotes. (62725)

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CIS 94-1335 Antidotes for poisoning by cyanide. Meredith T.J., Jacobsen D., Haines J.A., Berger J.C., van Heijst A.N.P., World Health Organization (WHO), eds., Cambridge University Press, The Pitt Building, Trumpington Street, Cambridge CB2 1RP, United Kingdom, 1993. xxv, 177p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 0-521-45458-1 (In English)

These monographs summarize and assess the clinical use, mode of action and efficacy of oxygen, sodium thiosulfate, hydroxocobalamin, dicobalt edetate, amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite, 4-dimethylaminophenol, methylene blue and toluidine blue as antidotes in the treatment of cyanide poisoning. Information provided includes: animal and volunteer studies of pharmacodynamics and toxicology; clinical studies; summary of evaluation (advised routes and dose, other therapy, adverse effects, restrictions of use); model information sheet. An introductory overview covers potential sources of cyanide, toxicity of cyanide in man, mechanism of toxicity and clinical features, laboratory findings, biological detoxification of cyanide, protective measures for occupational exposure, treatment. (62726)

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CIS 94-1336 Benzene. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 156p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 23.00 (developing countries: CHF 16.10)., ISBN 92-4-157150-0 (In English)

Acute inhalation and oral exposures of humans to high concentrations of benzene have resulted in central nervous system depression and death. The most noted effects of longer-term exposure to lower concentrations are haematotoxicity, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Three types of bone marrow effects have been reported: bone marrow depression leading to aplastic anaemia, chromosomal changes and carcinogenicity. Benzene is a well-established human carcinogen; epidemiological studies have demonstrated a causal relationship between benzene exposure and the production of myelogenous leukaemia. Detailed abstracts in French and Spanish. (62727)

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CIS 94-1337 Acetonitrile. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 110p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 20.00 (developing countries: CHF 14.00)., ISBN 92-4-157154-3 (In English)

Symptoms and signs of acute acetonitrile intoxication include chest pain, nausea, emesis, tachycardia, hypotension, short and shallow respiration, headache, semiconsciousness and seizures; other non-specific symptoms may be due to the irritant effects of the compound. The systemic effects of acetonitrile appear to be largely attributable to the conversion of acetonitrile to cyanide. No carcinogenicity studies are available. The substance can cause severe eye burns and may be absorbed through the skin. Detailed abstracts in French and Spanish. (62729)

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CIS 94-1338 Biomarkers and risk assessment - Concepts and principles. International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1993. 82p. Bibl.ref. Price: CHF 18.00 (developing countries: CHF 12.60)., ISBN 92-4-157155-1 (In English)

This monograph examines the use of biomarkers for the assessment of human health risk from exposure to chemical agents, with special attention to criteria for selection and validation. Contents: uses of biomarkers in risk assessment, clinical diagnosis and for monitoring purposes; selection and validation of biomarkers; ethics and social considerations; biomarkers of exposure, of effect and of susceptibility; biomarkers and chemical carcinogenesis. A review is presented of biomarkers suitable for risk assessment of chemicals that are toxic to the hepatic, renal, haematological, immune, pulmonary, reproductive/developmental and nervous systems or are associated with carcinogenic mechanisms; greater detail is provided for biomarkers linked with carcinogenesis. Detailed abstracts in French and Spanish. (62730)

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CIS 94-1339 Occupational toxicants. Critical data evaluation for MAK values and classification of carcinogens - Volume 5. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, VCH, P.O. Box 101161, 6940 Weinheim, Germany; 220 East 23rd Street, New York NY 10010-4606, USA, 1993. v, 389p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: DEM 162.00, ISBN 1-56081-777-1 (USA), ISBN 3-527-27030-2 (DEU) (In English)

This volume contains toxicological data on 34 substances including seven metal-working fluid components. Information provided includes (where available): toxic effects and modes of action; effects in man; effects on animals; reproductive and developmental toxicity; genotoxicity; carcinogenicity; MAK value and classification. (62740)

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CIS 94-1340 The operation of the Industrial Chemicals (Notification and Assessment) Act 1989 - Annual Report 1992-93. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia), Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1993. vii, 44p. 53 ref. (In English)

This report reviews the activities under the Australian National Industrial Chemicals Notification and Assessment Scheme (NICNAS) set up under the 1989 Act (see CIS 91-1760). Contents: legislative changes resulting from the regulatory impact review (copy of a report on the impact review included); information provision and consultative arrangements; new chemicals (48 notification received, 46 assessments completed); priority existing chemicals; international activities; finance and staffing; future directions. Previous report abstracted under CIS 93-613. (62769)

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CIS 94-1341 Dictionary of clinical toxicology - Chemical and industrial products and environmental pollutants. (French: Dictionnaire de toxicologie clinique - Produits chimiques, industriels et polluants de l'environnement) Hachet J.C., Masson, 120, bd. Saint-Germain, 75280 Paris Cedex, France, 1992. 397p., ISBN 2-225-82573-4 (In French)

After a basic outline of toxicology, this dictionary provides an alphabetic listing of commonly used toxic substances and groups of substances, with an outline of information on their acute and chronic toxicity, antidotes or treatment, and (where available) on exposure limits (France and USA), routes of entry and metabolism. More detailed information is provided on classes of substances (fungicides, pesticides, carcinogens etc.). (62818)

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CIS 94-1342 Asbestos 1986-1993. Laws, review of the literature, Italian mortality studies, proposed guidelines. (Italian: Amianto 1986-1993. Legislazione, rassegna bibliografica, studi italiani di mortalità, proposte operative) Sedi, Unità Sanitaria Locale n.28, Regione Emilia-Romagna, Presidio Multizonale di Prevenzione, via Triachini, 17, 40138 Bologna, Italy, 1993. 231p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In Italian)

An update on Italian legislation on asbestos from 1986 (when was passed the first law limiting the use of asbestos) is presented. Literature surveys on the carcinogenicity of asbestos in humans, asbestos pollution, asbestos sampling and analysis and waste management and disposal are given, with particular attention paid to the Italian experience. To provide guidelines for local health officers in complying with recent legislation, the volume includes proposals for protocols on: setting of priorities in asbestos removal; removal of asbestos-cement roofs; health surveillance of formerly exposed workers; establishing a mesothelioma register. (62700)

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CIS 94-1343 Cristobalite in respirable airborne dusts: Laboratory method using X-ray diffraction (direct method). Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Mar. 1994. 8p. Illus. 24 ref. Price: GBP 2.50., ISBN 0-7176-0634-1 (In English)

A method for the determination of cristobalite in respirable airborne dusts using X-ray diffraction is described. The method is suitable for dust samples weighing up to about 2mg when deposited on a 25mm diameter filter. The lower limit of detection and the precision of the method depend on a number of factors including the diffraction equipment used and the nature of the cristobalite in the sample. Principle: a measured volume of air is drawn though a membrane filter mounted in a cyclone sampler and the mass of respirable dust collected is determined by weighing the filter before and after sampling. The cristobalite content of the sample is determined in an X-ray diffractometer. (62715)

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CIS 94-1344 Guide to chemicals in Australia, Vol.1: The material safety data sheet. Van Santen R., ed., A.C.T.E.D. Pty. Ltd., P.O. Box 673, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2nd edition, 1993. 256p. Illus. Index. Price: AUD 120.00 + shipping., ISBN 0-646-01372-6 (In English)

Data sheets in Australia are to be compiled in accordance with the Worksafe Australia's National Code of Practice for Completion of Material Safety Data Sheets. This manual assists in the application and interpretation of this code. Chapters follow the structure of the data sheet: chemicals; the MSDS in perspective; identification; health effects; specific effects; symptoms; first aid; advice to doctor; principles; exposure standards; engineering controls; procedural recommendations; flammability protection; storage and transport; spills; disposal; fire/explosion hazard. Appendices: hazardous substances; health effect classifications; dangerous goods class/packaging group; precedence of dangerous goods classes; poisons schedule; exposure extinguishing; hazard ratings; codes and regulations; sources of information; glossary of terms; MSDS checklist; emergency response - unknown substance. (62559)

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CIS 94-1345 Guide to chemicals in Australia, Vol.2: Using, moving and storing chemicals. Van Santen R., ed., A.C.T.E.D. Pty. Ltd., P.O. Box 673, West Perth, WA 6872, Australia, 2nd edition, 1993. 331p. Illus. Index. Price: AUD 120.00 + shipping., ISBN 0-646-03992-X (In English)

This manual assists the user in complying with Australian laws and standards and with Worksafe Australia's Codes of Practice. Contents: chemicals in the workplace; information; training; National Model Regulations to Control Workplace Hazardous Substances; consultation and responsibilities; workplace labels; registers; assessment; monitoring; health surveillance; records; controls and procedures; labelling and containers; the material safety data sheet; national industrial chemicals notification and assessment scheme; product liability; placarding; emergency plans; safety information boards; manifests; safety signs; storage (regulations, approval/licensing, emergency response); transport (packaging, marking of vehicles, documentation, stowage); emergency - planning and action; fires; spills; environmental management. Appendices provide further details on several of these topics, as well as a glossary. (62560)

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CIS 94-1346 COSHH - A guide to assessment. Health and Safety Commission, Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee, HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 15p. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

Contents of this guide devoted to COSHH (CIS 89-1092) as it is applied in the ceramics industry: employer's responsibilities under the COSHH Regulations; persons competent to make an assessment; identification of hazardous substances and their adverse health effects; occupational exposure limits; product information; making an assessment; deciding on measures to prevent exposure or control the risk; record keeping; information of personnel. (62641)

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CIS 94-1347 Immersion and cold cleaning of engineering components. Engineering National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, McLaren Building, 2 Masshouse Circus, Queensway, Birmingham B4 7NP, United Kingdom, Sep. 1993. 2p. 11 ref. (In English)

This data sheet describes the hazards associated with the cleaning of metal and other components by dipping or soaking them in or spraying them with liquid cleaners and outlines the main legal requirements and safe work practices. Contents: reducing the need for cleaning; information from suppliers; risk assessment; use of chlorinated and hydrocarbon solvents; fire and explosion risks; health risks; environmental legislation; aqueous cleaning. (62644)

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CIS 94-1348 In situ cleaning and degreasing. Engineering National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, McLaren Building, 2 Masshouse Circus, Queensway, Birmingham B4 7NP, United Kingdom, Sep. 1993. 2p. 10 ref. (In English)

This data sheet describes the hazards associated with the use of solvents for in situ cleaning and degreasing of components and outlines the main legal requirements and good work practices. Contents: information from suppliers; use of chlorinated and hydrocarbon solvents; health hazards; fire and explosion hazards; aqueous formulations. (62645)

