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ILO-CIS Bulletin 1993/01

CIS 93-1 --- CIS 93-350

Laws, regulations, directives
Chemical data sheets and criteria documents
Training materials and practical information
Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals
   001 General safety, health and conditions of work
   002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology
   003 Industries and occupations
   004 New technologies
   005 Chemical safety
   006 Fires, explosions and major hazards
   007 Electrical safety
   008 Physical hazards
   009 Mechanical hazards, transport
   010 Biological hazards
   011 Physiology, ergonomics
   012 Stress, psychosocial factors


Laws, regulations, directives

CIS 93-1 Law Governing Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Illnesses, issued in accordance with Sultani Decree No.40 of 1976 [Oman]. Muscat, Sultanate of Oman, 1976. 19 + 28p. (In English)

Contents of this law: definitions; scope (all employees except: members of the Army or the Police; government and municipal workers; casual and external workers; members of the employee's family and his dependents; domestic servants; agricultural workers; employees of small businesses; those already covered by arrangements at least as generous as those of this Law); conditions of compensation; definition of injury and notification; medical treatment and principles of compensation; details of compensation for occupational injuries and diseases. In annex: percentage and degree of disability tables for specific loss of body parts or functions; list of occupational diseases, with jobs where they might occur. (59513)

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CIS 93-2 General labour protection regulations - Parts II and III (chapters III, IV, V and VI) [Belgium]. (French: Règlement général pour la protection du travail - Titre II et Titre III (chapitres III, IV, V et VI) [Belgique]) Commissariat général à la promotion du travail, 53 rue Belliard, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 7th ed., 1990. 367p. Illus. Index. (In French)

Revised edition of a manual (with commentary) containing the provisions of Parts II and III of the Belgian labour protection regulations. Part II deals with: 1. safety requirements (guarding of machinery and moving parts; protection against flying objects and other injurious or harmful agents; hand tools; protection against falls; materials handling, in-plant transport; prevention of fires, explosions and accidental emissions of harmful or flammable gases; work in spaces that may contain dangerous gases; precautions for workers during rest breaks; worker transport; work in isolation; safety and health policy; safety signs); 2. workplace hygiene (workplace environment, sanitary facilities, working clothes, protection against chemical, physical and biological hazards); 3. workers' health (medical supervision, notification of occupational diseases, control of harmful agents, seating, first aid); 4. young workers. Reproduced sections of Part III (provisions on specific industries) deal with: 3. dangerous substances (identification, classification, packaging, storage, hazard identification, prohibition and restriction on use, information of workers, list of substances subject to authorisation); 4. silica and asbestos; 5. vinyl chloride, polymers. In annex: lists of chemical substances. (59411)

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CIS 93-3 Council Directive of 21 December 1988 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions of the Member States relating to construction products [CEC]. (French: Directive du Conseil, du 21 décembre 1988, relative au rapprochement des dispositions législatives, réglementaires et administratives des Etats membres concernant les produits de construction [CCE]) Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 11 Feb. 1989, Vol.32, No.L.40, p.12-26. (In English, French)

This Directive requires Member States to ensure that construction products are fit for their intended use and comply with the essential requirements so as to allow their free movement within the European Community. The four annexes deal with: I. Essential requirements, including safety in case of fire, hygiene, health and environment, safety in use, protection against noise; II. European Technical Approval; III. Attestation of conformity with technical specifications including EC conformity mark, EC certificate of conformity, EC declaration of conformity; IV. Approval of testing laboratories, inspection bodies and certification bodies. (59457)

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CIS 93-4 Health and Safety - The Health and Safety (Miscellaneous Provisions) (Metrication etc.) Regulations 1992 [United Kingdom]. HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 19p. Price: GBP 3.55., ISBN 0-11-024811-2 (In English)

The main intent of these Regulations is to convert measurement units used in OSH legislation (principally, the Factories Act 1961, see CIS 89-8) from the Imperial to the Metric System. The substituted measurements preserve the effect of the original provisions except to the extent necessary to obtain amounts expressed in suitable and convenient terms. In addition, legislation relating to humid factories used for the manufacture of cotton and similar goods is amended, in order that humidity measurements may be made using accurate hygrometers rather than wet and dry bulb hygrometers calibrated on the Fahrenheit temperature scale. The definition of petroleum-spirit in the Petroleum (Consolidation) Act 1928 (see CIS 89-1427) is changed to correspond to definitions now used internationally. (59466)

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CIS 93-5 Health and Safety - The Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1992 [United Kingdom]. HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 13p. Price: GBP 3.10., ISBN 0-11-025849-5 (In English)

These Regulations impose health and safety requirements on employers with respect to the provision and use of work equipment (machinery, appliance, apparatus, tool or assembly of components) provided for or used by their employees. They give effect as regards Great Britain to Council Directive 89/655/EEC (see CIS 90-357), with the exception of sea transport and certain general requirements. Provisions cover: suitability of work equipment; regular maintenance; measures taken against specific risks; information, instruction and training of employees; conformity with EC requirements; protection of persons from dangerous parts of machinery; prevention or control of exposure to specific hazards; protection against extreme temperatures; controls (including emergency stops) and control systems; isolation of equipment from energy sources; stability of work equipment; lighting of places where work equipment is used; appropriate construction and adaptation of equipment; appropriate markings, warnings and warning devices. (59469)

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CIS 93-6 Health and Safety - The Personal Protective Equipment at Work Regulations 1992 [United Kingdom]. HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 11p. Price: GBP 2.70., ISBN 0-11-025832-0 (In English)

These Regulations give effect in Great Britain to Council Directive 89/656/EEC (see CIS 90-385). They impose health and safety requirements with respect to the provision for, and use by, persons at work of personal protective equipment. Its scope excludes sea transport, the wearing of ordinary working clothes and uniforms, and portable devices for the detection and signalling of risks. Also excluded, for most of the Regulations, is protective equipment used against certain hazards dealt with by other legislation (ionising radiation; noise; falling objects on construction sites; exposure to lead, asbestos and hazardous substances in general). Topics covered: obligation of the employer to provide suitable personal protective equipment; compatibility and assessment of such equipment; maintenance and replacement; accommodation of equipment; information, instruction and training; use; reporting of loss and defects; exemption certificates. Certain other Regulations are modified. Some Regulations, including The Protection of Eyes Regulations 1974 (CIS 75-503), are revoked. (59470)

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CIS 93-7 Decrees No.92-332 and 92-333 of 31 March 1992 on workplace safety - Obligations incumbent on builders and users [France]. (French: Décrets n°92-332 et 92-333 du 31 mars 1992 sur les lieux de travail - Obligations des maîtres d'ouvrage et des chefs d'établissement utilisateurs [France]) Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1892-148-92, p.391-399. (In French)

These two decrees (published in the Official Journal of 1 April 1992) introduce modifications into the French Labour Code in order to incorporate the provisions of European Directives 89/654/EEC (on the occupational health and safety of workers) (CIS 90-356) and 89/391/EEC (on minimum workplace health and safety requirements) (CIS 89-1401) into French law. Decree No.92-332 sets forth the health and safety provisions to be respected by the principal contractor when building or transforming working premises (new safety regulations concerning glass surfaces, floors, walls and ceilings, doors, staircases, fixed ladders, special fixtures and signposting, etc.; new regulations on fire prevention and evacuation). Decree No.92-333 sets forth the provisions to be respected by heads of establishment using these buildings (including: doors and gates, fall hazards, fragile roofing materials, first aid equipment, access for disabled people, circulation inside and outside buildings, signposting, lighting, etc.). (59509)

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CIS 93-8 Executive Decree No.91.05 of 19 Jan. 1991 concerning general occupational safety and health requirements [Algeria]. (Arabic: Marsuum tanfiithii raqm 05-91 mu'arrikh 19 yanaayar sana 1991 yata(alliku bi l'quwaa(idi l-(aama li l-himaaya allati tatubbiqa (ala hifzi s-sihha wa l-'amn fi 'amaakini -(amal; French: Décret exécutif n°91.05 du 19 janv. 1991 relatif aux prescriptions générales de protection applicables en matière d'hygiène et de sécurité en milieu de travail [Algérie]) Institut national d'hygiène et de sécurité, Saoula, Algeria, 1991. 27 + 28p. (In Arabic, French)

This Decree implements Article 45 (1°) of Act No.88-07 (see CIS 89-5) by prescribing general OSH requirements for employers. Subjects covered: general hygienic standards for workplaces (cleanliness; ventilation and air purification; lighting and other factors of comfort; sanitary facilities); general safety measures (manual handling and in-plant circulation; prevention of falls from heights; machines and machinery); fires (prevention, fire fighting and emergency measures); periodic checks and maintenance. (59512)

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CIS 93-9 Statistical standard for economic losses from injuries or fatal accidents of enterprise staff and workers [China]. (Chinese: Quiyi zhigong shanhwang shigu jingji sunshi tongji biaozhun) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.464-472. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 May 1987) describes the methods of statistical evaluation of economic loss from industrial accidents causing injuries or fatalities. It describes the different sources of direct and indirect economic losses to be computed, methods of calculating the actual sum lost, methods of expressing the rates of economic loss, and grading of accidents according to degree of economic loss. More calculations on economic losses are given in the appendix. The whole standard is discussed in an appended commentary. (59520)

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CIS 93-10 Workplaces - Regulations and directives - 1989 [Germany]. (German: Arbeitsstätten - Vorschriften und Richtlinien 1989) Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz, Postfach 17 02 02, D-W-4600 Dortmund 17, Germany, 1989. 206p. Illus. Index. Price: DEM 24.50., ISBN 3-88314-837-7 (In German)

This update of the document analysed as CIS 86-293 contains the 1975 Ordinance (with modifications) relating to workplaces and the corresponding directives in effect in Germany. The Ordinance contains legislative provisions concerning workplaces in eight chapters: 1. General. 2. Work areas, passageways and equipment within buildings (ventilation; temperatures; lighting; floors, partitions, roofs; windows and skylights; entryways (in particular, power-operated doors); protection against physical and chemical hazards; passageways, escalators and emergency exits; ladders; loading platforms; dimensions of workplaces; equipment; staff areas; sanitary facilities; temporary workplaces). 3. Outdoor workplaces. 4. Construction sites. 5. Open-air shopping areas. 6. Work on water-borne craft and in floating plant. 7. Cleaning, maintenance etc. of workplaces. 8. Final provisions. The second part of the document contains 30 detailed directives (Richtlinien) on the implementation of the Ordinance. (59581)

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CIS 93-11 General provisions on safety at work - Regulations and enforcement rules [Germany]. (German: Allgemeine Vorschriften - VBG und Durchführungsanweisungen) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, 1991. 56p. + 24p. Index. (In German)

Updated version of the general safety at work regulations and enforcement rules to be applied in Germany (previous versions, see CIS 85-253 and 89-159). Main topics covered by the Regulations: (1) Employer's responsibilities (supply of personal protective equipment (PPE); contract work; work organisation; information on safety regulations; appointment of safety officers); (2) Workers' responsibilities (application of safety rules, use of PPE); (3) Workplace installation and layout and requirements applicable (workstations; lighting; in-plant traffic; doors; fire and explosion prevention; harmful substances; labelling); (4) Medical supervision; (5) Transitional measures; (6) Effective date. Supplement: minimum number of safety officers. Contents of the enforcement rules: list of DIN standards applicable to PPE. Example of form for delegation of authority. (59636)

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CIS 93-12 Plant physicians - Safety regulations and enforcement rules [Germany]. (German: Betriebsärzte - VBG und Durchführungsanweisungen) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, 1991. 64p. + 44p. Index. (In German)

Revised version of the Regulations and enforcement rules pertaining to plant physicians in Germany (previous versions, see CIS 85-288 and 87-14). Contents of the Regulations: appointment and qualifications of physicians, communication of information by the employer, ongoing training, entry into force of provisions. Insurance associations' tables of minimal time to be spent by physicians as a function of enterprise and number of workers. Supplement: text of the law of 1973 on occupational physicians, safety engineers and other occupational safety specialists. Contents of the enforcement rules: comments and examples of the calculation of the minimal working time for physicians. A summary at the end of the booklet indicates the changes from the 1989 edition. (59638)

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CIS 93-13 Mines Act, 1923 [Pakistan]. In: Labour Code of Pakistan (Shafi M.), Bureau of Labour Publications, Zam Zam Chambers, Dunolly Road, P.O. Box 5833, Karachi 2, Pakistan, 11th ed., 1986, p.687-722. (In English)

This Act, originally adopted by the Government of (British) India in 1923, consolidates and amends the law relating to the regulation and inspection of mines. All valid amendments to 1981 are included. Contents include: role of the Chief Inspector of Mines and of Inspectors; operation and management of mines; provisions as to health and safety (powers of Inspectors in the case of dangers arising to mine workers; accident reports; notice of occupational accidents; accident investigation); working hours; employment of women (prohibited in underground work) and children (absolutely prohibited to work in mines); restrictions of work for young persons; leaves and holidays; scope of Regulations that can be issued under the Act. (59582)

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CIS 93-14 The Factories Act, 1934 [Pakistan]. In: Labour Code of Pakistan (Shafi M.), Bureau of Labour Publications, Zam Zam Chambers, Dunolly Road, P.O. Box 5833, Karachi 2, Pakistan, 11th ed., 1986, p.105-164. (In English)

This Act, originally adopted by the Government of (British) India in 1934, consolidates and amends the law relating to regulation of labour in factories. All valid amendments to Jan. 1986 are included. Contents: preliminary (including definitions); role of labour inspection; health, safety and hygiene conditions; restrictions on working hours; holidays; special provisions for adolescents and children; penalties. (59583)

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CIS 93-15 Workers on fixed-term contracts and temporary workers: Excerpts from the Act of 12 July 1990, the Order of 8 October 1990 and the Decree of 25 June 1992 [France]. (French: Travailleurs sous contrat de travail à durée déterminée et travailleurs temporaires: Extraits de la loi du 12 juillet 1990, arrêté du 8 octobre 1990 et décret du 25 juin 1992 [France]) Ministère du travail, de l'emploi et de la formation professionnelle, Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1893-148-92, p.401-408. (In French)

This note which updates and replaces note No.1822-142-91 (see CIS 91-1758) contains excerpts from the legislation currently in force in France and related to the occupational safety and health of workers on fixed-term contracts and temporary workers, including: Act No.90-613 of 12 July 1990 (published in the Official Journal of 14 July 1990), which modifies the regulations governing temporary contracts, encouraging job stability and improving the conditions of employment of these employees; the Order of 8 October 1990 (published in the Official Journal of 9 November 1990) which lists the jobs workers on fixed-term contracts and temporary staff may not be employed in; the Decree No.92-558 of 25 June 1992 (published in the Official Journal of 27 June 1992) which amends the French Social Security Code by addition of art. R.242-6-1 to R.242-6-3: apportionment of costs of occupational accidents or diseases between temporary employment agencies and employing firms. (59510)

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CIS 93-16 Standard for examination of the safety techniques for crane operators [China]. (Chinese: Qizhongji siji anquan jishu kaohe biaozhun) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.452-463. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 May 1987) specifies the methods for examining technical competence with respect to safety of crane operators, including operators of bridge, gantry, tower, crawler, loading and unloading cranes. It specifies the age, educational and physical criteria to be met by the operators; training, examination and licensing of operators; regular re-examination, content of theory test on safe techniques; and practical examination problems. Scoring tables for practical examinations are annexed. An appended commentary explains items in the standard and cites the high incidence of industrial accidents due to cranes and faults of crane operators. (59519)

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CIS 93-17 Residual current-operated protective devices [China]. (Chinese: Loudian dianliu dongzuo baohuqi [Shengyu dianliu dongzuo baohuqi]) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.572-617. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume)., ISBN 7-80010-135-5 (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 July 1987) applies to residual current-operated protectors for electric current of 50Hz, up to 380V and up to 250A. It is based on International Electrotechnical Commission document IEC 755 (1983) (General requirements of residual current operated protective devices) (CIS 83-1218). It specifies the classification and characteristics of the devices, normal operating conditions, structural and performance requirements, methods of testing, inspection regulations, requirements in labelling, packaging, transportation and storage. A list of items for routine testing is appended. The appended commentary includes a list of international standards concerning the same type of equipment, and comparisons of the present standard with Japanese and British standards. (59522)

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CIS 93-18 Hazardous Occupation Rules, 1963 [Pakistan]. In: Labour Code of Pakistan (Shafi M.), Bureau of Labour Publications, Zam Zam Chambers, Dunolly Road, P.O. Box 5833, Karachi 2, Pakistan, 11th ed., 1986, p.300-321. Also in: Gazette of West Pakistan, Extr. 4 Sep. 1964, p.2835-. (In English)

These nine Regulations, issued under the authority of the Factories Act, 1934 (see CIS 93-14), prescribe medical certification and examinations, prevention activities (exhausts, washing facilities, protective clothing), prohibition of employment (women, young persons) and the issuing of certificates of fitness in the case of dangerous jobs involving exposure to certain substances (lead, rubber, chromium, sodium and potassium bichromates) and certain other dangerous operations (manufacturing of aerated waters, spraying of cellulose solutions, sand blasting, generation of petroleum gas). One of the Regulations, the West Pakistan Hazardous Occupations (Miscellaneous) Rules, 1963 specifies a large number of processes (manufacturing and/or utilisation of a large number of harmful or explosive substances) as hazardous under the meaning of the Rules, and it permits the Chief Inspector of Factories to declare other processes hazardous as well. (59584)

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CIS 93-19 Punjab Factories Rules, 1978 [Pakistan - Punjab]. In: Labour Code of Pakistan (Shafi M.), Bureau of Labour Publications, Zam Zam Chambers, Dunolly Road, P.O. Box 5833, Karachi 2, Pakistan, 11th ed., 1986, p.169-236. Also in: Punjab Gazette, Extr. 25 May 1978. (In English)

Factory safety regulations issued for the Province of Punjab under the authority of The Factories Act, 1934 of Pakistan (see CIS 93-14). They provide detailed rules for: factory inspections; hygienic conditions (ventilation, temperature, dust and fumes, artificial humidification, overcrowding, lighting, drinking water, sanitary facilities); role of the welfare officer; precautions against fires; machine guarding; pressure plants; lifting equipment; carrying of loads; dangerous fumes; notification and investigation of accidents; working hours of workers in certain specified industries; paid holidays. In annex: samples of official forms; contents of first-aid boxes or cupboards. (59585)

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CIS 93-20 North-West Frontier Province Factories Rules, 1975 [Pakistan - North West Frontier Province]. In: Labour Code of Pakistan (Shafi M.), Bureau of Labour Publications, Zam Zam Chambers, Dunolly Road, P.O. Box 5833, Karachi 2, Pakistan, 11th ed., 1986, p.337-402. Also in: North West Government Gazette, Extr. 5 Aug. 1975, p.108-. (In English)

Factory safety regulations issued for the North West Frontier Province under the authority of The Factories Act, 1934 of Pakistan (see CIS 93-14). They provide detailed rules for: factory inspections; certifying surgeons; hygienic conditions (ventilation, temperature, dust and fumes, artificial humidification, overcrowding, lighting, drinking water, sanitary facilities); role of the welfare officer; precautions against fires; machine guarding; pressure plants; lifting equipment; eye protection; dangerous fumes; notification and investigation of accidents; working hours; paid holidays. In annex: samples of official forms (including a report form for occupational diseases with a schedule attached); contents of first-aid boxes or cupboards. (59586)

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CIS 93-21 Sind Factories Rules, 1975 [Pakistan - Sind]. In: Labour Code of Pakistan (Shafi M.), Bureau of Labour Publications, Zam Zam Chambers, Dunolly Road, P.O. Box 5833, Karachi 2, Pakistan, 11th ed., 1986, p.241-299. Also in: Sind Government Gazette, Part IV-A, 20 Nov. 1975, p.107-182. (In English)

Factory safety regulations issued for the Province of Sind under the authority of The Factories Act, 1934 of Pakistan (see CIS 93-14). They provide detailed rules for: factory inspections; certifying surgeons; hygienic conditions (ventilation, temperature, dust and fumes, artificial humidification, overcrowding, lighting, drinking water, sanitary facilities); role of the welfare officer; precautions against fires; machine guarding; pressure plants; lifting equipment; eye protection; dangerous fumes; notification and investigation of accidents; working hours; paid holidays. In annex: samples of official forms; contents of first-aid boxes or cupboards. (59587)

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CIS 93-22 Council Directive 92/85/EEC of 19 Oct. 1992 on the introduction of measures to encourage improvements in the safety and health at work of pregnant workers and workers who have recently given birth or are breastfeeding [CEC]. (French: Directive 92/85/CEE du Conseil, du 19 oct. 1992, concernant la mise en œuvre de mesures visant à promouvoir l'amélioration de la sécurité et de la santé des travailleuses enceintes, accouchées ou allaitantes au travail [CCE]) Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 28 Nov. 1992, Vol.35, No.L 348, p.1-8. (In English, French)

Tenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401). After defining the terms pregnant worker, worker who has recently given birth and worker who is breastfeeding, the directive draws up guidelines on the assessment of the chemical, physical and biological agents and industrial processes considered hazardous for the safety or health of such workers. Aspects dealt with: assessment of exposure and information, cases in which exposure is prohibited, night work, maternity leave, time off for ante-natal examinations, prohibition of dismissal, employment rights, defence of rights, final provisions. (59605)

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CIS 93-23 Council Directive 92/91/EEC of 3 November 1992 concerning the minimum requirements for improving the safety and health protection of workers in the mineral-extracting industries through drilling [CEC]. (French: Directive 92/91/CEE du Conseil, du 3 nov. 1992, concernant les prescriptions minimales visant à améliorer la protection en matière de sécurité et de santé des travailleurs des industries extractives par forage [CCE]) Official Journal of the European Communities - Journal officiel des Communautés européennes, 28 Nov. 1992, Vol.35, No.L 348, p.9-24. (In English, French)

Eleventh individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of directive 89/391/EEC (see CIS 89-1401). After a definition of the industries the directive applies to, employers' obligations are stipulated with regards to the general operation of the workplaces, protection from fires, explosions and health-endangering atmospheres, escape and rescue facilities, communication, warning and alarm systems, keeping workers informed, health surveillance, consultation of workers and workers' participation as well as minimum requirements for safety and health which are detailed in annex. (59606)

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CIS 93-24 Health and Safety - The Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992 [United Kingdom]. HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 7p. Price: GBP 1.90., ISBN 0-11-025919-X (In English)

With certain exceptions, these Regulations give effect in Great Britain to the provisions of Council Directive 90/270/EEC (see CIS 90-1069). The Regulations concern: safety and health analysis of workstations; requirements of workstations; daily work routine of users; eye and eyesight examinations; provision of training and information. In annex: minimum safety and health requirements for workstations with display screen equipment (display screen, keyboard, work desk/surface, work chair, work environment, interface between computer and operator/user). (59467)

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CIS 93-25 Long tube respirators [China]. (Chinese: Changguan mianju) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.170-193. Illus. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Dec. 1986) contains: area of application of airline respirators, definition of terms, specifications on various types, structure and performance requirements, material, inspection and labelling. Further explanations on the standard, particularly on the protection efficiency and human physiology-related properties of airline respirators are given in the appended commentary. Data showing performances of locally made products compared with one German and one Japanese product are also annexed. (59515)

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CIS 93-26 Performance test methods of long tube respirators [China]. (Chinese: Changguan mianju xingneng shiyan fangfa) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.194-206. Illus. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Dec. 1986) describes tests for assessing some performance criteria of airline respirators. They include: leakage, breathing resistance, air-tightness of the low-pressure part, working pressure of the input air valve, soft tube or mid-pressure soft tube, connecting part of the soft tube, and air supply equipment. A commentary is appended which outlines the main tests necessary for evaluating the efficiency of airline respirators. They comprise tests described in this standard (GB 6221-86) and also those in GB 2891.1-82, GB 2891.2-82, GB 2891.4-82, GB 2891.5-82 and GB 2891.6-82; and cover testing of leakage, effective dead space, field of vision, air-tightness of air valves and air resistance. (59516)

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CIS 93-27 Specifications for duct control in batch house of glass manufacturers [China]. (Chinese: Boli shengchan peiliao chejian fangchen jishu guicheng) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.418-439. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume)., ISBN 7-80010-135-5 (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Apr. 1987) is to ensure that the environment of batching plants in the glass industry conforms to standard TJ 36-79 (Standard on hygiene in industrial enterprise design). It specifies the physical location and ventilation of batching plants, ideal particle size of raw materials (greater than 0.05mm in diameter), storage and transportation of raw materials, measures for wet dust control and sealing of dust sources, dust prevention and management. Lists of measures for sealing dust sources in batching plants, and reference standards for air exhaust rate for commonly used equipment are annexed. The whole standard is discussed in an appended commentary. (59517)

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CIS 93-28 Classification and specification for bag filters [China]. (Chinese: Daishi chuchenqi fenlei ji guige xingneng bioshi fangfa) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.440-451. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 May 1987) is used in the design, manufacture and use of bag filters (filter dust collectors). It contains: basic definition of bag filters, classification according to mode of dust collection, structural forms of bag filters, definitions of related technical terms, coded naming format for bag filters, and items to be included in specifications. The standard is explained in the attached commentary. (59518)

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CIS 93-29 Carcinogens - Safety regulations and enforcement rules [Germany]. (German: Umgang mit krebserzeugenden Gefahrstoffen - VBG und Durchführungsanweisungen) Hauptverband der gewerblichen Berufsgenossenschaften, Carl Heymanns Verlag KG, Luxemburger Strasse 449, D-W-5000 Köln 41, Germany, 1991. 23p. + 27p. Index. (In German)

Revised version of the Safety Regulations and enforcement rules on the safe use of industrial carcinogens. These provisions repeal those of 1 Oct. 1982 (CIS 83-1011) and come into force on 1 Oct. 1991. Contents: (1) Scope; (2) Definitions; (3) Provisions pertaining to plants: general considerations; contractors; education and training of insured persons; prohibited work; employer's obligation to report hazardous substances; labelling; measurement of concentrations; choice of working and prevention methods; personal protection equipment; sampling equipment; cleaning; maintenance; laboratories; disposal of substances; storage; welfare facilities; entry into force. Supplement: list of carcinogens. Contents of the enforcement rules: comments pertaining to Regulations. Supplements: (1) Index of data sheets from the Berufsgenossenschaft der chemischen Industrie; (2) Addresses of publication suppliers. (59637)

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CIS 93-30 Road tanker approved list - Approved substance identification numbers, emergency action codes and classifications for dangerous substances carried in road tankers and tank containers [United Kingdom]. Health and Safety Commission, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 83p. Price: GBP 7.00., ISBN 0-11-886314-2 (In English)

This revised list (see CIS 90-716 for previous edition) is for use with the Road Traffic (Carriage of Dangerous Substances in Road Tankers and Tank Containers) Regulations 1992. It lists those substances for which the Health and Safety Commission has approved information which must be shown on hazard warning panels and compartment labels when those substances are conveyed by road. Part I lists the substances in alphabetical order together with their respective identification numbers, emergency action codes and classifications according to their characteristic properties. Part II explains the emergency action code. Part III lists the substances numerically by identification number. The information is based mainly on recommendations prepared by the UN Expert Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods. (59398)

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CIS 93-31 Storage of packaged hazardous materials: Storage of liquids and solids (0-10 tons) [Netherlands]. Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen), Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1st ed., 1992. 43p. Illus., ISBN 90-5307-256-X (In English)

English translation of the directive originally abstracted as CIS 91-1070. Contents: definitions; general lay-out of storage facilities for hazardous substances; general provisions (labelling, training and instruction of personnel, clean-up of spilled material, notification of accidents); siting and construction of cupboards, strongboxes, storage sheds, stacks of barrels; technical provisions; personal protection and hygiene. (59438)

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CIS 93-32 Storage of packaged pesticides: Storage of pesticides in distribution and related enterprises (in excess of 400kg) [Netherlands]. Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen), Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1992. 55p., ISBN 90-5307-040-0 (In English)

English translation of the directive originally abstracted as CIS 91-1069. It contains guidelines for the safety of large storage facilities for pesticides. Attention is given to: site admission, fire prevention, containment of water used for fire extinguishing, separate storage of pesticides, clean-up of spilled pesticides, instruction and training of personnel, heating, emergency lighting, emergency and first aid, personal protection equipment. (59439)

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CIS 93-33 Safety regulations for blasting practices [China]. (Chinese: Baopo anquan guicheng) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.473-571. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume)., ISBN 7-80010-135-5 (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 May 1987) applies to all blasting operations except military blasting. It includes: the management system and job responsibilities of personnel; basic regulations for blasting operations; processing of detonating material and detonating methods; safety procedures in underground blasting, open-air blasting, underwater blasting, and others such as demolition blasting; metal blasting, geophysical exploration blasting; minimum safety distances; storage, management, transportation, inspection and destruction of blasting equipment and materials; re-processing of explosives; criteria for awards and sanctions. A curriculum outline for training blasting workers is annexed. The appended commentary includes: incidence of blasting accidents in England, United States, Japan and China; discussions on all items of the standard; comparison of some parts of the standard with Russian, American and Japanese standards. (59521)

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CIS 93-34 Safe rest conductivity of light fuel oil [China]. (Chinese: Qingzhi youpin anquan anjing diandaolu) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.618-622. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Sep. 1987) defines the stationary electric conductivity of light fuel oil as the direct-current conductivity in the absence of static charges. The safe limit is set at 50pS/m. Products having conductivities lower than the safe limit have to be treated according to other safety regulations concerning static electricity. The method of measuring stationary electric conductivity should be as in standard GB 6539-86 (Standard on measurement of electric conductivity in light petroleum products). The theoretical basis and rationale for determining the safe limit are discussed in the appended commentary. (59523)

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CIS 93-35 Safe surface voltage of light fuel oil in tank filling operations [China]. (Chinese: Qingzhi youpin zhuangyou anquan youmian dianweizhi) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.623-631. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Sep. 1987) defines the surface electric potential of light fuel oils to be the potential difference between earth and oil surface, the potential difference being due to the accumulation of static charges during transportation. The safety limit is set at 12,000V. The method of measuring the surface electric potential of oil in oil tanks during tank-filling operations is described. List of references concerning conditions for surface electric discharge and ignition of fuel. Discussion of the determination of surface electric potential in the United States, Japan and China. (59524)

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CIS 93-36 Health and Safety - The Manual Handling Operations Regulations 1992 [United Kingdom]. HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 5p. Price: GBP 1.50., ISBN 0-11-025920-3 (In English)

These Regulations give effect in Great Britain to the provisions of Council Directive 90/269/EEC (see CIS 90-1101) on the minimum health and safety requirements for the manual lifting of loads where there is a risk, particularly of back injury to workers. The Regulations, which do not extend to sea transport, require employers to avoid the need for his employees to undertake manual handling operations at work which involve a risk of their being injured. If it is not reasonably practicable to do so, employers are obliged to: undertake risk assessment, reduce the risk of injury and provide relevant information to employees at risk. Employees are required to work using full and proper use of systems of work provided for his use by his employer in compliance with the Regulations. A check list is provided for the evaluation of the risk with regard to: tasks, loads, the working environment, individual capability. (59468)

