• Although the countries of Central and Eastern Europe do not show the high prevalence of HIV/AIDS of some African countries, there is a great danger of escalating rates of infection. The challenge is to keep the prevalence as low as it is now, or lower. But it is generally acknowledged that the window of opportunity for responding to the potential epidemic in the region is closing, and it may be too late in 1.5-2 years' time. It is therefore critically important to act now to combat the stigma, discrimination, and unlawful dismissal that is associated with the disease in the region, as well as to provide information and education campaigns at the workplace and improve infected workers' access to social benefits and health care.