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CIS 94-1349 Vapour degreasing - Changing from 1,1,1-trichloroethane to trichloroethylene. Engineering National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, McLaren Building, 2 Masshouse Circus, Queensway, Birmingham B4 7NP, United Kingdom, Sep. 1993. 2p. 8 ref. (In English)

This data sheet explains the circumstances in which trichloroethylene may be used as a substitute for 1,1,1-trichloroethane and outlines the precautions needed to make the change. Contents: environmental legislation; reducing the need for cleaning; control of exposure under the COSHH Regulations (CIS 89-1092); modification of equipment for use with trichloroethylene. (62646)

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CIS 94-1350 Safe use of trichloroethylene degreasers. Health and Safety Executive, Engineering National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, McLaren Building, 2 Masshouse Circus, Queensway, Birmingham B4 7NP, United Kingdom, Sep. 1993. 2p. 7 ref. (In English)

This data sheet summarizes the main precautions required when using trichloroethylene for vapour degreasing and outlines good practice for use of vapour degreasers. Contents: requirements under the COSHH Regulations; information from suppliers; operating and maintenance faults which can increase exposure; air sampling; environmental legislation. (62689)

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CIS 94-1351 Hazardous goods storage facilities. Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1988. iii, 66p., ISBN 0-477-03440-3 (In English)

This code of practice concerns the design and construction of static storage and transfer facilities for hazardous goods in bulk. Contents: general considerations (definitions, legislation, approval of installations, welding of tanks and pipelines, hazard and operability studies, containment of spillage, repairs, fire protection, security, electrical bonding, training, lining of tanks and pipelines, colour coding and labelling); specific requirements for static storage tanks, pipelines, valves, fittings, pressurized pipework and tanks; hazardous areas and electrical equipment. (62760)

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CIS 94-1352 Occupational exposure limits 1994. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O.Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. vi, 54p. 25 ref. Price: GBR 6.50., ISBN 0-7176-0722-4 (In English)

This Guidance Note is revised and reprinted annually; this edition replaces Guidance Note EH 40/93. It gives details of the occupational exposure standards (OESs) (8h TWA and 15min STEL, in ppm and/or mg/m3, as appropriate) which should be used for the purposes of determining the adequacy of the control of exposure by inhalation to substances hazardous to health. These limits form part of the requirements of the COSHH Regulations 1988 (see CIS 89-1092). Contents: legal background; setting and application of OESs; mixed exposures; exposure monitoring; list of maximum exposure limits for 38 substances; list of approved occupational exposure standards for approx. 500 substances; proposed changes for 1995 to the list of approved OESs (16 substances); proposed changes to the reference temperature and pressure in setting OESs; list of 11 substances and substance groups for which new or revised maximum exposure limits will come into force during the summer of 1994 with COSHH 1994; list of 51 substances and substance groups to be reviewed by ACTS/WATCH until 1994. In appendices: calculation of exposure with regard to the specified reference periods; methods of measurement of fibre concentrations of MMMFs; special comments on cotton dust, asphyxiants, lead, rubber fume and dust, grain dust, asbestos, carcinogens (with lists). (62820)

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CIS 94-1353 Skin creams and skin protection in the engineering sector. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. 2p. 6 ref. (In English)

This information sheet provides guidance on precautions to be taken to avoid the risk of skin diseases in employees exposed to substances that may adversely affect their skin. The level of protection offered by both pre-work and after-work creams is described along with other methods for reducing the risk of skin diseases. Guidance is also given on maintaining a healthy skin. (62714)

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CIS 94-1354 Welding - Materials for resistance welding electrodes and ancillary equipment. (French: Soudage - Matériaux pour électrodes de soudage par résistance et équipements annexes) International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1991. 9p. 2 ref. (In English, French)

This international standard specifies the characteristics of materials for resistance welding electrodes and ancillary equipment which are used for carrying current and transmitting force to the work. Contents: classification of materials (copper and cooper alloys, sintered materials); characteristics of materials (chemical composition, mechanical and electrical properties); methods of test. An annex lists typical welding applications for various classes of materials. (62765)

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CIS 94-1355 SAM-Trak: COSHH substance & materials tracking software. Envirotrak Ltd, Northview, 86 Cambridge Street, St. Neots, Cambridgeshire PE19 1PJ, United Kingdom, 1993-. Computer software (MS-DOS computers). Price: GBP 725.00 (main program), other prices for various features. (In English)

Computer software enabling users to track chemical substances in the workplace, as required by the British COSHH regulations. In addition to information about substances, it also contains data on health protection, air monitoring and local exhaust ventilation. The basic module (called Protected) has unalterable information on 100 commonly used substances. Other modules provide options for entering new substances, the inclusion and editing of user records, the printing of reports, the keeping of records and the creation of custom-made forms and records. (62829)

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006 Fires, explosions and major hazards

CIS 94-1356 Lowering threshold limit values (TLVs) has additional benefits. Weisburger E.K., Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.143-148. 13 ref. (In English)

Early attempts to develop limits on the levels of volatile industrial substances to which workers could be exposed are described along with events leading to the formation of the American Conference of Government Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) and its Airborne Contaminants Committee, later to be the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) Committee. Currently, the TLV Chemical Substances Committee has four subcommittees reviewing data for different types of industrial substances. As the TLVs are lowered to prevent evidence of toxicity in exposed workers, the possibilities for fire/explosion due to reaching flammable limits are also decreased. (62541)

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CIS 94-1357 Safer alternatives to fire and explosions in classroom demonstrations. Katz D.A., Journal of Hazardous Materials, Feb. 1994, Vol.36, No.2, p.149-158. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

Many classroom demonstrations involving fire and explosions have safer alternatives or hazards that can be greatly reduced by using commercially available materials or by using microscale quantities. A number of safer alternatives to fire and explosion demonstrations are described along with recommended safety precautions. The Minimum Safety Guidelines for Chemical Demonstrations as developed by the ACS Division of Chemical Education are listed. (62542)

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CIS 94-1358 Long-range transport of ammonia released in a major chemical accident at Ionava, Lithuania. Kukkonen J., Savolainen A.L., Valkama I., Juntto S., Vesala T., Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.1-16. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

An estimate is made of the atmospheric dispersion of ammonia released in a major chemical accident in Lithuania in 1989. Emphasis is placed on possible long-range effects. The computations were made using trajectory and dispersion models based on gradient-transfer diffusion theory and using actual meteorological data. The computer concentrations were compared with available observations obtained from the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme stations. Results indicate that most of the ammonia escaped the monitoring stations in Finland. (62651)

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CIS 94-1359 Dust explosion research - State-of-the-art and outstanding problems. Eckhoff R.K., Journal of Hazardous Materials, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.1, p.103-117. 47 ref. (In English)

Recently published work on the dust explosion hazard in the process industries is reviewed along with information about on-going work and an indication of some possible future trends in explosion research. Central research topics include formation and ignition of dust clouds, flame propagation in dust clouds, blast waves from exploding dust clouds and test methods. Status and outstanding problems in preventing and mitigating/controlling dust explosions in practice are also discussed. The use of computer simulation models and expert systems is outlined along with joint research efforts in Europe. (62652)

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CIS 94-1360 Fire and blast research in the wake of Piper Alpha. Crook J., Fire Prevention, Sep. 1993, No.262, p.14-16. Illus. (In English)

Research carried out into large-scale hydrocarbon fires and explosions in the wake of the Piper Alpha disaster will have great value for industrial plant both on and offshore. Aspects considered here include: the isolating of pipelines during and emergency by means of sub-sea valves; research into large-scale jet fires; improvements in methods of predicting the effects of gas-cloud explosions; implementation of new safety case regulations requiring operators to demonstrate that major hazard risks have been evaluated; compilation of a comprehensive set of guidelines for fire and blast engineering on offshore installations. (62657)

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CIS 94-1361 The fire at Allied Colloids Limited. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk C010 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. iv, 45p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 9.00., ISBN 0-7176-0707-0 (In English)

A report of the HSE's investigation into the fire at Allied Colloids Ltd., Low Moor, Bradford, United Kingdom on 21 July 1992. The fire was preceded by the rupture of some azodiisobutyronitrile (AZDN) containers which were accidentally heated by an adjacent steam condensate pipe. The released AZDN came into contact with oxidizing agents causing delayed ignition followed by a series of explosions and an intense fire. The investigation showed the incident to be an example of a number of apparently unrelated errors, omissions and failures resulting in a major fire that had serious safety, environmental and financial consequences. (62638)

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CIS 94-1362 Fire hazard testing - Part 2: Test methods - Section 1/sheets 0-3: Glow-wire test methods. (French: Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 2: Méthodes d'essai - Section 1/feuille 0-3: Méthodes d'essai au fil incandescent) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Mar. 1994. 4 vols. 23p., 17p., 15p., 15p. Illus. (In English, French)

Section 1 of IEC 695-2 cancels and replaces IEC 695-2-1, 1991 (see CIS 92-1323), clause 7 of IEC 707, 1981 and clause 6 of IEC 829, 1988. It consists of 4 sheets: general glow-wire test methods; glow-wire end-product test and guidance; glow-wire flammability test on materials; glow-wire ignitability test on materials. (62615)

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CIS 94-1363 Fire hazard testing - Part 2: Test methods - Section 4/sheet 2: 500 W nominal test flames and guidance. (French: Essais relatifs aux risques du feu - Partie 2: Méthodes d'essais - Section 4/feuille 2: Flammes d'essai de 500W (valeur nominale) et guide) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Mar. 1994. 39p. Illus. (In English, French)

This technical report gives detailed requirements for the production of a nominal 500W, pre-mixed type test flame for use in fire hazard testing. Methods are given for a flame based on methane and a flame based on propane. The report should be used in conjunction with IEC 695-1-1 and IEC 695-4. (62707)

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CIS 94-1364 Safe handling of combustible dusts - Precautions against explosions. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. iv, 26p. Illus. 15 ref. Price: GBP 6.00., ISBN 0-7176-0725-9 (In English)

Contents of this guidance document: legal framework; characteristics of dust explosions, effects of a dust explosion; precautionary measures; prevention (control over sources of ignition and over dust cloud formation, inerting, plant controls); protection (explosion relief venting, containment and suppression, plant siting and construction); interconnected plant; fires involving combustible dusts; examples of protection in two plants; human factors. In appendix: dust explosion testing. (62719)

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007 Electrical safety

CIS 94-1365 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 2: Particular requirements for commercial electric deep fat fryers. (French: Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues - Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les friteuses électriques à usage collectif) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 3rd ed., Mar. 1994. 46p. Illus. (In English, French)