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CIS 93-37 Safety technical requirements for surface planer with fingercap and hood cover [China]. (Chinese: Huzhijianshi he huzhaoshi mugong pingbaochuang anquan jishu tiaojian) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.632-650. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume)., ISBN 7-80010-135-5 (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Oct. 1987) applies to wood planing machines equipped with cutter block guards or guard hoods. It sets forth the safety requirements of working tables, maximum width of throat, structure of cutter block, technical requirements for cutter block knives, vibration limit, noise level limit (less than 85dB), efficiency of cutter block brake, dust control measures, safety requirements for the guards, electrical installation, inspection and labeling requirements. Methods of calculating maximum allowable throat opening are annexed. The appended commentary contains explanations on the standard and comparisons of the standard with American, Japanese and German standards. (59525)

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CIS 93-38 Safety standard for wood portable vertical ladders [China]. (Chinese: Yidongshi muzhiti anquan biaozhun) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.651-661. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Oct. 1987) applies to portable wood ladders used in temporary work at height. It specifies the quality of wood; structure, standard measurements, test methods and labelling of the ladders. Experimental data on the effect of wood quality on its strength, theoretical bases for determining parameters of the ladders, and results of tests on locally made ladders are included in an appended commentary. (59526)

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CIS 93-39 Safety standards for wood portable stepladders [China]. (Chinese: Yidongshi muzheti anquan biaozhun) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.662-673. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Dec. 1987) specifies the quality of wood structure, standard measurements, metallic accessories, test methods and labelling of wood stepladders. Experimental data on the effect of wood quality on its strength, theoretical bases for determining parameters of stepladders, and results of tests on locally made stepladders are included in an appended commentary. (59527)

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CIS 93-40 Safety standard for light metal portable stepladders [China]. (Chinese: Yidongshi qingjinshu zheti anquan biaozhun) Bureau of Labour Protection, Ministry of Labour, In: Reference Collection of National Occupational Safety and Health Standards 1985-1986, China Standards Publishing Co., Beijing, China, Apr. 1988, p.674-681. Price: CNY 11.00 (whole volume). (In Chinese)

This standard (effective 1 Oct. 1987) specifies the structure and standard measurements of light metal stepladders, requirements applying to their use, test methods and labelling. The standard is discussed in an appended commentary. (59528)

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Chemical data sheets and criteria documents

CIS 93-41 Copper naphthenate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, eyes and respiratory tract. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis. (59541)

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CIS 93-42 1,3-Diamino-2-methylbenzene. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: irritation of the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; methaemoglobinaemia. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; may cause genetic damage in humans; may impair male fertility. (59542)

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CIS 93-43 Lead naphthenate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of skin, nose and throat. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); may affect the brain and the kidneys; antifertility effects; may cause retarded development of the new-born. (59543)

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CIS 93-44 Methyl methacrylate monomer, inhibited. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes and skin; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; hepatic and renal effects. (59544)

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CIS 93-45 Methyl trichlorosilane. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. (59545)

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CIS 93-46 Morpholine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the liver and kidneys. (59546)

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CIS 93-47 Neopentyl glycol. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. (59547)

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CIS 93-48 2-Nitroaniline. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; methaemoglobinaemia. (59548)

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CIS 93-49 3-Nitroaniline. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; methaemoglobinaemia. (59549)

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CIS 93-50 4-Nitroaniline. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short-term exposure effects: skin absorption; methaemoglobinaemia. Long-term exposure effects: may affect the liver. (59550)

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CIS 93-51 Nonyl phenol. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. (59551)

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CIS 93-52 Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption. (59552)

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CIS 93-53 Perchloromethyl mercaptan. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the lungs. (59553)

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CIS 93-54 Permethrin. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects. (59554)

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CIS 93-55 d-Phenothrin. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects. (59555)

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CIS 93-56 Phthalic anhydride. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; skin sensitisation; asthma; may affect the lungs. (59556)

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CIS 93-57 Piperidine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). (59557)

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CIS 93-58 Polydimethylsiloxane. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: eye irritation. (59558)

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CIS 93-59 Propionitrile. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; inhibition of cellular metabolism; neurotoxic effects. Long term exposure effects: liquid defats the skin; may cause birth defects. (59559)

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CIS 93-60 Propyleneimine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long term exposure effects: skin sensitisation; possible human carcinogen. (59560)

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CIS 93-61 Pyridine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect the gastrointestinal tract; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system); lowering of blood pressure. Long term exposure effects: liquid defats the skin; may affect the liver and kidneys. (59561)

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CIS 93-62 Resmethrin. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects. (59562)

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CIS 93-63 Rhodamine WT. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes and skin. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis. (59563)

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CIS 93-64 Sodium arsenate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; may affect the digestive tract, heart, liver, kidney and nervous system. Long term exposure effects: may affect the skin, central nervous system, cardiovascular system, blood and liver; irritation of upper respiratory tract; human carcinogen. (59564)

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CIS 93-65 Strychnine sulphate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: corrosive; extremely toxic; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). (59565)

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CIS 93-66 Sulphamic acid. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: very corrosive to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema. (59566)

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CIS 93-67 Talc (non-fibre containing). Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of the respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: dust particles may affect the lungs; talc pneumoconiosis. (59567)

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CIS 93-68 Terephthalic acid. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis. (59568)

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CIS 93-69 Terephthaloyl chloride. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. (59569)

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CIS 93-70 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the liver and kidneys; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). (59570)

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CIS 93-71 Tetraethyl silicate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes and skin; corrosive to eyes, skin and respiratory tract; pulmonary oedema; chemical pneumonitis. Long term exposure effects: may affect the kidneys. (59571)

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CIS 93-72 Tetramethrin. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects. (59572)

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CIS 93-73 d-Tetramethrin. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; neurotoxic effects. (59573)

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CIS 93-74 Thallous sulphate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; neurotoxic effects (central nervous system). Long term exposure effects: alopecia. (59574)

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CIS 93-75 Thorium. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; delayed effects; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; bone lesions; lung damage; pernicious anaemia. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; may affect the lungs; human carcinogen; may cause heritable genetic damage and birth defects. (59575)

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CIS 93-76 Titanium dioxide. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: eye irritation; pulmonary irritation. Long term exposure effects: may affect the lungs. (59576)

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CIS 93-77 2,4-Toluene diisocyanate. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: delayed effects; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; asthmatic reactions. Long term exposure effects: skin sensitisation; asthma; may affect the lungs; possible human carcinogen. (59577)

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CIS 93-78 m-Toluidine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; anaemia; damage to kidneys and bladder. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; methaemoglobinaemia. (59578)

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CIS 93-79 o-Toluidine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; anaemia; damage to kidneys and bladder. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; methaemoglobinaemia; possible human carcinogen; may cause genetic damage. (59579)

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CIS 93-80 p-Toluidine. Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg; International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), World Health Organization, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1991. 2p. (In English)

International chemical safety card. Short term exposure effects: skin absorption; irritation of eyes, skin and respiratory tract; anaemia; damage to kidneys and bladder. Long term exposure effects: dermatitis; methaemoglobinaemia. (59580)

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Training materials and practical information

CIS 93-81 Sandown Training - Safety manager; Right before your eyes; Without strain. Sandown Training, Parkwood House, Painswick Road, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire GL50 2HA, United Kingdom, 1992. 1p. 3 training resource packs (20min videos + trainer's manuals). Price: GBP 365.00 (Safety manager); GBP 345.00 (Right before your eyes); GBP 325.00 (Without strain). Rental prices: GBP 75-80.00, depending on the pack. Preview possibilities for health and safety professionals. (In English)

These resource packs are training aids helping workers and their employers the implementation in Britain of EC directives 89/391/EEC (CIS 89-1401) and 91/383/EEC (CIS 92-6) (on the improvement of working conditions for permanent and temporary workers), 90/270/EEC (CIS 90-1069, on visual display terminals) and 90/269/EEC (CIS 90-1101, on manual handling). (59465)

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CIS 93-82 Safety and health audiovisuals - 200 videotapes concerning accidents in the workplace and occupational diseases. (French: Audiovisuel prévention - 200 audiovisuels pour la prévention des accidents du travail et des maladies professionnelles) ORAVEP, Observatoire des Ressources Audiovisuelles pour l'Education Permanente, 12 rue Vivienne, 75002 Paris, France, 1992. 101p., ISBN 2-904790-13-1 (In French)

Annotated catalogue of 200 videotapes on occupational safety and health topics available in France. Most economic sectors (agriculture, metallurgy, transportation, energy etc.) and occupational activities (e.g. manual handling, work with machinery) are covered. All the tapes are available in VHS format, many in U-MATIC as well. This catalogue is the result of collaboration among three organisations: ORAVEP (whose tasks include the analysis and publicising of new techniques in teaching and training), INRS (the French National Safety and Health Research Institute) and EDF-GDF (the French electricity and gas utility company). The information in this catalogue is also available through the French teletex (MINITEL) network. (59491)

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CIS 93-83 Training: Ergonomics, safety, industrial hygiene, conditions of work. (French: Formation: ergonomie, sécurité, hygiène industrielle, conditions de travail) Institut national de recherche et de sécurité, 30 rue Olivier-Noyer, 75680 Paris Cedex 14, France, 1993. 84p. Illus. (In French)

Directory of training courses offered by the INRS to those with safety and health responsibility in the enterprise, safety and health instructors, engineers and designers, occupational physicians, occupational nurses, first-aid instructors within enterprises. For each course, the following information is given: target group, aims, contents, training methods, length, dates, place and fees. For more information, contact directly INRS, Département Formation. (59492)

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CIS 93-84 Playing the working environment - A computer game for people who like to play and want to learn. (Danish: Arbejdsmiljøet på spil - Et computerspil for legelystne og videbegærlige) At-salg, Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, 1992. 1 3.5-inch high-density diskette, MS-DOS format + 16p. Teacher's guide. Gratis. (In Danish)

Computer game aimed at 15-18 year-olds. High-quality graphics; no animation. Workplace situations in a painting shop, a woodworking shop, a machine shop and an office, and on a construction site, are illustrated. Players win points by identifying problems and choosing appropriate solutions. An IBM PC AT or equivalent with a mouse and three megabytes of free hard disk space are required. (59511)

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CIS 93-85 Safety management - Hong Kong experience. Lee H.K., Lorrainelo Concept Design, Room 9, 1/F, 15 Watson Road, North Point, Hong Kong, 1991. 185p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 962-7616-01-X (In English)

Manual on safety management, with particular emphasis on the Hong Kong experience. Topics covered: history of safety and health inspection in Hong Kong; safety and health in factories and industrial undertakings in Hong Kong (accident statistics, by industry; health at work; survey of legislation; the Factory Inspectorate; links with Britain; research; professional associations and trade unions); theoretical discussion of some basic OSH terms (risk, hazard, danger, accident); detailed discussion of the Hong Kong construction safety record; cost analysis of safety and health in industry; appraisal of safety management; organising and motivating safety at work; action at the enterprise level to improve safety and health in the Hong Kong construction industry; chemical safety and risk labelling; safety of boatswains chairs used on construction sites; comments on general duties regulations. (59620)

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CIS 93-86 Product bank. (Swedish: Produktbanken) Arbetarskyddsnämnden, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, Sep. 1992. Issue No.25. Article No.354. 162p. Illus., ISBN 91-7522-323-6 (In Swedish)

Semi-annual catalogue of safety and industrial hygiene products and services published by the Joint Industrial Safety Council of Sweden, which links major employers' and workers' organisations. Commercial and non-commercial sources are represented. (59430)

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CIS 93-87 Listen up!. HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 11p. Illus. 9 ref. Free. (In English)

This booklet on hearing protection is addressed to workers. It deals with: noise measurement; what to do about a noisy workplace; ear protection; medical advice. (59461)

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CIS 93-88 Occupational and environmental dermatology. (French: Dermatologie professionnelle et de l'environnement) Lachapelle J.M., Frimat P., Tennstedt D., Ducombs G., Masson, 120 Bd. Saint-Germain, 75280 Paris Cedex 06, France, 1992. 372p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 2-225-83900-X (In French)

This review of dermatology is aimed at dermatologists and at occupational physicians. Contents: the biology of the skin, reactions of the skin to physical and chemical aggression; dermatoses due to physical and chemical agents; reactions of the skin to penetration by foreign matter; dermatoses due to airborne agents; skin cancer; dermatoses due to green plants; dermatoses due to living things other than green plants; changes in skin and hair; skin diseases, diabetes and venous diseases; self-inflicted skin conditions; dermatology and sports medicine; preventive measures; legislation; expert opinion and evaluation in dermatology. In appendices: test methods used in occupational dermatology; information on important allergens. (59487)

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CIS 93-89 Fitting the job to the forest worker - An illustrated training manual on ergonomics. ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1992. viii, 128p. Illus. 16 ref. Price: CHF 17.50., ISBN 92-2-107113-8 (In English)

This training manual covers the following aspects of ergonomics of forestry work: ergonomics in general; the body and work (including, among others, discussions of back pain, proper nutrition for people engaged in hard physical work, blood circulation, heat stress, variations in body size, women, young and old workers); the natural environment; technological considerations (ergonomics of machines and hand tools, suitable working methods, noise, vibration, dangerous substances); planning and work organisation; accidents and their prevention; working conditions; training in ergonomics of forestry workers, managers and supervisors (including the use of an ergonomic checklist and of questionnaires during training). (59635)

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CIS 93-90 From project to construction site - Working conditions, quality, cost effectiveness. (French: Du projet au chantier - Conditions de travail, qualité, performances économiques; Portuguese: Do projecto ao estaleiro - Condições de trabalho, qualidade, resultados económicos) European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions, Office des publications officielles des Communauté européennes, 2 rue Mercier, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1989. 63p. Illus. 17 ref. Price: ECU 12.90, FRF 97.00, BEF 590.00., ISBN 2-87009-384-5, ISBN 92-825-8686-3 (In French, Portuguese)

Summary of this training manual on construction safety: current trends (the changing economic climate as it affects the construction industry, the emergence of the European Economic Space, the changing system of subcontracting within the construction industry, the economic costs of accidents and low quality); hidden costs of faulty work, accidents and deteriorating working conditions; costs due to bad planning and lack of co-ordination during the building process; quality control, ergonomics and value analysis; new stages in the architectural cycle (concept of "constructibility", systemic management of projects, costs of the prevention of faulty work, proper anticipation of social and financial costs, actions in function of the preventive strategy chosen). (59633)

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CIS 93-91 Instructional materials for the chemical and petroleum industries. OMG Booksource Co., 6122 Reistertown Road, Baltimore MD 21215-3487, USA, no date. 60p. Index. (In English)

Catalogue of approx. 280 audiovisual training materials on various aspects (including safety and health) of the chemical and petroleum industries. Videocassettes (NTSC or PAL; U-matic, Beta or VHS; many of them forming parts of series) and slide/cassette presentations are included, with manuals in some cases. Broad subject headings: exploration, drilling operations and (oil and gas) production; petroleum geology; offshore operations; natural gas; transportation and storage; chemical processes; petroleum measurement and testing; instrumentation and process control. (59631)

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CIS 93-92 Cleaning workrooms - A ceramics industry booklet. Ceramics Industry Advisory Committee, HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 11p. Illus. 5 ref. Free. (In English)

Training booklet on good techniques for the cleaning of workrooms in the ceramics industry, primarily to avoid exposure to silicogenic dust and to lead. (59462)

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CIS 93-93 Get wise on waste - A book about health and waste-handling. Malmros P., Danish Working Environment Service, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 Kobenhavn Ø, Denmark, 1992. 36p. Illus. 37 ref. Price: DKK 80.00 + VAT., ISBN 87-7534-400-9 (In English)

English version of a brochure for workers and managers, originally published as Nårskraldet skal ta's (CIS 92-1837). It summarises the physical, chemical and biological hazards encountered in waste sorting (microbial infections, allergies to microorganisms and postural problems are the most widespread). An overview of appropriate working methods and equipment is also presented. A list of Danish Working Environment Service reports, directives and guidelines giving more detailed background and instructions is appended. (59419)

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CIS 93-94 ILO standards and women workers. ILO Publications, International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland, 1990. vii, 54p. Illus. Thai edition from: ILO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, P.O. Box 1759, Bangkok 10501, Thailand., ISBN 92-2-107435-8 (In English, Thai)

Booklet aimed at explaining the provisions defending women at work contained in ILO Conventions and Recommendations. Among the ILO instruments commented on are the following ones related to safety and health issues: Convention 127 and Recommendation 128 on maximum weights to be carried (CIS 89-1770), Convention 136 and Recommendation 144 on benzene (CIS 89-1766), Recommendation 114 on radiation protection (CIS 89-1767), Convention 110 on plantation workers (CIS 89-1758) and Recommendation 157 on nursing personnel (CIS 78-1174). The booklet also explains the ratification procedures to be followed by ILO Member States which want to implement ILO instruments within their national legislation, as well as the application and follow-up procedures of the ILO itself. (59632)

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CIS 93-95 Practical guidelines for the safe use of organic solvents. Occupational Safety and Health Service, Department of Labour, P.O. Box 3705, Wellington, New Zealand, 1992. 19p. Illus., ISBN 0-477-13509-4 (In English)

Training manual. Contents: duties of employers and employees; basic properties of organic solvents; material safety data sheets; training; physical properties of organic solvents (volatility, flammability, poisonous gases in case of fire, flash points, dangerous reactions with metal powders); health hazards (paths of entry, signs of acute and chronic poisoning, treatment, effect of exposure on the skin); exposure to solvent mixtures; exposure limits; control methods (elimination, substitution, isolation, ventilation, use of personal protective equipment, skin protection); precautions when working with organic solvents in confined space; exposure measurement; labelling and storage; first aid. A table is presented showing the suitability of gloves made of various materials (viton, nitrile, butyl, natural rubber, PVC) for work with 23 different solvents. (59464)

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CIS 93-96 Respiratory protection - A manual and guideline. Colton C.E., Birkner L.R., Brosseau M.M., American Industrial Hygiene Association, Akron, Ohio, USA, 1991. 130p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

This intention of this revised manual (see CIS 81-509 for original edition) is to provide plant personnel responsible for respiratory protection with enough information to establish a programme in conformity with respiratory protection standards. Contents: programme administration and record keeping; programme surveillance and evaluation; medical evaluation; work area surveillance and industrial hygiene; introduction to selection and use; particulate filter respirators; chemical cartridge respirators and gas masks; air-line respirators; self-contained breathing apparatus; powered air-purifying respirators; supplied-air suits; emergency escape respirators; fire fighting; special respirator use problems; training; respirator fitting; self-contained breathing apparatus training; inspection, cleaning and maintenance. (59502)

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CIS 93-97 Chemical health hazards in the Oregon forest products industry - A training and reference manual for employees in the pulp and paper and wood products industries. Hecker S., Labor Education and Research Center, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403, USA, June 1991. 280p. Illus. 79 ref. (In English)

Contents of this training manual: overview of workplace chemical hazards; OSHA standards for hazardous chemicals; the right to know - obtaining and using chemical information; control measures for hazardous chemicals; epidemiology and what it means to the worker; chemical hazards in the pulp and paper industry and in solid wood products manufacturing. Appendices cover: US government agencies with hazardous chemical resources and responsibilities; other federal laws on chemicals in the workplace and environment; list of common chemicals and suggested glove types for maximum protection. (59397)

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CIS 93-98 The NFPA catalog - Fire safety products and services from the National Fire Protection Association. National Fire Protection Association, 1 Batterymarch Park, P.O. Box 9101, Quincy, MA 02269, USA, Fall 1992. 83p. Illus. (In English)

Contents of this catalogue: codes and standards; fire protection equipment; hazardous materials; management of a fire service; fire safety education; special groups (hotels, health care, business and industry); law and reference books. (59530)

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CIS 93-99 Emergency response training inventory. Major Industrial Accidents Council of Canada, 600-265 Carling Avenue, Ottawa Ont. K1S 2E1, Canada, Nov. 1992. iii, 170p. Price: USD 30.00 + postage., ISBN 1-895858-00-3 (In English)

Inventory of materials and courses available in Canada for training in emergency response procedures. Included are training courses (for fire, police and ambulance services, as well as for industry), audiovisual and printed materials offered or produced by private and public organisations, conferences and seminars devoted to emergency response and relevant computer programmes. (59634)

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CIS 93-100 Ergonomics - Approach, methodology and implementation. (French: Ergonomie - Démarche, méthodologie, application) Commissariat général à la promotion du travail, 53 rue Belliard, 1040 Bruxelles, Belgium, 1990. 70p. Illus. 43 ref. (In French)

This booklet aimed at laymen analyses the difficulties related to the spreading through of ergonomics in the enterprise policy. Concrete examples of ergonomics application are given for its main fields (physiology, psychosociology) as well as different possible approaches. Review of Belgium legislation concerning adaptation of work to the worker and of existing standards. List of ergonomic principles enabling to evaluate the working conditions at a given working place. (59414)

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Periodicals, books, databases, audiovisuals


001 General safety, health and conditions of work

CIS 93-101 Assessment of primary prevention programmes by industrial sector. (Italian: Il rapporto su un piano di comparto come valutazione di risultato) Arduini L., Dalla Foglia M., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.120-126. 11 ref. (In Italian)

The adoption of codes of recommended practice (CRP) by industrial management, a fundamental step in ensuring a safer and healthier work environment, is a suitable approach for evaluating primary prevention programmes. This hypothesis was tested in the shoe and leather goods manufacturing industry (55 facilities). An ordinal scale was defined for each variable taken into account by CRP and for other variables related to employers' actions. A score was assigned to every facility with reference to the starting and ending points of the programme. Using these scores, an estimation was made of the degree of variation, in time and among facilities, in adopting CRP. (59652)

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CIS 93-102 Trends in cancer mortality in 15 industrialized countries, 1969-1986. Hoel D.G., Davis D.L., Miller A.B., Sondik E.J., Swerdlow A.J., Journal of the National Cancer Institute, Mar. 1992, Vol.84, No.5, p.313-320. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the US National Cancer Institute were used to evaluate age-specific mortality trends for lung, breast, prostate, stomach, and colorectal cancers and for all other sites considered as a group. From 1969-1986, cancer mortality in persons aged 45yrs and older in the six regions studied (US, Eastern Europe, Western Europe, East Asia, Oceania, Nordic countries) has increased for lung, breast, and prostate cancers in most age groups, while the decline in stomach cancer mortality is substantial. The increase in lung cancer deaths in men aged 45-54yrs has slowed greatly or reversed in all areas except Eastern Europe and East Asia. Trends for intestinal cancer vary by age and region. For all other sites considered as a group, increases have occurred for persons older than 64yrs in most regions. In Eastern Europe, there are disturbingly high rates and rapid increases for several of the major forms of cancer in the 45-54 age group. (59369)

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CIS 93-103 A Bayesian analysis of some accident data. Davies J.K.W., The Statistician, 1990, Vol.39, p.11-17. 8 ref. (In English)

Bayesian theory may be used to derive methods for solving two important problems in the analysis of industrial accident statistics: the ranking of a set of explanatory variables in terms of their ability to predict accident counts in a given workforce over a number of years; the ranking of a set of workforces according to the measure of agreement between the accident rate in each workforce and the pooled accident rate in all the other workforces. The methods are illustrated with reference to some statistics from the UK mining industry and comparisons are made with solutions derived from conventional statistical theory. (59494)

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CIS 93-104 Use of statistics in occupational health - Analysis of papers presented at the national congresses of the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene. (Italian: L'uso della statistica in medicina del lavoro - Analisi dei lavori presentati ai congressi nazionali della SIMLII) Magnavita N., Di Pasquale N., Salvitti F., Sacco A., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.307-317. Illus. 22 ref. (In Italian)

The statistical methods used in occupational health studies were evaluated by analysing the papers published from 1986 to 1990 in the proceedings of the annual meetings of the Italian Society of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene. Almost 70% of the 1,151 articles reviewed contained some kind of statistical analysis: methods more complicated than descriptive statistics were used in about 35%of the papers. Student's t test (15%) and chi square (12%) were the most common methods used. Other methods were less frequently used, so that it was possible to estimate that the learning of any new method would improve the understanding of about 1-2% of the articles. A wider use of statistical methods in data analysis is recommended; the attainment of a higher level of statistical knowledge should be a priority target in occupational health training. (59659)

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CIS 93-105 Safety by inspection. James D.W.B., Industrial Safety Data File, Oct. 1992, p.A:8:7:1-A:8:7:4 (In English)

Methods are described for ensuring that the workplace and its equipment receive regular scrutiny in order to discover hazards and assess risks. These include: safety audits in which every feature of the operational system is carefully scrutinised in order to identify all the loss factors (accident causes) within the workplace and to minimise and eliminate them; safety surveys in which a specific area of concern is examined in depth; routine schedules safety inspections of individual plants, departments, sections or work sites; safety tours; safety sampling; theme inspections; and inspection of documents. (59601)

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CIS 93-106 Setting the national agenda for injury control in the 1990s. Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.107-133. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Position papers from the third National Injury Control Conference held in Denver, Colorado, USA, 22-25 April 1991. The paper on occupational injury prevention discusses the economic aspects of occupational incidents and outlines the Year 2000 Health Objectives developed by the US Department of Health and Human Services. The need for further research and surveillance is stressed. Recommendations are proposed for governmental bodies, employers, employees and others for the use of prevention strategies to protect workers. Other papers cover motor vehicle injury prevention, prevention of violence and injuries due to violence, and home and leisure injury prevention. (59394)

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CIS 93-107 Occupational and environmental health in Eastern Europe: Challenges and opportunities. Frumkin H., Levy B.S., Levenstein C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.265-270. 14 ref. (In English)

As the nations of Eastern Europe undergo political and economic transitions, they face considerable occupational and environmental health challenges. Although occupational health services are relatively well developed, environmental health services and policies are not. There are major needs in the areas of education and training, supplies and equipment, and policy development. In addition, privatisation poses a variety of new challenges and dangers to occupational and environmental health. This commentary discusses the challenges that face Eastern European nations, and describes opportunities for collaboration among scientists, policymakers, labour, management, and community groups in the United States and Eastern Europe. (59616)

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CIS 93-108 Safety and health information systems: Analysis of local, national and global methods. Takala J.S., Tampere University of Technology, P.O. Box 527, 33101 Tampere, Finland, 1992. 242p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: FIM 120.00. Also available from: International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS), International Labour Office, 1211 Genève 22, Switzerland (Price: CHF 35.00). CIS can also supply a machine-readable (MS-DOS) version on diskette., ISBN 951-721-919-9 (In English)

Doctoral thesis, providing an analysis of safety and health information systems at the company, national and international level. Contents: relationship between information and protection; trends in OSH; the theoretical framework (safety and health as elements of production; safety information cycles - company-level information systems, safety management, national and global safety information systems); factors of current safety and health information systems (information as part of production; safety information in production and consumer systems; role and types of safety information systems); materials and methods of the study (in Kenya, Thailand and at CIS); results, discussion and conclusions (emphasising the role of up-to-date techniques in information dissemination, including CD-ROM and microcomputer databases and artificial intelligence). In annex: eight key articles on the subject by the author, covering, among others: development and use of the walk-through survey method; univariate and log-linear analysis of the data collected in Thailand; graphical presentation of results; machine translation of chemical safety data sheets; use of databases. (59619)

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CIS 93-109 LAA accidents statistics 1990. (French: Statistique des accidents LAA - Chiffres 1990) Service de centralisation des statistiques de l'assurance-accidents, Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents, Fluhmattstrasse 1, 6002 Lucerne, Switzerland, July 1992. 5th ed. 20p. Illus. (In French)

Accident data collected under the Swiss Accident Insurance Law (LAA) are broken down by insurer, enterprise, category of insured person (by whom insured, where employed, sex), payroll represented by each category, numbers of occupational accidents and diseases by category and occupation, canton or country of occurrence, causes, non-occupational accidents and their causes, traffic accidents, types of injury, incapacitating and fatal accidents, claims, and proportions of the insurance market occupied by the national programme, private enterprises and recognised funds. (59480)

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CIS 93-110 Occupational health and safety material in Australian libraries. National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (Worksafe Australia), Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, 1990. xii, 68p. Index. Price: AUD 9.50., ISBN 0-644-12906-9 (In English)

This booklet contains information on the OSH holdings of 62 special libraries in Australia. The libraries are grouped by State and Territory. Under the name of each library, the information is provided under the following headings: mission (purpose); main clients; description of holdings (number of monographs, journal titles, technical reports and audiovisual materials); strengths; networks the organisation has joined; services provided; opening hours; number of staff; name of person in charge and of the interlibrary loan officer; address; telephone and telefax numbers; other information. (59463)

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CIS 93-111 Implementation of EC directives on working conditions and product safety: Possibilities and limitations - Report of an international comparison related to France, the Federal Republic of Germany, the United Kingdom, Denmark and the Netherlands. de Gier E., Hugo Sinzheimer Institute (University of Amsterdam), P.O. Box 1030, 1000 BA Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1991. 95p. + annexes. Illus., ISBN 90-73868-02-5 (In English)

This study reports on comparative research into the ways EC member States translate EC directives into national legislation. Three directives on working conditions and product safety were investigated: 86/188/EEC (on the protection of workers from the risks related to exposure to noise at work, CIS 87-45), 89/391/EEC (on the introduction of measures to encourage improvement in the safety and health of workers at work, CIS 89-1401) and 89/392/EEC (on the approximation of the laws of the member States relating to machinery, CIS 89-1442). The process of implementing these directives was studied in five member States of the EEC. Despite joint agreements, directives are being implemented in different ways in the various member States. In the United Kingdom and Denmark, there is a clear preference for implementation in as flexible a way as possible. Other countries prefer to implement directives in a strictly formal way (France, and to a lesser extent, the Federal Republic of Germany). The approach of the Netherlands is roughly half-way between the two described above. In annex: the questionnaire form on which the survey is based; the text of the three directives concerned. (59630)

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CIS 93-112 Decisions 1990-91. (Danish: Domme 1990-91) Arbejdstilsynet, Direktoratet for Arbejdstilsynet, Landskronagade 33-35, 2100 København Ø, Denmark, Aug. 1992. 93p., ISBN 87-7534-398-3 (In Danish)

An overview of the Danish Working Environment Act (for an English translation, see CIS 78-897) and a table of fines assessed in 1990-91 for violation of each of its provisions are followed by summaries on the 124 important cases heard by competent courts in application of the Law, of the Universal Worker Protection Law and of relevant directives. The decisions taken in each case are given, often with comments. (59645)

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CIS 93-113 State of the environment in Mauritius. Ministry of Environment and Quality of Life, Government of Mauritius, Port Louis, Mauritius, 1991. 403p. Illus. (In English)

This report was prepared for presentation at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, in June 1992. It provides details of the resources of Mauritius, environmental issues, and policy, institutions and challenges related to environmental protection. A section on worker safety and health covers: statistics on industrial accidents; employment; machinery hazards; chemical hazards; noise; dust problems; governmental policies and programmes. Relevant legislation is listed along with the text of the National Environmental Policy, the Environmental Protection Act and the Waste Water Authority Act. (59395)

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CIS 93-114 International code of ethics for occupational health professionals. (French: Code international d'éthique pour les professionnels de la santé au travail) International Commission on Occupational Health, Prof. Jerry Jeyaratnam, Dept. of Community, Occupational and Family Medicine, National University Hospital, Lower Kent Road, Singapore 0511, Republic of Singapore, 1992. 13p. + poster (each language). 15 ref. (In English, French)