This standard supplements or modifies the corresponding clauses in IEC 335-1 "Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 1: General requirements" (see CIS 91-1322) as they relate to electrically operated commercial deep fat fryers not intended for household use. (62611)

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CIS 94-1366 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 2: Particular requirements for commercial electric griddles and griddle grills. (French: Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues - Parie 2: Règles particulières pour les plaques à griller électriques à usage collectif) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 3rd ed., Mar. 1994. 44p. Illus. (In English, French)

This standard supplements or modifies the corresponding clauses in IEC 335-1 "Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 1: General requirements" (see CIS 91-1322) as they relate to electrically operated commercial griddles and griddle grills. (62612)

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CIS 94-1367 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 2: Particular requirements for commercial electric multi-purpose cooking pans. (French: Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues - Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les sauteuses électriques à usage collectif) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 3rd ed., Mar. 1994. 42p. Illus. (In English, French)

This standard supplements or modifies the corresponding clauses in IEC 335-1 "Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 1: General requirements" (see CIS 91-1322) as they relate to electrically operated commercial multi-purpose cooking pans. (62613)

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CIS 94-1368 Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 2: Particular requirements for commercial electric forced convection ovens, steam cookers and steam-convection ovens. (French: Sécurité des appareils électrodomestiques et analogues - Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les fours électriques à convection forcée, les cuiseurs à vapeur électriques et les fours combinés vapeur-convection électriques à usage collectif) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 3rd ed., Mar. 1994. 52p. Illus. (In English, French)

This standard supplements or modifies the corresponding clauses in IEC 335-1 "Safety of household and similar electrical appliances - Part 1: General requirements" (see CIS 91-1322) as they relate to electrically operated commercial forced convection ovens, steam cookers and steam-convection ovens. (62614)

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CIS 94-1369 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2: Particular requirements for the safety of electrocardiographic monitoring equipment. (French: Appareils électromédicaux - Partie 2: Règles particulières de sécurité des appareils de surveillance d'électrocardiographie) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Mar. 1994. 62p. Illus. (In English, French)

This international standard amends and supplements IEC 601-1, "Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirements for safety" (see CIS 92-1327). Additional requirements concerning the safety of electrocardiographic monitoring equipment are specified for: protection against electric shock hazards, mechanical hazards, radiation hazards, excessive temperatures and spillage; accuracy of operating data and protection against hazardous output; constructional requirements. (62706)

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CIS 94-1370 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2: Particular requirements for the safety of infant radiant warmers. (French: Appareils électromédicaux - Partie 2: Règles particulières de sécurité des incubateurs radiants pour nouveau-nés) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Feb. 1994. 55p. 24 ref. (In English, French)

This international standard amends and supplements IEC 601-1 "Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirements for safety" (see CIS 92-1327). Additional requirements are given for: environmental conditions; protection against electric shock hazards, mechanical hazards, hazards from unwanted or excessive radiation, hazards of ignition of flammable anaesthetic mixtures, excessive temperatures and other safety hazards; accuracy of operating data and protection against hazardous output; constructional requirements; alarms. Terminology and definitions. (62778)

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CIS 94-1371 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2: Particular requirements for the safety of electroencephalographs. (French: Appareils électromédicaux - Partie 2: Règles particulières de sécurité pour les électroencéphalographes) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Apr. 1994. 47p. Illus. (In English, French)

This international standard amends and supplements IEC 601-1 "Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirements for safety" (see CIS 92-1327). Additional requirements concerning the safety of electroencephalographs are given for: environmental conditions; protection against electric shock hazards, excessive temperatures and other safety hazards; accuracy of operating data and protection against hazardous output; constructional requirements. (62779)

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CIS 94-1372 Medical electrical equipment - Part 2: Particular requirements for the safety of associated equipment of X-ray equipment. (French: Appareils électromédicaux - Partie 2: Règles particulières pour les équipements associés aux équipements à rayonnement X) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3 rue de Varembé, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Mar. 1994. 39p. (In English, French)

This international standard refers to IEC 601-1 "Medical electrical equipment - Part 1: General requirements for safety" (see CIS 92-1327). Additional requirements concerning the safety of associated equipment of X-ray equipment are specified for protection against mechanical hazards. (62780)

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[ Top of page ]

008 Physical hazards

CIS 94-1373 Comparison of earphone and sound field methods for estimating noise attenuation of foam earplugs. Carter N.L., Upfold G., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.307-312. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

The Real Ear Attenuation at Threshold (REAT) of E-A-R (slow recovery) foam earplugs was determined by three methods of presentation of the test tones during a single fitting of the earplug. The methods were (a) sound-field listening; (b) TDH49 earphone mounted in the shell of a circumaural earmuff; and (c) TDH49 earphone in a Model 51 cushion. Thresholds were tested once under each condition. The mean REAT obtained by the reference (sound field) method could be reliably estimated by both earphone methods for frequencies up to and including 4.0kHz. However, the sound field REAT values of individual subjects could not be predicted reliably from their REAT determined by either type of earphone presentation. Thus, TDH49 earphones in standard audiometric earcushions could be used to check the overall effectiveness of slow recovery foam earplugs in the workplace. (62605)

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CIS 94-1374 Technical characteristics of overhead cranes influencing the vibration exposure of the operators. Piette A., Malchaire J., Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.121-127. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

This study was undertaken to determine the technical factors responsible for the generation of vibration and shocks in overhead cranes and therefore responsible for complaints by the workers. Vibration measurements were made on the floor and on the seat of the cabin on 21 cranes. Vibration levels were correlated with the characteristics of the cranes. The study showed that vibration accelerations increased with the span of the crane and were very dependent upon the state of the runway. The type of speed regulation and the position of the cabin also play a significant role. The suspension systems of the cabin and of the seat were clearly inadequate to give significant reduction of the vibration. In several cases, it was even shown to amplify the vibration in the most critical frequency range. These results should be taken into account by designers as well as maintenance services in order to prevent the development of vibration at the source. (62630)

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CIS 94-1375 Modeling existing ventilation systems using measured values. Guffey S.E., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, June 1993, Vol.54, No.6, p.293-306. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

Equations are derived to model installed exhaust ventilation systems using measured diameters, flows, and pressures. The system of equations does not require knowledge of system components or their loss coefficients except for those components that will be replaced. The approach also allows detection of physical changes in existing systems. Measurement errors limit the accuracy of predictions. The nonquadratic relationship between flow and friction loss limits the accuracy of predictions when there are extreme changes in duct velocities. The modelling procedure is demonstrated for an example problem in which "observed" values are created for "initial" and "final" conditions from velocity pressure loss coefficients. (62604)

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CIS 94-1376 Estimation of heat stress in Tanzania by using ISO heat stress indices. Kähkönen E., Swai D., Dyauli E., Monyo R., Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.95-100. 17 ref. (In English)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the ISO heat stress standards in estimating the heat stress and strain in workplaces in Tanzania. Another aim was to select and to develop simplified methods for measuring physiological parameters in developing countries. The methods were tested in four hot factories and at a construction site. It seems that in tropical working environments the climatic conditions for which the ISO 7933 standard is applicable are too narrow. For instance, the mean skin temperature was incorrectly estimated by ISO 7933. An approximate analysis of the working situation can nevertheless be carried out by assuming the mean skin temperature to be 34.5°C. During the study, heat stress and strain were not as high as expected: deep body temperatures were usually lower than 38°C, sweat rates lower than 400g/h and heart rates below 100 beats/min for about 72% of the measuring time. This is due to the job rotation of the workers and the long rest periods, because the number of workers is large in the factories, and the weather was not at its hottest during the survey. (62628)

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CIS 94-1377 A cohort study in Southern China of tin miners exposed to radon and radon decay products. Xiang-Zhen X., Lubin J.H., Jun-Yao L., Li-Fen Y., Sheng L.Q., Lan Y., Jian-Zhang W., Blot W.J., Health Physics, Feb. 1993, Vol.64, No.2, p.120-131. 35 ref. (In English)

The report is an historical cohort study of exposure to radioactive radon gas among Chinese tin miners. The cohort consists of 17,143 workers with 175,143 person-years of observation and 981 lung cancer events. The excess relative risk increased linearly with exposure, rising 0.6% per working level month (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.4-0.8). Adjustment for exposure to arsenic dust, a known lung carcinogen, reduced the effect of radon exposure to 0.2% per working level month (95% CI = 0.1-0.2). The excess relative risk/working level month declined significantly with attained age and with radon exposure rate as measured by the cumulative working level month divided by duration of exposure. Lung cancer risk did not vary consistently with age at first radon exposure. A joint analysis of radon exposure and smoking status rejected both an additive and multiplicative association; the relationship was consistent with an intermediate association. (62581)

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CIS 94-1378 Thorium metabolism and bioassay of mineral sands workers. Hewson G.S., Fardy J.J., Health Physics, Feb. 1993, Vol.64, No.2, p.147-156. 34 ref. (In English)

The concentration of thorium in the blood serum and urine of Western Australian mineral sands workers was studied to complement estimates of radiation dose derived from air sampling measurements. The concentration of thorium in urine samples from occupationally unexposed persons and pooled serum samples was also investigated. The concentration of thorium in the urine of the workers was 3-210ng L-1 (geometric mean = 31ng L-1, n=34) while the concentration of thorium in the serum was 170-2,000ng L-1 (geometric mean = 480ng L-1, n=25). No correlation was found between the bioassay results and cumulative airborne thorium exposure. The geometric mean ratio of daily excretion of thorium in urine to total thorium in the serum pool was 2.5%, considerably lower than the value of 10% proposed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These data indicate that more information is required to clarify the biokinetic models for thorium and that doses assessed from air sampling data must be interpreted with caution. (62582)

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CIS 94-1379 Skeletal 210Pb levels and lung cancer among radon-exposed tin miners in Southern China. Laurer G.R., Gang Q.T., Lubin J.H., Jun-Yao L., Kan C.S., Xiang Y.S., Jian C.Z., Yi H., De G.W., Blot W.J., Health Physics, Mar. 1993, Vol.64, No.3, p.253-259. 23 ref. (In English)

A preliminary case-control study of 19 lung cancer cases over 55 years of age and 141 age-matched controls was carried out among underground tin miners exposed to 222Rn and its decay products. Radon exposure was estimated through measurement of 210Pb activity levels in the skull, and in working level months. There was a smooth gradient of lung cancer risk with categories of skeletal 210Pb level at time of last radon exposure; relative risks of 1.0, 2.9, 3.2, and 4.7 for categories <51.8, 51.8-77.7, 77.8-107.3, and >107.3Bq (<1,400, 1,400-2,099, 2,100-2,899, and >2,899pCi), respectively. Relative risks were unaffected by adjustment for exposure to arsenic in the mine or by adjustment for working level months. Risks also increased with cumulative working level month exposure, but the gradient of risk lessened after adjustment for exposure to arsenic. 210Pb, at the time of last radon exposure (p=0.13) and at the current 210Pb level (p=0.01), was not highly correlated with the working level month estimate. (62583)

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CIS 94-1380 Evaluation of a new high-density shielding material. Barish R.J., Health Physics, Apr. 1993, Vol.64, No.4, p.412-416. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

A new high-density material is evaluated for use as shielding at medical radiation therapy facilities. The substance is supplied in the form of prefabricated interlocking blocks that contain steel scrap as the aggregate in a matrix of Portland cement. This material, called Ledite by its manufacturer, permits the dimensions of radiation therapy room walls to be reduced by a factor of approximately two when compared with rooms made from ordinary concrete. The neutron absorption required for high-energy linear accelerators is present. (62584)

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CIS 94-1381 Specific absorption rate and radiofrequency current-to-ground in human models exposed to near-field irradiation. Olsen R.G., Griner T.A., Health Physics, June 1993, Vol.64, No.6, p.633-637. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

To expand knowledge of near-field radiofrequency energy absorption in occupationally exposed workers, coffin-sized calorimeters were used to measure specific absorption rate in full-size human models. The models were subjected to near-field irradiation; radiofrequency current-to-ground was also measured. The results have allowed the construction of a frequency-independent mathematical relationship between specific absorption rate and radiofrequency current for the given exposure system. Moreover, the results show a favourable comparison with radiofrequency radiation dosimetry handbook predictions of average specific absorption rate when only the vertical electric field component is used to normalize specific absorption rate. Once determined on a case-by-case basis, the use of specific absorption rate compared to radiofrequency current curves for any exposure system or condition could be a simple and quick method to determine on-site compliance with specific absorption rate-based exposure standards. (62585)

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CIS 94-1382 A Monte Carlo approach to assessing 147Pm in the liver of the adult phantom. Bhati S., Health Physics, June 1993, Vol.64, No.6, p.638-646. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

A low-background phoswich detector is used to detect small amounts of 147Pm, a pure beta-emitting nuclide, in the liver of a worker. The assessment was based on the measurement of bremsstrahlung radiation produced by the beta particles in the tissue. Computer programs are used to calculate the response of an external phoswich detector to: (1) a 147Pm point source embedded in tissue-equivalent slabs of various thicknesses; and (2) various source distributions of 147Pm in the liver of an adult phantom. The goal is to theoretically calibrate the phoswich detector for each source distribution and to study the variation of maxima of the spectra with the depth of the source in the adult phantom liver and tissue-equivalent slabs. The initial bremsstrahlung photon distribution of 147Pm in water has been computed using Wyard's and Pratt's methods, and the calculations compared with experimental measurements using Perspex acrylic sheet slabs. Good agreements have been noted when the initial bremsstrahlung spectrum is obtained by using Wyard's method. (62586)

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CIS 94-1383 Basic theory for the diffusive sampling of radon. Underhill D.W., Health Physics, July 1993, Vol.65, No.1, p.17-24. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

From the closed-form solution of the Fickian equation describing the uptake of radon by a diffusive sampler, the following are calculated: (1) the optimal estimate of the time-weighted average radon concentration; (2) the effect of the geometry of the diffusive sampler on performance; (3) the maximum sampling time consistent with a predetermined maximum error in the estimated time-weighted average concentration of radon; and (4) the effects of temperature and pressure on the performance of the sampler. It is shown that the maximum sampling error can be greatly reduced by dividing the adsorbent bed into two layers placed in series and by using a weighted average of the uptakes on the two layers. (62587)

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CIS 94-1384 A radiation accident at an industrial accelerator facility. Schauer D.A., Coursey B.M., Dick C.E., McLaughlin W.L., Puhl J.M., Desrosiers M.F., Jacobson A.D., Health Physics, Aug. 1993, Vol.65, No.2, p.131-140. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

In 1991, a radiation overexposure occurred at an industrial radiation facility. The radiation source was a 3-MV potential drop accelerator designed to produce high electron beam currents for materials-processing applications. The accelerator is capable of producing a 25 milliampere swept electron beam that is scanned over a width of 112.5cm. During maintenance an operator placed his hands, head, and feet in the beam. This was done with the filament voltage of the electron source "off", but with the full accelerating potential on the high voltage terminal. The operator's body, especially his extremities and head, were exposed to electron dark current. Measured dose rates ranged from approximately 40cGy s-1 inside the shoe to 1,300cGy s-1 at the hand position. Amputation of eight digits of the hands was necessary. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry was used to estimate the dose to the extremities: a mean dose estimate of 55.0 ± 3.5Gy averaged over the mass of the bone was obtained for the left middle finger. (62588)

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CIS 94-1385 Video display terminals and radon. Ziegler J.F., Zabel T.H., Curtis H.W., Health Physics, Sep. 1993, Vol.65, No.3, p.252-264. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

Recent reports indicate that video display terminals (VDTs) can collect radon daughters from the air. This occurs especially when they are turned off and may have negative electric fields which attract positively charged radioactive dust. Various techniques were evaluated for removing the gettered radioactivity while the video display terminal is both off and on. An evaluation was also made of what happens when the video display terminal is switched, thereby reversing the electric field near the screen. In addition, possible inhalation effects experienced by a video display terminal operator during field reversal were studied; it was found that although some radioactivity may be released during the cycle, room air currents redistribute it into the room with no detectable levels being inhaled by users. (62589)

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CIS 94-1386 Underground disposal of radioactive waste. Mogg C.S., Breen B.J., Mining Engineer, Apr. 1994, Vol.153, No.391, p.277-283. Illus. 5 ref. (In English)

The development of a facility for the safe deep disposal of intermediate level (ILW) and some low level (LLW) radioactive waste at Sellafield in the United Kingdom is described. The site investigation programme is described along with the rock characterization facility and repository design. The future programme of work is also outlined. Results to date continue to support the decision to concentrate on Sellafield as the preferred site for a national deep repository. (62764)

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CIS 94-1387 Hand-arm vibration syndrome: A guide to medical impairment assessment. Bilgi C., Pelmear P.L., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Sep. 1993, Vol.35, No.9, p.936-942. 6 ref. (In English)

Hand-arm vibration syndrome is a complex condition with vascular, sensorineural, and musculoskeletal components. Workers who handle vibratory tools suffer from it, and the severity of this syndrome is now graded internationally according to the Stockholm classification. For compensation purposes the severity must be translated into impairment, and this paper proposes how this may be done with the American Medical Association Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment. The case history of a typical claimant in Canada is presented to demonstrate how an impairment rating might be derived. (62677)

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CIS 94-1388 Cluster of testicular cancer in police officers exposed to hand-held radar. Davis R.L., Mostofi F.K., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.2, p.231-233. 6 ref. (In English)

Within a cohort of 340 police officers, six incident cases of testicular cancer occurred between 1979 and 1991. Occupational use of hand-held radar was the only shared risk factor among all six officers, and all routinely held the radar gun directly in close proximity to their testicles. Health effects of occupational radar use have not been widely studied, and further research into a possible association with testicular cancer is warranted. (62697)

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CIS 94-1389 Survey of physiological strains of asbestos abatement work wearing protective clothing in summer. (Japanese: Kaki ni okeru asubesuto bōgo fuku chakuyō sagyō no rōdō futan ni kansuru chōsa kenkyū) Tochihara Y., Ohnaka T., Nagai Y., Muramatsu T., Annals of Physiological Anthropology, 1 Jan. 1993, Vol.12, No.1, p.31-38. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In Japanese)

Asbestos abatement projects in schools are planned during summer vacation. However, in Japan, it is hot and humid in summer. Moreover, the workers have to wear impermeable protective clothing. Physiological strains in 12 male workers and working conditions during asbestos abatement work in two schools were measured in August in 1988 and in 1989. The workers wore disposable coveralls with hoods and shoe covers and protective masks. Air temperature in the workplaces was between 24.6°C and 28.8°C, and air humidity was between 85% and 96%. The high humidity was the result of covering the floor, ceiling and wall of the workplaces with vinyl sheets, and sprinkling the asbestos fibers with water to lower the amount of asbestos in the air. Working periods were 46 and 95 minutes. Sweat rates were 217-605g/h. These values were greater than estimated values for similar work done wearing light clothing. Heart rates did not exceed 150 beats/min where the temperature was 25°C-27°C, but where the temperature was 28°C-29°C one worker's heart rate increased to 170 beats/min. During this work (136 minutes), rectal temperature increased 2.3°C; body weight loss was 1,300g. There is a high risk of suffering from heat illness in asbestos abatement work during the summer. (62557)

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CIS 94-1390 Survey on noise exposure level in an aluminium can manufacturing plant. Mirbod S.M., Tambara K., Fujita S., Yoshida H., Nagata C., Komura Y., Inaba R., Iwata H., Industrial Health, 1993, Vol.31, No.1, p.1-12. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

This study was designed to quantify noise exposure of labourers at various sections of an aluminium can production plant: cupping press, drawing press, printing, inside spray coating, control room. The spectral analysis of noise indicated that high levels of noise associated with high frequency noise exceeded the permissible limit against hearing damage (85dB(A)), and it generally amounted to levels higher than 90dB(A), whereas noise levels inside the control rooms were in the range of 54-60.5dB(A). The A-weighted equivalent continuous noise exposure levels (dB(A)) during an 8h shift were mostly higher than the prescribed limit. By preliminary audiometric examinations on the right ears of workers hearing threshold shifts were noticed in the range of 7-11dB at 1kHz and 12-16dB at 4kHz. The speech interference levels for workers at different section were between 93.2 and 96.5dB(A) and higher than the maximum vocal efforts. (62553)

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CIS 94-1391 Using computer-based models for predicting human thermal responses to hot and cold environments. Haslam R.A., Parsons K.C., Ergonomics, Mar. 1994, Vol.37, No.3, p.399-416. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

Four models capable of predicting human responses to hot and cold environments were evaluated by comparing their predictions with previously published human data. The experimental data were grouped into environment categories to allow examination of the effects of variables (wind, clothing) on the accuracy of the models' predictions. Usually at least one of the models was able to give predictions with an accuracy comparable with the degree of variation found in the experimental data. The evaluation suggests that it is possible to make useful predictions of deep-body and mean skin temperature responses to cool, neutral, warm and hot environmental conditions. (62751)