Duties and obligations of occupational health professionals: aims and advisory role; knowledge and expertise; development of a policy and a programme; emphasis on prevention and on prompt action; follow-up of remedial actions; safety and health information; commercial secrets; health surveillance; information to the worker; information to the employer; danger to a third party; biological monitoring and investigations; health promotion; protection of community and environment; contribution to scientific knowledge. Conditions of execution of functions: competence, integrity and impartiality; professional independence; equity, non-discrimination and communication; clause on ethics in contracts of employment; records; medical confidentiality; collective health data; relationships with health professionals; combatting abuses; relationships with social partners; promoting ethics and professional audit. (59413)

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CIS 93-115 Computer applications in ergonomics, occupational safety and health. Mattila M., Karwowski W., North-Holland, Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., P.O. Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands, 1992. xiv, 513p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 0-444-89605-8 (In English)

Proceedings of the International Conference on Computer-Aided Ergonomics and Safety '92 held at Tampere, Finland, 18-20 May 1992. Plenary papers are entitled: biomechanical modelling for simulation of 3D static human exertions; man models and computer-aided ergonomics; repetitive motion injuries - an interactive training package; knowledge based systems for risk assessment and monitoring. The 61 other contributions are grouped under the headings: human factors design and analysis; workplace design and computer models of man; information systems for safety and health; evaluation of working postures; assessment of physical workload. (59493)

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002 Occupational medicine, epidemiology

CIS 93-116 Prolonged asthma after smoke inhalation - A report of three cases and a review of previous reports. Moisan T.C., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.458-461. 42 ref. (In English)

The development of prolonged obstructive airways disease after smoke inhalation is of concern to fire victims and fire-fighters. Three cases of asthma that developed following the inhalation of pyrolysis products are presented along with a review of previous reports of airway injury from smoke inhalation. Polyvinyl chloride pyrolysis products seem to pose a high risk, but other toxic inhalants are also implicated. There is substantial evidence that prolonged airway hyper-responsiveness and asthma may follow numerous inflammatory insults including smoke inhalation. Studies to identify specific individual risk factors and asthmagenic pyrolysis products are needed. Early, post-exposure anti-inflammatory treatment may modify the outcome. (59352)

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CIS 93-117 Occupationally-induced scleroderma. Pelmear P.L., Roos J.O., Maehle W.M., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.20-25. Illus. 44 ref. (In English)

Systemic sclerosis or scleroderma is an uncommon multisystem disease with a reported incidence of two to 12 cases per million people per year. The clinical and pathological features can be grouped into three main categories: those related to fibrosis, to vascular abnormalities, and to immunological abnormalities. Cutaneous features dominate the patients' appearance, and Raynaud's phenomenon is an early symptom. A possible association between scleroderma and workers exposed to hand-arm vibration and/or silica has been suggested by reports in the literature since the turn of the century. A further four patients with collagen disease are reported here. Three were occupationally exposed to both hand-arm vibration and silica, the fourth to hand-arm vibration alone. In conjunction with previously reported cases, this supports the hypothesis that collagen disease may be attributable to occupation in hypersusceptible persons. (59333)

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CIS 93-118 Evaluating strategies for health surveillance - Health event ascertainment at a nuclear facility. Strader C.H., Petersen G.R., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.45-52. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

The US Department of Energy's Health Surveillance System is a pilot project to design, implement, and evaluate a system of routine morbidity surveillance based on routinely collected occupational medical data at participating Department of Energy facilities. At the Hanford Site (Richland, Washington), most health events were ascertained using a 21-day threshold-of-absence criterion. This provisional threshold, established under the assumption that it would capture all important morbidity, has been criticised as potentially omitting morbidity of interest. A review of all health-event absences occurring over a one-year period revealed that the efficacy of the 21-day threshold varies widely by diagnosis and that absence-based eligibility criteria are not useful for all morbidity of interest. Future development will require supplementation of health-event ascertainment by other, diagnosis-based criteria to ensure completeness of ascertainment. (59336)

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CIS 93-119 Classification, direction, and prevention of bias in epidemiologic research. Choi B.C.K., Noseworthy A.L., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.265-271. 33 ref. (In English)

The article proposes an extension of an existing framework used by several investigators for classifying various types of bias. The framework consists of three categories of bias: selection, information, and confounding. The existing framework is expanded to include subclassification according to the type of study design: cross-sectional, case-control, retrospective cohort, and prospective cohort. Direction and method of prevention of biases within each category in framework are discussed. This article provides a useful checklist for epidemiologists to determine possible sources and methods of reduction of bias that are specific to a particular type of study design. (59342)

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CIS 93-120 Ewing's bone sarcoma, paternal occupational exposure, and other factors. Holly E.A., Aston D.A., Ahn D.K., Kristiansen J.J., American Journal of Epidemiology, Jan. 1992, Vol.135, No.2, p.122-129. 26 ref. (In English)

To determine risk factors for Ewing's bone sarcoma, the mothers of 43 patients diagnosed between 1978-1986 and 193 controls were interviewed. Adjusted relative risk estimates suggest that risks were elevated for children whose fathers were engaged in agricultural occupations during the period from six months prior to conception of the subject up to the time of diagnosis for the patients and up to the interview for the controls (relative risk (RR)=8.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-42.7) and for children whose fathers had occupational exposure to herbicides, pesticides, or fertilisers (RR=6.1, 95% CI 1.7-21.9, p=0.002). Prior ingestion of poison or an overdose of medication was more common in patients than in controls (RR=4.4, 95% CI 1.4-13.5). (59350)

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CIS 93-121 Myths of tuberculosis. Lanphear B.P., Snider D.E., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.501-504. 54 ref. (In English)

This brief overview of the epidemiology of tuberculosis (TB) outlines myths and misconceptions in the diagnosis and treatment of the disease. The myths are believed to be: (1) never repeat intradermal testing of persons who give a history of a positive reaction; (2) never give a tuberculin test to a Bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine recipient; (3) preventative therapy is too hazardous; (4) radiologic screening is effective; (5) TB is not an occupational disease. The paper outlines the occupations that attract persons at high risk of TB, occupations that increase susceptibility to development of active TB, and occupational settings which have an increased exposure risk to the disease. (59357)

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CIS 93-122 Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between high density lipoprotein cholesterol and women's employment. Haertel U., Heiss G., Filipiak B., Doering A., American Journal of Epidemiology, Jan. 1992, Vol.135, No.1, p.68-78. Illus. 28 ref. (In English)

The study examined the association between women's employment and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Subjects were 1,998 women studied from 1984-1988. In cross-sectional analysis, the mean HDL cholesterol level of employed women was 3.4mg/dL higher than that of full-time homemakers (p<0.001). After adjustment for various factors, this difference decreased to 2.1mg/dL and remained statistically significant (p<0.01). The mean HDL cholesterol levels of women who gave up employment and became full-time homemakers during the follow-up period decreased by 3.04mg/dL (p<0.01). Giving up employment is related to life-style changes that are associated with a decrease in HDL cholesterol levels. The findings suggest that employment may exert a beneficial influence on coronary risk in women that is consistent with a positive association between employment and HDL cholesterol. (59360)

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CIS 93-123 Obesity as a risk factor for slowing of sensory conduction of the median nerve in industry - A cross-sectional and longitudinal study involving 429 workers. Nathan P.A., Keniston R.C., Myers L.D., Meadows K.D., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.379-383. Illus. 35 ref. (In English)

As part of a study of the aetiology of carpal tunnel syndrome, the weight and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated as risk factors for the slowing of sensory conduction of the median nerve. The hands of 316 industrial workers were evaluated in 1984 and again in 1989. Weight and BMI were strongly and positively correlated with the maximum latency difference (MLD). In 1984 and 1989 the risk for abnormal nerve conduction averaged 3.5-fold and 4.1-fold greater, respectively, in the obese workers than in the slim workers. In step-wise regression analysis for 1989 MLD based on 1984 factors, the BMI was the number one factor selected, followed by age, wrist depth/width ratio, hand dominance, and exercise level. None of three 1984 job-related factors (occupational hand use, duration of employment, or industry) was an independent predictor of 1989 MLD. This study suggests that individual characteristics, not job-related factors, are the primary determinants in the slowing of sensory conduction of the median nerve and in carpal tunnel syndrome. (59361)

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CIS 93-124 Prostate cancer and work environment. van der Gulden J.W.J., Kolk J.J., Verbeek A.L.M., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.402-409. 87 ref. (In English)

A case-referent study was conducted to investigate the relation between occupation and prostate cancer. For this study 109 cases and 209 referents (patients with prostate hyperplasia) were selected from the registries of four hospitals. The response was 85%. Non-significant elevated risks were found for farmers, metalworkers, mechanics and repairmen, traders, and salesmen. A significant risk excess was observed for teachers (n=6; odds ratio [OR] 4.25; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-15.79). The OR calculated for farmers over 70yrs was also significant (n=9; OR 2.12; 95% CI 1.03-4.38). Literature was searched for additional evidence of excess risk among farmers, metalworkers, mechanics and repairers, and to find clues for actual risk factors. From the review it can be concluded that these occupations may have a slightly increased risk for prostate cancer. However, the actual risk factors are uncertain. (59364)

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CIS 93-125 Impact of arterial blood gas analysis in disability evaluation of the bituminous coal miner with simple pneumoconiosis. Fields C.L., Roy T.M., Dow F.T., Anderson W.H., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.410-413. 10 ref. (In English)

The US Department of Labor has set guidelines for the use of resting arterial blood gas analysis in determination of total and permanent disability for coal workers' pneumoconiosis. To determine the prevalence with which bituminous coal miners arterial blood gas measurements fall below the arterial tensions of both oxygen and carbon dioxide published in the Federal Register, 1,012 miners were studied who had both reproducible spirometry and arterial blood gas analysis as part of their disability evaluation. Eighty-seven percent of impaired miners could be identified by the spirometric criteria. Thirteen percent of impaired bituminous coal miners had acceptable pulmonary function but were eligible for black lung benefits by the blood gas guidelines. This population would have been missed if blood gas analysis were excluded from the evaluation process. On the other hand, approximately 25% of the blood gas analyses that were performed could be eliminated if a policy was adopted to do this test only on miners with spirometry that exceed the federal guidelines. (59365)

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CIS 93-126 A randomized trial to evaluate a computer-based learning program in occupational lung disease. Bresnitz E.A., Gracely E.J., Rubenstein H.L., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.422-427. 16 ref. (In English)

Computer-based learning (CBL) is a recent innovation that may supplement the limited formal education typically offered to medical students in occupational health-related issues. A randomised trial among sophomores was conducted to evaluate a Macintosh-based application on occupational lung disease (OH-CBL). Students taking an OH block in the Preventative Medicine course were assigned either to the OH-CBL or to the lecture group. Of four study-relevant multiple choice questions, substantial differences were found in favour of the OH-CBL group on one question as well as on the study-relevant multiple choice total score. There was no difference on mean overall grade or on the three study-relevant essay items. The grade on the study-relevant questions exhibited a weak relationship with microcomputer experience. Students' ratings of the CBL programme using Likert scales were generally favourable. Several components of CBL that are necessary for successful implementation into a medical curriculum are identified. (59367)

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CIS 93-127 Comparison of bronchial reactivity and peak expiratory flow variability measurements for epidemiologic studies. Higgins B.G., Britton J.R., Chinn S., Cooper S., Burney P.G.J., Tattersfield A.E., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Mar. 1992, Vol.145, No.3, p.588-593. Illus. 32 ref. (In English)

Standardised measurement of airway function is important in epidemiologic studies of asthma. Bronchial reactivity is widely used in such studies, but measurement of peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability has a number of potential advantages. The study compared PEF variability with methacholine challenge tests using subjects selected at random (n=95) and on the basis of having experienced wheezing in the last 12 months (n=130). Asthma was more strongly related to increased bronchial activity than to PEF variability. Both measurements showed a strong association with atopy and the interclass correlation coefficients (ratio of between-subject to total variance) were similar for both. Thus both PEF variability and bronchial reactivity are potentially useful markers for respiratory morbidity: bronchial reactivity was a better marker for the diagnosis of asthma in the population, but PEF variability can supply a measurement in all subjects and may be preferable in longitudinal studies. (59376)

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CIS 93-128 Occupational and environmental hazards associated with lung cancer. Jöckel K.H., Ahrens W., Wichmann H.E., Becher H., Bolm-Audorff U., Jahn I., Molik B., Greiser E., Timm J., International Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1992, Vol.21, No.2, p.202-213. 42 ref. (In English)

In a hospital-based case control study in Germany, 194 lung cancer cases, 194 hospital controls, and 194 population controls were interviewed for smoking, occupational, and residential history. Case ascertainment took place in seven different hospitals. Lung cancer risk strongly increases with cumulative cigarette dose. For occupational risk, significantly increased risks were observed in the metal industry, particularly in smelter and foundry workers (odds ratio (OR) 4.8, 95% confidence limits (CL): 1.15, 20.16) and in turners, grinders, drillers, and cutters (OR 2.2, 95% CL: 1.05, 4.75). In the construction industry the risks were particularly high in road construction workers (OR 3.7, 95% CL: 1.06, 13.20) and in unskilled construction workers (OR 2.7, 95% CL: 1.24, 5.76). The risks in these occupational groups increased with duration and with latency. Quantification of air pollution was also done, on a district basis by time period. (59388)

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CIS 93-129 Skinfold thickness and cardiovascular risk factors in American and Japanese telephone company executives. Jones C.A., Klag M.J., Sakai Y., Itoh I., Comstock G.W., International Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1992, Vol.21, No.2, p.229-235. 29 ref. (In English)

Data from a cross-sectional study of cardiovascular disease risk factors in 962 American and 827 Japanese male telephone company executives were used to determine the associations of skinfold thickness measurements with blood pressure, blood glucose, serum cholesterol, and serum triglycerides. Most skinfolds showed association with risk factors in univariate regression. After adjusting for age and body mass index, the abdominal skinfold continued to be significantly associated with blood pressure and triglycerides in both groups of executives, while the subscapular skinfold showed associations only with triglycerides. After adjustment, the peripheral skinfolds showed no association with risk factors in the American men; however, in the Japanese men the ulnar skinfold continued to be associated with blood pressure. These findings suggest that abdominal and ulnar skinfold measurement may be useful in adjusting for the effect of obesity on coronary heart disease risk in epidemiological studies. (59389)

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CIS 93-130 Cigarette smoking and sick leave in an industrial population in Shanghai, China. Qun W.W., Dobson A.J., International Journal of Epidemiology, Apr. 1992, Vol.21, No.2, p.293-297. 13 ref. (In English)

A study of cigarette smoking and sick leave was conducted at a large Chinese petrochemical complex in 1988. Among a random sample of 1,856 men the smoking prevalence was 80% with the highest rate (84%) occurring in the 25-34 age group. Retrospective data were also collected on sick leave. In 1986 13% of men took sick leave, and 12% took it in 1987. The mean duration of sick leave was three days per year. In 1986 the odds ratios (OR) for taking sick leave were 2.37 for heavy smokers and 1.45 for light smokers compared to unity for non-smokers; the corresponding OR for 1987 were 1.70 and 1.28 for heavy and light smokers compared with non-smokers. Smoking was positively associated with sick leave even after adjustment for age, alcohol consumption, and exposure to chemicals; OR = 1.56 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.31) in 1986 and OR = 1.32 (95% CI: 0.90-1.95) in 1987. (59390)

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CIS 93-131 Occupational cancer and carcinogenesis. Hemminki K., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, 117p. Illus. Bibl. (In English)

This special issue considers the following aspects: exposure from occupational versus other sources, carcinogen metabolism and individual susceptibility, oncogenes and oncoproteins in occupational carcinogenesis, use of molecular biology techniques in cancer epidemiology, cancer morbidity by occupation, proposal for future uses in epidemiology for cohort studies on the prevention of work-related cancer, identification of carcinogens within the IARC monograph programme, quantitative assessment of human cancer risk, technological changes in cancer prevention, screening for occupational cancer, workplace cancer prevention. (59441)

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CIS 93-132 Exposure from occupational versus other sources. Fishbein L., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.5-16. Illus. 107 ref. (In English)

This overview highlights a general comparison of exposure to indoor and outdoor levels of 12 volatile organic compounds and the exposure of workers and the general public to benzene, 1,3-butadiene, formaldehyde, styrene, tetrachloroethylene, phthalate esters, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, radon and electromagnetic fields. (59442)

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CIS 93-133 Proposal for future uses in epidemiology for cohort studies on the prevention of work-related cancer. Langård S., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.57-63. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

A new use of the cohort method in cancer studies is proposed, which includes the individual collection of information on past exposure to major carcinogens. It is assumed that it is possible to determine individual cancer risk and, subsequently, to estimate the individual risks of cause-specific cancers on the basis of accurate individual data on exposure to carcinogens. As increased risk of work-related cancer is generally more strongly related to past than to current exposure, risk-determined intervention should be integrated into the daily routines of both occupational health physicians and primary care physicians. (59443)

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CIS 93-134 Quantitative assessment of human cancer risk. Kaldor J., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.90-96. Illus. 14 ref. (In English)

This paper presents a definition of risk and discusses the role of epidemiological observation in the quantitative assessment of cancer risk, the estimation of risk from epidemiological data, and the role of animal cancer bioassays in the quantitative assessment of cancer risk. It is emphasised that quantitative risk assessment is inevitably based on multiple assumptions. Where possible, the magnitude of errors associated with these assumptions should be stated. (59444)

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CIS 93-135 Exposure assessment of risk factors for disorders of the back in occupational epidemiology. Burdorf A., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1992, Vol.18, No.1, p.1-9. 134 ref (In English)

This review describes methods for assessing exposure to postural load of the back in occupational epidemiological studies. Among the articles selected that presented information on the prevalence of back disorders in occupational groups, only 42% exposure assessment was performed. Measures of exposure were predominantly presented in the nominal and ordinal levels. It is agreed that in most epidemiologic studies on disorders of the back in occupational groups the quality of exposure data is poor. Quantitative measurement methods need to be developed for application in occupational epidemiology. (59446)

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CIS 93-136 Primary liver cancer and occupational exposure. Kauppinen T., Riala R., Seitsamo J., Hernberg S., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1992, Vol.18, No.1, p.18-25. 23 ref. (In English)

In a case-referent study on primary liver cancer and occupational exposure, the work histories of 344 cases and 861 referents, derived from the follow-up of the whole Finnish population in 1976-1978 and 1981, were analysed by industry, occupation and agent. After adjustment for alcohol consumption, excesses of primary liver cancer were found among milkmaids probably exposed to aflatoxins, clerical workers, welders, and men exposed to welding fumes and mineral dust. The excess among clerical workers was probably due to non-occupational factors or chance because occupational exposure was rare. The excess for welding fumes and inorganic dusts, although compatible with occupational aetiology, contradict the results of many previous studies carried out among workers exposed to silica dust and welders. (59448)

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CIS 93-137 Differences in the incidence of myocardial infarction among occupational groups. Hammar N., Alfredsson L., Smedberg M., Ahlbom A., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.178-185. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

An inverse relationship between social and class coronary heart disease has been observed in several countries, but few studies have investigated the incidence of this disease over different occupational groups. A case-referent study was carried out to estimate the relative risk of a first myocardial infarction in various occupational groups. Cases of myocardial infarction (N=36,602) were identified from both hospital discharge and death records. Two referents for each case were randomly selected from the study base. Information about occupation was obtained from two consecutive censuses. An increased incidence, compared with that of others employed, was found for persons in some occupations in production work, transport work (men), and service work (women). Low relative risks were found mainly for persons in occupations demanding a high education. The relative risk ranged from 0.3 to 2.8. Several factors, occupational as well as nonoccupational, may be of importance in explaining the findings. (59455)

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CIS 93-138 Pleural calcification in northwest Greece. Bazas T., Oakes D., Gilson J.C., Bazas B., McDonald J.C., Environmental Research, 1985, Vol.38, p.239-247. 15 ref. (In English)

Routine miniature radiography carried out in 1969 for the detection of tuberculosis revealed a high prevalence of pleural calcification in three villages in northwest Greece. In 1980 a survey of a 15% sample of the population was carried out using full-size radiographs, ventilatory capacity measurements and a detailed questionnaire on respiratory symptoms. A very high prevalence of pleural calcification was found; the overall prevalence being 34.7% in men and 21.5% in women. There was no significant relation with smoking or occupation, although those classified as field cropper had a slightly higher prevalence. The agent responsible for this apparently benign condition was not identified. (59598)

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CIS 93-139 A cross-sectional study of hand/wrist symptoms in female grocery checkers. Morgenstern H., Kelsh M., Kraus J., Margolis W., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.209-218. 29 ref. (In English)

In 1986 1,345 grocery checkers who belonged to one union local in south-central California were interviewed by means of questionnaire. Among the 1,058 female respondents (82% response rate), a 12% prevalence of hand/wrist symptoms characteristic of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) was found. Symptom prevalence was positively associated with age, average work hours per week, years worked as a checker, and use of diuretics. The estimated effect of years worked as a checker was greater for younger subjects than for older subjects, in whom the association reversed, suggesting the selective loss of symptomatic workers from their jobs (a form of the healthy-worker effect). Although no effects were found for specific job-related activities, it was estimated that CTS symptoms in at least three of every five symptomatic workers were attributable to occupational exposures. (59613)

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CIS 93-140 Analysis of sudden death cases due to heart attack in a steel works. (Japanese: Jūgyōin no shinzō kyūshi rei ni tsuite no kentō) Wakabayashi M., Yoshida C., Tanaka M., Horie S., Masumoto T., Hiramot Y., Okawa H., Journal of Labour Hygiene in the Iron and Steel Industry - Tekko Rōdō Eisei, Feb. 1992, Vol.39, No.2, p.18-24. 7 ref. (In Japanese)

From 1984 to 1989, nine cases of sudden death due to heart attack were reported in employees of a steel works. In all cases, regular health checks prior to onset of symptoms did not reveal cerebral vascular or circulatory disorders. Possible risk factors were examined in these cases. Statistical analyses of eight parameters (obesity, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and uric acid levels) showed that the significant risk factors involved were low HDL cholesterol level and heavy smoking. (59621)

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CIS 93-141 Problems and prospects in occupational carcinogenesis. (Italian: Problemi e prospettive nella cancerogenesi occupazionale) Merletti F., Vineis P., Bertazzi P.A., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1991, Vol.82, No.4, p.314-327. 56 ref. (In Italian)

Epidemiological research has played an important role in identifying and confirming the carcinogenicity of chemicals. This was facilitated in the past by high levels of exposure and by the simple correspondence between one kind of exposure and one or few job titles. Today we are faced with a different picture: workers are exposed to complex mixtures, exposure levels have decreased while mobility of the workforce has increased. In this changing context, epidemiology needs new methodological tools to improve the validity of risk assessment. The most promising of these seem to be the new techniques of biochemical epidemiology and the development of job-exposure matrices. Among the more traditional tools, record-linkage studies may be relevant in identifying long-term occupational hazards. The methodological problems and the ethical and operative implications of these trends in research are discussed. (59643)

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CIS 93-142 Pleural fibrosis in asbestosis and ventilatory function - Study of 50 cases. (Italian: Fibrosi pleuriche asbestosiche e funzione ventilatoria - Studio di 50 casi) Tomasini M., Rivolta G., Calori A., Nicoli E., Ferretti G., Chiappino G., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.178-185. 16 ref. (In Italian)

The importance of non-malignant pleural fibrosis in asbestosis in relation to respiratory function is still open to debate due to the differing results obtained in studies of different population groups. In this study, 50 subjects were selected with occupational exposure to asbestos presenting mono or bilateral pleural fibrosis upon X-ray but without lung impairment. Each subject underwent bronchial lavage and ventilatory function tests. Subjects were divided into four groups on the basis of degree of pleural alterations according to the ILO Classification of Pneumoconioses. Results revealed mean values of CV and FEV1 in each group to be within physiological limits. Analysis of the type of lung function showed a normal situation in 64% and restricted function in 28% of cases. Prevalence of the latter finding was not correlated to the severity of pleural fibrosis in the various groups. Comparison between severity of pleural fibrosis and number of asbestos bodies/mL of BAL liquid on the one hand and frequency of alveolitis on the other did not reveal any relationship. The onset of pleural fibrosis therefore appears to be independent of the quantity of inhaled asbestos fibres and due to different mechanisms from those leading to lung fibrosis. (59658)

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CIS 93-143 Five cases of pleural mesothelioma with endemic pleural calcifications in a rural area in Greece. Sichletidis L., Daskalopoulou E., Tsarou V., Pnevmatikos I., Chloros D., Vamvalis C., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.326-329. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

A study of five cases of pleural mesothelioma in a rural population of Macedonia, Greece, which had been covered by an X-ray study over a three-year period to detect pleural calcifications compatible with asbestos exposure. This study revealed a 24.2% prevalence of pleural plaques among inhabitants aged over 40yrs of seven rural villages. High contents of asbestos (chrysotile and tremolite) - up to 90% by volume - were found in the material that was used for whitewashing the houses up to 1935. Even now, environmental concentrations of 0.01 fibres/mL were recorded in the houses. The prevalence of pleural mesothelioma in this rural population is high compared to the general population. A possible explanation of the phenomenon may be a cumulative environmental exposure to asbestos which, even though presumably within the acceptable limits for occupational exposure, lasted over a much longer time period, in terms of both daily exposure and total duration. (59660)

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CIS 93-144 Occupation and lung cancer risk in the Province of Trieste (Italy) - A case-control study. (Italian: Occupazione e rischio di tumore polmonare nella provincia di Trieste - Uno studio caso-controllo) Bovenzi M., Stanta G., Antiga G.L., Peruzzo P., Cavallieri F., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.338-348. 22 ref. (In Italian)

To investigate the relationship between occupation and lung cancer in a heavily industrialised Italian city, pathology records, and residential, occupational and smoking histories were obtained for 938 men who died during a period of five years. After adjustment for smoking and residence (level of pollution), a significant association was found between lung cancer and occupations with exposure to well-recognised lung carcinogens (RR=2.28, 95% CI=1.70-3.07), between lung cancer and occupations with exposure to suspected lung carcinogens (RR=1.33, 95% CI=1.04-1.71) and between lung cancer and occupations with definite exposure to asbestos (RR=1.99, 95% CI=1.43-2.76). There was a particularly striking association between lung cancer and a combination of heavy smoking and definite exposure to asbestos (RR=42.8). Overall attributable risks in the population (ARp) were calculated for cigarette smoking (ARp=87.6%), for occupations with well-established (ARp=16.2%) or suspected or well-established (ARp=25.5%) exposure to lung carcinogens, and for occupations with possible or definite exposure to asbestos (ARp=20.1%). (59662)

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CIS 93-145 Monitoring organophosphate insecticide-exposed workers for cholinesterase depression - New technology for office or field use. McConnell R., Cedillo L., Keifer M., Palomo M.R., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.34-37. 9 ref. (In English)

A limitation to the diagnosis of mild organophosphate poisoning and to the preventive screening of organophosphate-exposed workers has been the large interindividual variability in erythrocyte cholinesterase, thus necessitating a pre-exposure baseline measurement of enzyme activity as a basis for evaluating subsequent declines. A new colorimetric erythrocyte cholinesterase kit was tested on 23 pesticide plant workers. All workers had normal cholinesterase, and exposed and unexposed workers had similar mean cholinesterase levels. Although erythrocyte cholinesterase was found to have a coefficient of variation of 12%, haemoglobin-adjusted erythrocyte cholinesterase had a markedly reduced coefficient of variation (7.4%). The 90% confidence interval (24.9-31.7IU/g haemoglobin) resulted in a lower normal limit, i.e. 78% of the upper limit. Even if a pre-exposure baseline was high normal but unknown at the time of examination, the clinician can be confident that any person with a normal result will have cholinesterase levels not less than 78% of baseline. (59335)

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CIS 93-146 Lymphocytopenia, T-lymphocyte subsets, and colorectal polyps in automotive pattern and model makers. Robins T.G., Weinstein R.J., Demers R.Y., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.510-515. 26 ref. (In English)

The association of total lymphocyte, CD4 (T-helper cell), CD8 (T-suppressor cell), CD2 (total T-cell), and CD16 (natural killer cell) counts with biopsy-proved colorectal polyp status was investigated in 70 pattern makers. In logistic regression analyses after adjusting for age or trade years, pack-years smoked, and material worked with most frequently, a history of any type of polyp was significantly associated with total lymphocyte count (odds ratio of 2.01 for a 500 cell/cc decrease, p=0.03), and somewhat associated with decreased CD4 and CD2 counts (p values of 0.06 and 0.07, respectively). In linear regression models adjusted for age, pattern and model makers had (regardless of polyp status) significantly lower CD4, CD8, CD2, and CD16 counts than did laboratory reference controls (p value less than 0.01 for each comparison). The findings appear consistent with a sequence of carcinogenesis initiated by workplace exposure of pattern and model makers that depresses immune surveillance and therefore promotes the development of colorectal polyps as a precursor of carcinoma. (59358)

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CIS 93-147 An epidemic of dermatitis at a large construction site. Sinks T., O'Malley M., Hartle R., Hales T.R., Ruhe R., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.462-467. 12 ref. (In English)

In 1986, an epidemic of dermatitis occurred among more than 5,600 construction site workers in the United States. To identify its cause, the medical facility nurses' log was used to characterise the outbreak by person, place, and time. A strong association was found between dermatitis and the handling of fire-retardant lumber and plywood. Carpenters experienced the greatest risk. Those working only with fire-retardant lumber had a rate of dermatitis four times that of carpenters working exclusively with untreated wood. Carpenters who occasionally worked with fire-retardant lumber and plywood were at moderate risk. Although laboratory tests showed that phosphate compounds could be leached with water from the fire-retardant wood, an extract of these phosphates did not irritate the skin of laboratory animals. The specific chemical agent in the fire-retardant lumber which caused the epidemic was not identified. In view of the observed association, construction workers should handle this material with caution, especially in high temperatures and humidity. (59353)

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CIS 93-148 Respiratory disease in a textile factory in Nicaragua. Velazquez A.M., Christiani D.C., McConnell R., Eisen E.A., Wilcox M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.195-208. 23 ref. (In English)

The first epidemiologic study was conducted in a textile mill in Nicaragua using techniques and diagnostic criteria similar to those used in the United States and England. The prevalence of byssinosis and nonspecific respiratory symptoms were studied in 194 workers in a cotton mill in Managua. Exposures were similar to those reported in other parts of the developing world. A modified translated version of the Medical Research Council respiratory questionnaire was administered and pulmonary function tests were performed. The prevalence of byssinosis was 5.9% and all the cases occurred among exposed women. Nonspecific respiratory symptoms were also more prevalent among exposed workers. The exposure odds ratios for usual cough and usual phlegm were 3.3 and 2.2, respectively. The poorer health status of the women compared to men in this study population may reflect different workplace exposure between the sexes. The study deserves follow-up. (59612)

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CIS 93-149 Mortality study of workers employed by the Italian National Institute of Health, 1960-1989. Belli S., Comba P., De Santis M., Grignoli M., Sasco A.J., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1992, Vol.18, No.1, p.64-67. 20 ref. (In English)