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CIS 94-1392 Report on the accumulation of radioactive waste arising from sites operated by AEA Technology and from plant decommissioning. Health and Safety Commission, Advisory Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations, Study Group on the Accumulation of Radioactive Waste, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. viii, 12p. 1 ref. Price: GBP 4.00., ISBN 0-7176-0709-7 (In English)

This report reviews the management and storage of radioactive waste arising during normal operation of AEA Technology sites and during the decommissioning process. It is concluded that the problem areas in waste handling and storage are associated with those plants constructed in the early years of the nuclear industry and principally with the products of reprocessing of highly irradiated fuel. The main concerns of the Study Group are problems at the Windscale and Dounreay plants and the delay in the Nirex repository programme and the agreement on packaging specifications which is preventing the more secure storage of waste. (62625)

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CIS 94-1393 Review of occupational exposure to optical radiation and electric and magnetic fields with regard to the proposed CEC physical agents directive. Allen S.G., Blackwell R.P., Chadwick P.J., Driscoll C.M.H., Pearson A.J., Unsworth C., Whillock M.J., National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Jan. 1994. vi, 66p. 51 ref. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-85951-368-8 (In English)

Part 1 of this review considers occupational exposure to optical radiation, ultra-violet radiation, lasers and infrared radiation. It is concluded that if suitable control measures are enforced, there should be very few cases where optical radiation emissions from artificial sources exceed the ceiling levels in the proposed CEC Directive; areas where overexposure may occur are highlighted. Part 2 covers occupational exposure to electric and magnetic fields, static fields, extremely low frequency fields, broadcast and telecommunications, radar and navigation, heating, visual display units and other sources and identifies a number of areas where the action and hazardous activity levels proposed by CEC may be exceeded. (62637)

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CIS 94-1394 Guidance notes on the calibration of whole-body counters and on the interpretation of the measured results. Andrasi A., Henrichs K., Bogner L., Commission of the European Communities, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1994. iii, 61p. (In English)

This report presents a general overview of the present status of whole-body counter calibration techniques for the measurement of radioactivity in the body and demonstrates how whole-body counts may be interpreted. Contents: calibration techniques and their application to different circumstances; quality assurance; specific calibration requirements for occupational and accidental monitoring and for nuclear medicine; examples of dose estimation and data on radionuclides encountered in whole-body counting. (62705)

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CIS 94-1395 HSE investigation of leukaemia and other cancers in the children of male workers at Sellafield. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1993. v, 220p. 19 ref. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-0659-7 (In English)

A series of studies was carried out on the excess of leukaemia observed among children living near the Sellafield nuclear power plant and the possible association with parental employment at the plant. Although one study indicated an increased risk of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in children born to fathers employed at Sellafield, the excess in these illnesses was almost entirely concentrated in children whose fathers started work in the period from 1950 to 1964. Overall, no further preventive action was required to protect the health and safety of radiation workers in general, and those at Sellafield in particular, than that already taken. Glossary of terms and abbreviations. (62709)

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CIS 94-1396 HSC policy statement on radiation protection in the UK. Health and Safety Commission, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, Aug. 1993. 13p. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

In a brief statement, the HSC restate their belief that radiation protection in the UK is best served by a policy based on the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), as incorporated in European Directives made under the Euratom Treaty and implemented through UK legislation. There is seen to be no need to amend the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (CIS 89-1100) ahead of the forthcoming revision of the Euratom Directive. This view is endorsed in an accompanying paper by the HSC Working Group on Ionising Radiations which presents a review of UK radiation protection policy in the light of recent international developments. (62717)

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CIS 94-1397 Spider-1. Software for evaluating the detriment associated with radiation exposure. Stokell P.J., Robb J.D., Crick M.J., Muirhead C.R., National Radiological Protection Board, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Nov. 1993. iii, 27p. Illus. 11 ref. Price: GBP 5.00., ISBN 0-85951-359-9 (In English)

This report introduces a PC-based system, SPIDER-1, for investigating the application of measures of health detriment when considering the significance of radiation exposure. The system allows the user to investigate an extensive set of scenarios: exposure of individuals of given age and sex, or populations of any age and sex distribution; acute and chronic dose profiles; probability of effect and loss of life expectancy; the risk of fatal and non-fatal cancer and of hereditary effects; aggregated detriment. The health effects models used in SPIDER-1 are those developed at NRPB for a UK population. (62736)

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CIS 94-1398 A critique of recommended limits of exposure to ultraviolet radiation with particular reference to skin cancer. Driscoll C.M.H., Whillock M.J., Pearson A.J., McKinkay A.F., National Radiological Protection Board, HSE Books, PO Box 1999, Sudbury, Suffolk CO10 6FS, United Kingdom, 1994. 19p. Illus. 78 ref. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-7176-0749-6 (In English)

This report reviews biological experimental data on the effects of exposure to ultraviolet radiation and compares them with current international and foreign (non-British) national recommendations. Compliance with the current recommendations appears to be sufficient to protect most Caucasians against acute skin effects. However, the data are less conclusive when considering protection of the eyes. Epidemiological data suggest that 40 years of occupational exposure of the skin at the limit recommended by the International Non-Ionising Radiation Committee (INIRC) may increase the normally low risk of developing non-melanoma skin cancer by a factor of 3. (62770)

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CIS 94-1399 Acoustics - Hearing protectors. Part 1: Subjective method for the measurement of sound attenuation. (French: Acoustique - Protecteurs individuels contre le bruit. Partie 1: Méthode subjective de mesurage de l'affaiblissement acoustique) International Organization for Standardization, Case Postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, 2nd ed., 1990. ii, 7p. 7 ref. (In English, French)

This international standard cancels and replaces ISO 4869:1981 (abstracted under CIS 82-378). Standard references and definitions are listed along with specifications for a subjective method for measuring sound attenuation of hearing protectors at the threshold of hearing: test signals; test site; test equipment; test subjects; test procedure; application force; reporting of data. Annex A: uncertainty of sound attenuation measurements. (62766)

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CIS 94-1400 Cooperation between employers. National Radiological Protection Board, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1994. 55p. 8 ref. Index. Price: GBP 10.00., ISBN 0-85951-370-X (In English)

This document provides guidance on the application of the Ionising Radiations Regulations 1985 (IRR 85) (abstracted under CIS 89-1100) and the Ionising Radiations (Outside Workers) Regulations 1993 (OWRs) (CIS 94-19) in circumstances where the operations of the employees of one organization have the potential to expose to ionizing radiation the employees of another. Regulation 4 of IRR 85 makes it mandatory for employers to cooperate in such circumstances. Specific requirements and guidance are provided for site operators and contractors in situations where cooperation is required. Although the guidance is generally appropriate to all such situations, it specifically addresses situations within a site operator's premises. (62790)

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[ Top of page ]

009 Mechanical hazards, transport

CIS 94-1401 Causes of accidents with post-drivers and their remedies. Miller K., Applied Ergonomics, Apr. 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.101-104. Illus. (In English)

An investigation was carried out into the causes of accidents to farm workers operating post-driver fencing machines. The approach included analysis of HSE accident reports plus observation of post-drivers in action followed by discussions with the operators. A number of causes of accidents were highlighted, the main ones being the need to hold the post and poor communication between the man operating the controls and the man on the ground manipulating the post. A number of recommendations are made for improvements both to machine design and working practices. (62629)

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CIS 94-1402 The effect of firm characteristics on truck accidents. Moses L.N., Savage I., Accident Analysis and Prevention, Apr. 1994, Vol.26, No.2, p.173-179. 4 ref. (In English)

Data on the effects of firm characteristics and safety practices on truck accident rates are examined. Results indicate that accident rates decline with firm size but not with firm age; the accident rates of private carriers are 20% lower than those of for-hire carriers; and hazardous materials and/or general freight carriers have higher accident rates. The keeping of records on accidents and using these data to take disciplinary action against or educational action for the drivers involved appear to constitute safe practice that is effective in reducing accident rates. (62619)

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CIS 94-1403 Work-related road fatalities in Australia 1982-1984. Harrison J.E., Mandryk J.A., Frommer M.S., Accident Analysis and Prevention, Aug. 1993, Vol.25, No.4, p.443-451. 22 ref. (In English)

The 1,544 work-related fatalities identified in Australia during 1982-1984 included 366 (24%) fatal work-related road injuries sustained while working on public roads and a further 234 (15%) sustained while commuting. Statistics are analyzed according to age, sex and survivability of cases, time and location of accident, type of vehicle, type of road user, blood alcohol concentration and occupational group. Results highlight possible priority areas for preventive action: truck drivers (especially articulated trucks), transport occupations, drivers in country areas, long-distance driving, driving at night and alcohol use. (62659)

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CIS 94-1404 Safeguarding 3 roll bending machines. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1993. 2p. Illus. 2 ref. (In English)

This guidance note concerns manually loaded machines where the nature of the work being undertaken makes the use of fixed or interlocked guards impracticable. The main hazards are described along with provision and use of safety devices (hold to run controls, trip devices, braking systems, emergency stop buttons), safe working practice and maintenance and inspection. (62713)

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CIS 94-1405 Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry - Technical means for ensuring safety - Part 3: Tractors. (French: Tracteurs et matériels agricoles et forestiers - Dispositifs techniques permettant d'assurer la sécurité - Partie 3: Tracteurs) International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Feb. 1992. ii, 5p. Illus. (In English, French)

This standard provides guidelines regarding the prevention of accidents arising from the use of tractors and indicates appropriate parameters to be met when designing tractors. It also specifies technical means of improving the degree of personal safety of operators and others involved in the course of normal running, maintenance and use of agricultural tractors. Requirements for three-point linkages, controls and the operator's workplace are specified. (62774)

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CIS 94-1406 Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry - Technical means for ensuring safety - Part 5: Power-driven soil-working equipment. (French: Tracteurs et matériels agricoles et forestiers - Dispositifs techniques permettant d'assurer la sécurité - Partie 5: Matériel de travail du sol à entraînement mécanique) International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Feb. 1992. ii, 2p. (In English, French)

This standard specifies the special requirements to be met when designing tractor-operated power-driven soil-working equipment. Special technical requirements for protective devices are specified. (62775)

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CIS 94-1407 Tractors and machinery for agriculture and forestry - Technical means for ensuring safety - Part 9: Equipment for sowing, planting and distributing fertilizers. (French: Tracteurs et matériels agricoles et forestiers - Dispositifs techniques permettant d'assurer la sécurité - Partie 9: Matériel de semis, de plantation et de fertilisation) International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Feb. 1992. ii, 4p. Illus. (In English, French)

This standard specifies technical means of improving the degree of personal safety of operators and others involved during normal operation and maintenance of equipment for sowing, planting and distributing fertilizers. Requirements are specified for swivelling components, hoppers, platforms, loading, bout markers or row markers and for specific machines. (62776)

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CIS 94-1408 Classification and labelling of dangerous substances for carriage by road in tankers, tank containers and packages - Approved Code of practice. Health and Safety Commission, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1993. vii, 50p. 8 ref. Price: GBP 5.75., ISBN 0-11-886310-X (In English)

This Code of Practice is a revision of the 1990 edition (see CIS 91-1358). it covers: classification of substances, choice of hazard warning sign and labelling for the purposes of the Chemicals Hazard Information and Packaging (CHIP) Regulations 1993 (CIS 93-1424); classification of substances, determination of packing groups and temperature control requirements for the purposes of the Packaged Goods Regulations; classification of substances and choice of hazard warning sign for the purposes of the Road Tanker Regulations; criteria for classification; criteria for determining precedence of classification and hazard warning sign under the CHIP Regulations. (62647)

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010 Biological hazards

CIS 94-1409 Serum IgG antibodies to mold spores in two Norwegian sawmill populations: Relationship to respiratory and other work-related symptoms. Eduard W., Sandven P., Levy F., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.24, No.2, p.207-222. 30 ref. (In English)

Wood trimmers and planing operators from two separate Norwegian sawmill populations (N = 303 and 170) were studied by serology assessment and self-administered questionnaire. IgG antibodies to Rhizopus microsporus subspecies rhizopodiformis, Paecilomyces variotti, and Aspergillus fumigatus were measured. Personal exposure of wood trimmers to mold spores and wood dust was also measured. R. microsporus was one of the most prevalent molds assessed by serology. Antibody levels were higher and suggestive of mucous membrane irritation, chronic non-specific lung disease, allergic alveolitis, and organic dust toxic syndrome were more frequently reported by wood trimmers than by planing operators. The mean level of IgG antibodies to R. microsporus in sawmill workers working in the same work area was the best predictor of symptoms in both working populations. The results indicate that exposure to spores of R. microsporus may cause several respiratory symptoms in wood trimmers. (62695)

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CIS 94-1410 A forward glance at lookback. Lancet, 26 Mar. 1994, Vol.343, No.8900, p.744-745. 6 ref. (In English)

This editorial discusses the management of HIV-infected health care workers with reference to recently issued guidelines in the United Kingdom which require infected workers to seek medical and occupational health advice and to cease exposure-prone procedures. The guidelines also advise that patients who have been exposed to certain procedures carried out by infected workers should be notified (lookback). It is concluded that self-regulation by HIV-infected workers and lookbacks after notification may fail as effective policies to protect the public and are at odds with the view that the risk of transmission is remote. (62786)

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CIS 94-1411 Seals, seal trainers, and mycobacterial infection. Thompson P.J., Cousins D.V., Gow B.L., Collins D.M., Williamson B.H., Dagnia H.T., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Jan. 1993, Vol.147, No.1, p.164-167. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

In 1986, three seals died in an Australian marine park; postmortem tissue culture suggested infection with Mycobacterium bovis. In 1988, a seal trainer employed at the park until 1985 developed pulmonary tuberculosis caused by M. bovis while working in a zoo 3,000km away. Culture characteristics, biochemical behaviour, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and restriction endonuclease analysis suggested that the strains of M. bovis infecting the seals and trainer were identical but unique and differed from reference strains and local cattle strains of M. bovis. The infection in both the seals and trainer had a destructive but indolent course. This is the first time that M. bovis has been observed in seals and the first time that tuberculosis infection has been documented to be transmitted from seals to humans. Those working with seals and other marine animals should be monitored for infection. (62565)

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CIS 94-1412 Inhaled aeroallergen and storage mite reactivity in a Wisconsin farmer nested case-control study. Marx J.J., Twiggs J.T., Ault B.J., Merchant J.A., Fernandez-Caldas E., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Feb. 1993, Vol.147, No.2, p.354-358. 19 ref. (In English)

A study was undertaken to assess the role of antibody (Ab) to a panel of antigens associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis in the development of lung disease among dairy farmers. Immunological reactivity to inhaled allergens was assessed in Ab+ cases and compared to control subjects. The most prevalent allergens among the cases as determined by either skin test or RAST assays were the house dust mites (HDM) (21.6%), storage mites (11.2%), grain smuts (11.2%), Cladosporium (7.5%), Aspergillus (6.0%), and cattle (5.2%). Of the storage mite reactors, IgE to Lepidoglyphus destructor was the most frequently found. Reactions to HDM, storage mites, and grain smuts were significantly more frequent among the cases (p<0.05). There is a significant increase in reactivity to certain inhaled allergens among those dairy farmers reporting barn-associated respiratory symptoms that is unrelated to past exposure to the causative agents of farmer's lung disease. (62567)

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CIS 94-1413 Bronchial reactivity, atopy, and airway response to cotton dust. Jacobs R.R., Boehlecke B., Van Hage-Hamsten M., Rylander R., American Review of Respiratory Disease, July 1993, Vol.148, No.1, p.19-24. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

The study reports the response of previously non-exposed volunteers with and without a history of mild atopy to a five-hour exposure to 1mg/m3 of respirable cotton dust in a model cardroom. Atopic subjects showed a significantly higher mean serum IgE level to a screening test for common inhalant allergens, than did non-atopic subjects (mean percent binding, 32.1 vs. 1.5; p<0.001). Atopic subjects had a significantly greater mean fall in FEV1 during exposure (8.3% vs. 4.9%, p<0.05). The difference in FEV1 decline between atopic and non-atopic subjects was similar in magnitude to that reported for workshift FEV1 declines between textile workers with and without mild atopy. Atopic subjects had a significantly higher baseline methacholine responsiveness than did non-atopic subjects. After cotton dust exposure, there was a significant increase in airway reactivity in both groups. For all subjects, combined baseline responsiveness was significantly related to the change in FEV1 after exposure. (62569)

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CIS 94-1414 Exposure to blood-containing aerosols in the operating room - A preliminary study. Heinsohn P., Jewett D.L., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Aug. 1993, Vol.54, No.8, p.446-453. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

A personal sampling study was conducted to assess exposure to blood aerosols in the operating room. The breathing zones of primary and assistant surgeons were monitored with a personal cascade impactor. "Hemastix" were used to assess the haemoglobin content of each particle size fraction. The mucous membrane lining of the upper respiratory tract and alveolar macrophages in the gas-exchange region are likely to be exposed to aerosolized blood in the operating room, as particles less than 3.5µm in diameter were found in 66% of the samples, and particles smaller than 0.52µm were found in 38%. (62746)

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CIS 94-1415 National consensus statement on hepatitis B and the workplace. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia), Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1990. 8p. 4 ref. (In English)

This document provides guidance on workplace policies for the prevention of hepatitis B infection in the workplace. Contents: background information on means of transmission of hepatitis B infections and groups of workers at risk; policy principles for infection control; policy development and implementation; workplace procedures; first aid and disinfection. (62767)

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011 Physiology, ergonomics

CIS 94-1416 Thumb problems of professional musicians. Nolan W.B., Eaton R.G., Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Mar. 1989, Vol.4, No.1, p.20-24. Illus. 5 ref. (In English)

A review of the diagnosis, examination and treatment of thumb problems caused by rapid, repetitive forces exerted on the musculoskeletal, orthopaedic and neural systems in professional musicians. Diagnosis is based on a comprehensive history as well as physical examination of the thumb; treatment options include splinting, oral medication, injectable steroids, muscle relaxants, hand therapy and surgery. Case reports illustrate diagnosis and treatment for various thumb disorders. If properly diagnosed and treated, the majority of these problems have a good prognosis. (62756)

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CIS 94-1417 The prevalence of severe musculoskeletal problems among male and female symphony orchestra string players. Middlestadt S.E., Fishbein M., Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Mar. 1989, Vol.4, No.1, p.41-48. 12 ref. (In English)

Results of a national survey by the International Conference of Symphony and Opera Musicians (ICSOM) showed that the percentage of musicians reporting a musculoskeletal problem that they judged to be severe in terms of its effect on performance was found to differ significantly as a function of string instrument, gender and musculoskeletal location. Since different locations were found to be problematic for players of different string instruments, there is clear evidence for occupational factors in the development of these problems. Gender differences were found to depend on both string instrument and musculoskeletal location. (62757)

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CIS 94-1418 Musculoskeletal symptoms and working postures in pear and apple orchard workers. (Japanese: Nashi, ringo saibai jūjisha no kin-kokkaku kei shōjō to sagyō shisei) Sakakibara H., Miyao M., Kondo T., Yamada S., Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, 20 Nov. 1993, Vol.35, No.6, p.530-536. Illus. 17 ref. (In Japanese)

Musculoskeletal symptoms in pear and apple orchard farmers were studied in relation to working postures, particularly arm elevation and head extension for overhead work. The same 46 female farmers were examined three times, in May while thinning pears, in June while bagging pears, and in July while bagging apples. Musculoskeletal symptoms such as complaints of stiffness and pain in the neck and shoulders, muscular tenderness in the shoulders, and pain during movement of the neck were prominent in thinning and bagging pears, as compared with bagging apples. Pear tasks require more arm elevation and head extension than apple tasks, due to the overhead work. The working postures of arm elevation and head extension were considered to be a dominant causative factor in shoulder-neck disorders of the farmers examined. The low back pain and decreased back muscle power from thinning pears may be caused by continuous backward bending of the back associated with thinning work. (62556)

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CIS 94-1419 Influence of polar route schedules on the duty and rest patterns of aircrew. Stone B.M., Spencer M.B., Rogers A.S., Nicholson A.N., Barnes R., Green R., Ergonomics, Dec. 1993, Vol.36, No.12, p.1465-1477. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

The duty and rest periods of aircrew operating the polar route from London via Anchorage were recorded during five schedules which involved one, two or three-day sojourns in Japan. Sleep throughout each schedule was fragmented, with naps before duty and short sleeps after arrival at a new location. Sleep disturbance rather than cumulative sleep loss appeared to be the overriding problem, and the shorter schedules had the most marked disturbances in sleep during the trip and during the immediate recovery period. (62723)

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CIS 94-1420 Health, sleep and mood perceptions reported by airline crews flying short and long hauls. Haugli L., Skogstad A., Hellesøy O.H., Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.65, No.1, p.27-34. 25 ref. (In English)