A cohort mortality study was conducted to evaluate the cancer risk of workers employed by the National Institute of Health in Rome, Italy. Cancer mortality was evaluated for research staff. A deficit of overall cancer mortality was found for the men, but not for the women. Elevated (albeit statistically nonsignificant) standardised mortality ratios were found for cancer of the pancreas (men 155, women 236), cancer of the brain (men 159), lympho- and reticulosarcomas (men 233, women 512), and lymphatic and haematopoietic tumors (women 623). In addition the women had a statistically significantly elevated risk of breast cancer. Although most of these results, with the exception of breast cancer among the women, were not statistically significant, due to the limited study size, they point to the existence of excess risk for some tumours. The possibility that these increases are related to exposures occurring in the laboratory setting deserves further consideration. (59450)

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CIS 93-150 How can an aspecific association be identified? - An epidemiological approach to the study of health conditions of office workers. (Italian: Come mettere in luce una associazione aspecifica? - Considerazioni epidemiologiche sullo studio della salute negli uffici) Bertazzi P.A., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1991, Vol.82, No.4, p.291-298. 15 ref. (In Italian)

The work-relatedness of the majority of diseases occurring at the workplace is by no means obvious. The relationship to work environment and performance of work is one of several causative factors. However, the multifactorial origin of diseases is not at all a new concept since principles and methods for the study of the numerous factors playing a role in any association between exposure and disease are already available. The model of causal constellations developed by Rothman can be particularly useful for the investigation of 'non-specific' associations, such as those commonly occurring in office work. The study of the health conditions of office workers is faced with many difficulties, including the identification, measurement and classification of exposure variables and health outcomes. In designing these studies, particular attention should be devoted to aspects regarding sample size, length of observation time and referent population. (59641)

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CIS 93-151 Demographic and health characteristics of participants and nonparticipants in a work site health-promotion program. Stange K.C., Strogatz D., Schoenbach V.J., Shy C., Dalton B., Cross A.W., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.474-478. 48 ref. (In English)

The potential impact of worksite health promotion programmes is limited by non-participation, especially among demographic subgroups and those who could most benefit from a health behaviour change. The study prospectively examined the relationship of personnel data and self-reported health habits and health status to participation in a health-promotion programme. White employees were 2.47 times as likely to participate as non-whites. Those with health maintenance organisation health insurance were 1.43 times as likely to participate as were employees with fee-for-service insurance. There was no difference between participants and non-participants in self-reported health status, and only slightly more positive health habits were noted among participants. The study results demonstrated that health-related programmes do not enroll only the very healthy or those with healthy habits. However, the diminished enrollment of non-whites supports concern that such programmes may not reach all workforce segments equally. (59355)

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CIS 93-152 An epidemiological study on low back pain and occupational risk factors among clinical nurses. (Japanese: Kangofu no yōtsūshō hasshō ni kakawaru shokugyōsei yōin no ekigakuteki kenkyū) Koda S., Hisashige A., Ogawa T., Kurumatani N., Dejima M., Miyakita T., Kodera R., Hamada H., Nakagiri S., Aoyama H., Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Sep. 1991, Vol.33, No.5, p.410-422. 60 ref. (In Japanese)

A questionnaire survey on low back pain (LBP) was conducted in 1987 on 947 clinical nurses and a control group of 300 female clerical workers in local governments. The point, period and lifetime prevalence rates of LBP and prevalence rate of severe LBP were higher in clinical nurses than clerical workers. Also working postures such as squatting, bending, twisting and heavy weight lifting were more frequent among the nurses. The relationship between LBP and occupational risk factors in nurses was investigated by a case-control study. Higher age-adjusted odds ratios were observed in items associated with shift work, working postures, physical nursing workloads, working environment, emotional state at work, interpersonal relationships and problems connected with working life. Multivariate analyses confirmed the univariate findings. These results suggest a positive relationship between LBP and nursing workload and working environment. Working conditions must be improved to prevent LBP and raise the quality of nursing services. (59420)

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CIS 93-153 Occupational epidemics in the 1990s. Fifth US-Finnish Joint Symposium on Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 9-12 June 1992. Norppa H., Haartz J.C., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 2, 136p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

This special issue contains all the papers presented at this Symposium (held in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, 2-19 June 1992). The subjects covered were: aging workers, reproductive disorders, agriculture, biomarkers, health care workers, occupational stress. (59451)

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CIS 93-154 Prediction of prospective medical claims and absenteeism costs for 1,284 hourly workers from a manufacturing company. Yen L.T., Edington D.W., Witting P., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.428-435. 34 ref. (In English)

Multivariate regression models were developed to predict the employer's economic costs (medical claims payments and loss from employees' absenteeism) from selected health-related measures among 1,284 hourly employees. Twelve health-related measures, mainly from a Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) completed in 1985, were selected as predictors. Regression models were developed according to the economic measures for the three subgroups (men under 35, men 35 or older, and women). All the regression models significantly predicted economic costs from selected health-related measures with a multiple R2 range of 0.23 to 13 (p=<0.001). (59368)

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CIS 93-155 Directory of on-going research in cancer epidemiology 1992. Coleman M., Wahrendorf J., Démaret E., International Agency for Research on Cancer, 150 cours Albert Thomas, 69372 Lyon Cedex 2, France, 1992. xxii, 773p. Indexes. Price: GBP 42.00., ISBN 92-832-21176 (In English)

This 1992 directory contains descriptions of 1,197 research projects being carried out in 60 countries. Indexes include names of investigators, subject terms, site of cancer, types of study, chemicals, occupations, countries and list of cancer registries. A user-friendly program PROSE (PROject SEarch) is provided on diskette for IBM-compatible microcomputers, which permits more precise and flexible searches than are possible when searching the directory manually. (59640)

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CIS 93-156 Liver diseases due to toxic substances of occupational or environmental origin. (Italian: Le epatopatie tossiche da fattori professionali e ambientali) Alessio L., Fondazione Carlo Erba, Via G. Puccini 3, 20121 Milano, Italy, 1986. 66p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In Italian)

Proceedings of a conference held in Milan, Italy, on 9 May 1985. Papers were presented on: liver diseases due to toxic substances (general concepts of pathogenesis, metabolism of ethanol in the liver, pathogenesis of hepato-cellular necrosis due to ethanol, the sequelae of chronic alcoholism); survey of liver diseases due to toxic substances of occupational origin; diagnostic protocols in the study of liver diseases; indicators of early and reversible biological effects of exposure to hepatotoxic substances - problems in their practical application. (59669)

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[ Top of page ]

003 Industries and occupations

CIS 93-157 Spinal disorders among Venice port crane operators. (Italian: Prevalenza di spondilopatie tra i gruisti del porto di Venezia) Piccinni S., Marchì T., Lorusso A., Magarotto G., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.146-149. Illus. 7 ref. (In Italian)

A group of 78 crane operators were examined using the "EPM Research Unit" method for assessing spine function. Crane operators work in a fixed posture characterised by a flexed position of the cervical spine, isometric load of the extensor cervical muscles and increased dorsal kyphosis. The prevalence of spinal disorders was 39.7% for the cervical tract, 37.2% for the dorsal tract and 38.5% for the lumbar region. The results were compared with those concerning a control group. A statistically significant difference was found in the number of cervical and dorsal complaints (OR=3.33 and 2.69), whereas the difference was nearly significant for the lumbar tract (OR=1.65). Results suggest that this category of workers may be subject to an increased risk for the spine. (59655)

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CIS 93-158 Survey of cobalt exposure and respiratory health in diamond polishers. Nemery B., Casier P., Roosels D., Lahaye D., Demedts M., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Mar. 1992, Vol.145, No.3, p.610-616. Illus. 27 ref. (In English)

A total of 194 workers from 10 diamond polishing workshops and 59 control workers from three other workshops in the diamond industry were studied. Cobalt exposure was assessed by air sampling, both area and personal, and by measuring urinary cobalt concentration. The highest exposure category was still below the present threshold limit value for cobalt (50µg/m3). Spirometry showed that indices of ventilatory function (forced vital capacity (FVC) and one second forced expiratory volume (FEV)) were significantly lower in the group with the highest exposure to cobalt. Results suggest that, during diamond polishing, exposure to cobalt at levels below the current threshold limit value is associated, on a group basis, with measurable effects on lung function parameters. The relationship between these cross-sectional epidemiological findings and the occurrence of overt lung disease in diamond polishers remains to be established. (59377)

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CIS 93-159 Mortality of iron foundry workers: I. Overall findings. Andjelkovich D.A., Mathew R.M., Richardson R.B., Levine R.J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, June 1990, Vol.32, No.6, p.529-540. Illus. 68 ref. (In English)

Report on a retrospective cohort mortality study of 8,147 men and 627 women employed in a Michigan (US) iron foundry for at least six months during 1950-1979. During the 35-year observation period, more than 1,700 deaths occurred among the workers observed. Significantly high Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) occurred among non-white workers for lung cancer (SMR 132) and ischaemic heart disease (SMR 126). These high SMRs, as well as other, non-significant, increases in morality (for other diseases in non-whites, for all such increases in whites) may be attributed to smoking habits. A lack of a trend with length of employment suggests that lung cancer mortality may not be associated with exposure to the foundry environment. For Part II of this study, see CIS 93-160. (59431)

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CIS 93-160 Mortality of iron foundry workers: II. Analysis by work area. Andjelkovich D.A., Mathew R.M., Yu R.C., Richardson R.B., Levine R.J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.391-401. Illus. 39 ref. (In English)

Plantwide analyses of the mortality experience of 8,147 foundrymen revealed excesses for several diseases including lung cancer. Using indirect measures of smoking, it appeared that most, if not all, of the excess of lung cancer deaths could be explained by smoking habits. To explore further the possible association between these mortality excesses and foundry exposures, jobs were grouped into six work areas on the basis of similarities in production processes. No evidence was found of a relationship between lung cancer and foundry exposures. The pattern of mortality from emphysema and cerebrovascular disease in the different work areas paralleled that of lung cancer, suggesting that mortality from these diseases may have been influenced by a common aetiologic agent, probably tobacco smoke. The data also reveal possible associations between metal pattern-making and colon cancer, silica or metal dust and stomach cancer, and carbon monoxide and ischaemic heart disease. For Part I of this study, see CIS 93-159. (59432)

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CIS 93-161 Maternal occupational exposure and congenital malformations. Cordier S., Ha M.C., Ayme S., Goujard J., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1992, Vol.18, No.1, p.11-17. 16 ref. (In English)

A case-referent study was conducted to assess the risk of congenital malformations in relation to maternal occupational exposure before and during pregnancy. 325 cases of major malformations and 325 normal referents identified in 15 maternity hospitals were included in the study. The results suggested that mothers of the case children with oral clefts were more often exposed to solvents during pregnancy (odds ratio, OR 7,9, 90% confidence internal, CI, 1,8-44,9) and worked more often as cleaners. Digestive anomalies (OR 11,9; 90% CI 2,0-14,9) and multiple anomalies (OR 4,5; 90% CI 1,4-16,9) were also associated with occupational exposure to solvents at work. These results were not modified when differences in maternal age, area of residence, and socioeconomic status were taken into account. (59447)

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CIS 93-162 Adverse pregnancy outcome and childhood malignancy with reference to paternal welding exposure. Bonde J.P.E., Olsen J.H., Hansen K.S., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.169-177. Illus. 31 ref. (In English)

This study examines reproductive end points in a Danish cohort of 10,059 metalworkers who fathered 3,569 children in 1973 through 1986. Occupational histories were gathered by postal questionnaires. Information on pregnancy outcomes and offspring was obtained by record linkage to medical registers. The occurrence of reduced birthweight, preterm delivery, infant mortality, and congenital malformation was not increased among children at risk from paternal welding exposure in comparison with children not at risk. The overall incidence of childhood malignancies among 23,264 children born in 1968 through 1986 with a total of 259,113 person-years of follow-up was equal to national rates (relative risk 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.63-1.42). However, pregnancies preceding a birth at risk from paternal exposure to stainless steel welding were more often terminated by spontaneous abortion (odds ratio 1.9, 95% confidence interval 1.1-3.2). This finding needs cautious interpretation and the effects of exposure to welding on spermatogenesis should be further investigated. (59454)

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CIS 93-163 Health risks for waste disposal industry workers. (Italian: Rischi per la salute degli operatori nell'industria dello smaltimento dei rifiuti) Colombi A., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1991, Vol.82, No.4, p.299-313. 44 ref. (In Italian)

Literature review. (59642)

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CIS 93-164 Atopy and airways reactivity in animal health technicians - A pilot study. Das R., Tager I.B., Gamsky T., Schenker M.B., Royce S., Balmes J.R., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.53-60. 56 ref. (In English)

Smoking, response to allergen skin testing, and non-specific airways reactivity in student animal health technicians (AHT) were studied to determine whether such persons provide a suitable cohort to overcome the selection biases accompanying investigations of occupational asthma. Previous occupational exposure to animals (65%) was associated positively with allergic symptoms but negatively with skin response to animal allergens and to airway hyperreactivity (AR). AHTs remaining in the programme were more likely than drop-outs to have: (1) worked with animals; (2) positive skin responsiveness to animal allergens; (3) AR. The latter was significantly associated with positive skin-test responses to animal allergen testing. This study demonstrates that significant exposure to animals may have occurred among workers entering animal-handling careers. Additionally, competing "healthy" and "resistant" worker effects operate among AHTs to influence the prevalence of occupational asthma in this population. (59337)

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CIS 93-165 Epidemiology of dermatitis among California farm workers. Gamsky T.E., McCurdy S.A., Wiggins P., Samuels S.J., Berman B., Shenker M.B., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.304-310. 27 ref. (In English)

To estimate the prevalence of dermatitis and risk factors for skin disease in California farm workers, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among grape, citrus, and tomato workers. The prevalence of contact dermatitis was 2% and lichenified hand dermatitis was 13%. Grape workers were more likely to report rashes in the last 12 months than were tomato workers or citrus workers. Grape workers were more likely to have contact dermatitis and lichenified hand dermatitis than were citrus or tomato workers. Increasing hours per week in agriculture, male sex, and not wearing gloves were associated with more lichenified hand dermatitis. Skin disease in agricultural workers may be causally associated with crop-specific exposures and lack of protective equipment. (59346)

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CIS 93-166 Injuries to farmers and farm families in a dairy state. Waller J.A., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.414-421. 13 ref. (In English)

This study examined injuries among farmers and their families treated at two rural Vermont hospitals. Most involved dairy farming and woodlot activities. Livestock accounted for 38% of injuries among dairy farmers. Other injuries involved a variety of events, including equipment repair and use, haying, chemicals and biological products, falls, and contacts with fixed objects. Half of woodlot injuries involved chainsaws. On average, livestock-related injuries resulted in 21.5 days of disability for work during the first six months after injury, whereas those not involving livestock averaged 16.2 days of disability. On dairy farms 14% of farming injuries were to family members, and at least one-third of all injuries to farm family members were work related. Insurance coverage for medical care was sparse for all rural persons treated for injury, especially for woodlot operators. (59366)

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CIS 93-167 Monitoring of cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers and vendors exposed to carbamates and organophosphate pesticides. (Italian: Monitoraggio delle colinesterasi in lavoratori agricoli e commercianti esposti ad esteri fosforici e carbammati) Faustini A., Arpaia F., Pagliarella P., Forastiere F., Papini P., Perucci C.A., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.135-145. 22 ref. (In Italian)

In a study of cholinesterase (ChE) levels in 59 subjects exposed to carbamates and organophosphorus pesticides, conducted before and after exposure, it was found that the measurement of plasma ChE activity has more sensitivity in the monitoring of these substances than the measurement of erythrocyte ChE activity. Maximum reduction (38%, 95% CI=22%-53%) in plasma ChE activity was observed within six days of the last exposure in workers loading and applying pesticides. (59654)

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CIS 93-168 Conference review - International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes, 2-5 November 1987, Beijing, China. McQuaid J., Mineral Resources Engineering, 1988, Vol.1, No.2, p.181-186. Illus. 1 ref. (In English)

Review of the International Conference of Safety in Mines Research Institutes held 2-5 November 1987 in Beijing, China. The conference is restricted to underground coal mining safety. Topics covered by the conference are listed and comments made on the quality and originality of the papers presented. The productive capacity and safety performance of the Chinese coal industry are outlined along with descriptions of visits to a coal mining management college and a research institute. (59399)

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CIS 93-169 Manufacture of structural metal products - I. Occupational risks; II. Occupatonal accidents; III. Material risk-producting agents; IV. Cutting fluids used. (Spanish: Fabricación de productos metálicos estructurales - I. Riesgos profesionales; II. Accidentes de trabajo; III. Agentes materiales causantes de riesgo; IV. Fluidos de corte empleados) Asensio Fernández-Castanys F, Gómez Olivier A.I., Martín Montalvo A., Sánchez Ramos E., Urbieta Garagorri M., Salud y trabajo, 1991, No.85, p.4-36. Illus. (In Spanish)

Part I summarises the study on occupational risks in the manufacture of structural metal products, carried out by the Spanish National Safety and Hygiene Institute in 1988-89. This study involved 1,401 work processes and 2,975 work tasks in 207 enterprises. Most significant risks include: being hit by flying particles, noise exposure, inhalation of welding fumes and iron oxide, and electrical contact in electrical welding. Part II analyses the occupational accidents occurring in Spain in this sector in 1988. Accidents are classified into trivial, serious and fatal, in terms of different parameters such as: month and day of the week in which accidents occurred; size of the enterprise; age, length of service, and type of contract of the accident victim; type and cause of accident; type of injury. Part III deals with the particular risks of grinding machines as a hazardous material agent. Part IV examines the use of cutting fluids in this sector and the preventive measures taken. Recommendations on prevention are included in each part. (59363)

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CIS 93-170 Follow-up study among model and pattern makers in an automobile company in the Federal Republic of Germany. Becker N., Kuhn G., Marschall B., Angerer R., Frentzel-Beyme R., Wahrendorf J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1992, Vol.34, No.5, p.552-558. 13 ref. (In English)

The follow-up of a cohort of 528 model-makers and a control group of 2,273 tool-makers shows an unusual pattern of mortality in the model-makers' cohort. In contrast to the usual ranking, malignant neoplasms are the most frequent causes of death followed by diseases of the cardiovascular system. The rate ratio (RR) for malignant tumours is significantly higher among model-makers than in tool-makers: RR=1.8. The sites affected by excess cancer were the stomach, the genito-urinary organs, and the brain. In contrast to other studies, no tumours of the large intestine were observed. Furthermore, there was a remarkable underrepresentation of tumours of the respiratory organs. Because these results are based on a rather small number of cases, further follow-up of the cohort is warranted to draw more significant conclusions. (59374)

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CIS 93-171 Analysis of sickness absenteeism in an integrated steel plant. (Spanish: Análisis del absentismo por enfermedad en una siderurgia integral) Echenagusía V.M., Aurrecoechea J.J., Prevención, Apr.-June 1991, No.116, p.42-46. Illus. 7 ref. (In Spanish)

In order to identify risk groups, a study on the incidence of sickness absenteeism as an indicator of morbidity was carried out in a Spanish siderurgical plant with 4,500 workers. Variables examined were: age, sex, hours of work and shift system, and chronic medication. The results showed that absenteeism was more frequent among young workers. However, the incidence of sick-leave exceeding two months was higher in individuals aged more than 50 and in those undergoing long-term medical treatment. With respect to women, morbidity was higher than in men, but it should be noted that maternity leave is considered as sickness absenteeism. No differences were found concerning the effects of hours of work or shift systems on morbidity. Statistics are included. (59436)

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CIS 93-172 Exposure to silicon carbide fibres in silicon carbide production. (Italian: Esposizione a fibre di carburo di silicio nella produzione del carborundum) Betta A., Maranelli G., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.356-360. Illus. 24 ref. (In Italian)

Recent reports have shown that not only silicon carbide dusts but also fibres are liberated into the working environment during the various phases of silicon carbide production (using Acheson furnaces), thus creating a further potential health hazard. An environmental hygiene survey was conducted in a silicon carbide production plant with the aim of quantifying airborne dusts and fibres. Although dust levels were below 50% of the TLV, high concentrations of fibres were observed (analysed via optical microscopy using the criteria for asbestos fibres), which in some locations reached levels of 2,000 fibres/L with means (GM) between 100 and 780 fibres/L according to department. These results are assessed in the light of the growing interest of researchers in the experimental effects of silicon carbide fibres. (59665)

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CIS 93-173 Fire safety in view of the 1993 European Market. Analysis of Community Directive 89/106/EEC. (Spanish: La seguridad contra incendios en la construcción, cara al Mercado Unico Europeo de 1993. Análisis de la Directiva Comunitaria 89/106/CEE) Lacosta Berna J.M., Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 1991, No.118, p.50-61. Illus. (In Spanish)

Directive 89/106/EEC (see CIS 93-3) on construction materials whose objective is the free exchange of these materials with the European Community, is reviewed. This Directive, with 24 articles in ten chapters and four annexes, has a general character estabishing the essential safety requirements for construction materials. Four out of the six essential requirements established are directly related to safety and health aspects: fire safety; hygiene and health; safe use; noise protection. The essential requirements of general character are made more specific in the interpretative documents elaborated by the Technical Committees (one for each essential requirement). Annex I lists the products and installations covered by the fifth-edition draft of the essential requirement on fire safety. (59459)

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CIS 93-174 Urinary tract tumours in textile workers in the Prato area. (Italian: Tumori delle vie urinarie escretrici negli addetti all'industria tessile nell'area pratese) Becherini R., Seniori Costantini A., Benelli R., Calistri S., Gasperini M.M., Gavazzi M., Masala G., Merler E., Monechi V., Nannini R., Paci E., Zappa M., Kriebel D., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.82, No.6, p.492-503. 31 ref. (In Italian)

A hospital-based case control study on bladder and lower urinary tract cancers was conducted in the Prato area, Italy, where the textile industry is the main manufacturing sector (about 50,000 employees). 'Cases' were male subjects, aged over 15yrs in whom urothelial cancer had been diagnosed during the period 1980-1985; control (two for each case) were subjects of the same sex and age with other urological diseases or cancer of the prostate or testis. Cases and controls were interviewed via a questionnaire on occupational history and personal habits. A positive association was found for subjects who had worked in the textile industry (OR=1.42). Analysis by job title showed a positive association for "rag selectors" (OR=4.09), whereas no association was found for dyers (OR=0.74). (59647)

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CIS 93-175 Low back injuries - A case-control study on a population of health service workers. (Italian: Lombalgia da sforzo - Studio caso-controllo tra i lavoratori dei servizi sanitari di una unità sanitaria locale) Baldasseroni A., Tartaglia R., Biggeri A., Carnevale F., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.82, No.6, p.515-520. 16 ref. (In Italian)

Data concerning all accidents with absence from work exceeding three days were analysed in a cohort of 5,000 workers (all employees of a Local Health Unit). A total of 1,062 accidents were recorded in the file from 1987 to 1989, of which 118 were coded as "low-back injury". A case-control study design was used to detect the main causes of these accidents, using accidents coded as other than low-back injury as controls. The odds ratios and related confidence limits were calculated in order to assess the degree of association, taking account of potentially confounding factors. A significant relationship was observed between hospital wards and other health service departments rated as 'high exposure' and low-back injury (OR high exposure versus low exposure = 2.13). The selection bias and its influence on the results is also discussed. (59650)

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CIS 93-176 Occupational health nursing: Its history, objective and method. (Japanese: Sangyō kango no rekishi, mokuteki, hōhōron) Maeda K., Journal of Public Health Practice, Feb. 1991, Vol.55, No.2, p.82-88. Illus. 15 ref. (In Japanese)

The history of occupational health nursing in Japan can be divided into four phases. Phase 1 (1922-1940s): The coming into force of the Medical Insurance Law in 1922 marked the first employment of nurses in public health work and in insurace agencies. Phase 2 (1947-1960s): With the Labour Safety and Hygiene Regulations becoming effective in 1947, the activities of "public health nurses" in industry (especially in tuberculosis management) were greatly increased. In 1969, the speciality of occupational health nurse was established. Phase 3 (1972-1980s): In 1972, the Industrial Safety and Health Law (CIS 92-352) became an independent law and emphasised the roles of occupational health nurses in workplaces. Occupational nursing education was formally started in 1982. Phase 4 (1989): In 1989 the extensive amendments of the Industrial Safety and Health Law emphasised new technology in health monitoring, disease prevention and health management. The roles of modern occupational health nurses are: to strengthen basic and continuing education in occupational health nursing, to institutionalise employment of nurses in industries and to cooperate with community health agencies for continuous health care for retired workers. (59323)

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CIS 93-177 Certified sick leave and work load - A case referent study among nurses. Bourbonnais R., Vinet A., Meyer F., Goldberg M., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.69-74. 27 ref. (In English)

A case-referent study assessed the association of medically certified sick leave taken by nurses from seven hospitals with some occupational characteristics: hospital, care unit, and two workload indices (patients' average length of stay, and nurse-patient ratio). Cases (n=1,165) experienced at least one episode of medically certified sick leave between 1984 and 1987. Referents (n=1,165) were chosen from subjects who had no such leave and were matched to cases on the basis of dates on which the sick leave occurred. Occupational data were collected from employment records and administrative files. Analysis was conducted using multiple logistic regression. Statistically significant associations were found between sick leave and one hospital, two care units, and nurse-patient ratio among head nurses. The study supports the pertinence of using certified sick leave as a non-specific indicator of health outcomes. (59339)

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CIS 93-178 Relationship of ergonomic stressors to birthweight and gestational age. Marbury M.C., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.73-83. 36 ref. (In English)

Women in many occupations are exposed to ergonomic stressors (eg, prolonged standing, physical exertion, and long work weeks). After a consideration of the major methodological problems encountered in studying effects of ergonomic stressors on birthweight and gestational age, epidemiologic studies that have addressed this issue are reviewed. No individual ergonomic stressor has been consistently associated with effects on gestational age. However, most studies which have attempted to look at the cumulative effect of several stressors report that women in the highest exposure category are at higher risk of giving birth prematurely. In contrast, data regarding an association with birthweight are more variable, and firm conclusions cannot be drawn. While future studies that assess exposure to ergonomic stressors with a more comprehensive and quantitative approach are needed, current evidence is sufficient to suggest that clinicians should take ergonomic stressors into account in the assessment of their patients' risk for preterm delivery. (59476)

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CIS 93-179 Age as a bona fide occupational qualification for firefighting - A review on the importance of measuring aerobic power. Sothmann M.S., Landy F., Saupe K., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.26-33. 77 ref. (In English)

Recent federal and judicial initiatives in the USA have led to controversy over the justification of mandatory retirement policies applied to public safety occupations. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission has been mandated to study this issue, and a critical element of that study will be to determine the types of tests to be employed as substitutes for a mandatory retirement age. In this review, a rationale is presented for the measurement of aerobic power (VO2max) as a predictor of the physical performance capability of firefighters. Task simulations rarely replicate the environmental conditions present at structural fires that stress the cardiorespiratory capability of firefighters. VO2max is an important predictor of performance effectiveness of firefighters to be used in conjunction with task-specific testing. (59334)

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CIS 93-180 A profile of health risks among blue-collar workers. Gottlieb N.H., Weinstein R.P., Baun W.B., Bernacki E.J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No. 1, p.61-68. 29 ref. (In English)

This study describes the health risks and norms specific to a population of blue-collar gas pipeline workers. The workers completed a health risk appraisal and a survey designed to measure nutrition, physical activity, tobacco use, participation in health-promoting activities, group norms, and change efforts. Multivariate analysis confirmed the relationship of friends' behaviour patterns, risk-taking, and interpersonal experience to four lifestyle health behaviours. In addition to providing baseline information for the design and implementation of a health promotion programme for these gas pipeline workers, this study supplements the existing knowledge base for tailoring work-site health promotion programmes to blue-collar workers. (59338)

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CIS 93-181 The health risks of occupational stress in Islamic industrial workers during the Ramadan fasting period. Schmahl F.W., Metzler B., Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.4, No.3, p.219-228. 18 ref. (In English)

During Ramadan, Moslems are strictly required to avoid fluids and nourishment from dawn to dusk. Heat stress during such abstinence represents a substantial health hazard. During the 1983 Ramadan period (12 June -11 July), 32 male Moslems doing light or moderate work in industrial jobs in Germany were observed. Twenty-seven of them completed the entire month of daytime fluid and food abstinence, despite clinical signs of dehydration (tachycardia, tiredness, malaise, headaches, nausea) in some of them, as well as significant changes in some clinical parameters (decreased body weight; increased haematocrit, total protein, creatinine, urea and uric acid; decrease in chlorides). Five other workers were forced, due to health reasons (acute gout, circulatory insufficiency), to interrupt their observance of Ramadan. In the light of the dangers of dehydration, it is highly recommended that there should be relief from heavy and/or hot work for Moslem workers during the Ramadan period. (59536)

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CIS 93-182 Occupational accidents in a selected chemical enterprise in Poland and an attempt to evaluate their economic effects. Bryla M., Rydlewska-Liszkowska I., Smolen M.M., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.150-156. 6 ref. (In English)

An analysis was made of occupational accidents leading to temporary absence from work occurring in a selected chemical plant in the years 1988-1989. The possibilities of evaluating costs and financial losses for the enterprise due to occupational accidents were also studied. However, the results of the evaluation, in the context of the Polish situation and based on records existing in the enterprise, were not very useful. (59656)

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CIS 93-183 Measures to reduce explosion and fire hazards in mine workings with secondary ventilation and to improve the protection of workers in case of explosion or of fire in coal mines [CEC]. (French: Mesures visant à réduire les risques d'explosion et d'incendie dans les ouvrages miniers en aérage secondaire et à améliorer la protection du personnel en cas d'explosion et d'incendie dans les mines de charbon [CCE]) Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs, Jean Monnet Building, Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Complete report: doc. No.5147/89, 315p. Illus. Summary report: doc. No.5148/1/89. (In French)

Contents of this report on a symposium held at Luxembourg on 6 and 7 Dec. 1990 include: 1. Session A. On-going ventilation; improving the monitoring of secondary mine ventilation; electricity; reducing explosion hazards; fire safety in mine workings with secondary ventilation; human factors. 2. Session B. triggered barriers; portable respirators; secondary ventilation system. 3. Session C. firedamp monitoring instruments; alarms; ventilation and air conditioning; fire at the King's Cross metro station in London. 4. Session D. The Channel tunnel (construction - general observations; ventilation of lung tunnels during excavation); conclusions and summaries. Annexes. List and addresses of session chairpersons and speakers. (59591)

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CIS 93-184 The multivariate analysis of accident data as a basis for safety planning. Its application to accidents encountered by blue-collar workers in a Swedish automobile and truck factory. Laflamme L., Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 130p. Illus. 26 ref. (In English)

This report describes the multivariate analysis of data collected from occupational accident registers on 537 accidents occurring during a two-year period at a large automobile and truck factory in Sweden. Nine accident classes are described along with the distribution of accidents by workshop, occupation and main task performed. The contribution of this type of analysis to safety planning is discussed. (59609)

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CIS 93-185 Accidents encountered by assembly workers in a Swedish automobile and truck factory. Their most common circumstances and consequences. Laflamme L., Backström T., Döös M., Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 89p. 22 ref. Illus. (In English)

This report is part of a multivariate analysis of accident data compiled in a variety of workshops of a large automobile and truck factory in Sweden; it applies particularly to assembly workers. Six typical accident patterns are described. It was found that accidents of any pattern might occur in any workshop, but that their distribution might vary according to the type of sub-tasks performed. Accident frequency also varied considerably from workshop to workshop. The contribution of this type of analysis to safety planning is discussed. (59610)