This study is part of a major questionnaire survey of work environment and health of air crew working for Scandinavian Airline System (SAS) Norway in 1989. Self-reported incidences of health problems are examined, focusing on differences between cockpit and cabin crews. Generally, irrespective of length of routes, the most dominant problems reported by crews are dry skin, eye irritation, colds, sleeping problems, fatigue irritation and musculoskeletal pains, particularly lower back pain. Pilots report least, while female cabin attendants register most problems. Crews flying long distance transmeridian routes report more health problems than short distance personnel. (62732)

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CIS 94-1421 Occupational therapy for musicians with upper extremity overuse syndrome: Patient perceptions regarding effectiveness of treatment. Goodman G., Staz S., Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Mar. 1989, Vol.4, No.1, p.9-14. 9 ref. (In English)

A survey of musicians taking part in an occupational therapy programme indicated that the programme was perceived by most of them to be effective in decreasing the symptoms for which they sought treatment and in increasing work productivity. The survey also showed that overuse problems were reported more frequently among female musicians, the right hand was the most common site of injury, and pianists and string instrumentalists were more frequently seen in therapy than any other types of musicians. The survey helped to identify the most effective types of treatment. (62755)

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CIS 94-1422 Supermarket checker motions and cumulative trauma risk. Harber P., Bloswick D., Beck J., Peňa L., Baker D., Lee J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.35, No.8, p.805-811. Illus. 16 ref. (In English)

The relationship between specific motions and symptoms consistent with upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders (UECTDs) was investigated in 50 supermarket checkers. Each completed a questionnaire concerning UECTD symptoms; each participant was videotaped while performing checking work. Relationships between an individual's motion indices and symptom indices were analyzed by determining the percent of subjects "positive" for symptoms in each quartile of motion index, by rank correlation, and by regression of symptom scores on principal components of motions. Trends toward relationship of wrist flexion and extension, lumbar flexion, and pronation with hand-wrist-lower arm and carpal tunnel syndrome were noted. Principal components regression confirmed that extension and flexion were related to these two symptom outcomes. This study suggests that postural loading can be determined on an individual basis in a meaningful fashion, that interventions that decrease such loading may be beneficial and that certain repetitive motions cause UECTD symptoms. (62548)

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CIS 94-1423 Musculoskeletal pain and workplace ergonomic stressors in manufacturing industry in South Africa. Schierhout G.H., Myers J.E., Bridger R.S., International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, Aug. 1993, Vol.12, p.3-11. Illus. 45 ref. (In English)

This study aimed to investigate musculoskeletal pain in relation to postural stressors in defined factory floor occupations. A checklist was developed to score jobs according to postural stress (comprising factors of posture, force and repetition). A random sample of workers (n=155) were interviewed with regard to pain and various potential confounders and effect modifiers. Exposure-response relationships were examined. Years on the job, force and a summed unnatural posture score was significantly associated with pain in the trapezius region, after adjusting for height and gender. An overall unnatural posture score was significantly associated with musculoskeletal pain at any anatomical site. None of the explanatory variables were associated with back pain. A simple observational instrument has potential for general surveillance of ergonomic exposure hazards in industrial occupations and is particularly appropriate for use in lesser developed countries. (62562)

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CIS 94-1424 Development of a system for analyzing working postures. Seo A., Kakehashi M., Tsuru S., Amran A., Paeng A., Paeng J.I., Yoshinaga F., Industrial Health, 1993, Vol.31, No.2, p.69-77. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

A system was developed for the simultaneous recording and analysis of posture, work content and physiological data. It consists of a portable unit worn by subject, a video camera and image digitizer and a microcomputer. The portable unit collects surface electromyograms and values of trunk inclination and joint flexion from sensors attached to various points of the subject's body, and relays the data to the computer in synchrony with the images from the camera. In connection with a study of low back pain, the system performed successfully in analyzing a simulated manual baggage handling task. Whereas similar systems can only be used in the laboratory, the present one can be taken into the field. (62634)

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CIS 94-1425 Development and validation of a job analysis tool for repetitive work. (French: Développement et validation d'un outil d'analyse de postes spécifique au travail répétitif) St-Vincent M., Chicoine D., Beaugrand S., Travail et santé, Mar. 1994, Vol.10, No.1, p.S-2 to S-8. Illus. 12 ref. (In French)

The project presented consisted of developing and validating a job analysis tool intended for the prevention of musculoskeletal disorders related to repetitive work. The analysis tool consists of five modules: 1) collection of preliminary data from interviews carried out with workers doing this job; 2) establishment of a sampling plan for the observations; 3) identification of risk factors of the work from videos and with observational grid; 4) identification of determinants of risk factors; 5) search of practical solutions. The tool was validated in an electrical appliance manufacturing plant with two joint working groups of six participants. The results obtained show that the tool can be readily used by workers with very little training in ergonomics. For the four jobs studied, concrete solutions were developed to reduce musculoskeletal constraints. The comparison of the results obtained by the experts and those obtained by the working groups shows that when using the observational grid, the people in the industry are fairly reliable in identifying the risk factors. For the different parameters evaluated, the agreement between the experts and the groups varied from 61% to 84%. (62698)

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CIS 94-1426 Carpal tunnel syndrome: A products liability prospective. Owen R.D., Ergonomics, Mar. 1994, Vol.37, No.3, p.449-476. Illus. 43 ref. (In English)

Information is provided on the evaluation and litigation of product liability cases involving carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) in the USA. The history of CTS is outlined followed by medical aspects, factors combining to produce CTS (physical environment, ergonomic exposure) and remediation techniques. The current state of litigation relative to CTS is then discussed including the duty of manufacturers to design, produce and distribute safe products and to provide warning notices where necessary. (62752)

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CIS 94-1427 A rapid appraisal of occupational workload from a modified scale of perceived exertion. Varghese M.A., Saha P.N., Atreya N., Ergonomics, Mar. 1994, Vol.37, No.3, p.485-491. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

A simple and rapid method of determining occupational workload among Indian women performing manual activities was developed based on the strong relationship between physiological responses and subjective feeling of exertion. A five-point scale of perceived exertion was constructed and used on a group of students performing experiments on a cycle ergometer and on a group of homemakers performing different household activities; oxygen consumption and heart rate responses were also measured. Based on the results, a workload classification table is proposed and various household activities have been graded accordingly. (62753)

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CIS 94-1428 Musculoskeletal disorders of female workers and ergonomics problems in five different industries of a developing country. Chavalitsakulchai P., Shahnavaz H., Journal of Human Ergology, June 1993, Vol.22, No.1, p.29-43. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

An ergonomics survey for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders was carried out on 1000 female workers in five different industries in Thailand (garments, fertilizers, pharmaceuticals, textiles and cigarettes). About 50% of the female workers experienced a high prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in their lower backs, particularly the textile workers. Other ergonomic problems included heavy manual handling, prolonged sitting and standing, awkward work postures, poor machine design and operation, repetitive and monotonous movements, poor work organization and unsatisfactory working environments. Findings demonstrate the need for ergonomics intervention in industrially developing countries using low-cost improvements and appropriate training methods. (62771)

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CIS 94-1429 Cumulative trauma disorders of the upper limbs in a group of assembly line workers. (Italian: Epidemia di patologie muscolo tendinee degli arti superiori (CTD) in un gruppo di addetti al montaggio di passeggini) Barbieri P.G., Colombini D., Occhipinti E., Vigasio A., Poli R., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1993, Vol.84, No.6, p.487-500. 14 ref. (In Italian)

The study was prompted by a report concerning 40 assembly line workers in an Italian pram-manufacturing plant who had developed muscular and tendon disorders of the upper limbs classifiable as Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTD). The main factors responsible for overloading of the upper limbs during work were analyzed. A high frequency and repetitiveness of upper limb movements was revealed, together with a marked inadequacy in the length and distribution of pauses. In a significant number of operations, workers also performed movements in positions that overloaded the wrist and hand. A parallel clinical and instrumental study carried out in collaboration with specialists in orthopaedics, brain surgery and neurophysiology showed that 90% of the subjects suffered from a form of CTD of the upper limbs: 40% were affected with carpal tunnel syndrome; there were high prevalences of tenosynovitis and epicondylitis. Results of the study emphasize once again the need for greater attention of occupational health practitioners in Italy to muscular and tendon disorders of the upper limbs due to repetitive strain, which Italian law defines, albeit controversially, as occupational. (62817)

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CIS 94-1430 The influence of load knowledge on lifting technique. Butler D., Andersson G.B.J., Trafimow J., Schipplein O.D., Andriacchi T.P., Ergonomics, Dec. 1993, Vol.36, No.12, p.1489-1493. 9 ref. (In English)

Ten men lifted a box containing either no weight or weights of 150, 250 or 300N with and without knowledge of what was inside the box. The kinetics and kinematics of the lift were analyzed. Several parameters were significantly different between known and unknown loads at 0N, only one at 150N and none at higher load magnitudes. Results indicate that lifts are approached assuming a certain weight, and that when the assumption is wrong and the load lighter than anticipated, lifting is performed with a jerking motion creating unnecessary loads on the lower back. (62724)

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CIS 94-1431 Speech measures indicating workload demand. Brenner M., Doherty E.T., Shipp T., Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Jan. 1994, Vol.65, No.1, p.21-26. Illus. 18 ref. (In English)

Heart rate and six speech measures were evaluated for 17 male subjects performing three task trials of varying difficulty. Heart rate, speaking fundamental frequency (pitch) and vocal intensity (loudness) increased significantly with workload demands. A derived speech measure which statistically combined information from other speech measures was also evaluated. It increased significantly with workload demands and reflected differences among individual subjects better than any of its component measures. It appears that speech analysis can provide a practical means of stress assessment. (62731)

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CIS 94-1432 Dynamic shoulder flexion strength: For use in occupational risk analysis and clinical assessment. Koski A.V., McGill S.M., Clinical Biomechanics, Mar. 1994, Vol.9, No.2, p.99-104. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

The flexion torque strength capabilities of the shoulder were measured in a group of 51 young men and women using a dynamometer. Results indicated that for both static and dynamic strength measures, female subjects produced, on average, half of the torque output of males. The information may be used to assess the risk of musculoskeletal injury in workplace tasks and to assess the suitability of re-entry for injured workers. (62759)

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CIS 94-1433 Consistency of sincere and feigned grip exertions with repeated testing. Hoffmaster E., Lech R., Niebuhr B.R., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.35, No.8, p.788-794. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

To test the hypothesis that feigned exertions would show greater variability in both force and electromyograms than would sincere exertions over repeated testing sessions, eleven normal subjects made sincere and feigned exertions while performing the five-handle-position Jamar grip test. The subjects were tested 6 times in a 3- to 5-week period. Contrary to the hypothesis, feigned exertions did not show greater variability than sincere exertions. Both sincere and feigned exertions were highly consistent over the six sessions. However, the sincere and feigned exertions did differ in the patterns of force and electromyogram on the five-handle-position test. These results and those of previous studies suggest that clinicians should use more than one type of test when testing suspected malingerers. (62547)

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CIS 94-1434 Repetition strain injury in Australia: Medical knowledge and social movement. Bammer G., Martin B., National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, Aug. 1990. iii, 23p. 78 ref., ISBN 0-7315-1095-X (In English)

The controversial social issue surrounding the dramatic increase in the number of reported cases of repetitive strain injury (RSI) in Australia in the 1980s is discussed. A major struggle occurred between those supporting and those opposing the recognition of the upsurge in reported cases as a real increase in work-related injuries. The perspectives of the sociology of medical knowledge and of the social construction of social problems are used to provide insights into this phenomenon. (62738)

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CIS 94-1435 Upper limb disorders: Assessing the risks. Health and Safety Executive, HSE Books, P.O. Box 1999, Sudbury CO10 6FS, Suffolk, United Kingdom, 1994. 21p. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

This booklet provides advice for employers and supervisors on how to evaluate the risk of upper limb disorders (ULDs) among workers and how to prevent them. The symptoms of ULDs are described along with the kinds of work that cause them, ways to assess the risks and follow-up action to reduce the risks. An assessment checklist is included. (62711)

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CIS 94-1436 Occupational disease and social struggle: The case of work-related neck and upper limb disorders. Bammer G., National Centre for Epidemiology and Population Health, The Australian National University, GPO Box 4, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia, Aug. 1990. iii, 29p. approx. 190 ref., ISBN 0-7315-1096-8 (In English)

The possibility that work-related neck and upper limb disorders may provide a trigger for changing employer-employee relations is assessed. The roles of community groups, trade unions, governments, the medical profession and others are examined. Evidence from several countries suggests that struggles over these disorders have had little overall effect on prevailing power relations except in two cases: in Australia the disorders have helped weaken the position of employees and strengthen that of employers with regard to workers' compensation entitlements, while in both Australia and Sweden they have helped efforts towards job redesign in a more participative direction. (62739)

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CIS 94-1437 Part-time work. (French: Le travail à temps partiel) ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1994. 95p. Price: CHF 15.00., ISBN 92-2-108950-9 (Eng), ISBN 92-2-208950-2 (fr) (In English, French)

This report to the International Labour Conference, 81st Session 1994 presents the replies received from ILO member States concerning a proposed ILO Convention and Recommendation on part-time work. Observations on the proposed texts and their implications at the national level are presented along with ILO commentaries on these observations. (62762)

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CIS 94-1438 Ergonomics - Determination of metabolic heat production. (French: Ergonomie - Détermination de la production de chaleur métabolique) International Organization for Standardization, Case postale 56, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, Dec. 1990. iii, 17p. Illus. (In English, French)

This standard specifies methods for the determination of the metabolic rate needed to evaluate comfort and thermal stress. Three levels of approach are presented and factors limiting the accuracy of each method are explained. Tables show the classification of metabolic rate by activity and by occupation, and metabolic rate according to body posture, type of work, work speed and for typical activities. (62777)

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012 Stress, psychosocial factors

CIS 94-1439 Workload and psychophysiological stress reactions in air traffic controllers. Zeier H., Ergonomics, Mar. 1994, Vol.37, No.3, p.525-539. Illus. 45 ref. (In English)

Interactions between workload and psychophysiological stress symptoms were investigated in a population of 205 air traffic controllers (ATCs) from Zurich and Geneva. Results of a questionnaire survey showed that about 10 to 15% of the ATCs showed elevated values in psychological stress symptoms to an extent indicating that they might have serious stress problems. Results of investigated working sessions showed that subjective ratings corresponded clearly to cortisol response and the objective workload. Results confirm the idea that the job of an ATC is demanding but not necessarily more stressful than jobs of similar demands; complaints about excessive workload should be taken seriously. (62754)

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CIS 94-1440 Correlates of adaptive and maladaptive musical performance anxiety. Wolfe M.L., Medical Problems of Performing Artists, Mar. 1989, Vol.4, No.1, p.49-56. 25 ref. (In English)

A survey of 193 musicians examined the relationship between several measures of musical performance anxiety and personal factors. Results suggest that such anxiety may consist of both positive components (arousal, intensity) and negative components (apprehension, distractibility). Musicians with professional playing experience scored higher on the positive components and lower on the negative components. The disabling effects of certain symptoms of autonomic arousal were instrument-specific (dry mouth, finger tremor). Therapeutic intervention for anxious musicians should ideally promote relaxation and yet allow concentration and arousal to be maintained. (62758)

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CIS 94-1441 Actions and reactions: Effects of employee theft on worker health. Bluhm R.E., Leatherwood M.L., Goldstein Baker S., Yodaiken R.E., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.35, No.8, p.783-787. 31 ref. (In English)

The health and safety problems that arise from employee theft are considerable and should be recognized. Effective prevention of employee theft should focus on employee selection, education, and the factors associated with theft such as drug and alcohol abuse. When physical barriers are used at work sites to prevent theft, work site egress should be safe. Interaction between management and occupational health professionals can focus attention on the relationship between work site theft and employee health. (62546)

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CIS 94-1442 Measuring subjective workload: When is one scale better than many?. Hendy K.C., Hamilton K.M., Landry L.N., Human Factors, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.579-601. 50 ref. (In English)

Data from four independent studies on the measurement of workload in a variety of aviation-related situations are examined. The results support the conclusion that a univariate rating of workload is generally a more sensitive measure of information-processing demands than are linear composites of several individual workload-related factors. Further, if a univariate workload rating is not available, a good estimate can be obtained from the unweighted average of the individual factors. (62616)

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CIS 94-1443 Psychophysical determinants of stress in sustained attention. Galinsky T.L., Rosa R.R., Warm J.S., Dember W.N., Human Factors, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.603-614. 48 ref. (In English)

The effects of the sensory modality of signals (audition and vision) and the background event rate (5 and 40 events/min) on task-induced stress were examined for a group of 40 subjects. Restlessness and subjective fatigue increased dramatically across a 50-min watch in all conditions. Stress effects were most notable in the case of visual monitoring but were unrelated to variations in the event rate. Hence, from a psychophysical perspective, the stress of sustained attention seems to be identified more specifically with the sensory modality of signals rather than with the event rate context in which they appear. (62617)

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CIS 94-1444 Age and fatal work-related falls. Agnew J., Suruda A.J., Human Factors, Dec. 1993, Vol.35, No.4, p.731-736. 23 ref. (In English)

Fatality data from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and from the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) were examined. From 1980 to 1986, NIOSH data indicated that fatality rates from falls showed an increase for older workers beginning with the age group of 45-54, whereas fatal injury rates for other work-related causes did not increase until the age-group of 55-64. OSHA investigations of 996 fatal work-related falls in 1984-1986 reported that falls from ladders accounted for 20% of fatal falls in workers aged 55 and over, significantly more than the average of 9% of all falls from workers of all ages. (62618)

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CIS 94-1445 Mental disorders of physicians. Vanhoorne M., Archives of Public Health, 1993, Vol.51, Nos.9-10, p.373-386. 47 ref. (In English)

The literature on mental disorders of physicians is reviewed. There are indications of higher suicide rates, more addiction and higher prevalence of non-psychotic mental disease among physicians than in the general population. These differences have been attributed to work-related factors, frustrations during medical education and greater vulnerability of individuals choosing the medical profession. Proposed remedies include health education and the development of coping strategies during medical education and adequate occupational health surveillance of doctors. (62702)

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CIS 94-1446 Measuring psychological factors in safety. Donald I., Safety and Health Practitioner, Mar. 1994, Vol.12, No.3, p.26-29. Illus. (In English)

Research carried out by the Safety Research Unit at the University of Surrey demonstrates that it is possible to measure attitudes towards safety in a valid and reliable way and that attitudes are predictive of safety performance. The concept of the attitude approach to safety is discussed along with measurement of safety attitudes, identification of the components of safety attitude, the structure of safety attitude and the centrality of management and the use of attitude scales in the determination of the relationship between safety attitudes and safety performance. (62733)

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CIS 94-1447 Measuring the climate for health at organizations: Development of the worksite health climate scales. Ribisl K.M., Reischl T.M., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.35, No.8, p.812-824. 44 ref. (In English)

Worksite health promotion research has overemphasized the impact of individual behaviours on employee well-being and neglected the important influence of the work environment. In the present research effort, measures of the health climate at the worksite were developed, administered to employees at a newspaper company, and then tested to their psychometric properties. After revision of the original scales, a new questionnaire was submitted to employees at seven small worksites. The health climate differed significantly across worksites and health climate perceptions were significantly related to measures of physical symptoms; exercise, nutrition, and smoking habits; job stress; and job satisfaction. (62549)

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CIS 94-1448 Disability: A new psychosocial perspective. Stutts J.T., Kasdan M.L., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Aug. 1993, Vol.35, No.8, p.825-827. 21 ref. (In English)

A previously disabled family member is presented as a psychosocial determinant in the subsequent disability of the patient. Eighty-three disabled patients presented for an independent medical examination of the upper extremity. All were seeking workers' compensation benefits. Patients were questioned regarding the current disability of any family member(s). Forty-four of the 83 had at least one family member who was disabled and 36 had experienced a traumatic incident or injury resulting in workers' compensation. Forty-seven had no objective impairment. These findings suggest a significant correlation between the "disabled" support system and subsequent disability of the patient. (62550)

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CIS 94-1449 Alcohol consumption and sickness absence - An analysis of 1984 General Household Survey Data. Joeman L.M., Research Management Branch, Employment Department, Moorfoot, Sheffield S1 4PQ, United Kingdom, Sep. 1992. xii, 36p. 23 ref. (In English)

Drinking patterns and the relationship between alcohol consumption and sickness absence among different groups of employees were examined using data from the 1984 General Household Survey. The main finding was that while there is a slight association between heavy drinking and higher rates of absence among men, there is a stronger association between the combination of heavy drinking and smoking and higher rates of absence. The results are discussed in terms of age and sex of the workers, industrial sector (manufacturing, construction and services) and occupation (managers/professionals, intermediate/junior non-manual and manual). (62624)

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CIS 94-1450 National policy statement on smoking and the workplace. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia), Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1990. 8p. 9 ref. (In English)

This document provides guidance on the development of policies on workplace smoking. Contents: health hazards and fire risks of smoking at work; development and implementation of a workplace program for a smoke-free work environment (consultation, education and information, designation of non-smoking areas); personnel policies. (62768)

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