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CIS 93-186 CONCAWE Review 1:2. CONCAWE, Madouplein 1, 1030 Bruxelles, Belgium, Vol.1, No.2, Oct. 1992. 24p. Illus. (In English)

This second CONCAWE review covers work carried out up to July 1992. Topics covered: CONCAWE's priorities; current activities in helping to frame regulations, select environmental choices and improve health and safety; studies on oil discharges at refineries, vehicle emissions, gasoline vapour recovery, sulfur dioxide emission from ships, gas oils with a lower sulfur content; changes in EEC occupational exposure limits for benzene; preparation of information dossiers on the main petroleum products; seminars on oil spill remediation and environmental management; CONCAWE research and administrative changes. (59604)

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CIS 93-187 Handling and stacking bales in agriculture. Health and Safety Executive, Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 9p. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

This guidance booklet identifies hazards associated with the handling and stacking of all types of baled materials and suggests precautions and control measures for the avoidance of accidents. Topics covered: risk assessment; safety of children; training and selecting staff; manual handling; overhead power lines; handling equipment; loading trailers; roping and sheeting; working at heights; transporting bales; stacking and destacking; maintenance. (59400)

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[ Top of page ]

004 New technologies

CIS 93-188 Liver enzymes among microelectronics equipment maintenance technicians. Upfal M., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1992, Vol.34, No.4, p.384-390. 31 ref. (In English)

Equipment maintenance workers within the microelectronics industry have opportunities for occupational exposure to a variety of toxic agents. This pilot investigation compares liver enzymes in this population with that of other co-workers. Participants (n=135) were randomly selected from a medical surveillance programme at the manufacturing facility. Nine job categories were examined, including equipment maintenance workers and electronic technicians. Abnormal liver enzymes were detected among equipment maintenance workers (n=8; odds ratio 16.4; p<.008) and electronic technicians (n=10; odds ratio 27; p<.0005). The data suggest that independent and/or interactive aetiologic roles of occupation and alcohol should be further investigated. Early detection of subclinical occupational or recreational hepatotoxicity with appropriate employment of industrial hygiene control technology and/or the reduction of alcohol consumption may provide a means of preventing liver disease. (59362)

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CIS 93-189 Human-computer interaction - The implications of EC Directive 90/270/EEC. Stanton N.A., Baber C., Journal of Health and Safety, June 1992, No.8, p.29-38. Bibl.ref. (In English)

This paper examines the implications for workers, employers and ergonomists of EC Directive 90/270/EEC (CIS 90-1069) on display screen equipment. The directive manages to combine aspects of health, safety and human performance within a single framework that can be used to address problems with the human use of computers. The main issues are the design and use of computer workstations, the protection of workers' eyes, the training of workers and the organisation of daily routine. The section on the design of the user/computer interface presents the greatest challenge to human factors research, and the paper focuses on each of the topics in this section. In conclusion, there are some important topics not covered by the directive that need to be addressed in future. (59428)

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CIS 93-190 Personnel protection through reconnaissance robotics at Superfund remedial sites. Frank U., Esposito C., Sullivan D., Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, Mar. 1992, Vol.42, No.3, p.341-345. Illus. 3 ref. (In English)

Investigation, mitigation, and clean-up of hazardous materials at US Superfund (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) sites normally requires on-site workers to perform potentially dangerous functions. Workers conducting air monitoring risk dermal, ocular and inhalation exposure to hazardous chemicals, while those performing excavations also risk potential exposure to fire, explosion, and other physical injury. The Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) current efforts to protect its workers include the use of robotic devices. The paper describes the demonstration of a commercially available robotic platform modified and equipped for air monitoring and the ongoing research for the development of a ground penetrating radar (GPR) system to detect buried chemical waste drums. (59378)

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CIS 93-191 Safety management of automatic multi-purpose semi-industrial units in the chemical industry. (French: Gestion de la sécurité des pilotes chimiques polyvalents automatisés) Porte C., Delacroix A., Cuny X., Ollivier-Henry J.P., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1891-148-92, p.379-389. Illus. 11 ref. (In French)

In fine chemical process control there are two types of risk: those inherent to the process itself and those connected with the safety and reliability of the control system. This study uses conventional system safety analysis tools (functional analysis, HAZOP, FMEA, fault trees) to analyse risks related to "control" and "operational" malfunctions in a modular, multi-purpose automatic semi-industrial unit of the type used in fine chemicals engineering. The study led to a general analysis of multi-purpose chemical workshops taking into account all the different phases of a project, from the definition of specifications to the final start-up tests. Various solutions for improving the "control" part are proposed to increase system safety and operator comfort. They include increasing the microprocessor storage capacity and delocalising the control function. (59508)

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CIS 93-192 Postural tenosynovitis by misuse of a computer input device (mouse). (Italian: Tenosinovite posturale da uso incongruo di un dispositivo di puntamento (mouse) di un elaboratore) Franco G., Castelli C., Gatti C., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.352-355. Illus. 4 ref. (In Italian)

Several reports of postural problems among video display unit workers are available, most frequently involving the back, neck and shoulder. The case described is an example of tenosynovitis of the right wrist at the point where the wrist rests on the work surface while operating the mouse in a computer workstation (2-3h/day, 6 days/week). The alteration was caused by a combination of friction and pressure on the wrist joint tendon due to the faulty positioning of the hand and wrist. This is the normal resting position for the wrist (inclined toward the ulnar side), and is thus the most natural position to adopt. The reported alteration, which responded to a short period of rest and treatment with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs for two to three days, is described as an example of common injury caused by an unusual faulty posture of the hand. The preventive measures suggested to avoid the occurrence of this type of injury include: (1) instead of resting the weight of the hand on the ulnar side of the wrist, it should be distributed between the two pads of fatty tissue which form the base of the palm; (2) the mouse button could be clicked with the third finger instead of the index finger in order to avoid the tendency of the hand to roll into the faulty resting position. (59664)

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005 Chemical safety

CIS 93-193 Mortality among dust-exposed Chinese mine and pottery workers. Chen J., McLaughlin J.K., Zhang J.Y., Stone B.J., Luo J., Chen R.A., Dosemeci M., Rexing S.H., Wu Z., Hearl F.J., McCawley M.A., Blot W.J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.311-316. 20 ref. (In English)

A cohort study of 68,000 persons employed from 1972-74 in Chinese metal mines and pottery factories was conducted to evaluate cancer mortality and other diseases among workers exposed to silica and other dusts. A follow-up of subjects through 1989 revealed 6,192 deaths, a number close to that expected based on Chinese national mortality rates. There was, however, a nearly six-fold increase in deaths from pulmonary heart disease and a 48% excess of mortality from nonmalignant respiratory diseases, primarily because of a more than 30-fold excess of pneumoconiosis. Pulmonary heart disease and non-cancerous respiratory disease rates rose in proportion to dust exposure. Cancer mortality overall was not increased among the miners or pottery workers. There was no increased risk of lung cancer, except among tin miners, and trends in risk of lung cancer with increasing level of dust exposure were not significant. Risks of lung cancer were 22% higher among workers with than without silicosis. (59347)

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CIS 93-194 Application of cavity theory to the discharge of electrostatic dust filters by x-rays. Waker A.J., Brown R.C., International Journal of Radiation and Applications and Instrumentation, 1988, Vol.39, No.7, p.677-684. Illus. 15 ref. (In English)

Irradiation of electrostatic dust filters with x-rays can be used as a means of studying the charged state of these filters. Cavity theory is used to determine the relationship between ion production in the cavities and that in free air. An experimental method is propsed to check the validity of the calculations based on cavity theory and the results of experimental tests reported. Reasonable agreement is found between theoretical predictions and experimental results and the need for the use of an extended cavity theory is clearly demonstrated. (59402)

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CIS 93-195 Effect of industrial aerosols on the performance of electrically charged filter material. Brown R.C., Wake D., Gray R., Blackford D.B., Bostock G.J., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.3, p.271-294. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

Four different types of electrostatic filter material were exposed to a range of aerosols. Different aerosols varied considerably in the extent to which they caused loss of efficiency of the filters. Simple dry dusts and asbestos caused little effect, but foundry aerosols were more damaging to all filters, and coke-oven fume to filters made of soluble polymers. It is concluded that although degradation of electrically charged materials occurs when they are exposed to aerosols, significant electrical activity remains; and even if all the effects of the carge were removed, they would be no worse than mechanical filters of the same structure. A simple theory of degradation is outlined. (59425)

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CIS 93-196 Does long term concrete work cause silicosis ?. Tornling G., Tollqvist J., Askergren A., Hallin N., Hogstedt C., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.97-100. 14 ref. (In English)

Telephone interviews with detailed questions on occupational history were conducted with 271 construction workers specialising in concrete work for more than 20 years, and exposure data were evaluated for different work tasks. The mean cumulative exposure of subjects to silica was estimated to be 2.4 mg.years.m-3. Chest radiographs were classified according to the International Labour Office classification. There was no suspicion of silicosis for any of the workers. The risk of contracting silicosis from work with concrete in the Swedish construction industry in recent decades is considered to be slight and does not justify general, periodic chest radiographic screening. (59477)

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CIS 93-197 Construction and testing of an axial flow cyclone preseparator. Vaughan N.P., Journal of Aerosol Science, 1988, Vol.19, No.3, p.295-305. Illus. 12 ref. (In English)

The design, construction and testing of a new form of cyclone preseparator are described; several cyclone configurations are examined. Penetration efficiencies show that, for their size, at a given flow rate, these axial flow cyclones are more efficient at removing airborne particles, and exhibit sharper cutoffs, than most tangential flow sampling cyclones. This fact, combined with their relative ease of manufacture and reported lack of susceptibility to overloading, makes them potentially useful in a number of situations. (59481)

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CIS 93-198 Performance testing of the OSIRIS dust monitoring system. Roebuck B., Vaughan N.P., Chung K.Y.K., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1990, Vol.34, No.3, p.263-279. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

OSIRIS, a monitoring system for nonfibrous dusts based on optical scattering methods, was developed primarily for use in the coal-mining industry as an alternative to gravimetric sampling. Results are presented of comparative tests between OSIRIS, and the MRE 113A gravimetric sampler in a calm air dust box, in a wind tunnel and in field trials at two collieries. Results show that OSIRIS needs to be calibrated against the gravimetric sampler for each dust to be monitored, but once calibrated, it would be useful in monitoring respirable dust concentrations in a wide range of industrial or laboratory situations. (59483)

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CIS 93-199 Size selection of fibres by cyclone and horizontal elutriator. Iles P.J., Journal of Aerosol Science, 1990, Vol.21, No.6, p.745-760. Illus. 50 ref. (In English)

The size selection characteristics of a horizontal elutriator and a cyclone when sampling a fibrous aerosol were investigated using an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS). The measurement of fibres by the APS and the size selection of fibres by the lung are discussed. Results suggest that the cyclone is suitable for sampling the respirable fraction of both fibrous and spherical aerosols, and that to a small degree the horizontal elutriator collects too large a fraction for straight symmetrical fibres relative to the performance of the lung. However, the latter may be suitable for unsymmetrical and bent fibres. (59484)

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CIS 93-200 Generation of triboelectric charge in textile fibre mixture and their use as air filters. Smith P.A., East G.C., Brown R.C., Wake D., Journal of Electrostatics, 1988, Vol.21, p.81-98. 21 ref. (In English)

A study was made of the sign, magnitude and lifetime of the electric charge developed by the triboelectric exchange between textile fibres of different chemical type. The development of the charge is shown to take place to such an extent as to be useful in the production of efficient air filters. Such filters are stable if one of the components of the mixture is of a highly insulating type. Material made in this way is shown to have a high filtration efficiency and is capable of satisfying existing standards with ease. (59495)

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CIS 93-201 The shape selective sampling of fibrous aerosols. Griffiths W.D., Journal of Aerosol Science, 1988, Vol.19, No.6, p.703-713. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

An investigation was carried out to examine a method for the size selective sampling of aerosol particles of different shape (fibrous and isometric). A description is given of an instrument which separates aerosol particles in accordance with their electrical mobility. A number of fibrous materials were tested (ceramic, amosite and chrysotile asbestos). Observations show that the theoretical principles which lie behind the experiment are sound and the instrument operates successfully under laboratory conditions. Photomicrographs show the gradual separation of fibrous from isometric particles on the collection filter. (59496)

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CIS 93-202 Size distribution of airborne ceramic fibres as determined by transmission electron microscopy. Rood A.P., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.2, p.237-240. 6 ref. (In English)

Personal air samples from workers handling ceramic fibres were examined in a transmission electron microscope using a direct transfer technique from a membrane filter. Diameter and length distributions were obtained for those fibres identified as being ceramic. All the fibres observed were of respirable size, but less than 15% were comparable in diameter with superfine glass fibres. (59499)

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CIS 93-203 Measurements of the filtration efficiency of nuisance dust respirators against respirable and non-respirable aerosols. Wake D., Brown R.C., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.3, p.295-315. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

The filtration efficiency of a range of nuisance dust masks was investigated using monodisperse aerosols with particle diameters between 1.5 and 9µm, and dispersed dusts with particle diameters up to 40µm. The filtration efficiency of the masks was found to be highly size-dependent with the penetration of any dust through a mask depending critically on its size distribution. Combining test results with measured size-distributions of limestone dust gave predicted penetrations through the filters of between about 1 and 55%. (59500)

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CIS 93-204 Using the K(st) nomographs to estimate the venting requirements in weak dust-handling equipment. Lunn G.A., Brookes D.E., Nicol A., Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, July 1988, Vol.1, p.123-133. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

The K nomographs have been extended to take into account dusts with K(st) values less than 50 bar m/sec, and values of reduced explosion pressure less than 1.2 bar a. In a series of experiments using an 18.5m3 explosion vessel with mixtures of coal dust and limestone dust as the dust of low K(st) value, the measured reduced explosion pressures were shown to be in good agreement with predictions from the extended nomographs. Predictions from the extended nomographs were also compared with results from other methods of prediction and were shown to give acceptable predictions of vent area. (59595)

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CIS 93-205 Automated analysis of asbestos clearance samples. Kenny L.C., Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 1988, Vol.32, No.1, p.115-128. 8 ref. (In English)

The Manchester Asbestos Program Magiscan system was developed originally for counting samples of airborne asbestos in the workplace. Enhancements to the software are described which make it suitable for the screening of samples collected in a non-occupational setting, particularly after the removal of asbestos materials from buildings. The revision gives improved discrimination between fibres and other particles. In a series of trials with routine clearance samples and other low density samples, the new software gave results which were within the range of results returned from visual counting laboratories. (59597)

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CIS 93-206 Pleural thickening presumably caused by asbestos exposure on the chest X-ray film of sake brewers - Part II. The relationship between the duration of work for breweries and prevalence of pleural thickening. (Japanese: Shuzōgyo jujisha "Nototōji" shudan ni mirareta sekimen "asubesuto" ni yoru to omowareru rokumaku hikō inei - Dai 2 hō, shuzōgyo juji kikan to rokumaku hikō no hoyūritsu no kankei) Yamada Y., Kido T., Ishizaki M., Kobayashi K., Hokuriku Journal of Public Health - Hokuriku Koshu Eisei Gakkaishi, Aug. 1990, Vol.17, No.1, p.43-47. 11 ref. (In Japanese)

A total of 322 male and 84 female inhabitants of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan, who received a health check-up for seasonal immigrant workers, were examined for asbestos-related pleural thickening on chest X-rays. Seventeen (7.2%) of 235 male sake brewery workers, and three of 84 non-brewery workers showed pleural thickening. None of the female workers had such symptoms. There was a positive linear relationship between the prevalence of pleural thickening and duration of work in sake breweries; no workers who had worked for less than ten years showed pleural thickening while 13% of those who had worked for over 20 years did. Asbestos was traditionally used as a filter aid in sake production, and this practice was stopped only in 1983. This paper gives further evidence of occupational asbestos exposure among sake brewery workers. (59626)

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CIS 93-207 Asbestos - A chronology of its origins and health effects. (Italian: Asbesto - Una cronologia delle sue origini e dei suoi effetti sulla salute) Murray R., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.82, No.6, p.480-488. 26 ref. (In Italian)

The sensitive issue of asbestos is treated in chronological terms: how the "magic mineral" known in ancient times in Europe and Asia became in the late nineteenth century an important industrial resource of particular interest to the navies of the world; and how its malign effects gradually became apparent during the present century. The media have made asbestos a notorious villain, but it still has properties and applications useful to society if its use is properly controlled in the same way as that of other industrial hazards. One important application is the manufacture of asbestos cement pipes which are a convenient and cheap means of providing water supplies and sewage disposal in developing countries. An appeal is made for prudence and not hysteria in relation to the use of mineral fibres of all types. (59646)

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CIS 93-208 The determination of serum type III procollagen aminoterminal propeptide (PIIINP) in occupational exposure to rock wool fibres. (Italian: Il dosaggio del propeptide aminoterminale del procollagene III sierico (PIIINP) nell'esposizione professionale a fibre di lana di roccia) Cavalleri A., Gobba F., Ferrari D., Bacchella L., Robotti M., Mineo F., Pedroni C., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.127-134. Illus. 29 ref. (In Italian)

Fifty-six male workers exposed to rock wool during production, and 20 controls were examined. Exposure, evaluated by personal sampling, ranged from 0.05 to 0.74 fibres/mL (median 0.15). The subjects underwent a medical and chest X-ray examination according to ILO recommendations and pulmonary function tests. In all subjects the serum levels of type III procollagen N-terminal propeptide (PIIINPs) were determined. No evidence of pulmonary fibrosis, nor work-related lung diseases were observed. PIIINPs mean values in the exposed group were slightly higher (9.8ng/mL; 2.8 S.D.), but not significantly different when compared to controls (8.5ng/mL; 2.5 S.D.). No significant correlation between PIIINPs and rock wool exposure (both airborne levels and exposure duration) was observed. Furthermore, peptide levels were not related to pulmonary function test results. Results suggest that occupational exposure to rock wool fibres lower than 0.75 fibres/mL for less than 20yrs does not induce pulmonary fibrosis or an increase of type III collagen synthesis in the lung. (59653)

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CIS 93-209 An approach to the classification and assessment of asbestos-containing wastes - Description of a survey conducted in an industrial area. (Italian: Un approccio al problema della classificazione e valutazione dei rifiuti contenenti amianto - Descrizione di una indagine condotta in un'area industriale) Paoletti L., Puledda S., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.371-380. Illus. 10 ref. (In Italian)

A survey was conducted in a disused textile plant, located in an urban area, where large quantities of solid wastes were stocked. They resulted from the dismantling of the heating system and contained different types of asbestos. The aim of the survey was to classify the wastes according to the criteria established by Italian law (Presidential Decree No.915, 1982), which requires that "dusts and free fibres" be accounted for when determining the concentration of asbestos in waste. This legislation leaves two main questions open: (1) the choice of the analytical method for asbestos determination to be used to obtain basic information for waste classification; (2) the criteria to be used to define "free fibres" in waste. A general approach to the solution of these issues is offered and applied to the case in question as a possible practical model of environmental pollution control in this specific field. (59667)

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CIS 93-210 Biological monitoring of occupational exposure in the chromate pigment production industry. McAughey J.J., Samuel A.M., Baxter P.J., Smith N.J., Science of the Total Environment, 1988, No.71, p.317-322. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

A survey of occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium in chromate pigment production was undertaken in factories producing lead chromate and strontium chromate. Exceptionally high levels of chromium in blood and urine as well as skin and nasal lesions were found among workers at the strontium chromate plant. Following the introduction of improved working practices and respiratory protection equipment, there was found to be a steady elimination of chromium from blood. The study confirms the usefulness of biological monitoring in assessing the uptake of hexavalent chromium and control of exposure. (59327)

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CIS 93-211 Warehouse workers' headache - Carbon monoxide poisoning from propane-fueled forklifts. Fawcett T.A., Moon R.E., Fracica P.J., Mebane G.Y., Theil D.R., Piantadosi C.A., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No. 1, p.12-15. 7 ref. (In English)

The study examines 17 patients treated for acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning resulting from the indoor use of propane-fuelled forklifts. All patients had neurological symptoms or persistent headache and were given hyperbaric oxygen to relieve their symptoms. The concentration of CO in the exhaust emissions of 12 forklifts at five separate sites was investigated. The average CO concentration in the exhaust during engine idling was 36,000ppm (3.6%). This value decreased slightly to 30,000ppm (3.0%) at working engine speed. Measurements of exhaust flow indicate CO production rates of approximately 60L/min at working engine speed. These quantities of CO constitute a significant occupational risk to workers using propane-fuelled forklifts in unventilated indoor environments. (59331)

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CIS 93-212 Analysis of OSHA inspection data with exposure monitoring and medical surveillance violations. Schwartz B.S., Ford D.P., Yodaiken R., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.272-278. 12 ref. (In English)

US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) inspection data from the Integrated Management Information System (IMIS) enforcement database are presented for lead, ethylene oxide, and formaldehyde for fiscal years 1985, 1987, and 1989, and are discussed with emphasis on exposure monitoring or medical surveillance section violations. These data suggest that the exposure monitoring section of these standards is more commonly used to cite workplaces below these standards than is the medical surveillance section. Medical surveillance violations more commonly resulted in fines, but there were no differences in the magnitude of the fines for exposure monitoring or for medical surveillance violations. Implications of these findings are discussed. (59343)

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CIS 93-213 Closed-circuit methodology for inhalation challenge tests with isocyanates. Vandenplas O., Malo J.L., Cartier A., Perreault G., Cloutier Y., American Review of Respiratory Disease, Mar. 1992, Vol.145, No.3, p.582-587. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

A closed-circuit apparatus for generating isocyanates in a gaseous form was developed to help in the diagnosis of isocyanate-induced occupational asthma. Twenty subjects suspected of having isocyanate-induced asthma were tested using both the older, small challenge room method and the newer method in a randomised sequential way. Isocyanate concentrations were more stable with the closed-circuit apparatus than with the challenge room method. The percentage of the total exposure time during which concentrations were above 20ppb was reduced from 11.3 to 4.5%. The two methods yielded the same number of positive and negative responses, except for one subject who did not have a positive reaction when tested with the challenge room method. The pattern and magnitude of asthmatic reactions were similar for both methods. However, the duration of exposure was shorter with the challenge room method than with the closed-circuit method. (59375)

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CIS 93-214 The Workplace Exposure Assessment Expert System (WORKSPERT). Tait K., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.84-98. Illus. 30 ref. (In English)

The Workplace Exposure Assessment Expert System (WORKSPERT) has been developed to assist the performance of workplace exposure assessments (WEAs). It includes computer software that evaluates various hazardous substances, workplace conditions, and worker exposures for designated homogeneous exposure groups (HEGs). The three major components of the system (substance, workplace, and exposure factors) are described by 27 multiple attribute variables. An air monitoring program (AMP) may be recommended for each HEG based upon the WEA. The AMP provides recommendations for an appropriate sampling strategy, sampling duration, multiple substance exposures, and number of samples to be obtained in the future. WORKSPERT is designed for use by knowledgeable, qualified technical professionals (e.g., safety and health specialists, chemists, engineers, and toxicologists). The use of WORKSPERT assists compliance with occupational safety and health regulations in the US and facilitates the communication of substance hazards, workplace controls, and worker exposures in a succinct manner. (59381)

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CIS 93-215 The contributions to solvent uptake by skin and inhalation exposure. Daniell W., Stebbins A., Kalman D., O'Donnell J.F., Horstman S.W., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.124-129. Illus. 24 ref. (In English)

Solvent exposures were assessed among 97 auto body repair workers in order to determine whether skin contact represented a significant route of exposure. The median time-weighted average air exposure to solvents was 8.4% of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) combined solvent threshold limit value (TLV). Urine methyl hippuric acids (MHAs, metabolites of xylenes) were low compared to the ACGIH biological exposure index (BEI) with a median of 2% and a range of 0-12% BEI but were strongly correlated with both the level of airborne xylenes and skin exposure when considered simultaneously by using analysis of covariance (R=0.91, p<0.0001). MHA excretion attributable to skin exposure for 15 minutes or more generally was comparable to or greater than that from associated air exposure over the full work shift. (59384)

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CIS 93-216 Fast gas chromatography for air monitoring - Limits of detection and quantitation. Ke H., Levine S.P., Mouradian R.F., Berkley R., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.130-137. Illus. 22 ref. (In English)

Gas chromatography is a very fast method of air monitoring, usable in the workplace or the community. The use of "fast" gas chromatographic (GC) instrumentation and methods may allow the completion of analyses in less than 10sec when a flame ionisation detector is used and in less than 30sec when an electron capture detector is used. In this study, the fast GC system was evaluated as an air-monitoring tool for 41 different organic vapours at concentrations as low as 0.1ppb. (59385)

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CIS 93-217 Workers' exposure to isocyanates. Lesage J., Goyer N., Desjardins F., Vincent J.Y., Perrault G., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.146-153. Illus. 37 ref. (In English)

A model of exposure to isocyanates, based on knowledge of industrial processes and starting materials and the results of industrial hygiene surveys, is proposed. This model of exposure predicts the concentration and physical form of airborne isocyanate monomers and oligomers. A new sampling and analytical system was developed that is capable of determining the physical and chemical characteristics of occupational exposure to a variety of aliphatic and aromatic isocyanates as required by the exposure model. The practicality of the system was evaluated during field trials. Airborne concentrations of isocyanates were measured in two foam plants, nine paint shops, and two foundries to verify the usefulness of the model. Exposure in foam plants was predominantly to gaseous monomer isocyanates. Exposure to oligomer isocyanates was higher than expected in paint shops. Both monomer and oligomer isocyanates were undetectable in foundries. (59387)

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CIS 93-218 Effect of repeated occupational exposure to lead, cessation of exposure, and chelation on levels of lead in bone. Hu H., Pepper L., Goldman R., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.20, No.6, p.723-735. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

A sensitive K-X-ray fluorescence (K-XRF) instrument was used to measure lead levels in the tibia and patella on 12 subjects who had relatively well-documented histories of lead exposure and blood lead levels. For some subjects, K-XRF measurements were taken before and after chelation with EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid). Results confirm that K-XRF measured bone lead levels correspond to cumulative blood lead indices and not to current blood lead levels. Moreover, the data suggest that bone lead levels: (1) correspond to urinary lead following the EDTA mobilisation test unless previous chelation has occurred; (2) rise initially after lead exposure ceases and blood lead levels decrease, and then fall; (3) do not decrease with a 3 to 5-day course of therapeutic EDTA chelation. Lead levels in the patella were noted to decrease more rapidly than levels in the tibia after cessation of lead exposure, a finding that probably reflects the greater turnover of lead in trabecular bone than in cortical bone. (59417)

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CIS 93-219 Protection from environmental tobacco smoke in California. The case for a smoke-free workplace. Borland R., Pierce J.P., Burns D.M., Gilpin E., Johnson M., Bal D., Journal of the American Medical Association, 12 Aug. 1992, Vol.268, No.6, p.749-752. 32 ref. (In English)

A survey of 7,162 nonsmoking indoor workers in California showed that nonsmokers working where there was only a work-area ban were 2.8 times more likely to be exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) than those working in a smoke-free work site. In workplaces with no policy or a policy not covering the work area, nonsmokers were over eight times more likely to be exposed to ETS than those who worked in a smoke-free work site. Results indicate that adequate protection of nonsmokers from ETS exposure requires a smoke-free site. (59433)

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CIS 93-220 Technological changes in cancer prevention. Fishbein L., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, 1992, Vol.18, Supplement 1, p.97-109. 75 ref. (In English)

This overview highlights some of the strategies employed in the technological changes in cancer prevention and cites examples of source reduction, changes of formulation, product or process changes, recycling, and hazardous materials management, particularly in North America, Western Europe and Japan. (59445)

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CIS 93-221 Cancer incidence among creosote-exposed workers. Karlehagen S., Andersen A., Ohlson C.G., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Feb. 1992, Vol.18, No.1, p.26-29. 17 ref. (In English)

Cancer incidence was studied among 922 creosote-exposed wood-impregnators at 13 plants in Sweden and Norway. No data on individual exposures were available. The study population was restricted to men employed during the period 1950-1975, and their cancer morbidity was checked through the cancer registries. The total cancer incidence was somewhat lower than expected, 129 cases versus 137 expected (SIR standard incidence ratio 0.94). Increased risks in both countries combined were observed for lip cancer (SIR 2.50, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.81-5.83), skin cancer (SIR 2.37, 95% CI 1.08-4.50), and malignant lymphoma (SIR 1.9, 95% CI 0.83-3.78). Exposure to sunlight may have contributed to the risk of lip and skin cancer. (59449)

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CIS 93-222 Mortality among workers engaged in the development or manufacture of styrene-based products - An update. Bond G.G., Bodner K.M., Olsen G.W., Cook R.R., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.145-154. 23 ref. (In English)

Mortality data were updated another 11 years through 1986 for a previously studied cohort of 2,904 male chemical workers who had been potentially exposed to styrene and related materials for a year or more between 1937 and 1971. Substantial deficits in mortality from all causes and from all cancers were observed in the cohort when it was compared with white males in the United States, and with other chemical workers who were unexposed to styrene-based products. Mortality from leukaemia was slightly less than expected, in contrast to an excess of lymphatic leukaemia observed in the original period. Yet small elevations in risk of other types of lymphatic cancer, particularly multiple myeloma, persisted. The risk of these cancers did not increase with estimated intensity or duration of styrene exposure. The findings are discussed in context with those of studies of similarly exposed workers in related industries. (59452)

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CIS 93-223 Mortality of workers employed at organochlorine pesticide manufacturing plants - An update. Brown D.P., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.155-161. 15 ref. (In English)

A previous mortality study among four organochlorine pesticide manufacturers was updated through 1987. The organochlorine pesticides included chlordane; heptachlor and endrin; aldrin, dieldrin and endrin; and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. The mortality for all causes and all malignant neoplasms at each of the plants was lower than expected. There was a statistically significant increase in liver and biliary tract cancer among workers at plant 3 (five observed, standardised mortality ratio 393, 95% confidence interval 1.27-9.20). These results are somewhat consistent with experimental animal findings showing benign and malignant tumours of the liver after exposure to aldrin and dieldrin. However, the deaths were due to a mixture of intra- and extra-hepatic tumours (biliary tract and gall-bladder), and the dose-response analysis was limited because of the small number of deaths and lack of exposure data. Additional study of this group should include continued follow-up of the total cohort and a case-referent analysis of the deaths from liver and biliary tract cancer. (59453)

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CIS 93-224 Toxic effects of combined exposure to toluene and xylene in animals. I. Acute inhalation study. Korsak Z., Sokal J.A., Dedyk A., Tomas T., Jędrychowski R., Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine, 1988, Vol.1, No.1, p.45-50. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Rotarod performance and respiratory rate were measured in rats exposed to toluene, to xylene and to mixtures (50% - 50% by volume) of these substances. The median effective concentrations at which disturbances of rotarod performance occurred were 4050ppm for toluene, 4520ppm for xylene and 2770ppm for their mixture. The corresponding concentrations at which the respiratory rate of the rats was depressed to 50% were 4790ppm, 2160ppm and 1950ppm, respectively. These results suggest that combined exposures to toluene and xylene have a more than additive effect on experimental animals. Parts II, III and IV of this series of experiments are abstracted as CIS 93-225, 92-1952 and 92-1953. (59471)

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CIS 93-225 The toxic effects of combined exposure to toluene and m-xylene in animals. II. Blood toluene and m-xylene during single and combined exposure in rats. Korsak Z., Sokal J.A., Świercz R., Polish Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health, 1991, Vol.4, No.4, p.377-381. Illus. 8 ref. (In English)

The influence on blood m-xylene concentration in rats of combined exposure to m-xylene and toluene vapours at concentrations of 100ppm each was investigated. Within 6-7h of coexposure, a significant increase in blood m-xylene exposure was observed, as compared with exposure to 100ppm m-xylene alone. The more than additive effects of combined exposure to these substances, reported in Part I of the series (see CIS 93-224), is supported by these findings. Parts III and IV of the series are abstracted as CIS 92-1952 and 92-1953. (59472)

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CIS 93-226 An investigation of airborne asbestos concentration in two UK buildings before, during and after the removal of asbestos. Jaffery S.A.M.T., Burdett G.J., Rood A.P., International Journal of Environmental Studies, 1988, Vol.32, p.169-180. 10 ref. (In English)

Some 185 air samples were taken in two buildings before, during and after the removal of sprayed amosite asbestos insulation from the ceiling void. The samples were analysed by optical phase contrast microscopy and transmission electron microscopy for fibres >5µm long. Tables show measured fibre concentrations during various activities. Results show that repeated impact or disturbance is required before concentrations in the vicinity of maintenance activities would approach the UK occupational limit. Samples taken some weeks after the completion of the removal showed that amosite concentrations remained higher than before the removal was attempted. (59482)

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CIS 93-227 Analysis of chrysoidine dyes using high-performance thin-layer chromatography and a proposed method for the measurement of chrysoidine Y and R in air samples. Foster R.D., Groves J.A., Analyst, Nov. 1988, Vol.113, p.1613-1623. 27 ref. (In English)

A method for the analysis of chrysoidine dyes using high-performance thin-layer chromatography is described. The composition of chrysoidine dyes manufactured in the UK is examined and proposals are made for a sampling and analysis scheme to measure the concentrations of the dyes in air. A modification of the technique for screening of the dyes to determine whether o-toluidine was used in their manufacture is also described. (59497)

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CIS 93-228 Analysis of steroidal hormones in workplace atmospheres. Harding A., Robertson S.M., Bagon D.A., Analytical Proceedings, Sep. 1988, Vol.25, p.304-305. 2 ref. (In English)

A procedure is described for the assessment of personal exposure to steroidal hormones from airborne dust and surface contamination. Three routes of uptake are considered (inhalation, skin absorption and ingestion) along with appropriate sampling methods for each one (personal and background air sampling, swab sampling of solid surfaces and biological monitoring). A method of analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography is outlined and detection limits of various steroid hormones are listed. The procedure is capable of achieving detection limits down to 0.02µg/m3 (for a 100L air sample) or 0.002µg/m3 for a full 8h (1m3) sample. (59498)

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CIS 93-229 Glycol ethers - State of the art and research prospects. (French: Les éthers de glycol - Etat actuel des connaissances - Perspective de recherche) Cicolella A., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1890-148-92, p.359-378. Illus. 132 ref. (In French)

Glycol ethers are a family of products, the use of which, as solvents, has increased sharply during the last few years: paints, inks, varnishes, cosmetics, cleaning products, etc. Two million people are thought to be exposed at work and many more at home. Experimental data are consistent as far as testicular and developmental effects are concerned, but rather scarce for the haematological ones and non-existent for carcinogenicity. No chronic toxicity study has been published. Human data are scarce: a few cases of malformations and haematological effects as well as some epidemiological studies on morbidity (with poor exposure evaluation), and no mortality or case-control studies. The INRS has therefore launched a research programme consisting of epidemiological, clinical, toxicological and monitoring studies on exposure to glycol ethers. (59507)

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CIS 93-230 Occupational cadmium exposure and testicular endocrine function. Mason H.J., Human and Experimental Toxicology, 1990, Vol.9, p.91-94. 13 ref. (In English)

A study was made of men who had worked for one or more years in a factory manufacturing copper-cadmium alloy. The effect of cadmium exposure on the pituitary-testicular endocrine axis was measured by serum testosterone, luteinising hormone (LH) and follicular-stimulation hormone (FSH). The lack of testicular endocrine effects was in contrast to significant dose-related changes in renal glomerular and tubular function demonstrated in the same population. (59599)

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CIS 93-231 Nephropathies and exposure to perchloroethylene in dry-cleaners. Mutti A., Alinovi R., Bergamaschi E., Biagini C., Cavazzini S., Franchini I., Lauwerys R.R., Bernard A.M., Roels H., Gelpi E., Rosello J., Ramis I., Price R.G., Taylor S.A., De Broe M., Nuyts G.D., Stolte H., Fels L.M., Herbort C., Lancet, 25 July 1992, Vol.340, No.8813, p.189-193. 29 ref. (In English)

In a collaborative European study, the renal effects of occupational exposure to perchloroethylene (PCE) were assessed by comparing markers of nephrotoxic effects in dry-cleaners and matched controls. Exposure was evaluated by measuring the solvent concentration in blood specimens and in air samples; urinary samples were also collected. Several renal disturbances were found among PCE-exposed workers compared with the controls. The findings indicate that solvent-exposed subjects, especially dry-cleaners, need to be monitored for the possible development of chronic renal diseases. (59608)

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CIS 93-232 Critical review of the toxicity of methyl n-butyl ketone: Risk from occupational exposure. Bos P.M.J., de Mik G., Bragt P.C., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.175-194. 65 ref. (In English)

Methyl n-butyl ketone (MBK) was considered rather harmless until an outbreak of peripheral neuropathy occurred in 1973 among workers exposed to MBK. MBK easily penetrates the skin; pulmonary retention is approximately 80-85% in man. Distribution is widespread with highest levels in blood and liver; MBK also reaches the foetal tissues. MBK metabolism probably depends on the route of exposure, and is very similar to that of n-hexane. The critical organ is the nervous system. These effects find expression as peripheral neuropathy, with potential for serious effects of the central nervous system. Peripheral neuropathy may develop in workers exposed to only a few ppm of MBK. The difference in the Occupational Exposure Limits for MBK and n-hexane, as established by several organisations, is questioned in view of the neurotoxic effects of these substances. (59611)

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CIS 93-233 Exposure to organic solvents and adverse pregnancy outcome. Windham G.C., Shusterman D., Swan S.H., Fenster L., Eskenazi B., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.241-259. 46 ref. (In English)

In a large case-control study (n=1,926) of spontaneous abortion (SAB), exposure to solvents was ascertained by a telephone interview that asked about occupational use of 18 specific solvents or products, as well as an open-ended "other" solvent category. The adjusted odds ratio for use of any solvent was 1.1 (0.8, 1.5). Solvents for which at least a double crude risk of SAB was found included perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and paint thinners. By solvent class, an association was seen with aliphatic solvents, but there was no dose-response effect by hours of use. From this and other studies, occupational exposure to at least some solvents appears associated with SAB. The association of solvent exposure and foetal growth among live-born offspring of controls was also examined. (59614)

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CIS 93-234 Chemical hazards in the electronics industry. (Japanese: Denshi sangyō ni okeru kemikaru hazādo) Baba H., Air Cleaning - Kūki Seijō, Oct. 1988, Vol.26, No.3, p.1-13. Illus. (In Japanese)

The characteristics of chemical hazards that are encountered in the electronics (particularly, the semiconductor) industry, as compared to other manufacturing industries, are described. The magnitude of the problem is illustrated by the large variety of highly dangerous chemicals used and released in the manufacture of optoelectronic and integrated circuit devices, the hazards posed to workers and the environment, and the difficulties and costs of counteracting them. The processes and chemicals involved in the fabrication of semiconductor-grade silicon, single crystal formation, integrated circuit devices, light-emitting diode and solar photovoltaic devices are presented. (59628)

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CIS 93-235 Adverse health effects of isocyanates. (Italian: Isocianati - Effetti dannosi sulla salute) Mapp C.E., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1991, Vol.82, No.4, p.328-335. 66 ref. (In Italian)

The paper describes the main adverse biological effects of isocyanates, particularly toluene diisocyanate (TDI). It is not intended to be simply a review of the literature but a stimulus for further investigations on the mechanism of action, chemical characterisation, environmental release, exposure, fate, health effects, carcinogenicity and mutagenicity of isocyanates. (59644)

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CIS 93-236 Lymphocyte subsets in workers occupationally exposed to styrene. (Italian: Sottopopolazioni linfocitarie in lavoratori professionalmente esposti a stirene) Mutti A., Buzio C., Perazzoli F., Bergamaschi E., Bocchi M.C., Selis L., Mineo F., Franchini I., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.167-177. Illus. 29 ref. (In Italian)

In a comparative study of the blood of 32 styrene-exposed workers and of 19 controls, it was found that there was a reduced proportion of T helper lymphocytes and a relative increase of T suppressors in the blood of heavily exposed workers (>50ppm 8h-TWA) as compared to less exposed workers and controls. In the blood of exposed workers in general, there was a significant increase in the proportion of natural killer (NK) T lymphocytes. On the other hand, there was no change in the proportion of B lymphocytes in the blood of exposed workers. As a whole, the findings support the hypothesis of the immunotoxicity of styrene, either through a direct effect on lymphocytes or through an indirect mechanism possibly mediated by neuroendocrine changes. (59657)

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CIS 93-237 Cadmium exposure and Wegener's granulomatosis - Case report. Gambini G., Leurini D., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.349-351. 8 ref. (In English)

Case report of a patient with heavy past exposure to cadmium (urinary and blood Cd levels of 67µg/L and 52µg/L, respectively, at the time of exposure). The patient developed asthenia, weight loss, a cough and antibiotic-resistant fever. Eventually he died of renal and cardiocirculatory failure and pneumonia. The clinical, laboratory and histological data suggest that the patient died of Wegener's granulomatosis, possibly due to aberrant hypersensitivity to an unknown antigen. The immunosuppression that is behind this hypersensitivity might well be a result of cadmium poisoning. (59663)

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CIS 93-238 Sudden death from freon 22?. (Italian: Morte improvvisa da freon 22?) Dal Grande M., Zanderigo C., Coato F., Menegolli S., Cipriani E., Pancheri V., Malesani F., Perbellini L., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.361-364. 20 ref. (In Italian)

Case report of a plumber's fatal work accident. Investigations into the causes of death made at post mortem showed that the worker had absorbed a large quantity of freon 22 (chlorodifluoromethane) which is known to be a narcotic agent and capable of inducing cardiac arrhythmia. It is believed that freon inhalation was the cause of loss of consciousness with consequent death from drowning in the water issuing from the pipes. Preventive measures need to be reinforced by adequate information to the workforce on the risks connected to this type of gas. (59666)

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CIS 93-239 Allergic contact dermatitis from the preservative 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (1,2-BIT; Proxel®): A case report, its prevalence in those occupationally at risk and in the general dermatological population, and its relationship to allergy to its analogue Kathon® CG. Damstra R.J., van Vloten W.A., van Ginkel C.J.W., Contact Dermatitis, Aug. 1992, Vol.27, No.2, p.105-109. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

Occupational contact allergy to 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one (1,b-BIT, Proxel®) is analysed. This compound is widely used in industry as a preservative in water-based solutions such as pastes, paints and cutting oils. The optimal concentration for patch testing proved to be 0.4g/L (0.04%) in water. In 4 out of 17 patients (23%) at occupational risk (painters, paper-hangers), contact allergy to 1,2-BIT was found. Of 556 consecutive dermatological patients without clear occupational risk, 10 (1.8%) showed positive patch tests to 1,2-BIT; in 3 patients 1,2-BIT contact allergy was related to domestic paper-hanging. Although the chemical structure of 1,2-BIT shows some analogy with the preservative Kathon® CG true cross-sensitivity was found to be unlikely. (59322)

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CIS 93-240 Assessment of the peripheral, central, and autonomic nervous system function in styrene workers. Murata K., Araki S., Yokoyama K., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.20, No.6, p.775-784. Illus. 40 ref. (In English)

In an investigation of nervous system function in 11 styrene-exposed workers in a fibre-reinforced plastic boat factory, and in 11 controls, it was found that some measures of nervous function in the exposed workers were significantly slowed, while others were not significantly changed. The results suggest that the main effect of styrene on the nervous system is on the faster myelinated fibres of the peripheral sensory nerves and on autonomic nervous activity. (59418)

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CIS 93-241 Carcinogens in rubber production in the Soviet Union. Solionova L.G., Smulevich V.B., Turbin E.V., Krivosheyeva L.V., Plotnikov J.V., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.120-123. 17 ref. (In English)

In a preliminary phase of a broad research project on cancer among workers in a rubber footwear plant in Moscow, exposure to several known or potential carcinogens was assessed. There were high dust contents bearing both toxic substances and carcinogens. The highest concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene (500-14 400µg) were found on the soot used as a filler, and the maximum N-dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) level was measured in thiram (150-23 868µg.kg-1). Air samples from the vulcanisation process and the pressing of rubber goods showed BaP levels of up to 1.43µg.m-3. In the work area where polyvinyl chloride was used, the mean vinyl chloride concentration was 0.21 (SE 0.06) mg.m-3. The mean value of the acrylonitrile concentrations in the workroom area was 0.19 (SE 0.07) mg.m-3. Very high levels of DMNA and N-diethylnitrosamine were measured in the preparatory shop in the winter. (59479)

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CIS 93-242 Cancer incidence among asbestos-exposed chemical industry workers: An extended observation period. Hilt B., Andersen A., Rosenberg J., Langård S., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Oct. 1991, Vol.20, No.2, p.261-264. 13 ref. (In English)

A previous study on the incidence of cancer in a cohort of 286 asbestos-exposed electrochemical industry workers observed from 1953 through 1980 has been extended with another eight years of follow-up. The incidence of cancer was derived from the Cancer Registry of Norway, and the expected figures were calculated by a life table method. During the extended follow-up period from 1981 through 1988, among the cohort members there were 12 new cancer cases versus 14.2 expected (SIR 85). In a lightly exposed sub-cohort, the extended follow-up revealed 4 cases of lung cancer or pleural mesothelioma versus 1.6 cases expected (SIR 256). In a heavily exposed sub-cohort, the corresponding figures were 3 and 0.5 (SIR 588). (59615)

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CIS 93-243 Studies on some biochemical parameters in human manganese exposure. Siqueira M.E.P.B., Hirata M.H., Adballa D.S.P., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.82, No.6, p.504-509. 28 ref. (In English)

Biochemical studies were carried out in 35 male workers exposed to low concentrations of manganese in a ferromanganese alloy plant and in 24 workers not occupationally exposed (control group). Adenosine deaminase, total and HDL cholesterol in plasma, inorganic phosphate, calcium and urea in plasma and urine and 17-ketosteroids in urine, as well as urinary manganese were determined in order to assess their validity as early diagnostic measures in Mn intoxication. Significant increases in plasma inorganic phosphates, HDL cholesterol, urinary calcium, plasma and urinary manganese were found in the exposed workers while the other parameters remained unchanged. (59648)

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CIS 93-244 Glove permeation by semiconductor processing mixtures containing glycol-ether derivatives. Zellers E.T., Ke H., Smigiel D., Sulewski R., Patrash S.J., Han M., Zhang G.Z., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.105-116. Illus. 34 ref. (In English)

Results of permeation tests of several glove materials challenged with semiconductor processing formulations containing glycol-ether derivatives are described. Commercial glove samples of nitrile rubber, natural rubber, butyl rubber, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a natural rubber/neoprene/nitrile blend, and a natural rubber/neoprene blend were tested. Butyl rubber provided the highest level of protection against the solvent mixtures tested (excepting negative photoresist), with no breakthrough observed after four hours of continuous exposure at 25oC. Nitrile rubber provided the highest level of protection against negative photoresist and reasonably good protection against initial exposure to the other solvent mixtures. Gloves consisting of natural rubber or natural rubber blends provided less protection against the mixtures than either nitrile or butyl rubber. The effects of higher exposure temperatures and repeated exposures on performance are also documented. (59382)

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CIS 93-245 Permeation of multifunctional acrylates through selected protective glove materials. Renard E.P., Goydan R., Stolki T., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.117-123. Illus. 8 ref. (In English)

The resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated. Tests were conducted with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and two mixtures of HDDA with 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). The rubber gloves tested consisted of butyl, natural, and nitrile rubber materials. None of the acrylate compounds nor mixtures was found to permeate the butyl or nitrile rubber under the test conditions. Permeation through the natural rubber was observed in tests with pure HDDA, a 50% HDDA/50% EHA mixture, and a 25% HDDA/75% EHA mixture. TMPTA permeation through the natural rubber was also detected, but only in one of the triplicate tests after the 360-480 minute sampling interval. (59383)

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CIS 93-246 Protective gloves against chemicals. (German: Chemikalienschutzhandschuhe) Geerissen H., Die BG, Aug. 1992, Vol.8, p.460-466. Illus. (In German)

Types and properties of materials used: natural rubber; chloroprene rubber; acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber; isobutylene-isoprene-rubber; fluorinated rubber; polyvinyl chloride; polyvinyl alcohol; methods used to assess protection against chemicals (permeability, resistance to degradation and stretching). Critical discussion of various criteria and concepts used to evaluate the resistance of protective gloves. (59639)

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CIS 93-247 Dermal and inhalation exposure to dimethoate. Al-Jaghbir M., Salhab A.S., Hamarsheh F.A., Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, May 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.358-361. 19 ref. (In English)

Dermal and respiratory exposure and plasma acetyl-cholinesterase (ChE) activity were monitored on six workers spraying tomatoe crops under plastic houses with dimethoate [O,O-dimethyl S-(N-methylcarbamoylmethyl) phosphorodithoate]. The mean dermal exposure was 914mg/day and the mean respiratory exposure was 17mg/day. The maximum dose received by the spraymen was 18.2mg/day. It was estimated that 84% of the dermal exposure was to the forearms and hands. Of the body areas monitored, the back of the neck received the least rate of exposure. The results also show a reduction in plasma ChE among spraymen. The mean difference was 37.1% less than the pre-exposure values, which exceeds the limits set by the World Health Organization. (59340)

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CIS 93-248 Urinary excretion of diethylphosphorus metabolites in persons poisoned by quinalphos or chlorpyrifos. Vasilić Ž., Drevenkar V., Rumenjak V., Štengal B., Fröbe Z., Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, May 1992, Vol.22, No.4, p.351-357. Illus. 21 ref. (In English)

The urinary excretion rates of diethylphosphorus metabolites and changes in blood cholinesterase activities, as indicators of pesticide absorption and retention in the body, were studied in 15 persons poisoned either by the organophosphorus pesticides quinalphos or chlorpyrifos. The organophosphate poisoning was always indicated by a significant depression of serum and/or red blood cell cholinesterase activities. The return of serum cholinesterase activity to the range of referent values took more than 30 days and had a different course in different persons. Enzyme activity was affected not only by the amount of pesticide absorbed but also by its retention in the body which, according to the differences in excretion rate of urinary diethylphosphorus metabolites in the patients, was different in different groups of persons. (59348)

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CIS 93-249 The hidden hazard - Respiratory protection: Welding fumes. (Spanish: "El riesgo oculto" - Protección respiratoria: humos de soldadura) Arechiga H., Greco A., Protección y seguridad, Sep.-Oct. 1991, No.5, p.10-14. Illus. (In Spanish)

Various welding types are examined (arc, oxyacetylene and resistance welding). Attention is paid to the production of welding fumes as an occupational risk. Health hazards of welding fumes are reviewed and presented in tables. These include: pulmonary fibrosis and oedema, bronchitis, metal-fume fever, eye and respiratory tract irritation. Ventilation and respirators are presented as protective measures. Importance is given to training on the use and maintenance of respirators. (59435)

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CIS 93-250 Dispersion of asbestos fibres and MMMF inside truck cabs - Possible exposure of truck drivers. (Italian: Dispersione di fibre di asbesto e di fibre minerali artificiali (MMMF) all'interno della cabina di guida di autocarri - Una possibile esposizione degli autotrasportatori) Costellati L., Guglielmin A.M., Calisti R., Sgarzi A., Ghelli C., Medicina del lavoro, Nov.-Dec. 1991, Vol.82, No.6, p.510-514. 6 ref. (In Italian)

Tests on samples of braided asbestos cord used in truck exhaust systems revealed a constant presence of chrysotile. Amosite fibres were also observed in many of the samples. Following a case of asbestosis in a truck driver, it was assumed that asbestos fibres could reach the driver's cab through the openings of the ventilation and heating system and also through the spaces between the bonnet and the floor of the driver's cab. Dust samples taken in the driver's cab of ten trucks revealed the presence of asbestos fibres in three cases; MMMF were present in seven cases, very likely originating from the noise insulation panelling. It is therefore suggested that there is a possible risk for truck drivers of exposure to asbestos and MMMF fibres dispersed inside the driver's cab. (59649)

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CIS 93-251 Safety in handling chemical products in the laboratory. (Spanish: Seguridad en la manipulación de productos químicos en el laboratorio) García López J.L., Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 1991, No.41, p.11-20. Illus. 12 ref. (In Spanish)

Hazards associated with the handling of chemical products in laboratories are reviewed and Spanish regulations on the subject are surveyed. Classification, adequate labelling and handling of hazardous substances, as well as chemical incompatibilities, flammable chemical products and pressure vessels are discussed. The importance of using suitable personal protective equipment, in particular on the hands, eyes and respiratory tract, and planning protection measures in case of emergency is pointed out. Finally, information on action in case of spills, treatment of waste products, and fire fighting systems is provided. (59421)

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CIS 93-252 Solvent exposure in shoe factories. (Italian: L'inquinamento da solventi nei calzaturifici) Perbellini L., Soave C., Cerpelloni M., Medicina del lavoro, Mar.-Apr. 1992, Vol.83, No.2, p.115-119. 11 ref. (In Italian)

In order to study solvent exposure in shoe factories, 43 kinds of glues and 22 solvent products used in footwear manufacturing were analysed. A gas chromatographic spectrometric method was used to identify the mixtures of solvents contained in glues and their diluents. Acetone, ethylacetate and cyclohexane were the solvents more frequently found in glues. Cyclohexane represented on average about 40% of the solvent mixture. Methyl ethyl ketone, 3-methylpentane and 2-methylpentane were often present in glues (45-52% of the samples), but only in a few cases were they associated with n-hexane. N-hexane and methylcyclopentane were found in 32% of the glue samples. N-hexane represented 47% of the solvents only in one glue. Most of the glues contained less than 10% n-hexane. Other solvents (dichloropropane, toluene, trichloroethane, butyl acetate, iso-butyl acetate and 2,2-dimethylbutane) were found in few glue samples or in low percentages. The 22 solvents used as glue diluents were mainly acetone, ethylacetate, dichloromethane and methyl ethyl ketone. Results suggest that solvent exposure in shoe factories has changed relative to 10 years ago. Biological monitoring of shoe factory workers should measure exposures to the specific solvents found in each factory, especially acetone, cyclohexane, ethylacetate and methyl ethyl ketone. (59651)

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CIS 93-253 The presence of urinary cellular sediment and albuminuria in newspaper pressworkers exposed to solvents. Hashimoto D.M., Kelsey K.T., Seitz T., Feldman H.A., Yakes B., Christiani D.C., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.516-526. Illus. 49 ref. (In English)

A cross-sectional study of 215 newspaper pressroom workers (76% of the total eligigle) was conducted to investigate the relationship between organic solvent exposure and increased urinary cellular sediment. Thirty-two compositors were surveyed as referents. Industrial hygiene measurements showed low-level airborne exposure to organic solvents and minimal airborne exposure to glycol ethers. There was a high prevalence of solvent-related dermatitis, indicating significant dermal exposure to these substances. Pressworkers were exposed to solvent mixtures associated with dose-related increases in leukocyturia alone or in urinary cellular sediment. The presence of urinary cellular sediment was associated with increasing frequency of use of five organic solvent mixtures. The increase in urinary cellular sediment may be due to the effects of solvents on the kidney. Sixteen percent of pressmen and no compositors were found to have primarily low-grade albuminuria. Workers with urinary cellular sediment were significantly more likely to have detectable albuminuria, which was more likely to occur with increased frequency of use of four solvent mixtures. (59359)

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CIS 93-254 Effect of occupational exposure to cobalt blue dyes on the thyroid volume and function of female plate painters. Prescott E., Netterstrøm B., Faber J., Hegedüs L., Suadicani P., Christensen J.M., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Apr. 1992, Vol.18, No.2, p.101-104. 17 ref. (In English)

The effect of industrial cobalt exposure on thyroid volume and function was determined for 61 female plate painters exposed to cobalt blue dyes in two Danish porcelain factories and 48 unexposed referents. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasonography. The cobalt blue dyes were used in one of two forms, cobalt aluminate (insoluble) and cobalt-zinc silicate (semisoluble). Only the subjects exposed to semisoluble cobalt had a significantly increased urinary cobalt content (1.17µg.mmol-1 versus 0.13µg.mmol-1, p<0.0001). These subjects also had increased levels of serum thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (FT4I) (p=0.0001 and 0.0029, respectively) unaltered serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and marginally reduced 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), whereas thyroid volume tended to be lower (p=0.14). The group exposed to insoluble cobalt did not differ significantly in any thyroid-related parameters. No correlation between urinary cobalt and FT4I or thyroid volume was found. The study demonstrates an effect of cobalt on thyroid hormone metabolism. (59478)

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CIS 93-255 Estimation and control measures of indoor air pollution by smoking. (Japanese: Kitsuen ni yoru shitsunai kūki osen to sono taisaku) Kimura K., Shimakage K., Saitō M., Journal of Science of Labour - Rōdō Kagaku, 10 Dec. 1990, Vol.66, No.12, p.545-567. Illus. 7 ref. (In Japanese)

The quantity of air pollutants generated by smoking in office rooms was estimated and measures to control air pollution were examined. Experimentally, a cigarette generated 15mg of particulate matter, 50mL of CO and 1mL of NO. The concentration of particulate matter generated varied depending on smoking situations and ventilation in the room concerned. In a series of rooms served by the same ventilation system, tobacco smoke generated in a smoking office invaded non-smoking offices through the ventilation system. Tobacco smoke accounted for 4-74% of the particulate matter in the air supplied by the ventilation system. The relative effectiveness of three methods of controlling air pollution due to smoking was demonstrated: complete banning of smoking; separation of smoking sites or time; and limitation on the number of persons smoking at any one time. (59622)

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CIS 93-256 Asbestos: Worker protection and further prohibitions - Proposals for Regulations and guidance. Health and Safety Commission, Sir Robert Jones Memorial Workshops, Units 3 and 5-9, Grain Industrial Estate, Harlow Street, Liverpool L8 4XY, United Kingdom, 1992. 86p. (In English)

This consultative document sets out the proposals of the Health and Safety Commission for draft Regulations to amend the Control of Asbestos at Work Regulations 1987 (see CIS 89-1418) and to update and replace the Asbestos (Prohibitions) Regulations 1985 (amended 1988) with new Regulations, and for amendments to the Approved Codes of Practice on asbestos. The amending Regulations arise from the need to implement three European Directives. Proposals discussed include: revised action levels and control limits; plan of work requirements; prohibition of certain low-density insulating products and of amphibole asbestos and a range of chrysotile-based products. The implications for industry are outlined. (59408)

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CIS 93-257 Particle size-selection by simple filters. Brown R.C., Wake D., HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1988. 8p. 13 ref. (In English)

A paper from the Aerosol Society Conference held in Bournemouth, United Kingdom, 22-24 March 1988. Some experimental size-selection curves for relatively coarse filters are presented and differences in general shape are related to simple theory. Size-selectivity has a Gaussian form if the process by which the filter acts is pure interception or gravitational desposition, while a much sharper curve is associated with inertial impaction. (59429)

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CIS 93-258 The use of electrically charged polymers in air filters. Brown R.C., Wake D., Blackford D.B., East G.C., Smith P.A., HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1988. 9p. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

A paper presented at the First International Conference on Electrical, Optical and Acoustic Properties of Polymers, held in Canterbury, United Kingdom, 5-7 September 1988. The need for electrically charged filters is outlined and their mechanism of action is briefly described. The stability of the charge is discussed and unsolved problems concerning the behaviour of electrically charged filters are listed. (59600)

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CIS 93-259 Pneumatic dust control in grain elevators - Guidelines for design, operation and maintenance. National Materials Advisory Board, National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington D.C. 20418, USA, 1982. xiv, 118p. Illus. (In English)

This guide book has been compiled as a guide for designers, installers and owners of pneumatic dust control systems. Contents: dust control techniques and equipment (minimising dust generation, housekeeping); hoods, transitions and ductwork (capture velocity, design, materials of construction); dust filters and disposal of collected dust; selection and installation of exhaust fans; dust control in problem areas; requirements for design, installation and acceptance of pneumatic dust control systems; instrumentation, operation and maintenance. Glossary of definitions. (59623)

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CIS 93-260 Occupational exposure limits. Criteria document for xylene. Blonde J.P., Commission of the European Communities, Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, 2985 Luxembourg, Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, 1992. xi, 77p. Illus. 174 ref. Price: ECU 9.00., ISBN 92-826-4255-0 (In English)

The available literature on the toxicology of xylene is reviewed. It is concluded that skin contact with xylene liquid may cause dermatitis. Exposure to xylene vapours causes irritation of eyes, nose and throat among the majority of humans volunteers at 460ppm. Neurophysiological changes of EEG have been documented at 100ppm when combined with physical exercise and short-term peak exposure (400ppm). No definite conclusions can be drawn with respect to human carcinogenicity or reproductive toxicity. (59324)

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CIS 93-261 Effects on reproduction of chloroform and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane. Nordic Council of Ministers, Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 67p. 92 ref. (In English)

This Nordic Council of Ministers report reviews the available literature on the toxicology and reproductive hazards of chloroform and 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DCBP). Little data is available on the effects of chloroform on reproduction. Chloroform passes the placenta in all studied species, including man, and studies indicate a teratogenic potential after exposure for several hours per day during organogenesis. At occupational exposure levels DBCP caused serious effects on spermatogenesis without any other signs of intoxication and should therefore be considered as a specific testicular toxicant. Animal data show that it should also be considered as a mutagen and a carcinogen. (59326)

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CIS 93-262 Analysis of dangerous substances. (German: Gefahrstoff-Analytik) Leichnitz K., Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von-Leibig-Str. 1, D-W-8920 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 22. Ergänzungslieferung, Aug. 1992. 230p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-609-73282-8 (In German)

Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 92-1288, and includes new or revised chapters on: criteria of the International Organisation for Legal Metrology; the German standard on the testing of detector-tube-based measuring equipment; the German Technical Rules on Dangerous Substances; a draft European Community (EC) guideline on explosion-proof equipment; existing and proposed EC regulations on the exchange of ecological information and on "ecology audits". (59412)

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CIS 93-263 Principles for identifying unacceptable pesticides. Andersson L., Gabring S., Hammar J., Melsäter B., Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, P.O. Box 1384, 171 27 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 34p. (In English)

This report presents a set of general principles established by the Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate for assessing when a pesticide is unacceptable from a health and environmental protection standpoint. Pesticides are classified as having clearly unwanted properties or particularly serious properties according to certain toxicological parameters (acute or chronic toxicity, corrosive and irritating properties, allergenic, carcinogenic or mutagenic properties and reproductive toxicity) and ecotoxicological parameters (degradability, bioaccumulation, mobility and effects on non-target organisms). (59415)

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CIS 93-264 Analysis of dangerous substances. (German: Gefahrstoff-Analytik) Leichnitz K., Ecomed Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Justus-von-Liebig Strasse 1, D-W-8920 Landsberg/Lech, Germany, 23. Ergänzungslieferung, Dec. 1992. 170p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 3-609-73283-0 (In German)

Update to the loose-leaf collection of methods for monitoring compliance with exposure limits and antipollution laws, and for analysis of process gases. This installment follows that abstracted under CIS 93-262. It includes new or revised chapters on: abbreviations in international use; determination of certain substances; guidelines for work in contaminated areas from the Tiefbau Berufsgenossenschaft; the ISO compressed air standard; detector tube technique; technical rules for determining hydrocarbon vapours; relevant articles of the Maastricht Treaty; European Community directives on trade in chemicals and on product safety; organisation of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. (59531)

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CIS 93-265 Acute effects from exposure to organic solvents - Experimental approaches and methods. Iregren A., Seeber A., Riihimäki V., Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1991. 82p. Bibl.ref., ISBN 91-7045-137-0 (In English)

Proceedings of a workshop held in Dortmund, Germany, 7-9 March 1990. Topics covered: the contribution of psychology to the assessment of acute solvent neurotoxicity; acute narcotic effects and their implications for man; evaluation of results with respect to TLVs and MAKs; influence of subject characteristics on the identification of acute effects of solvent exposure; problems in studying low-level solvent mixtures; exposure-effect relationships in short-term exposure to industrial solvents; mixture of acetone and ethyl acetate as an example of a combined experimental exposure; selective effects of acute repeated solvent exposure on the visual system; a comparison between toluene and ethanol neurobehavioural effects. (59539)

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CIS 93-266 Toxicology of substances in relation to major hazards. Nitrogen dioxide. Meldrum M., Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 18p. 38 ref. Price: GBP 3.50., ISBN 0-11-886305-3 (In English)

This report reviews the available toxicological data on nitrogen dioxide in order to derive the 'dangerous toxic load' (DTL). There is a lack of reliable quantitative data on exposure conditions producing severe toxicity to humans. Animal studies suggest that for risk analyses the following relationshup should be used: DTL = 96,000ppm2/min. Tables show LC50 values for nitrogen dioxide in animals and observations made during single exposure inhalation studies in animals. (59594)

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CIS 93-267 Exposure of man to dioxins - A perspective on industrial waste incineration. European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals, Avenue E. van Nieuwenhuyse 4, (Bte.6), 1160 Bruxelles, Belgium, Sep. 1992. 91p. Bibl.ref. (In English)

The current knowledge of the occurrence, mechanism of formation and environmental fate of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) is reviewed. Emissions of these materials originating from industrial waste incinerators are examined along with exposure levels, toxicological properties and human health impacts. In man, the only clearly established toxic effect of these compounds is a severe form of acne called chloracne, which is observed after high accidental exposure. Data on other effects, including cancer, are inconclusive. (59596)

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CIS 93-268 Occupational exposure limits - worldwide. Cook W.A., American Industrial Hygiene Association, Akron, Ohio, USA, 1987. xii, 308p. Bibl.ref. Indexes., ISBN 0-932627-27-7 (In English)

This publication contains information on occupational exposure limits for the USA and for over 40 countries around the world that have adopted such exposure limits. An introductory chapter covers the historical development of occupational exposure limits. Data for the USA include: OSHA levels 1985; NIOSH recommendations as of 1983; ACGIH TLVs 1984-85; AIHA hygienic guides. Special provisions in individual states of the USA, and deviations from ACGIH TLVs in 6 states, are presented as notes or tables. A province-by-province survey of Canada is provided, as well as a full table of exposure limits in Ontario and Saskatchewan. Exposure limits are also surveyed for 42 countries, with tabular presentation on exposure limit data for 29 of them. Special chapters on particulate matter and carcinogens. (59603)

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CIS 93-269 IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans - Occupational exposures to mists and vapours from strong inorganic acids and other industrial chemicals. International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), World Health Organization, Distribution and Sales Service, 1211 Genève 27, Switzerland, 1992. 336p. Bibl.ref. Index. Price: CHF 65.00., ISBN 92-832-1254-1 (In English)

These monographs consist of data reviewed and evaluated by an international group of experts (Lyon, 15-22 Oct. 1991). IARC final classification: occupational exposure to strong-inorganic-acid mists containing sulfuric acid is carcinogenic in humans (Group 1); diethyl sulfate and 1,3-butadiene are probably carcinogenic in humans (2A); diisopropyl sulfate is possibly carcinogenic in humans (2B); sulfur dioxide, sulfites, metabisulfites and hydrochloric acid are not classifiable as to their carcinogenicity in humans (3). (59668)

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CIS 93-270 Recent advances in the immunotoxicity of metals. (Italian: Nuove acquisizioni sulla immunotossicologia dei metalli) Crippa M., Alessio L., Fondazione Carlo Erba, Via G. Puccini 3, 20121 Milano, Italy, 1991. 67p. Bibl.ref. (In Italian)

Proceedings of a conference held in Milan, Italy, on 4 April 1990. Papers were presented on: history and activities of the Scientific Committee for the Toxicology of Metals; the immune system as the target organ of toxic metals; allergic reactions to metals; autoimmunity and immunosuppression due to exposure to metals; nickel-induced skin pathologies; metal-induced allergies in domestic workers; conclusions. (59670)

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CIS 93-271 Mixed hydrocarbons (C3 to C10) in air - Laboratory method using pumped polymer and carbon sorbent tubes, thermal desorption and gas chromatography. Health and Safety Executive, Occupational Medicine and Hygiene Laboratory, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., May 1992. 9p. 16 ref. Price: GBP 3.00., ISBN 0-11-885998-6 (In English)

This data sheet is a revision of the 1987 edition (see CIS 89-956). The method described is suitable for the measurement of airborne C3 to C10 hydrocarbons in the concentration range of approximately 0.2 to 1,000mg/m3 total hydrocarbon for samples of 2.5L of air and for sampling over periods in the range 10min to 8h. A measured volume of sampled air is drawn through two sorbent tubes in series; the collected vapour is desorbed by heat and transferred under inert gas into a chromatograph equipped with a capillary column and a flame ionisation detector. In the appendix: a table of 150 hydrocarbons with corresponding molecular weight, Kovats index, retention time (relative to toluene=1), number of carbon atoms and compound type. (59392)

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CIS 93-272 Laboratory method for the determination of n-hexane in air. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 8p. 10 ref. Price: GBP 2.50., ISBN 0-11-885740-1 (In English)

The described method is suitable for the measurement of airborne n-hexane vapour in the concentration range 30 to 600mg/m3 for exposure times between 30min and 6h, provided the total exposure dose does not exceed 3,200mg/m3 × hours. The method is designed for personal monitoring and may be used for fixed location monitoring only if sufficient air movement can be assured. The n-hexane vapour migrates into the sampler by diffusion and is collected on the charcoal sorbent. The collected vapour is desorbed by carbon disulfide and the solution is analysed with a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionisation detector. (59405)

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CIS 93-273 Health risks during furniture stripping using dichloromethane (DCM). Woodworking National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, 14 Cardiff Road, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 1PP, United Kingdom, 1992. 4p. Illus. 13 ref. (In English)

This information sheet is concerned with the use of dichloromethane (DCM) as a paint stripper for wood. Contents: methods of use of DCM; health hazards; legal duties of employers; preventing and controlling exposure; special precautions during brush application and use of a dip tank; air sampling; protective equipment; fire risk; dealing with spills; welfare facilities. (59486)

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CIS 93-274 Solvents. Construction Industry Advisory Committee, HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. 8 ref. (In English)

This information sheet describes the hazards associated with the use of solvents and solvent-based construction products and provides guidance on the avoidance of health hazards, particularly in poorly ventilated areas. Contents: health effects; preventing and controlling exposure; personal protection; hygiene; first aid. (59588)

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CIS 93-275 Cement. Construction Industry Advisory Committee, HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. (In English)

This information sheet describes the health hazards associated with the use of cement in the construction industry and provides guidance on the avoidance of adverse health effects. Contents: health effects; preventing and controlling exposure; personal protection; hygiene; first aid. (59589)

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CIS 93-276 Chemical cleaners. Construction Industry Advisory Committee, HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. 5 ref. (In English)

This information sheet describes the health hazards associated with the use of chemical cleaners used for cleaning building facades, statues, etc. and provides health and safety guidance for their use or the supervision of their use. Contents: health effects; preventing and controlling exposure; personal protection; hygiene; protecting the public; spillages; first aid. (59590)

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CIS 93-277 NIOSH Alert - Request for assistance in preventing silicosis and deaths from sandblasting. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Standards Development and Technology Transfer, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA, Aug. 1992. 15p. 40 ref. (In English)

This NIOSH Alert describes 99 cases of silicosis from exposure to crystalline silica during sandblasting. Uses of abrasive blasting are outlined along with estimates of the number of exposed workers and current control measures and exposure limits. Health effects of exposure to crystalline silica are also described. Recommendations to reduce crystalline silica exposure include use of alternative abrasives, air monitoring, use of containment methods, use of protective clothing and respiratory protection, medical examinations, information of workers. (59592)

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CIS 93-278 Safe use of ethylene oxide in sterilisation/fumigation processes. Worksafe Australia, Australian Government Publishing Service, GPO Box 84, Canberra ACT 2601, Australia, Apr. 1992. vii, 67p. 45 ref., ISBN 0-644-24525-5 (In English)

Internet:
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/E8B51C47-571C-40EA-B19B-321C5D899D2D/0/Ethyl
   …eneOxideGN.pdf
http://www.ascc.gov.au/NR/rdonlyres/FC8CF74C-01B6-4166-92D2-571FCB53DC79/0/CoP20
   …081992EthyleneOxide.pdf

This national code of practice addresses the hazards and risks of the use of ethylene oxide for sterilisation and fumigation, and the procedures recommended for its safe handling. It covers the responsibilities of employers and employees, compliance with the exposure standard, control measures, personal protective equipment, emergency procedures, first aid, maintenance, examination and testing of control measures, atmospheric monitoring and health surveillance. The accompanying guidance note covers health effects of ethylene oxide and conditions under which exposure may occur. (59607)

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[ Top of page ]

006 Fires, explosions and major hazards

CIS 93-279 NFPA reports on 1991 U.S. fire loss. Karter M.J., NFPA Journal, Sep.-Oct. 1992, Vol.86, No.5, p.32-43. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

Statistics and comment are provided on the numbers and types of fires occurring in the USA in 1991 along with estimated costs. Topics covered: numbers of fires, fire deaths and fire injuries; estimated property loss by property use; numbers of incendiary and suspicious fires. (59396)

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CIS 93-280 Safety of powder handling systems. Review and detailed discussion of venting. Lunn G.A., Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, Aug. 1990, Vol.68, Part B, p.155-166. Illus. 29 ref. (In English)

The factors that influence the course of the explosion of fine materials are reviewed along with the methods that can be used either to prevent an explosion or protect plant, equipment and personnel against the destructive events. Published methods for estimating vent requirements are described and discussed and the shortcomings of these methods are considered along with different types of vent closure and special venting requirements for elongated vessels. (59403)

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CIS 93-281 Rollover. Loss Prevention Bulletin, Oct. 1992, No.107, p.1-10. Illus. 5 ref. (In English)

Rollover is a spontaneous mixing process which can occur in large tanks containing liquid in storage. The process involves an uncontrolled increase in the generation of vapour and thereby generates an uncontrolled hazard. Rollover in LNG tanks is discussed in terms of basic conditions of storage, stratification in stored LNG and the effect of the presence of nitrogen. A method for predictive modelling of rollover is outlined and methods of prevention are summarised. Case studies illustrate some rollover incidents. (59426)

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CIS 93-282 Ammonia tank failure in Lithuania. Anderson B.O., Lindley J., Loss Prevention Bulletin, Oct. 1992, No.107, p.11-15. Illus. (In English)

An incident is described in which a large storage tank containing refrigerated liquid ammonia failed suddenly without any pre-warning and moved sideways demolishing a reinforced concrete bund wall and releasing 7000 tons of liquid ammonia. The ammonia vapour ignited and the resultant fire spread to involve 35,000 tons of compound fertiliser in a nearby warehouse. The main cause of the incident was the delivery of 14 tons of warm ammonia liquid to the bottom of the tank owing to an operating error in the ammonia plant. Calculations show that it is debatable whether genuine rollover occurred. (59427)

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CIS 93-283 Expert system for controlling emergencies in large buildings. (Spanish: Sistema experto para el control de emergencias en grandes edificios) Román Monzo J.L., Bobadilla Sancho J.M., Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.38, p.21-26. Illus. (In Spanish)

The difficulty in handling information in case of emergencies, especially fires, in large buildings is discussed. The preparation of an emergency procedures manual for buildings is recommended to cover: risk evaluation, protective measures, emergency plans, and implementation. In order to be able to react flexibly and rapidly to different emergency situations, the development of a computerised system capable of handling all the information is studied. EMERGEX, a programme based on artificial intelligence, is presented as an expert system for controlling emergencies in large buildings. (59489)

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CIS 93-284 Criteria for spontaneous ignition in exothermic, autocatalytic reactions - Chain branching and self-heating in vessels in the oxidation of cyclohexane in closed vessels. Snee T.J., Griffiths J.F., Combustion and Flame, 1989, Vol.75, p.381-395. 24 ref. (In English)

Studies were made on the combustion of mixtures of cyclohexane and air using five closed vessels covering a wide range of volumes. The minimum ignition temperature was measured in each vessel to test scaling rules for the prediction of conditions for criticality. Measurements were also made of the yields of some products, the extent and rate of the reaction and the accompanying temperature change under both subcritical and supercritical conditions. Results highlight the potential combustion hazard in large-scale industrial systems when fuel-rich mixtures of vapour and air conditions prevail. (59534)

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CIS 93-285 A medium scale test method for assessing the fire hazard of flammable solid materials. Wharton R.K., Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Oct. 1990, Vol.3, p.349-354. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

The medium-scale test method currently operated by the Health and Safety Executive as a means of assessing the fire hazard of flammable solids is described. The design and construction of the apparatus are outlined along with the means of temperature measurement, calibration, test procedure, and data collection and processing. The technique has been applied to a range of materials and the results, although specific to the apparatus, have proved useful in ranking relative fire performance. (59535)

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CIS 93-286 Experiments and modelling: An overview with particular reference to fire engulfment. Moodie K., Journal of Hazardous Materials, 1988, Vol.20, p.149-175. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

This paper discusses general modelling and experimental requirements, various modelling approaches currently used and model validation in the light of available data. The consequences and physical processes involved in losses of containment of pressurised liquefied gases are also discussed. Computer models for assessing the consequences of fire on LPG type storage vessels are reviewed along with experimental data currently available for model validation purposes. (59593)

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CIS 93-287 A review of incidents involving the use of high-pressure oxygen from 1982 to 1985 in Great Britain. Dicker D.W.G., Wharton R.K., In: Flammability and Sensitivity of Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres: Third Volume, ASTM Special Technical Publication STP 986, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA, 1988, p.318-327. Illus. 1 ref. (In English)

This review shows that in the four-year period studied, a total of 28 incidents occurred, which resulted in 16 people suffering injuries. These incidents involved the use of oxygen up to full cylinder pressure, but did not include those involving the use of oxy-fuel gas systems. Illustrative examples of incidents are often caused by the presence of contaminating materials exposed to high-pressure oxygen. It is also suspected that in some cases, the materials of construction of some components of the equipment involved were unsuitable for high-pressure oxygen service. (59329)

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CIS 93-288 An assessment of the critical oxygen index test as a measure of material flammability. Wharton R.K., In: Flammability and Sensitivity of Materials in Oxygen-Enriched Atmospheres: Third Volume, ASTM, Special Technical Publication STP 986, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA, 1988, p.279-285. Illus. 7 ref. (In English)

The dependence of the critical oxygen index on specimen size, burning mode, type of test column, and testing gas velocity are reported and discussed. A test method for the measurement of flammability is appraised and the strengths and weaknesses of the method are highlighted. Results indicate that care must be exercised in interpreting the significance of the numerical test result. (59401)

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CIS 93-289 Prevention of grain elevator and mill explosions. National Materials Advisory Board, National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington, DC 20418, USA, 1982. xii, 134p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

This report presents an overview of the dust explosion problem in grain-handling facilities along with recommendations for reducing the danger. Discussed in some detail are: preventive measures to forestall a dust explosion (dust control, reducing the number of ignition sources, venting and suppression, information of personnel); constraints (cost of control measures, insurance, government-industry relations, legislation, elevator housekeeping practices, psychological factors). Several hazard scenarios are described with proposed preventive actions and their costs. (59618)

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CIS 93-290 Guidelines for the investigation of grain dust explosions. National Materials Advisory Board, National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue N.W., Washington D.C. 20418, USA, 1983. xiii, 32p. 6 ref. (In English)

A methodology for investigating grain elevator explosions is presented based on investigations of a number of such explosions. The investigation methodology and philosophy are discussed and several explosion incidents are described in detail to illustrate typical grain elevator scenarios. (59624)

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CIS 93-291 Methods for the determination of possible damage to people and objects resulting from releases of hazardous materials. Committee for the Prevention of Disasters caused by Dangerous Substances (Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen), Directorate-General of Labour (Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid), Postbus 69, 2270 MA Voorburg, Netherlands, 1992. 1 vol. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 90-5307-052-4 (In English)

Translation of the document originally issued in Dutch and abstracted as CIS 91-1770. Contents: description of methods to be used for the determination of risks during the establishment of safety studies in which hazardous substances are involved. Main topics covered: methods for the determination of effects of thermal radiation (effects of thermal radiation on humans, statistical model, protective clothing, damage by flash fires); a method for the determination of the effects of blasts on constructions (interaction between blast and construction, determination of dynamic response, strength of window panels, calculation of a defined damage level); investigation of the effects of explosions on victims; formation of toxic products during fires (combustion, pyrolysis, reactions of combustion products); acute inhalation toxicity study: a model based on extrapolation from data on 25 substances; protection from outdoor pollution by being indoors: a mathematical model for calculation of the reduction of the indoor concentration and dose. (59440)

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CIS 93-292 Methods for the calculation of physical effects resulting from releases of hazardous substances (liquids and gases). Commissie Preventie van Rampen door Gevaarlijke Stoffen, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid, Postbus 90804, 2509 LV Den Haag, Netherlands, 2nd ed., 1992. 386p. Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Description of standard calculation procedures to be used for the evaluation of physical effects resulting from a release of hazardous substances (liquids and gases). Methods are described for the calculation of: evaporation; thermal radiation; dispersion; vapour cloud explosion; consequences of the rupture of vessels. Each chapter is accompanied by a detailed list of symbols and units. In annex: list of commonly used hazardous substances (26 gases and 27 liquids), together with their important physical constants (molecular weight, saturation pressure, heat of evaporation, etc.). (59532)

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CIS 93-293 Hot work on vehicle wheels. HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 1p. Illus. (In English)

This information sheet describes the explosion hazards associated with the application of heat to the steel parts of a vehicle wheel to which a tyre is attached. It is stressed that under no circumstances should hot work be carried out on any wheel to which a tyre is fitted. (59514)

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007 Electrical safety

CIS 93-294 Electrical safety at work - A guide to regulations and safe practice. Buck P.C., Hooper E., Paramount Publishers Ltd., Paramount House, 17-21 Shenley Road, Borehamwood, Hertfordshire WD6 1RT, United Kingdom, no date. 74p. Illus. 68 ref. Price: GBP 12.00., ISBN 0-947665-16-1 (In English)

Contents: introduction (history of electrical safety regulation in Great Britain and Northern Ireland); background (terminology, electric shock, earthing and faults, the electricity supply industry); dangers of electricity; safety principles; competence of staff engaged in electrical work; safe system design; safety considerations in installation; safe systems of work; managing electrical safety. Useful British standards and Health and Safety Executive Guidance Notes are cited in appendices. (59537)

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CIS 93-295 Cable trunking and ducting systems for electrical installations. Part 1: General requirements. (French: Systèmes de goulottes et de conduits profilés pour installations électriques. Partie 1: Règles générales) International Electrotechnical Commission, 3, rue de Varembé, P.O. Box 131, 1211 Genève 20, Switzerland, June 1991. 45p. Illus. Price: CHF 72.00 plus postage and packing. (In English, French)

This international standard covers closed enclosures with (trunking) or without (ducting) removable covers that surround insulated conductors, cables and cords. Trunking systems may accommodate other electrical equipment. Ducting systems allow the wiring to be drawn in or out for installation or replacement. Contents: scope, normative references, definitions, general requirements, general conditions for tests, classification, marking dimensions, construction, mechanical properties, electrical characteristics; sections on resistance to flame propagation and on external influences are under consideration. (59485)

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CIS 93-296 Electrical test equipment for use by electricians. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, revised May 1991. 4p. Illus. Price: GBP 2.00., ISBN 0-11-885650-2 (In English)

This revised guidance note (see CIS 88-618 for original) advises on the selection of suitable test probes, leads, lamps, voltage indicating devices and other measuring equipment and their use by electricians when working on or investigating power circuits. Risks associated with work on or near live conductors are described along with the causes of electrical accidents and the safety requirements for this type of test equipment. (59538)

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008 Physical hazards

CIS 93-297 Noise and vibration exposure at the fork-lift truck driver's station. (French: Environnement acoustique et vibrations aux postes de conduite des chariots élévateurs) Danière P., Boulanger P., Donati P., Galmiche J.P., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1889-148-92, p.345-358. Illus. 16 réf. (In French)

The purpose of this study was to meet the need for noise and vibration standards at the fork-lift truck driver's station. A large number of vehicles were tested (81 were selected for acoustic environment testing and 77 for vibration testing) in order to cover the most commonly used types of machines in factories, ports and building sites. Analysis of noise exposure showed that drivers of thermally powered fork-lift trucks were likely to suffer hearing damage in case of intensive use. The study led to a new, simplified method for noise exposure evaluation which can be applied for labelling purposes of the trucks. Vibration measurements gave a picture of vibration exposure at the drivers' station and of the efficiency of seat suspension. Tested vertical seat suspensions frequently proved to be unsuitable. To avoid this situation and meet the requirements of European Directive 91/368/EEC (see CIS 89-1442 and CIS 92-25), a specific vibration test code for fork-lift trucks is proposed. Approximately 20 seats were tested in reference to the proposed standard; three proved efficient in reducing vibration levels on trucks with a capacity of five to ten tonnes, and eight on trucks with a capacity of less than five tonnes. (59506)

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CIS 93-298 Statistical analysis of noise level evaluation at work stations. (Spanish: Análisis estadístico de la evaluación de los niveles de ruido en los puestos de trabajo) González C., Real A., Bernat A., Prevención, Apr.-June 1991, No.116, p.56-61. Illus. (In Spanish)

A study to evaluate the noise level at 191 work stations in seven industries was carried out in the Balearic Islands (Spain) in 1990. The industries were: construction, automobile, maritime transport, bottling, hotels, food, and metalworking. Noise levels were >85dB at 48.2% of the work stations and >90dB at 25.7%. In addition, personal protection was only used at 8.4% of the work stations. Data are also given for each activity. Reference to EEC Directive on protective measures for noise exposure (86/188/EEC, see CIS 87-45) and the Spanish Royal Decree on the subject (1316/1989 of October 27, see CIS 90-720). (59437)

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CIS 93-299 Mortality investigation of workers in an electromagnetic pulse test program. Muhm J.M., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.287-292. Illus. 17 ref. (In English)

A standardised mortality ratio study of 304 male employees of an electromagnetic pulse (EMP) test programme was conducted. Outcomes were ascertained by two methods: the World Health Organization's underlying cause of death algorithm; and the National Center for Health Statistics' algorithm to identify multiple listed causes of death. In the 3,362 person-years of follow-up, there was one underlying cause of death due to leukaemia compared with 0.2 expected (standard mortality ratio [SMR]=437, 95% confidence interval [CI]=11-2433), and two multiple listed causes of death due to leukaemia compared with 0.3 expected (SMR=775, 95% CI=94-2801). Although the study suggested an association between death due to leukaemia and employment in the EMP test programme, firm conclusions could not be drawn because of limitations of the study. The findings warrant further investigation in an independent cohort. (59344)

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CIS 93-300 Biodosimetry for a radiation worker using multiple assays. Straume T., Lucas J.N., Tucker J.D., Bigbee W.L., Langlois R.G., Health Physics, Feb. 1992, Vol.62, No.2, p.122-130. Illus. 43 ref. (In English)

Four state-of-the-art biodosimetric methods (glycophorin-A (GPA) somatic mutations, chromosome translocations, micronuclei, dicentrics) were used to evaluate a radiation worker who believed that the official dosimetry records substantially underestimated his actual dose. Dosimetry records indicated that the worker received 0.56Sv during a 36-year employment history, always within dose limits. The worker believed his dose equivalent may have been more than 2.5Sv because much of the exposure was received during an earlier period when dosimetry capabilities and practices were not as good as they are today. The results suggest that dose-equivalent estimates in the ≈0.4 to ≈2Sv range, which include the value in the worker's dosimetry records, cannot be confidently excluded at this time based on biodosimetry. However, a value greater than 2.5Sv appears unlikely. Important new information on the temporal stability of chromosome translocations is also presented. (59379)

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CIS 93-301 The evolution of attitudes to the human hazards of ionizing radiation and to its investigators. Greenberg M., American Journal of Industrial Medicine, Dec. 1991, Vol.20, No.6, p.717-721. 7 ref. (In English)

Editorial on the attitudes surrounding the problem of exposure to ionising radiation, particularly at relatively low dose levels. The long history of such exposures, especially among miners, is discussed. It is noted that scientists studying the problem have often introduced political considerations into their conclusions, and the recommendation is made that epidemiologists and other scientists studying the effects of ionising radiation should concentrate on achieving the highest possible standards in their scientific research, leaving conclusions based on research results to the policy makers. (59416)

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CIS 93-302 Tungsten halogen lamps. Optical radiation hazards and limits for use. (French: Lampes tungstène halogène - Risques et limites d'utilisation) Salsi S., Barlier A., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No.1888-148-92, p.329-343. Illus. 12 ref. (In French)

This study identifies and quantifies on the one hand the risks related to the use of 11 tungsten halogen lamps for direct lighting, and on the other hand, sets limits for their use (taking into account the distance from and duration of daily exposure to these lamps). The spectral irradiance of the lamps was measured from ultraviolet to infrared (200-3,000nm) and their mean spectral radiance was determined in the visible range of the spectrum (400-700nm). The risks when tungsten halogen lamps are used in "abnormal" conditions, i.e. for direct lighting without protective glass shields, are not negligible. Chronic exposure to the ultraviolet radiation these lamps emit is dangerous in the long term. Projectors equipped with protective glass covers and tungsten halogen lamps with double envelopes represent no particular health risk, except under direct viewing conditions. Appendices: Effects of optical radiation; calculation of MED (minimal erythemal doses). (59505)

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CIS 93-303 Ocular hypertension in radiologists and radiology technicians. (Italian: Ipertono oculare in medici e tecnici radiologi) Scurti D., L'Abbate N., Capozzi D., Lofrumento R., Crivellini S., Ambrosi L., Medicina del lavoro, July-Aug. 1992, Vol.83, No.4, p.330-337. 23 ref. (In Italian)

The incidence of ocular hypertension (OH), a condition that frequently leads to glaucoma, was investigated in 128 subjects occupationally exposed to ionising radiation (42 radiologists and 86 radiology technicians) and in 130 controls. The ocular tension in 33 exposed subjects, but only in two controls, was higher than the cut-off value of 18mmHg. The age distribution of those with OH was also different among the exposed population, with 13 out of 58 exposed workers in the 31-40yr age group suffering from the conditions (in the general population: 1.2% in the same age group). Radiology technicians had a higher incidence of OH than did radiologists. Gonioscopy showed pigmentary dispersion in the eye, particularly in subjects with OH, suggesting that OH might be due to mechanical obstruction of the channels for aqueous humour outflow. (59661)

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CIS 93-304 Questionnaire survey for the fitness of protective equipments used by workers. (Japanese: Rōdō eisei hogogu no mondaiten - Rōdōsha ni taisuru ankēto chōsa) Hattori Y., Kodama Y., Kawamoto T., Japanese Journal of Industrial Health - Sangyō-Igaku, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.40-41. 3 ref. (In Japanese)

Questionnaire surveys on the opinions of workers regarding personal protective equipment were conducted for three consecutive years (1987-1989) at a personal protective equipment exhibition which is held annually at an industrial enterprise during Japan's Labour Hygiene Week, and is attended by workers of the enterprise and associated enterprises. One out of five to six returned questionnaires indicated problems associated with protective equipment at work, but the number and rate of such complaints declined from year to year. Safety spectacles were by far the most common source of complaint (10% of total questionnaire returned), followed by earplugs (1.3%) and dust masks (1.2%), but the number and rate of complaints on protective spectacles decreased each year; the most frequent complaints were: "lens becoming misty", "cords becoming weakened", and "lens easily scratched". (59321)

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CIS 93-305 Effect of high terrestrial altitude and supplemental oxygen on human performance and mood. Crowley J.S., Wesensten N., Kamimori G., Devine J., Iwanyk E., Balkin T., Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Aug. 1992, Vol.63, No.8, p.696-701. 26 ref. (In English)

In a study to investigate the effects of high terrestrial altitude on human performance, 13 male soldiers ascended in 10min from sea level to 4,300m (simulated) and remained there for two and a half days. Subjects carried out cognitive tests and mood tests and completed a questionnaire to assess the severity of acute mountain sickness (AMS) symptoms. Following rapid ascent, performance was most affected during the first eight hours. Recovery of cognitive function was slower in subjects suffering from AMS. (59424)

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CIS 93-306 Noise and vibration on board. Berg P.Å., Bråfelt O., Folkeson C., Joint Industrial Safety Council, Box 3208, 103 64 Stockholm, Sweden, no date. 109p. Illus. Price: SEK 90.00 + VAT., ISBN 91-7522-123-3 (In English)

Presentation of current practical methods of noise and vibration control in non-specialist terms, intended for everyone participating in shipbuilding (naval architects, marine engineers, shipbuilders, supervisory personnel, safety delegates and shipowners). It covers the sources and effects of noise, principles of damping, and specific solutions to apply to the four "noise areas" on board (the propeller and aft body, the engine room, the superstructure and other parts or areas, such as cargo handling equipment, ventilation and the hydraulic system). (59488)

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CIS 93-307 Windscale vitrification plant shield door incident 15 September 1991. Health and Safety Executive, HM Nuclear Installations Inspectorate, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 11p. Illus. Price: GBP 6.00., ISBN 0-11-886348-7 (In English)

During this incident a container of highly active vitrified waste was raised into a control cell for monitoring while two shield doors, designed to protect people outside the cell from radiation, were open, thus creating the potential for a significant radiation exposure. The original protection system for the shield doors is described along with the details of the incident and the subsequent investigation. The report highlights the need for interlock systems to be designed, tested and operated in ways which ensure that the required degree of safety is achieved. (59409)

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CIS 93-308 Setting standards for the resistance of clothing to molten metal splashes. Proctor T.D., Thompson H., In: Performance of Protective Clothing: Second Symposium, ASTM Special Technical Publication STP 989, American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA 19103, USA, 1988, p.131-141. Illus. 11 ref. (In English)

Comparisons are reported between two laboratory methods for assessing the resistance of clothing materials to splashes of molten substances. The methods, ISO DIS 9185:1986 and a modification using calorimeters, were found to rank materials in broadly the same way. Results show that heat transfer occurs due to adhesion of molten substances to clothing and penetration through clothing. Information is given on the extent of adhesion of molten iron, copper, brass, aluminium, slag and the electrolyte used in aluminium smelting to commonly found clothing materials in order to aid selection for specific purposes. (59328)

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CIS 93-309 Threshold limit values for exposure to physical agents in the working environment. (French: Valeurs limites d'exposition aux agents physiques en ambiance de travail) Hée G., Barbara J.J., Gros P., Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No. 1886-148-92, p.297-318. Illus. 33 ref. (In French)

Limit values are given for exposure of workers to physical agents in the following fields: whole-body and hand-arm mechanical vibration; noise (including the specific case of impulse and impact noise); infrasonic and ultrasonic noise; hot (WBGT index) and cold environments; static magnetic fields, very low frequencies (≤30kHz); static electric fields and very low frequencies (≤30kHz); radio frequencies, microwaves; ultraviolet, visible and near infrared radiation; lasers (skin and eye exposure). The values given are taken from French or European regulations, French or international standards (AFNOR, ISO, IEC, CEN CENELEC), international recommendations (IRPA) and American recommendations (ACGIH). (59503)

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CIS 93-310 Guidelines on limits of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 100kHz to 300GHz [IRPA]. (French: Guide pour l'établissement de valeurs limites d'exposition aux champs électromagnétiques de radiofréquences comprises entre 100kHz et 300GHz [AIRP]) International Radiation Protection Association, Cahiers de notes documentaires - Sécurité et hygiène du travail, 3rd Quarter 1992, No.148, Note No. 1887-148-92, p.319-327. Illus. 34 ref. (In French)

In 1988 the International Non-Ionizing Radiation Committee set up by the International Radiation Protection Association published guidelines on limits of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in the frequency range from 100kHz to 300GHz. This translation is a reference for the protection of workers and the general public from the dangers of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. This document defines the purpose and scope of the guidelines (exposure to radiofrequency radiation of therapeutic purposes, for example, is not covered), the quantities and units used, exposure limit values (for workers, the general public, special cases of electric shocks or burns, multiple exposures, etc.). Appendices: justification for the exposure limits and recommended protective measures. (59504)

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009 Mechanical hazards, transport

CIS 93-311 Safeguarding of machinery "Electrical interlock devices with and without blocking associated with machine guards" (position and safety switches). (Spanish: Seguridad en las máquinas "Dispositivos de enclavamiento eléctrico con y sin bloqueo, asociados a los resguardos de protección de las máquinas" (interruptores de posicionamiento y seguridad)) Pua Bernal J., Mapfre seguridad, 2nd Quarter 1990, No.38, p.29-38. Illus. (In Spanish)

British Standard Code of Practice 5304: 1988 (translated into Spanish as UNE 81-600-85) is reviewed, for being a basic reference element in the elaboration of European Standards on machinery safety concerning electrical interlock devices associated with machine guards. Basic concepts of electrical interlock devices associated with machinery guards are presented. Other aspects covered are: methods to interrupt power supply when the guard is open; breakdowns in electrical interlock systems; interlock switches. A number of graphics illustrate the discussion. (59490)

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CIS 93-312 Safety in the use of ladders. (Spanish: Seguridad en la utilización de escaleras) Ramos Antón A., Prevención, Oct.-Dec. 1991, No.118, p.18-31. Illus. 8 ref. (In Spanish)

Standards established by the Spanish General Ordinance on OSH (see CIS 76-1495) and guidelines on the inspection, maintenance and use of industrial ladders are reviewed. Technical characteristics prescribed for manual and fixed ladders are presented. Recommendations on the use of ladders are given, richly illustrated by drawings. First aid action in case of accident is also discussed. (59458)

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CIS 93-313 Constant incidence rates of needle-stick injury paradoxically suggest modest preventive effect of sharps disposal system. Smith D.A., Eisenstein H.C., Esrig C., Godbold J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1992, Vol.34, No.5, p.546-551. 17 ref. (In English)

The study examined whether placement of impenetrable sharps disposal systems in hospitals reduce needle-stick injuries. Questionnaires were sent on a quarterly basis to 8,000 employees of an academic medical centre asking whether a needle-stick injury had occurred since the last questionnaire. Questionnaires from active floor nurses were separated and tallied in 1987, 1989, and 1990, the latter two years being after impenetrable sharps disposal systems had been operative. Total needle-stick injuries in staff nurses reported during the three years did not decrease in the last two years. During the same period, hospital purchases of needle-containing devices increased by 13%. Thus a constant reported needle-stick injury rate may paradoxically represent a modest preventive effect of a hospital sharps disposal system. (59373)

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CIS 93-314 The fracture behaviour of polyethylene - A literature review. Geary W., Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 15p. Illus. 67 ref. Price: GBP 4.75., ISBN 0-11-885664-2 (In English)

Medium density polyethylene is used increasingly in the production of plastic pipe systems for industry. A review of the literature on the fracture behaviour of polyethylene shows that the following aspects require further investigation: the effect of low temperature on the toughness of polyethylene; the ductile fracture behaviour where extensive plastic deformation occurs at the crack tip; the effects of environment on fracture behaviour; the fracture behaviour of medium density polyethylene pipes in recently identified applications such as the transportation of liquid petroleum gas and and gases derived from landfill sites. (59330)

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CIS 93-315 Stress concentration factors for tubular complex joints. Lloyd's Register of Shipping, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vii, 70 + 54p. Illus. 7 ref. Price: GBP 30.00., ISBN 0-11-886363-0 (In English)

This report based on an investigation of multi-planar joints shows that the use of single-plane stress concentration factor (SCF) equations for multi-planar joints used in offshore platforms can be justified, although some loading conditions require further investigation. In a study of overlapped joints, measured and predicted SCF values were compared. (59406)

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CIS 93-316 Scaling of underwater concrete repair materials. Perry S.H., Holmyard J.M., Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 54p. Illus. Price: GBP 15.00., ISBN 0-11-886362-2 (In English)

Report of an investigation to develop test methods which would allow the correct choice of material for repairing concrete structures in the marine and offshore environment. Four test methods were investigated and a range of materials was assessed. Results are reported in the form of a strength ranking of the repair materials produced by each test method and a comparison of this ranking with that produced in other test methods and with that resulting from a previous study. Consistency of results and ease of use of each test method are also assessed. (59423)

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CIS 93-317 Crack-tip electrochemistry in relation to corrosion fatigue of offshore structural steels in seawater. Technical summary and implications. Turnbull A., Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 192p. Illus. Bibl.ref. Price: GBP 40.00., ISBN 0-11-886325-8 (In English)

Environmentally assisted fracture in seawater is generally considered to be a consequence of the interaction between electrochemical processes at the tip of a crack and localised stress or strain. Hence, a knowledge of the rates of these processes is an essential feature in the development of a comprehensive understanding of corrosion fatigue. This report summarises the important conclusions arising from a research programme on crack electrochemistry in relation to fatigue of structural steel in seawater. (59617)

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CIS 93-318 Pipeline and riser loss of containment study 1990 (PARLOC 90). Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. 100p. Price: GBP 20.00., ISBN 0-11-886308-8 (In English)

The purpose of this study was to update and improve confidence in the statistical information currently available to assess the frequency of loss of containment associated with operation of North Sea pipelines. Two databases were compiled: an incident database containing a description of each reported incident and data on the pipeline or lines affected; a pipeline database containing details of all North Sea pipelines. The collation and contents of the databases are described in detail along with their use in the assessment of factors affecting the frequency of incidents. In annex: glossary of terms. (59629)

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CIS 93-319 A report of the inquiry into the accident that occurred on 16 May 1990 at Chorleywood on the Metropolitan Line of London Underground Limited. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. vi, 17p. Illus. Price: GBP 4.75., ISBN 0-11-886381-9 (In English)

Report of an inquiry into an accident in which a trailer wagon that had been detached from a tamping machine and left inadequately secured ran down a falling gradient striking four men and colliding with the tamping machine working some 1110m away. It was concluded that the accident was caused by human error and the failure of London Underground Ltd to ensure adequate training, to prepare and monitor safe working practices and to provide equipment to ensure the safety of their employees and others. (59325)

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CIS 93-320 A report of the collision that occurred on 8 January 1991 at Cannon Street Station. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1991. vi, 41p. Illus. Price: GBP 8.00., ISBN 0-11-886303-7 (In English)

Report of an investigation into an accident in which a passenger train collided heavily with the hydraulic buffer stops of the platform at the terminal station. The evidence showed no defect in either the braking or traction system which would have prevented the brakes from operating effectively and it was therefore concluded that the driver failed to make the proper brake application and was therefore responsible for the accident. No firm conclusion was reached as to whether the driver's use of cannabis was the cause of the error. (59407)

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CIS 93-321 A guide to the Lifting Plant and Equipment (Records of Test and Examination etc.) Regulations 1992. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, 1992. 18p. Price: GBP 2.50., ISBN 0-11-886341-X (In English)

The Lifting Plant and Equipment (Records of Test and Examination etc.) Regulations 1992 remove the requirement to report the results of tests of such equipment on prescribed forms and the requirement to provide a written report, thus allowing for the storage of test records by electronic means. This guidance provides a commentary on the Regulations and covers: contents of records; accuracy of particulars; authentication of records; modifications; savings provisions; revocations. Guidance is also given on safeguards for the use of electronic storage of test data. (59410)

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CIS 93-322 Safety in pressure testing. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, P.O. Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, Rev.ed., Apr. 1992. 4p. Price: GBP 2.00., ISBN 0-11-886338-X (In English)

This guidance note is a revision of the 1976 edition (see CIS 78-634). Contents: hydraulic testing; pneumatic testing; leak testing; underwater pneumatic testing; personal protection; systems of work; multi-compartment vessels; general guidance on pressure and temperature gauges, supply of a range of air pressures from a common source, correct use of flexible tube connections, safety valve checks. (59391)

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CIS 93-323 Prevention of falls to window cleaners. Health and Safety Executive, HMSO Books, PO Box 276, London SW8 5DT, United Kingdom, revised Oct. 1991. 12p. Illus. Price: GBP 2.50., ISBN 0-11-885682-0 (In English)

Contents of this revised guidance note (see CIS 84-1533 for original): accident experience; access to windows from the outside and the safe use of suspended scaffolds, power-operated mobile equipment, portable ladders, roof ladders, travelling and hook ladders, boatswain's chairs, safety harnesses; access to windows from the inside; maintenance of equipment. Appendices provide information on the duties of employers and employees under the Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) and the Factories Act (1961). (59501)

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CIS 93-324 Safe use of big round balers. HSE Information Centre, Broad Lane, Sheffield S3 7HQ, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. Illus. 1 ref. (In English)

This information sheet describes the hazards associated with the use of round balers and provides guidance on safe work practices and the safe use of guards. (59529)

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CIS 93-325 Circular saw benches - safe working practices. Woodworking National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, 14 Cardiff Road, Luton, Bedfordshire LU1 1PP, United Kingdom, 1992. 4p. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

This information sheet provides practical guidance on safe working practices during work at a circular saw bench. Contents: accident history; general precautions; workpiece support; use of a push stick; use of power feed; special precautions during ripping and cross cutting, rebating and grooving, angled cutting and bevelling. (59404)

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CIS 93-326 Safe working practices at vertical spindle moulding machines. Woodworking National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, 14 Cardiff Road, Luton, Bedforshire LU1 1PP, United Kingdom, 1992. 4p. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

This information sheet provides practical guidance on safe working practices when using vertical spindle moulding machines. Contents: accident history; guarding requirements and safe working practices; backcutting; correct use of table rings, cutters, work supports, jigs and holders; special precautions during straight work, full length straight cuts, straight work with stopped cut, shaped or curved work and work on large, small or complex workpieces. (59473)

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CIS 93-327 Safeguarding veneer guillotines. Woodworking National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, 14 Cardiff Road, Luton, Bedforshire LU1 1PP, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. Illus. 4 ref. (In English)

This information sheet provides guidance on the safeguarding of manually loaded veneer guillotines of all sizes. Contents: hazards and risks; safeguarding the sides, rear and front of the machine by means of fixed guards, interlocked guards or photoelectric devices; starting the machine; setting and blade changing; maintenance and inspection. (59474)

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CIS 93-328 Programmable electronic systems on woodworking machines. Woodworking National Interest Group, Health and Safety Executive, 14 Cardiff Road, Luton, Bedforshire LU1 1PP, United Kingdom, 1992. 2p. Illus. 5 ref. (In English)

This information sheet provides a general introduction to the application of programmable electronic systems to woodworking machines. Contents: design of control systems; process interruptions and emergency stops; software based interlocking systems; override controls; modifications to the control system. (59475)

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010 Biological hazards

CIS 93-329 Review of management of incidents involving exposure to blood in a London teaching hospital, 1989-91. Oakley K., Gooch C., Cockcroft A., British Medical Journal, 11 Apr. 1992, Vol.304, No.6832, p.949-951. 16 ref. (In English)

The study reviews management of incidents involving exposure to blood involving 438 health care workers and students in a London teaching hospital from 1989 to mid-1991. A total of 447 incidents were reported: 337 sharps injuries and 110 other exposures. A total of 310 staff reporting incidents were already immune to hepatitis B virus. Of 345 source patients identified, 77 had already been tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (28 positive results) and 58 for HIV antibodies (18 positive results). Of those not previously tested, 145 of 266 were subsequently tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (two positive) and 149 of 287 for HIV antibodies (none positive). Specific hepatitis B immunoglobulin was given to 18 staff who were not immune and was avoided in 11 cases by a negative result for the patient. Management of exposure to blood is improved by widespread immunisation against hepatitis B virus and by knowledge of source patients' hepatitis B virus and HIV status. (59380)

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CIS 93-330 Legionnaire's disease - Update. James D.W.B., Industrial Safety Data File, Oct. 1992, p.G:23:7:1-G:23:7:5. (In English)

Legionnaire's Disease is described as being a disease contracted by inhalation of a fine spray of airborne water which carries the Legionella Bacterium. Infection appears to be caused by contaminated water sprays used in such equipment as air-conditioning plant, industrial sprays and showers and cooling towers. Recommendations for risk reduction are described for hot and cold water services, cooling towers and other water services and an approved code of practice on the prevention and control of Legionellosis is summarised. (59602)

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CIS 93-331 The effectiveness of the Duo-Flo BioClean unit for controlling airborne antigen levels. Ziemann B., Corn M., Ansari A.A., Eggleston P., American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.53, No.2, p.138-145. Illus. 19 ref. (In English)

The Duo-Flo BioClean unit was evaluated as a control unit for airborne rat antigen levels. The unit was evaluated in negative and positive pressure operating modes. In the negative mode, air is drawn into the unit, passes over the animal cages, and is then exhausted into the room through the filters. In the positive mode, air passes through the filters, traverses the animals, and then is discharged into the room. Airborne antigen concentrations (in ng/m3) and associated particle size distributions were measured during the two operating modes and prior to operation (background). Airborne antigen concentrations during the positive pressure operating mode were higher than during the negative pressure mode or background. The unit is usually operated in the positive mode to protect experimental animals. The study indicates that negative pressure operation would reduce the dispersion of dust-containing antigen, the exposure of room occupants to airborne antigen, and the risk to many workers of contracting allergy to animals. (59386)

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011 Physiology, ergonomics

CIS 93-332 The ergonomic challenge of repetitive motion with varying ergonomic stresses - Characterizing supermarket checking work. Harber P., Bloswick D., Peña L., Beck J., Lee J., Baker D., Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1992, Vol.34, No.5, p.518-528. Illus. 9 ref. (In English)

This study employed a new method of ergonomic characterisation to describe quantitatively the actions associated with checking-out in supermarkets. Eight object types were selected to represent the variety of items in a supermarket. Nine types of motion were coded for each of the eight objects, with ten replications for each subject (n=50). The motions coded were: grip type, wrist flexion, wrist extension, radial deviation, ulnar deviation, supination, pronation, body (lumbar) flexion, and drag versus lift. The results were then weighted according to relative frequency of the object type. In this manner, an ergonomic risk index can be assigned to each specific object type. This method permits identification of objects presenting the greatest risk and allows specificity of prevention interventions (object redesign, work practice change), as well as providing a quantitative measure to evaluate work station redesign. (59371)

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CIS 93-333 Cumulative trauma disorders of the upper extremities. Bohr T., Nathan P.A., Keniston R.C., Myers L.D., Meadows K.D., Rempel D.M., Harrison R.J., Barnhart S., Journal of the American Medical Association, 12 Aug. 1992, Vol.268, No.6, p.787-788. 23 ref. (In English)

Two letters in response to an article (see CIS 92-672) that reviewed the available literature on work-related arm problems. The first discusses problems associated with the correct diagnosis of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), the second suggests that there is no consistent evidence that occupation is a major contributing factor to the prevalence of CTS and that major risk factors are individual characteristics. In a further letter, the author of the original article disagrees with the suggestion that interventions directed at reduction in the prevalence of CTS should not include job modifications. (59434)

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CIS 93-334 A study on the effects of VDT work on information processing ability. (Japanese: VDT-sagyō no jōhō shori nōryoku e no eikyō ni kansuru kenkyū) Takemoto A., Yoshinori H., Japanese Journal of Ergonomics - Ningen Kogaku, Oct. 1988, Vol.24, No.5, p.313-318. Illus. 14 ref. (In Japanese)

Fourteen male college students aged 22-23 were tested for visual performance and information processing ability after working with VDTs for 5, 10, 15, or 30 minutes. Before and after each working period, each subject was given a visual flicker fusion test and asked to write down a sequence of random numbers. From the quality of the random number sequence reproduced, the information processing ability was calculated according to a mathematical model. With respect to initial values, information processing ability increased up to 15 minutes of work but was diminished after working for 30 minutes. The vision flicker fusion test gave identical results. Thus, VDT work influences not only visual ability but also the information processing ability of the brain. (59627)

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CIS 93-335 Biomechanical factors affecting upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders in sign language interpreters. Feuerstein M., Fitzgerald T.E., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.257-264. 23 ref. (In English)

Two groups of sign language interpreters were compared, those who experienced pain during their work (n=16) and those who did not (n=13). There were no significant differences between the groups in age, sex, years signing, years interpreting, and wrist and forearm endurance and flexibility. Subjects executed a standard interpreting task. Groups were compared on measures of repetitiveness of hand/wrist motion, work/rest cycle, postural stress, and smoothness of movement. The group experiencing pain demonstrated a distinct pattern of potential biomechanical risk factors previously associated with upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders in other occupations. They also had fewer rest breaks, more frequent hand/wrist deviations from neutral, more frequent lateral excursions from an optimal work envelope, and more rapid finger/hand movements while interpreting. Significant group differences on self-report measures of pain, fatigue, and perceived limitation in the range of motion also were observed. (59341)

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CIS 93-336 International scientific conference on prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (PREMUS), Sweden, May 12-14, 1992 - Book of abstracts. Hagberg M., Kilbom Å., Arbetsmiljöinstitutet, Förlagstjänst, 171 84 Solna, Sweden, 1992. 348p. Illus. Bibl.ref., ISBN 91-7045-169-9 (In English)

Extended abstracts of the proceedings of an international scientific conference on prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, PREMUS, held in Stockholm, Sweden, 12-14 May 1992. Topics covered include: design and evaluation of interventions to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders and measures to reduce them in various occupations (hospital work, the metal industry, airport baggage handling, keyboard operations, welding, logging operations, automotive industry, cargo loading and unloading, meat industry, manufacturing industries, glass cutting, cleaning work, manual handling); psychosocial factors; biomechanical studies. (59540)

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CIS 93-337 Anthropometric standardization reference manual - Abridged edition. Lohman T.G., Roche A.F., Martorell R., Human Kinetics Publishers, Inc., Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076, USA, 19 July 1991. 90p. Illus. 233 ref. Price: USD 16.00., ISBN 0-87322-331-4 (In English)

Measurement procedures are given for over 40 anthropometric dimensions. They reflect the consensus of North American experts from many fields. This edition is "abridged" in that it lacks the texts of conference presentations that appeared in the first edition. Chapters cover: stature, recumbent length and weight; segment lengths; body breadth equipment and measurement techniques; circumferences; skinfold thickness and measurement technique. Participants in the initial consensus conference (Airlie, Virginia, USA, Oct. 1985) are listed, and a list of equipment and suppliers is given in an appendix. (59533)

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012 Stress, psychosocial factors

CIS 93-338 Doctors, lawyers and building-associated diseases. Hodgson M.J., Hess C.A., ASHRAE Journal, Feb. 1992, Vol.34, No.2, p.25-31. 6 ref. (In English)

The decision on the severity and medical validity of complaints arising from "sick building syndrome" lies in the medical and scientific domain. However, compensation and disability are determined by lawyers, referees, and the courts. This article examines causation issues as dealt with by the biomedical sciences, along with the criteria for assessing causality. These criteria have developed from review of epidemiological data and from clinical cases. Legal definitions of causation are summarised, and several classic approaches to causation in law and medicine are described. Finally, published cases of diseases related to buildings are reviewed. (59370)

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CIS 93-339 Occupational violent crime - Research on an emerging issue. Thomas J.L., Journal of Safety Research, Summer 1992, Vol.23, No.2, p.55-62. Illus. 20 ref. (In English)

The results of the first stage of a study describing occupational violent crime (OVC) experience in Virginia, USA, is described. Between January 1983 and August 1990, 91 cases of OVC were identified, of which 7 were homicides (8%) and 84 injuries (92%). Retail food employees were found to be at greatest risk of an OVC experience, while gas stations had the highest homicide rate. The study corroborates previous knowledge concerning the types of worksites at high risk of OVC and suggests several new industries that should be analysed. (59393)

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CIS 93-340 Chemical dependence - Analysis of work absenteeism and associated medical illnesses. Bross M.H., Pace S.K., Cronin I.H., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Jan. 1992, Vol.34, No.1, p.16-19. 19 ref. (In English)

Workers with a medical diagnosis of chemical dependence (addiction) were selected and compared with matched controls. It was hypothesised that there were significant differences in absenteeism and certain medical illnesses. Employee data were obtained from medical insurance sickness and accident reports. Illnesses were classified into diagnostic clusters for analysis. Chemically-dependent workers had significantly more (p<0.05) absenteeism, injuries, hypertension, and mental disorders than did the controls. Using these findings, employers can conduct prospective studies that select workers to be screened for chemical dependence. (59332)

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CIS 93-341 The role of "stress" in workers' compensation stress claims. Eliashof B.A., Streltzer J., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Mar. 1992, Vol.34, No.3, p.297-303. 21 ref. (In English)

Twenty-six cases of workers' compensation "stress" claims were examined to delineate the nature and causes of psychiatric illness in relation to psychological stress in the workplace. Correlations were made among demographic data, psychiatric diagnoses, categories of complaints, psychological themes, and role of litigation. Findings showed that most subjects could be classified into one of two major groups. For the larger group (56%), symptoms were precipitated by interpersonal issues. Within this group, 86% of subjects believed that unfair treatment caused their symptoms, 79% fulfilled criteria for a personality disorder diagnosis, and 71% were more focused on issues related to their claim than on symptom relief. A smaller group (24%) encountered significant stress at work. This group had more severe psychiatric illness and fewer personality disorders. (59345)

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CIS 93-342 Job stress and adverse outcome of pregnancy - A causal link or recall bias?. Brandt L.P.A., Nielsen C.V., American Journal of Epidemiology, Feb. 1992, Vol.135, No.3, p.302-311. 24 ref. (In English)

A population of 214,108 commercial and clerical workers was investigated to examine the relationship between increasing job stress and the risk of an adverse pregnancy outcome. There was an increased relative risk of spontaneous abortion (odds ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.57) and term low birth weight (odds ratio=1.46, 95% CI 1.05-2.04) for women experiencing high job stress. For other cases, the odds ratios were as follows: congenital malformation, 1.23 (95% CI 0.93-1.63); preterm delivery, 1.03 (95% CI 0.77-1.39); light-for-date birth weight, 1.08 (95% CI 0.83-1.40); and stillbirth/death within the first year of life, 1.42 (95% CI 0.90-2.24). No substantial response bias was found. When occupational titles were used as an exposure matrix, no increased risk was found, except for term low birth weight. Recall bias is one possible explanation. Thus, the results must be interpreted with caution. (59349)

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CIS 93-343 A comparison of occupational and nonoccupational disability payments and work absences for alcoholics and nonalcoholics. Holder H.D., Blose J.O., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.453-457. 21 ref. (In English)

The study examines whether employed alcoholics have more frequent work absences and higher rates of disability benefit payments than do non-alcoholic employees. Using data from a large Midwestern manufacturing firm for the years 1974 through 1987, two groups were studied: 1,828 hourly employees who had received an International Classification of Diseases-9 diagnosis indicating chronic alcohol abuse and a group of employees with no history of alcohol problems, matched on age, sex, length of enrollment, and retirement status. The alcoholic group had average overall indemnity payments about twice that of the non-alcoholic group (USD 1,272 per year per capita vs. USD 671). Nonoccupational indemnity payments and work absences were also much higher for alcoholics. However, no statistically significant difference between the groups was found for occupation-related disability. (59351)

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CIS 93-344 Cigarette smoking during pregnancy and mother's occupation. Milham S., Davis R.L., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.468-473. Illus. 6 ref. (In English)

The association between mother's occupation and cigarette smoking prevalence during pregnancy was analysed in over 350,000 Washington State births during the years 1984 through 1988. Smoking prevalence during pregnancy varied markedly by maternal age, race, marital status, and social class, with higher smoking rates found in unmarried women, women 25 through 29 years old, native Americans and whites, and women in low socio-economic classes. Women who worked in traditionally male occupations or in occupations where alcohol was served had the highest smoking rates. Occupational groups with exposure to toxic or carcinogenic substances (including second-hand smoke) also had elevated smoking rates. These data could be useful in planning intervention strategies, in studies of occupational morbidity and mortality, and in analysis of the reproductive effects of maternal occupational exposures. (59354)

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CIS 93-345 Psychosocial predictors of participation in a work site health-promotion program. Stange K.C., Strecher V.J., Schoenbach V.J., Strogatz D., Dalton B., Cross A.W., Journal of Occupational Medicine, Apr. 1991, Vol.33, No.4, p.479-485. 48 ref. (In English)

This study used questionnaires to measure employees' perception of programme efficacy, health attitudes, beliefs, social support, and stress prior to the introduction of a comprehensive health promotion programme at a research and development worksite. The association of these factors with enrollment in the programme was then prospectively determined. In addition, open-ended questionnaires were used retrospectively to determine additional factors associated with participation. Of the above factors, only programme efficacy was signficantly associated with participation in the entire sample. Perceived social support was associated with participation among non-white employees. In open-ended questionnaires, a desire for health information, a desire for help with behaviour change, and concern about health status were the most commonly given reasons for participating. The study findings imply that environmental factors operating during the enrollment period at the worksite may be more powerful than pre-existing attitudes and beliefs in determining participation. (59356)

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CIS 93-346 Evaluation of chemically sensitive patients. Fiedler N., Maccia C., Kipen H., Journal of Occupational Medicine, May 1992, Vol.34, No.5, p.529-538. Illus. 33 ref. (In English)

An increasing number of patients have been presenting with multiple symptoms they attribute to low-level chemical exposures, i.e. multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). Although some studies have evaluated such patients, the selection criteria has not been rigorously defined. The present study is the first to use a relatively rigorous definition of MCS to select patients for study. Comprehensive evaluation of medical, psychiatric, neuropsychological, and immunological status of a series of MCS patients is presented. In contrast to previous studies, patients in this study did not have a history of psychiatric disorder. However, some patients were currently depressed. Neuropsychological assessment did not reveal any abnormalities with the exception of one test of verbal memory for which performance was consistently poor relative to the normative sample. No significant immunological abnormalities were noted. (59372)

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CIS 93-347 Psychology of prevention - Subjective reality of risk. (Spanish: Psicología de la prevención - La realidad subjetiva) Niño Escalante J., Mapfre seguridad, 1st Quarter 1991, No.41, p.31-39. Illus. (In Spanish)

Discussion of the psychological and psychosocial aspects of risk prevention. The subjective perception of risk, in particular occupational risk, as an essential factor in the individual's attitude to risk and his motivation regarding preventive measures are discussed. Reference is made to the difference between the objective dimension of risk (probability) and the individual's subjective evaluation. Accident predisposition, personal vulnerability, and stress in relation to the perception of risk, are also discussed. (59422)

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CIS 93-348 Effects of perceived job stress on depressive symptoms in blue-collar workers of an electrical factory in Japan. Kawakami N., Haratani T., Araki S., Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, June 1992, Vol.18, No.3, p.195-200. 26 ref. (In English)

This three-year prospective study on the effects of job stress on depressive symptoms over time was conducted among male blue-collar workers in an electrical factory in Japan. Data were collected at yearly intervals by means of postal questionnaires. Initially ten job stress variables, five major covariates, and depressive symptoms (Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale) were measured. In the yearly examinations, depressive symptoms were measured for a total of 468 respondents. The results indicated that job unsuitability was a significant predictor of depressive symptoms in the second and third year, after control for the initial covariates and depressive symptoms. Lack of control over workplace and poor human relations at the workplace were significantly associated with depressive symptoms after one and two years, respectively. Job unsuitability and poor human relations at the workplace seem to be risk factors for long-lasting depressive symptoms in Japanese blue-collar workers. (59456)

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CIS 93-349 Relationship between working-life satisfaction, health practices and primary symptoms/problems. (Japanese: Rōdosha no hatarakigai kan to kenkō shukan, jikaku shojō to no kanrensei) Maruyama S., Sato H., Morimoto K., Japanese Journal of Hygiene - Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi, 15 Feb. 1991, Vol.45, No.6, p.1082-1094. 33 ref. (In Japanese)

A questionnaire survey was conducted among 736 company workers. Working-life satisfaction was assessed by scoring from one to four points (least to most satisfied) of six items - family atmosphere, job satisfaction, work atmosphere, human relations, leisure activities and expectations of the future. A health practice index (HPI) was assessed in terms of eight items - exercises, alcohol consumption, smoking status, sleeping pattern, nutritional balance, breakfast-taking, working pattern and stress. The check list of subjective symptoms included 15 physical and five mental symptoms. Scores of working-life satisfaction and HPI tended to be higher as scores of subjective symptoms were lower, and working-life satisfaction was positively correlated with HPI. Thus, assessing working-life satisfaction is important in the health management of workers. (59625)

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CIS 93-350 Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting. Human Factors Society, P.O. Box 1369, Santa Monica, CA 90406-1369, USA, 1992. 1560p. (2 vols). Illus. Bibl.ref. (In English)

Papers presented at a conference held in Atlanta, Georgia, USA (12-16 Oct. 1992) with the theme "Innovations for Interactions". They are grouped under the headings: aerospace systems, aging, communication, computer systems, consumer products, educators' professional, environmental design, forensics professional, general sessions, industrial ergonomics, organisational design and management, personality and individual differences in human performance, safety, special sessions, system development, test and evaluation, training, visual performance. (59460)

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